Technical Guide by techmaster


									Brochure technique anglais.qxd                 19/12/06          17:24      Page 1

                                                                                                                                                     COMPRESSED AIR

                                                                                                                                                   COLD PRODUCTION

            some information, some advice, an opinion?                                                                                             PUMPING SYSTEMS


                                                                                                                    DRIVING SYSTEMS

                                                                                                                                                   ELECTRICAL POWER
                                                                                                                                                    SUPPLY NETWORK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Motor Challenge Program

                            Your contact partner :
                                                                                                                                                                              Technical Guide
                                                                                  printed with vegetal based inks on recycled paper - Création :

                                                                                                                                                                       The solutions to enhance
                                                                                                                                                                       your motor driven systems
                                                                                  7000 copies- Nov. 2006

                                                          with the support of

                                                                                                                                                                                                     MOTOR CHALLENGE
      Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie                   THE MOTOR CHALLENGE EUROPÉAN PROGRAM                                                                              LABEL MOTOR CHALLENGE
     2, square La Fayette - BP 90406 - 49004 Angers cedex 01                    An initiative supported by the European Commission                                                         Economies d'énergie pour systèmes motorisés

                                                                                                                                                                  THE MOTOR CHALLENGE EUROPEAN PROGRAM : An initiative supported by the European Commission
Brochure technique anglais.qxd   19/12/06    17:24   Page 3

                                                                                            This program which focuses specifically on an                                      30% of the current consumption e.g. by
                                                                                            efficient use of electricity in the industrial                                     pumping, air compressed or cold production
                                                                                            sector applies to any electromotor system for                                      and ventilation systems could be saved.
                                                                                            which possible significant energy savings have
                                                                                            been demonstrated. Lots of examples in
                                                                                            France and Europe show that on an average

                                                                                            Allocation of the current
                                                                                            consumption in France                                                                                                                   Electrolysis                                                        9%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lighting                                                            4%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Other purposes                                                     17 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electromotors                                                     70 %

                                                                                            So far 23 European countries are                                                    savings approach and policy on motor driven
                                                                                            involved in the Motor Challenge                                                     systems can join the Motor Challenge partners’

                  Why                                                                       program, with the presence of a domestic
                                                                                            contact partner, e.g. ADEME in France. Any
                                                                                            business willing to commit itself to an energy
                                                                                                                                                                                network. A « Motor Challenge » label granted by
                                                                                                                                                                                the European Commission will award this

                  this guide ?
                       lectromotor systems count for 2/3 of the current

                                                                                            Allocation of consumptions of                                                                                                           Compression                                                       30 %
                       consumption of the industrial sector both in France and              the motor driven systems:
                       Europe, i.e 90 TWh per year out of the French 120 TWh
                   consumption per year.                                                                                                                                                                                            Pumping                                                           20 %
                   The European program « Motor Challenge » has been                                                                                                                                                                Ventilation                                                        13 %
                   implemented to help improve the energy efficiency in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Other systems                                                     37 %
                   industrial sector on electromotor systems.
                   The systems involved in this program are:
                      1. Compressed air systems
                      2. Cold production systems                                            To spur any voluntary company to get involved in                                  ADEME: the French intermediary of the
                      3. Pumping systems                                                    this program, ADEME supports them in their                                        European Commission supports companies to
                      4. Ventilation systems                                                approach.                                                                         gain the Motor Challenge label and develops its
                      5. Electromotor driving systems                                       ADEME can help perform a schedule of                                              promotion.
                      6. Industrial electric power supply network                           condition and implement an energy
                   A label is awarded by the European Commission to those                   savings action scheme: assistance to
                   companies undertaking voluntary steps for energy savings after           perform diagnosis and feasibility studies.
                   setting up an annual action scheme.

                  This technical guide is an introduction to the 6 systems of the Motor                              Why this guide ?                   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.   2&3
                  Challenge program mostly used in the industrial environment. For
                  each system the energy stakes are detailed along with the major
                                                                                                                         Compressed air systems                                          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.    4&5
                  energy improvement tracks to be planned around the representative                                      Cold production systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 6 & 7
                  diagram of an industrial plant. In addition to this, for each track the                                Pumping systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 8 & 9
                  concrete actions are listed to provide significant short-therm or
                  medium-term energy savings. They are organized around the                                              Ventilation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 10 & 11
                  following 5 items: production, network, use, control and maintenance.                                  Electromotor driving systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 12 & 13
                  Such actions are not restrictive and the potential savings will depend
                  on the current plants and the improvements brought.                                                    Industrial electric power supply network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 14 & 15
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06           17:24        Page 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ompressed air plays a very large part in the French industrial field since it counts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for approx. 11% of the current consumption, i.e. about 12 TWh consumed per year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (1). A survey conducted for 5 years with the 6,000 hours’ operation of an air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            compressed system shows that 75% of the operating costs result from the “Energy” item…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The output of a compressed air system is only 10% in most cases. Compressed air is an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            energy carrier difficult to be controlled because it is expensive (0.6 to 3 cents per Nm3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and it has a high improvement potential of around 25% of possible energy saving on
                                                                                                                                                                  6 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            an average.
                                                                                                                                                                  5 TWh

                                                        Compressed air systems                                                                                    4 TWh

                                                                                                                                                                  3 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Allocation of the costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of compressed air
       Ways of reflection

                                                                                                                                                                  2 TWh
                                             PRODUCTION                                       NETWORK                                               USE           1 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                                                  CONTROL                                                   MAINTENANCE                                                  Investment 13 %
                                                                                Decreased pressure loss on the                                                           0
                                 Adoption of a more efficient                   network (an efficient network allows for a
                                                                                                                                 Reduction of waste
                                                                                                                                                                       Control of the production with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Regular maintenance
                                 compression system                             maximum pressure loss of 0.5 bars throughout the                                       adjustment to the needs
                                                                                                                                                                                        19                                                                                                                                                       12 %
                                                                                Optimization of the air tanks                                                                                                         99
                                 Enhancement of the production
                                                                                and of their location on the                                                           Regular measurements                                                          Reduction of leaks

                                 Decrease in energy consumption                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Energy 75 %
                                 related with the quality of air
                                                                                                                                                                  20 %
                                 (filtering – drying)

                                 Adjustment of the air pressure                                                                                                   15 %
                                 to the minimum needs
                                                                                                                                                                  10 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G Divide the network into areas with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               pressure controls or appropriate
       G Increase the diameter of pipes                                           G Place storage capacities next to                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               isolation valves. Close the network
       G Reduce the length of the network                                           machines with high variation of                                                               p es                                                                                                                         areas when not used
                                                                                    the air required                                                                           om                      t
                                                                                                                                                                             sp                      en
       G Loop the network                                    12 %                                                                                                      xd
                                                                                                                                                                                                em                                                                                                              Do not provide machines with
                                                                                                                                                                    oi                     io                    ion
                                                                                                                                                                  Ch                    ns                    lat ce                                                                                            compressed air when they are off
       G Limit elbows, changes in direction                                                                                                                                           e                    tal an
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ins inten                   on
                                                                                                                                                                                  Dim                                           pti                                                                             (switching-off of the network via a
         or section                                                                                                                                                                                     tm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ce                le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             mb e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           se tèm                                                               solenoid valve)
       I Repair leaks periodically                           20 %                                                                                                                                                ip es                  'en sys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      el u
                                                                                                                                                                                                               nc                 ed d                                                                       I Switch off the network of machines
               15 to 50 % of the air production flows                                                                                                                                                                          nd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          m ma                                                                                 when they are off (e.g. via
               through the leaks                                                                                                                                                                                       Co                                                                                      automatic solenoid valve)

                                                                                                                                                    Buffer tank

       N Install a system with several pressure
         values (multi-pressure systems or
         networks), separate or connected to
         each other (with the use of local                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40%                For cleaning, use preferably
                                                                                                                      High pressure                                                                                                                                                                              vacuum cleaners which need less
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 energy than blow nozzles or air
               Reducing from 7 bars to 6 bars                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    guns
               provides an average energy savings of 8%

       N Install a heat economizer:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I Replace leak generating equipment
         upgrading in the process or                                     60 %                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  parts (e.g. hoses)
         heating of premises
                                                     Electric power
                                                   supply + control
                                                        checking                                                                                        Filter
        Mount for instance an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Install control equipment such as
         automatic control of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              flowmeters and air meters, current
         compressed air production via                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         meters, pressure gauges…
         a variable speed compressor                                                                                                     Tank                                                                                                                                          Tank
         or an automatic control of all                                                                                                                                                 Drier
         the compressors according                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           G Design properly storage capacities
         to the needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to allow operation with higher
                                                           Air suction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         output of compressors and to avoid
               Average 15 % savings with an                                            Compressors
               automatic control (from 5 to 35 %)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              unexpected switchings on or off
                                                                                                                                      Condensates                                                                                          central unit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Make regular recordings with due
       N Reduce the air inlet                                                                                                                                                                                    2%                                                                                             follow-up and control
         temperature                                                                                                                                                                                             5%                                                                                            (e.g. indicators)
               1 % consumption savings every
                3 degrees                    N Replace compressors with new and better                         G Use « leak-loss free » condensate traps                                N Dry off and filter air moderately as needed
                                                        machine(s) with lower specific energy                      A high-performance network allows for a                                      Too long drying or too fine filtering leads to unnecessary
                                                        consumption (e.g. more compression stages)                 maximum pressure loss of 0.5 bars throughout                                 overconsumption
                                                        more suitable to the requirements of the                   the line
   4                                                    system.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                                                                                        I Enhance and check pressure regulating valves,
                                                                                                                                                                                          filters, lubricators, driers and condensate traps
              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other)                                                                                                        (1) : Source : European study « Compressed Air Systems in the European Union» - Year 2000)
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06            17:24         Page 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ndustrial refrigeration represents 4% of the current consumption in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   French industry and almost 7% of the domestic current consumption. This
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   consumption is increasing in the industrial sector since it has risen from 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                               TWh in 1990 to 4.7 TWh in 1999.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               The food-processing sector alone uses 57% of the current dedicated to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                               industrial refrigeration. The energy savings achieved in the industrial
                                                                                                                                                                                                               refrigeration sector exceeds 0.9 TWh (200 ktep) i.e. about 20% of possible
                                                                                                                                                                                                               savings on average.
                                                     Cold production systems                                                                                                                                                                                             Energy consumption for cold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           production in the French
       Ways of reflection

                                             PRODUCTION                                            RESEAU                                          USE                              CONTROL                                    MAINTENANCE                              6 TWh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                     Controlling cold production in
                                 Use of a more efficient                         Insulation of the cold                         Reduction of heat inlets in the                                                       Optimizing the maintenance of
                                                                                                                                                                     the compressor area according                                                                      4 TWh
                                 refrigeration compressor                        supply network                                 cold use area                                                                         circuits
                                                                                                                                                                     to the need                                                                                        3 TWh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                     Optimizing the energy output of
                                 Use of more efficient
                                                                                                                                                                     the plant according to the                                                                         1 TWh
                                                                                                                                                                     outdoor conditions and needs                                                                               0

                                 Recuperation and use of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19
                                                                                                                                                                     Optimizing the cold storage                                                                                                         97
                                 heat lost by compressors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19

                                                                                                                                                                     Controlling the different flow

                                                                                                                                                                     Optimizing the operation of cold                                                                    20 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         10 %

       N Use a more efficient compressor                                                                                                                              Modulate according to the period of the                                                    Control air outputs in condensers
         (e.g. multi-staged unit)                                   2à5%                                                                                               year, production times, production types …                                                  (e.g. via electronic speed variation on fans)
       N Replace an oversized compressor by a                                                                                                                         Switch off useless compressors                                                               Up to 30 % power consumption savings and
         more efficient compressor with a power                                                                                                                       Set up a floating High and/or Low                                                                      overall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6% of the s pom consumption
         more appropriate to the real associated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                de                em
                                                                                                                                                                       Pressure system                                           Air condenser                          Ch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               nn                 ion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               lat ce
         need, possibly with a storage system                                                                                                   Regulation
                                                                                                                                                                          (10 to 25 % average savings)                                                                               Dim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        en                  tal an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ins inten              pti
         (see “control”)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               et
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ma               on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ce                 le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              mb e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ec                 se tèm
        Use variable-speed refrigeration                           4à6%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sd                 'en ys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ipe                 e l du s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               nc                   d
         compressors to adjust the cold                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pri               an
         production according to the needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                       N Install more efficient evaporative                  Co
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   condensers than dry condensers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 N Install a heat condenser on condenser to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   upgrade a process or heating of premises
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Implement an optimized subcooling
                                                                                                                                                                       Reducing valve                                                                              strategy
       N Install a heat economizer:                                                                                 Refrigeration compressor                                                                                                                     I Blow out the air from the circuit and
         upgrading the process or                           60 %                                                                                                                                                                                                   condensers
         heating of premises                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I Clean condensers and install a regular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   checking device

       I Check and repair leaks on the                                                                                                                                                               Storage
         refrigerant circuit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2%       Install efficient lighting systems
       I Recharge the circuit with
                                                                                                                                                   Pump                                                                        Lighting               uct
         refrigerant if required                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Prod

                                                                   I Check the condition of insulation
                                                                     of the cold circuit and repair if
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Use free cooling (natural cooling)
                                                                       (5 to 10 % average savings with a better
                                                                        insulation )                                                                                           Refrigerant carrier circuit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Adjust the refrigeration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   T C°                                            temperature (not lower than
                                                                    Adjust the output of the                               Install a cold buffer storage unit
                                                                     refrigerant fluid (e.g. via electronic                  if needed                                                                                                                             required)
                                                                     speed variation on the pump of                                                                                                            Cold room
                                                                     the circuit)                                                                                                                                                                                   Reduce the time of human
                                                                                                                            Adjust the air output of cooling                                                                                                       presence in the area
                                                                       Up to 30 % power consumption savings                  batteries (e.g. via electronic speed
                                                                       and 6% of the overall consumption)                                                                                                                                                           A human being generates a heat
                                                                                                                             variation)                                                                  Install automatic closing area curtains                    capacity rate of 80 W when at rest
                                                                                                                            Implement an appropriate and                                                Install buffer locks/sieves and reduce
                                                                                                                             efficient defrosting strategy                                               opening/closing parts of the area
   6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 7

              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other.)
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06           17:24        Page 9                                                               0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     umping systems represent approximately 20% of the French industrial current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     consumption and 25% of the worldwide current consumption. Studies have shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     that significant energy savings could result from using more efficient equipment and
                                                                                                                                                              20 %                                                             appropriate control systems making it possible to save up to 40% of energy for an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               average lifetime of 15 to 20 years. The major two pump families are the centrifugal
                                                                                                                                                              15 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               pumps and the displacement pumps. Centrifugal pumps with a 73% market share
                                                                                                                                                              10 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               represent great possibilities of energy savings because it is considered that 75% of the
                                                                                                                                                               5%                                                              pumping systems are oversized, most of them by 20%.

                                                         Pumping systems                                                                                             0

                                                                                                                                                                              p  es
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Typical overall cost of a pump
                                                                                                                                                                      e                        em
                                                                                                                                                                   xd                     nn
                                                                                                                                                                                      sio            ion
                                                                                                                                                              Ch                                  lat ce
                                                                                                                                                                                  en           tal an                   on
       Ways of reflection

                                                                                                                                                                              Dim           Ins inten               pti
                                             PRODUCTION                                       NETWORK                                                   USE                                tm
                                                                                                                                                                                               a             CONTROL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ce               le                MAINTENANCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                              c                  mb e
                                                                                                                                                                                                        esthe pumpings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               se tèm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            'en sy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Initial cost 5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ip                   el u
                                 Using more efficient pumps for                 Decreased pressure loss on the                                                                                    nc                  ed d
                                                                                                                               Decreased pumped material                                       Pri
                                                                                                                                                                                     regulation to avoid waste     nd                      To prevent leaks on the network
                                 the intended purpose                           network
                                                                                                                                                                                     (accordance Com the needs)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ma                                                                                                                           Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Periodical maintenance of the
                                 Using a more efficient motor                                                                                                                          Installation of regular data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pumps and driving system in
                                 and driving system for the                                                                                                                            measuring, metering and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        order to ensure a maximum
                                 intended purpose                                                                                                                                      recording appliances and devices

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Absorbed energy 85%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I Close any circuit part whenever not used
       I Repair leaks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I Blow out air periodically
                                                                                                                                           Pressure gauge
       G Install a measuring equipment
         to control the pressure loss

                                                                                                                   Pressurized tank
       I Restore periodically the internal tolerances                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N Use a small-sized overpressure pump for
         of the pumps                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      specific needs
       I Apply an internal film to reduce friction in                                                                                                                                                                                                                     overpressure
         the pump body                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       pump
                3 to 5 % average savings
        Use several parallel-mounted pumps to be
         operated according to the needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G Increase the section of pipes and avoid
       N Replace or modify oversized pumps                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 elbows and unnecessary changes of
                                                  4%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       direction
       N Machine or change the diameter of the
         wheels of centrifugal pumps                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     G Reduce the length of the network
                                                  4%                                                                                                                                                                          Process
       N Use pumps with higher output

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Use Variable Speed Drives for electromotors
        Install positive displacement meters                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              of pumps (to regulate the output) rather
         or electric meters, flowrate meters...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            than valves
                                                                                                                                           Flow r
        Make regular recordings with due                                                                                                         ate
         follow-up and control (e.g.indicators)                                                                                                                                                   Pump                                                                                   12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input powers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Control + VSD (Variable Speed Drive)             10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4           0          10         20           Energy savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         30         40             50   60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Variable Speed Drive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              45    60    75         90    105       120     135         150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Energy                                                 Flow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Over 30 % energy on average

                                                                                                                                 Storage                                                                                                                                                  Switch off any unnecessary pump
       N Replace oversized pump motors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Electrical power consumption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Do not pump forvalve use !
         with better sized and high output                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10
         ones: label « EFF 1 »                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           8

   8            (Output higher by 2 to 5 %)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6                                                                     9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4                                              Energy savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Variable Speed Drive
              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other)                                                                                                                                          45    60    75         90    105       120     135         150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      flow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               More than 30 % energy on average
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06            17:24       Page 11

                                                                                                                                                                                                 entilation is a tool necessary for the proper operation of an industrial plant, ensuring
                                                                                                                                                                                                 the quality of production and the individual protection against the emission of pollutants
                                                                                                                                                                                                 or heat in premises.
                                                                                                                                                                                            The energy consumption of a plant represents on average 10% of the current consumptions
                                                                                                                                                                                            of the French industrial business. The indirect energy consumption to be considered is still
                                                                                                                                                                                            higher when the air has a great energy contents due to its conditioning: heating, cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                            …On most audited plants, energy savings of up to 30% of the consumption are reported
                                                                                                                                                                                            with returning times often under 2 years.

                                                         Ventilation systems                                                                                                                                                                                Balance of energy loss in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ventilation system
       Ways of reflection

                                             PRODUCTION                                        NETWORK                                                 USE                       CONTROL                        MAINTENANCE
                                                                   Reduction of pressure loss on
                                                                                                                                Optimizing the ventilation
                                 Using more efficient fans for the the network and balancing                                                                        Optimizing the ventilating        to prevent leaks on the aeraulic
                                                                                                                                strategy and therefore the
                                 intended purpose                  problems related with the                                                                        regulation to avoid waste         network
                                                                                                                                ventilation systems used
                                                                   aeraulic network

                                 Using a more efficient motor                                                                                                       Installation of regular data
                                                                                 Recuperation of energy with the                                                                                     Periodical maintenance of the
                                 and driving system for the                                                                                                         measuring, metering and
                                                                                 air emission                                                                                                        filters and piping systems
                                 intended purpose                                                                                                                   recording appliances and devices

       G Use an air cleaner in order to                                                                                                                                                                                             N Use fans with a maximum
         recycle a part of the air emitted                                                                                                                                                                                            output
       G Use a heat economizer (exchanger)                                                                                                                                                                                          N Replace oversized fans
         on the air emitted
                Examples of up to 60% savings
                                                                                                                         Cleaning and purification


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N Replace oversized fan motors by more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      appropriate motors and with high output
       G Avoid elbows and changes of section                                                                                                                                                                                          ones: label « EFF 1 »
       G Increase the free flow area of fluid in the                                                                                                                                                                                        a more efficient fan driving system: direct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N Use Input powers
         network and use circular sections rather than                                                                                                                                                                                coupling with the crankshaft, removal of V-type
                                                                                                                                                                      Arrester                                                        belts            Check-valve
         rectangular sections                                                                                                                                                                                                          10
       I Balance the aeraulic network: checking of                                                                                                                                                                                       6
         pressure and flow rates in the different lines                                                                  Transport networks                                                                                           Suck in only the minimum quantity of air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4                                                  Energy savings
         and balancing of pressure losses                                                                                                                              Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      required                      Variable Speed Drive
       I Clean and remove dust from aeraulic pipes                                                                                                                    checking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fan 90 105           used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Switch off any 75 whenever not120 135 150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         45     60
         and filters                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Flow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Variable energy on average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Use Over 30 %Speed Drives for electromotors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of fans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electrical power consumption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Regulating valve
                                                                                                                                                                                                          General ventilation            8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4                                                Energy savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Variable Speed Drive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              45    60    75       90        105       120     135         150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     flow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               More than 30 % energy on average
                Look into the implementation of a
                displacement ventilation system to                                                                                                                                                                                   Install positive displacement meters or electric
                replace a mixture ventilation                                                                                                                                                                                         meters, flow rate meters …
                system                                                                                                                                                                                                               Make regular recordings with due follow-up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and control (e.g. indicators)
                                                                                                                                                     Workstations                                                                       Use specific catch systems for the located
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pollution instead of a general ventilation system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Examples of up to 55% savings

  10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             11

              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other)
                                                                         1 TWh
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06
                                                                                          17:24                        Page 13


                                                                                                                                            99                                                 lectromotors represent in Europe one of the major sources of current consumption, namely 70% for the

                                                                                                                                                                                               industry and 33% for the global consumption of the service sector. 96% of the operating cost of a motor
                                                                                                                                                                                               in its life cycle results from its energy consumption (2.5% of its purchase price and 1.5% of its
                                                                                                                                                                                         maintenance cost). When purchasing a motor, it is therefore essential to take this energy consumption into
                                                                          20 %
                                                                                                                                                                                         account and to try to reduce it to a minimum. Thus to manage a fleet of motors as economically as possible,
                                                                          15 %
                                                                                                                                                                                         it is advisable to consider the following parameters namely the output of the motor, its sizes, the downstream
                                                                          10 %                                                                                                           transmission losses, maintenance (repair and rewinding) and the use of control systems e.g. Electronic Speed
                                                                                                                                                                                         Variation (VSD).

                                                        Electromotor driven systems

                                                                                            es                                                                                                                                                                                                 Overall cost of the use of an
                                                                                        po                      nt                                                                                                                                                                                     electromotor
                                                                                                         e   me
                                                                           oix                       nn                         on
                                                                         Ch                      sio                        a ti ce                                                                                                                                                                                   Purchasing cost 2,5%
       Ways of reflection

                                             PRODUCTION                                     en                          tal an
                                                                                                                     INETWORKo                                                   USE                CONTROL                                           MAINTENANCE
                                                                                         Dim                          ns nten     ti
                                                                                                                        ai     ep
                                                                                                                                                 c                le
                                                                                                                                                                mb e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Maintenance 1,5%
                                                                                                                e                        ec                   se tèm
                                 Using more efficient motors and                                                                       sd                  'en ys                      Optimizing the driving control             Periodical quality maintenance
                                                                                                                                 ipe                    e l du s
                                                                                                                            nc                       ed
                                 driving system for the intended                                   Pri        d
                                                                                        Improving the transmissions
                                                                                                           an                                                                          and regulation                             of the motor as per the
                                 purpose                                                                                                     mm                                        (according to the needs)                   manufacturer’s specifications

                                                                                                                                                                                       Installation of regular data     Periodical maintenance of the
                                                                                                                                                                                       measuring, metering and          driving system in order to
                                                                                                                                                                                       recording appliances and devices ensure a maximum output

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Energy 96%

       G Use of heavy-duty transmissions: avoid V-                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1à3%    N Use not oversized motors
         belts, flat or non-synchronous belts, pinion
         and endless screw associations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2à8%    N Use high-output motors (Label “EFF 1”)
                Examples of up to 45% energy loss
       I Adjust the tension of belts                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I Lubricate bearings periodically according to
       I Adjust and tune alignments of driving                    1à5%                                                                                                                                                                                                          1à5%      the manufacturer’s specifications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I Avoid rewinding a motor, which often
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Motor                                            results in a later output reduction or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1à6%      make sure that the rewinder has been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          approved by the manufacturer of the

        Install either periodical or                                                                                                                                                                                                                      VSD
         permanent electrical meters

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Use the Electronic Speed Variation (VSD)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in order to adjust accurately the rotation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ork                                 speed according to the need
                                                                                                                                                                                             VSD                                             g   netw                                     10 to 50% savings depending on applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e   ckin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               l ch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Co   ntro


                                                                                                                                                                                                           0   10   20            30                40           50   60   70     80


  12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13

              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other)
                                                                                                                                                                            e            ta a                               on
Brochure technique anglais.qxd                                  19/12/06            17:24         Page 15                                                                Dim          Ins inten                      pti
                                                                                                                                                                                         a                         ce                 ble
                                                                                                                                                                                      tm                      on
                                                                                                                                                                                    e                       ec                      em me
                                                                                                                                                                                                        d                         ns tè
                                                                                                                                                                                                    s                          l'e sys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              e u
                                                                                                                                                                                             nc                             ed d
                                                                                                                                                                                          Pri                      an

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          he industrial electrical power supply fulfils several purposes: good operation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          industrial processes, individual safety, keeping the equipment in good condition and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          maintaining stability, continuity and quality of the electrical power supply of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     network. Indeed not controlling the quality of its network will result in being charged with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the reactive power, consuming more energy sometimes up to 5 to 10% (loss in cables,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     transformer…) and last but not least generating costs due to non quality of production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     or even to non production.

                                                         Industrial electrical power supply networks                                                                                                                                                                                            Variation of the cost in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             temporary power supply outage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (E/kW required)
       Ways of reflection

                                             PRODUCTION                                           NETWORK                                            USE                                  CONTROL                                                         MAINTENANCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Car industry
                                 Reduction of energy losses in                   Reduction of energy losses in                 Reasonable consumption                   Improvement of the quality                                           Optimizing the maintenance                                      Min. 5.0 - Max. 7.5
                                 transformer(s)                                  the network                                   of the electrical energy                 of electrical power supply                                           of the circuit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Plastics and rubbers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Min. 3.0 - Max. 4.5
                                                                                                                               Monitoring of pollution loads on
                                                                                                                                                                Improvement of the power                                                                                                                            Textile
                                                                                                                               the network: creation of
                                                                                                                                                                factor (phys cos) of the site to                                                                                                             Min. 2.0 - Max. 4.0
                                                                                                                               harmonics, absorption or
                                                                                                                                                                reduce the reactive current on
                                                                                                                               emission of reactive current,
                                                                                                                                                                the network                                                                                                                                       Stationery
                                                                                                                               intensity peak…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Min. 1.5 - Max. 2.5
                                                                                                                                                                        Reduction of the harmonics rate                                                                                                     Printing (newspapers)
                                                                                                                                                                        on the network                                                                                                                       Min. 1.0 - Max. 2.0
                                                                                                                                                                        Installation of regular data                                                                                                        Petrochemical industry
                                                                                                                                                                        measuring, metering and                                                                                                              Min. 3.0 - Max. 5.0
                                                                                                                                                                        recording appliances and devices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Min. 2.0 - Max. 4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Glass industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Min. 4.0 - Max 6.0
       N Use one or more high-output                        I Locate hot points of cables and switch boxes (via infrared thermography)                                                      G Reduce losses by Joule effect
         transformers: minimum losses                       I Retighten the sets of bars                                                                                                      thanks to larger sizes of                                                                                       Foodstuff industry
         with or without load                                                                                                                                                                 conductors                                                                                                     Min. 3.0 - Max. 5.0
                                                            I Clean cross-parts and connections (to limit risks of corrosion or rust attack)
       N Adjust the sizes of
         transformer(s) in accordance                       G Replace old General Low Voltage Switchboards (made in the eighties) by new switchboards,                                                                                                                                                  Pharmaceutical industry
         with the use                                         (2000) the length of which has been reduced by 40%                                                                                                                                                                                         Min. 5.0 - Max. 50.0
                                                            G Select low consumption components of General Low Voltage Switchboards to avoid air
                                                              conditioning of the premises (7 W) efficient/ (20 W) standard contactors/circuit breakers                                                                                                                                                          Electronics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Min. 8.0 - Max. 12.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Semiconductor manufacturings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Min. 20.0 - Max. 60.0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0      10     20        30   40        50     60   70   80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 E/KW cost

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sensor                                      Use blocks of capacitors with
                                                                                                                                                                                                Filter or harmonizer                                                                            electromechanical or electronic
                                                                  Current                                                                                                                       and compensation of                              Switch                                         control
                                                               supply meter                                                                                                                        located reactive
                                                                                                                                                               Filter                                                                                                  Sub-workshop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Install local energy meters (for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                each department, workshop, stage)
                                                           Battery                                     Cabinet                                                                                                                                                                                  Individual behaviours change
                                                                                 Generator set                                                                                                                                                                                                  depending on the load assignment

                                                                                                                                    VSD or starter
                                   Power inverter
                                                                                                            Motor                                                                                                                Meter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Switch off the electrical equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                Machine                                                                                                          whenever not required

        Lower the level of voltage cuts or off-                                    Setting of an energy management            Install starters on electromotors                                                        Install reactive compensations next
         peaks. Install a non-stop power supply, an                                 system (GTC) or electrical energy                                                                                                   to sources
         automatic compensator in real time, a                                      management system                                                                                                                   Install harmonics filters next to
         dynamic electronic voltage regulator…                                                                                                                                                                          high pollution sources

  14                                                 G Replace old power inverters by new ones                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15
                                                         Examples of higher output of up to 15%

              %             Potential savings (percentages forecast are provided individually for each item and shall not be added up to each other)

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