Introduction to Archaeology ANTH 140 Sections 01 & 02 Basic Concepts Fossils-Studied by Paleoanthropologists. Preserved remains of creatures from the past. They form when an organism dies, is buried, and over long periods of time the organic part decays and is replaced by minerals. i.e. bones form stone. Fossil localities are where fossils are found. Archaeological sites-Studied by Archaeologists. Places of past human activity. large settlements with ceremonial centers. small hunting camps. Terms Artifacts- Objects found and studied by archaeologists which have been made or modified by humans. Stone tools, bone tools, pottery most common. Ecofacts- nonartifactual remains found at archaeological sites, such as animals bones, shells, plant remains. Generally provide ecological and subsistence information. Features- Nonmoveable artifacts such as hearths, pits or house floors. Can reveal information such as settlement and subsistence. Context An artifacts context is it's specific location where it was found and how it relates to other artifacts around it. *i.e. A stone arrowhead is found with newspapers and plastic bottles, what would you conclude about the arrowheads context? So a pot on its own may tell you how it was made or what it was made from, but if it is removed from its context archaeologists have no idea what it was associated with. Doing Archaeology Locating Sites Accident, Controlled Survey, Remote Sensing Excavation Horizontal, Vertical Dating Techniques Carbon 14, Dendrochronology Artifact Analysis Site and Regional Synthesis Archaeology is Anthropology Archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing. Collectors vs. Archaeologists collectors are after artifacts for money or for personal collections. archaeologists are after knowledge. Context is the most important thing to archaeology. the time and space in which objects occur in the ground. systematic study of the past in this context. Types of archaeology Classical-use of written sources, architecture and art. Historical-recent historic times, may be text aided. Underwater archaeologists-study waterlogged sites or artifacts with special techniques. Prehistoric-cultures before written records. New World vs. Old World Specialists Research on particular artifacts or ecofacts. Zooarchaeologists-animal bones from archaeological sites. Lithic analysts-stone tools. Paleoethnobotanists-botanical remains, domestication. Bioarchaeologists-human remains. Ceramics Metals Architecture Writing Etc., etc.
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