Higher History Conference 2003 Paper Two Spanish Civil War by murplelake80


									Chronology of Boxed Section

March 1936            Rhineland      

July 1936 - 39        Spain          

March 1938            Anschluss

October 1938          Munich

1920s – 1939          Overview (8 marker)

Issues: Factors shaping Government reaction to events i.e. the
        use of appeasement
-       political
-       economic
-       military
-       public opinion
-       dilemmas (public and private concerns of the government at
the time which influenced how they dealt with issues at the time
                        Spanish Civil War 1936-39
What happened?               Government reaction               Public opinion
                                                           •Public opinion divided;
•Civil War started as a      •Government wanted to
                                                           Labour opposition split.
result of an army            minimise foreign
rebellion against the        intervention and to avoid the For Intervention:
Popular Front Government     civil war spreading into a
                                                           •If the Fascists won,
                             European war
•The sides polarised                                       then the peace in Europe
between those who            •Conservative-dominated       would be threatened
supported elected Govt.      government were more
                                                           •Fascists were trying to
(Republicans) and those      sympathetic to Franco than
                                                           overthrow a
who supported the army       ‘Communist’ Republicans
                                                           democratically elected
rebels (Nationalists).
                             •Feared for Britain’s         Government.
•The War lasted 3 years      commercial interests if
                                                           •2700 joined
and the Nationalists won.    Republican side won.
                                                           International Brigade
•Germany and Italy           •Aware of Ger./Italian
intervened on Nationalist    breaches of non-intervention Against Intervention:
side; Russia on Republican
                             •Took realistic view: ‘better   •It is a Spanish affair;
                             a leaky dam than no dam at      better to stay neutral.
• Br. Policy was non-        all’ (Eden)
                                                             •Against spread of
Source B: extract from 'Homage to Catalonia' written by George Orwell
          – 1938

Source B
When I came to Spain, and for some time afterwards, I was not only
uninterested in the political situation but unaware of it. I knew there was
a war on, but I had no notion what kind of war. If you had asked me why I
had joined the militia I should have answered: "To fight against Fascism",
and if you had asked me what I was fighting for, I should have answered:
common decency.
To understand the alignment on the Government side, one has got to
remember how the war started. When the fighting broke out on 18th
July it is probable that every anti-Fascist in Europe felt a thrill of hope.
For here at last, apparently, was democracy standing up to Fascism. For
years past, the so-called democratic countries had been surrendering to
Fascism at every step. But when Franco tried to overthrow a mildly Left-
wing Government the Spanish people, against all expectation, had risen
against him. It seemed - possibly it was - the turning of the tide.

2.     How typical of British opinion at the time were the views of
       Source B?                                              5
2.   How typical of British opinion at the time were the views
     of Source B?
     In reaching a conclusion you should refer to:

        •the origin and possible purpose of the source
        •the content of the source
        •recalled knowledge
What is the Q asking you to do?

•Set immediate context - give a few sentences to put issue/event in
context with our Paper 2 course
•Identify the views of the author in a nutshell i.e. the big picture -
what is his overall view!!
•Make a judgement as to how far it was typical of views at the time
i.e. was what he is saying shared by people at the time -make a
•Back this up by selecting points from the source (the bones) then
putting flesh on them by using recall
•This will allow you to 'evaluate/assess' how typical they are i.e. by
saying things like ‘Point X by the author is typical and does highlight
issues considered by the Government/public at the time on this issue
for the following reasons ...or does not because... ‘
•Then use 'additional' recall to develop your argument with balance
of recall e.g. views which agree and those who were not in agreement
at the time.
Step 1 –The Immediate Context

•Source refers to the issues in debate during the Spanish Civil War
of 1936-39 during which the legitimate Government of Spain - a
coalition or Popular Front of democratic political parties and left wing
groups - were challenged by a right wing coup led by army General
Franco who wanted to halt the popular front reforms
•The attempted coup backfired and turned into a civil war.
•It became an international issue when military aid from Germany and
Italy to Franco threatened to escalate the conflict. The British
Government were alarmed by the potential 'powder keg' of the
situation in Spain and regarded the war as a fascist struggle with the
communist/socialist Popular Front and refused to become involved.
•The Spanish Civil War was an issue which divided public opinion in the
UK and historians continue to debate the role of the UK, some arguing
that we were blind to the role/effects/gains for Hitler.
Step 2 - Big Picture

•Writing at the time of the actual war, Orwell gives a fairly
untypical view that Britain should get involved to stop the spread
of fascism.

•His book was published in 1938 and was regarded as the efforts
of a radical idealist.

•Orwell was a Labour/socialist supporter. His book was a
'homage' to the courage of the Catalans.

•In the source Orwell suggest the reasons for his views...
 Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and
          use recall to evaluate each point

                                   Recall evaluating point
Point one from source              from source

                                   •This is fairly untypical.
Fighting against fascism           Most people did not regard
& for common decency               the war as an issue of
                                   their concern and the
                                   Popular Front were
                                   regarded as unlawfu1 and
                                   communist i.e. not decent.
Point two from source       Recall evaluating point
                            from source

Every anti-fascist felt a   •This is untypical. Many felt
thrill of hope              it was a potential 'powder
                            keg' which could explode
                            and damage/few agreed
                            with him.
Point three from
                     Recall evaluating point from source
                     •This is untypical. Only those in
                     Labour/left wing groups who joined
Here at last,
                     the International Brigades saw it
democracy standing
                     like this.
up to Fascism
                     •Most believed it was communism
                     versus fascism and that the Popular
                     Front were merely puppets of Stalin.

                     •Crimes against the church and the
                     acts of damage to property/industry

                     •Rear of Big Business in the UK over
                     nationalisation of their Spanish
Point four from   Recall evaluating point from
source            source

Years past, so-   •Orwell referring to Japanese
called            aggression in Manchuria (1931),
democratic        Italian action over Abyssinia
countries         (1935), German actions from 1933
surrendering      (Rhineland/ Conscription /
                  rearmament/ Dictatorship/
                  persecution of Jews)

                  •Whereas the majority view is of
                  appeasing is for peace and not
                  surrendering as Orwell accuses UK
                  and France of doing

                  •Only Churchill/Fletcher/ Duchess
                  of Atholl (Red Kitty) agreed
Point five from     Recall evaluating point from
source              source

Franco resisted;    •This is not typical. Many did not
this was possibly   agree with any sort of
the turning of      intervention and did not share
the tide            Orwell's view.

                    •The stalemate of 1937 was not
                    turned by the role of the Non-
                    Intervention Committee, which
                    was ignored
                  Link back to the question
How typical of British opinion at the time were the views of Source B?

        So Orwell offers a fairly untypical view of the British opinion
        during the Spanish Civil War.

        However, a significant minority supported Orwell’s views e.g.
        David Low in his cartoons, individual trade unionists, idealists,
        left wing supporters like Jack Jones, Donald Renton and J.
        Gurney whose letters and books reflect their passionate
        opposition to the role of fascist help for Franco from Italy
        and Germany.

        General opinion in the UK was divided (some were moved by
        plight of the children of Spain who came over as refugees)
        but the majority did not share the sentiments of the author
        for a variety of reasons.
Additional recall giving the majority view e.g. the vast
majority viewed the Spanish Civil War in different ways
to Orwell...

   •The outbreak of the war in Spain was a real dilemma for the
   British Government.
   •Opinion in the nation was divided.
   •Government ministers did not like the Popular Front and
   believed the propaganda from the Right in Spain (Popular Front
   attacks on church /landed classes etc; communists in disguise!)
   •Many British business interests looked under threat
   •Right from the outset there was a determination to stay out
   of a potential political mess
   •When the Germans and Italians became involved, this
   complicated matters but made the Government even more
   determined to resist pressures to intervene.
•Britain feared the escalation that might occur if any side intervened
and for the same economic/political/military reasons which influenced
lack of action over the Rhineland
•The Government did not wish to be dragged into a war
•The Government faced many other domestic concerns e.g. the
abdication crisis
•While the issue created emotion reactions, the head ruled the
options/methods of reaction of the Government.

•The course of action was the non-intervention policy dreamed up by
French leader Leon Blum.
•We grasped at this enthusiastically as a means of showing the public
that we were being fair and moral in our involvement.
•Despite evidence of this agreement being undermined by both Italy
and Germany, we stuck to it throughout the conflict
•Eden, our Foreign Secretary, agreed it was tragic but not an issue in
which we should become involved.

As it was, the Popular Front lost the civil war a year
after the publication of the book by Orwell. The tide
was sadly not turned as Orwell had hoped and the
fascist-backed regime of Franco won and was to remain
in power until 1975.
Orwell’s views were in the minority and untypical of how
most people viewed the issues underlying the war in
1-2   Selects some relevant evidence from
      the source and/or recalled knowledge
      but without making the required

3-4   Selects relevant evidence from the
      source and uses limited recall to
      inform a basic evaluation in terms of
      the question.

5     Establishes the main points in the
      source and uses recalled knowledge to
      evaluate these and reach an
      appropriate conclusion.

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