Quick Reference Guide to IBS Structural Relationships
How to Read Anything…Well
The repetition of the same or similar terms, phrases, or other elements.
The association of things whose differences are stressed by the writer. Key terms: But,
Association of things whose similarities (likenesses) are stressed by the writer. Key
terms: Like, as.
Movement from lesser to greater, toward a high point of culmination and intensity.
(Involves implicitly an element of contrast, and usually causation.)
5. CRUCIALITY - PIVOT
The device of the pivot to produce a radical reversal or complete change or direction.
(Involves implicitly recurrence of causation and contrast.)
The movement from the general to the particular. (involves implicitly
The movement from particular to general. (Involves implicitly preparation/realization.)
The movement from cause to effect. (Involves implicitly preparation/realization.) Key
terms: Therefore, consequently.
The movement from effect to cause. (Involves implicitly preparation/realization.) Key
terms: For, because, since.
10. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE
The movement from means to end; a statement that declares the end, or purpose, and
the means whereby the end is achieved. Key terms: In order that, so that. (Involves
The background or setting for events or ideas.
An abridgment (summing up) either preceding or following a unit of material.
(Sometimes very similar to a general statement, but contains more specifics than a
A problem or question, followed by its solution or answer. (Involves implicitly
preparation/realization. and often causation. The problem/solution type involves
These are usually employed in conjunction with a primary relationship in order to
strengthen that primary relationship. Notice how the secondary relationships involve
the “form” of the material. Think of it as “How” the writer chooses to present it rather
than “What” the writer presents. More of a physical description of how the material is
put together than the logical thought flow which is inherent with the primary structures
The exchanging or alternation of blocks of material (a-b-a-b).
The repetition of the same word(s) or phrase at the beginning and end of a unit, thus
producing a bracket effect.
The repetition of elements in inverted order (a-b-[c]-b'a').
The insertion of one literary unit in the midst of another literary unit.