Introduction to Archaeology ANTH 140 Sections 01 02 by kellena96


									Introduction to Archaeology
   ANTH 140 Sections 01 & 02
             Basic Concepts
 Fossils-Studied by Paleoanthropologists.
   Preserved remains of creatures from the past.
   They form when an organism dies, is buried, and over
    long periods of time the organic part decays and is
    replaced by minerals.
       i.e. bones form stone.
   Fossil localities are where fossils are found.
 Archaeological sites-Studied by Archaeologists.
   Places of past human activity.
      large settlements with ceremonial centers.
      small hunting camps.
 Artifacts- Objects found and studied by
  archaeologists which have been made or
  modified by humans.
   Stone tools, bone tools, pottery most common.
 Ecofacts- nonartifactual remains found at
  archaeological sites, such as animals bones,
  shells, plant remains.
   Generally provide ecological and subsistence
 Features- Nonmoveable artifacts such as
  hearths, pits or house floors.
   Can reveal information such as settlement and
 An artifacts context is it's specific location where
  it was found and how it relates to other artifacts
  around it.
    *i.e. A stone arrowhead is found with newspapers and
     plastic bottles, what would you conclude about the
     arrowheads context?
 So a pot on its own may tell you how it was
  made or what it was made from, but if it is
  removed from its context archaeologists have no
  idea what it was associated with.
          Doing Archaeology
 Locating Sites
   Accident, Controlled Survey, Remote Sensing
 Excavation
   Horizontal, Vertical
 Dating Techniques
   Carbon 14, Dendrochronology
 Artifact Analysis
 Site and Regional Synthesis
     Archaeology is Anthropology

 Archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing.
   Collectors vs. Archaeologists
      collectors are after artifacts for money or for personal
       archaeologists are after knowledge.
 Context is the most important thing to
   the time and space in which objects occur in the
   systematic study of the past in this context.
         Types of archaeology
 Classical-use of written sources,
    architecture and art.
   Historical-recent historic times, may be
    text aided.
   Underwater archaeologists-study
    waterlogged sites or artifacts with special
   Prehistoric-cultures before written records.
   New World vs. Old World
 Research on particular artifacts or ecofacts.
 Zooarchaeologists-animal bones from archaeological
   Lithic analysts-stone tools.
   Paleoethnobotanists-botanical remains, domestication.
   Bioarchaeologists-human remains.
   Ceramics
   Metals
   Architecture
   Writing
   Etc., etc.

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