Funerary Archaeology and Bioarchaeology by kellena96

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									                  BIOARCHAEOLOGY AND HUMAN OSTEOLOGY
BIOARCHAEOLOGY -- the interface between archaeology and biological anthropology – uses methods
                  held in common with other disciplines

History and Approaches to Interpretation in Mortuary Archaeology
  Non-Anthropological Perspectives and Treasure Hunting
  A simple one to one correlation between the social status of the individual and labor investment
     for burial (tomb construction, exotics, etc).
  The role of the mourners and their view of the deceased
  Treatment of the dead may not reflect that in life – obscuring social structure; “ideal” vs. “real”
History of Bioarchaeological Approaches
  Appendix to Site Reports
  Individual Based, Focus on Biology and Medicine – Demography and Case Studies for the Sake
     of Case Studies.
  Population Level, Bioarchaeology as Anthropology/Archaeology – Social Organization and
     Beliefs

EXCAVATION OF HUMAN REMAINS/MORTUARY CONTEXT
  Primary Burials, Secondary Burials, and/or Multiple Interments
  Position of the Body
  Location in the Tomb
  Tomb Types and energy investment
  Type and Number of Offerings
  Stylistic Differences
LABORATORY ANALYSIS
Taphonomy – Environmental Effects vs. Human Hand
 Case study. Tiwanaku Burial Practices: Dismemberment, Defleshing, and Decay (cutmarks,
   weather and carnivore damage, trophy skulls, and ancestor cults)

PALEODEMOGRAPHY
Age-at-Death
Subadults
  Dental Eruption
  Epiphyseal Fusion
  Long Bone Length
Adults
  Pubic Symphyses
  Population Specific Methods – tooth wear and arthritis
Sex
  Can Sex be Determined in Juvenile Remains?
  Pelvic and Cranial Indicators
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Using Demographic Variables in Conjunction with Other Data
 Case study. The Sacred Well of Sacrifice at Chichén Itzá: Sacrificial virgins?? (parturition scars)


PALEONUTRITION
Skeletal Means of Observing Diet
  Isotopic and Trace Element Analyses – Animal/Plant, Marine/Terrestrial, Maize
  Tooth Wear and Dental Health – The Cheaper, yet Indirect, Alternative
 Case study. Did the Inca Men Get More Beer than the Women?: Access to Resources


PALEOPATHOLOGY
Indicators of Disease and Malnutrition
   Growth and Stature
   Acute Stress – Bone and Tooth Enamel Defects
   Malnutrition/Parasites – Anemia, Rickets, and Scurvy
   Generalized Infection – Periostosis
   The Osteological Paradox
Specific Illness – Disease Specific Lesions which appear in the late stages of an illness


OCCUPATIONAL STRESS
  Arthritis and Repetitive Actions
  Teeth as Tools
  Increased Muscle Markings From Activity and Positional Behavior
  Case study. The Maya at Seibal: Ball-Game Players, Chair Bearers, or Agriculturalists?


TRAUMA
  Fractures/Imbedded Projectile Points/Domestic Violence, Warfare, or Accidents

ETHNICITY
What is it and How Can it Be Seen in Bone?

Genetic Relationships
  Discrete, Inherited Skeletal Features (Non-metric traits)
  DNA
  Biodistance vs. Race
Style and Adornment
  Cranial Deformation, Lip plugs, Teeth filing and Jade Inlays

  Case study. Tiwanaku and the Moquegua Colonies


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