Swine Barn Surgery

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Swine Barn Surgery Powered By Docstoc
					                      Swine Barn
                       Surgery
Amy Woods, DVM
Rensselaer Swine Services
     Rensselaer, IN
            Pig Surgeries
 Scrotal Hernias
 Abdominal Hernias
 Vasectomies
 Epididyectomies
 Cryptorchids
 Preputial Diverticulectomies
 Cesarean sections
                Anesthesia
   TKX (Telazol, Ketamine, Xylazine)
     Reconstitute Telazol with 250 mg Ketamine
      and 250 mg Xylazine (100 mg/ml)
     1 ml/100# IM (may need more)

   Telazol and Xylazine
     Reconstitue Telazol with 500 mg xylazine
     1 ml/100# IM

   Ketamine and Xylazine
     1:1 ratio
     1 ml/100# IM
              Anesthesia

 Can   maintain on
 gas
  Halothane,
   Isoflurane,
   Nitrous Oxide
   Malignant
       hyperthermia
                   Anesthesia
   Epidural
     Lidocaine at 5 ml/100#, not
      exceeding 20 ml
     Local infiltration first, then
      use spinal needle for epidural
     Envision a transverse line
       the tuber coxae                Diseases of Swine, 8    Ed.
                                                         th




     Inject perpendicular on midline ~1” caudal
      to this line
             Scrotal Hernias
 Hereditary condition
 ~1% incidence in industry
 Acquired due to castration technique?
     Pull vs. cut spermatic cord?
     Pull up vs. straight out?
            Scrotal Hernias
 Often found at time of castration
 DDx
     Hydrocele
     Scirrous cord
     Hematoma
               Scrotal Hernias
 Taping     method
   1”Elasticon tape around
   legs in figure eight pattern
   after castration
     Puts   pressure on inguinal rings
   Remove     tape in 4-5 days
                   Scrotal Hernias
     Surgical correction
         Needs to be performed prior to castration
         Farm personnel can be trained


• Small incision
over affected
inguinal ring                   • Can see
                                intestines
• Identify and                  within
bluntly dissect                 vaginal
out testicle and                tunic
spermatic cord
                     Scrotal Hernias
• Twist tunic                     • Can leave
to push                           a small area
intestines                        open for
back into                         drainage
peritoneal
cavity
• Place
transfixation
ligature
around
spermatic
cord and                                            DO NOT use
transect        •Close inguinal
                rings                            plastic zip ties or
                •Remember to                      staples! These
                remove other                      foreign objects
                testicle                           are present at
                                                     slaughter!
Abdominal Hernias/Infected Navels
 Usually only repaired on valuable animals
 Make elliptical skin incision around
  affected area
 Make stab incision
  through body wall
  to expose abdomen
Abdominal Hernias/Infected Navels
 Excise hernia sack so that remaining
  tissue is flush with abdominal wall
 Close abdomen routinely
 Antibiotics post-op
       Hernias often start
        with umbilical
        infection or abscess
    Vasectomy/Epididyectomy
   Why?
     Heat stimulation
      in gilts
     Heat detection
      for breeding
              Vasectomy
 Short incision made between spermatic
  cords 2-3” cranial to ventral aspect of
  scrotum
 Spermatic cord is
  elevated and vaginal
  tunic is opened
                   Vasectomy
   Vas deferens is
    located
     Firm and white
     No arterial pulse
 Excise at least a
  1-2” section of
  vas deferens
 Do both sides!!!
 Close skin
       Close vaginal
        tunic?
                         Epididyectomy
 Can be performed in very young boars
 Quicker and cheaper than vasectomy
 Testicular anatomy




    Dyce, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, 2nd ed.
                    Epididyectomy
   Pressure applied to push
    testicles toward the dorsal
    aspect of scrotum
   Small (1-2cm) incision made in
    skin, tunica dartos and vaginal
    tunic overlying tail of
    epididymis
       Make sure incision is not big
        enough for testicle to be
        exteriorized

                                        Althouse,
                                        JAVMA, 1997
              Epididyectomy
   Tail and body of epididymis
    isolated
   +/- ligatures between testis
    and tail of epididymis
   Excise epididymis
   Sutures usually not required
          Crytorchidectomy
 Retained testicles (ridgelings, one-nutters)
 Important in show barrows due to mounting
  behavior
 Very helpful to know which side is retained
  if animal is unilaterally castrated
 Testicle usually located dorsally between
  inguinal canal and kidney
           Crytorchidectomy
   Make 2-3” incision on
    belly of pig on side of
    retained testicle


                       Feel for testicle within
                        abdomen and
                        exteriorize
                       Ligate spermatic cord
                       Close abdomen
  Preputial Diverticulectomy
 Anatomy
  Preputial Diverticulectomy
 Normal   contents
  Urine
  Semen
  Epithelial   cells
  Bacteria
  Occasional    concretions
 Expressed during mounting due to
 contraction of preputial muscles
  Preputial Diverticulectomy
 Indications    for surgery
   Penis balling up in preputial
    diverticulum
   Preputial diverticulitis
    or ulceration
   Excess fluid
    accumulation                    Fubini, 2004


     Odor
     Cosmetic
   Semenbacterial
   contamination
            Preputial Diverticulectomy
• Preputial
                       • Preputial
diverticulum can be
                       diverticulum
packed with dyed
                       bluntly
gauze or infused
                       dissected
with Nolvasan for
                       free from
easy identification
                       surrounding
• Incision made over   soft tissue
lateral aspect of
one lobe



                                      • Preputial
                                      diverticulum
                                      exteriorized



   Kross, 1982
        Preputial Diverticulectomy
• Neck of
preputial          • Removed
diverticulum       preputial
is clamped         diverticulum




 • Neck is
 ligated and        • Closed
 transected         incision
        Preputial Diverticulectomy
   Closed method
     Hemostats passed into preputial diverticulum
      through preputial opening
     Preputial diverticulum grasped and gently
      everted
     Repeat on opposite lobe
     Preputial Diverticulectomy
   Closed method (con’t)
       Forceps placed across neck of everted preputial
        diverticulum – make sure forceps placed distal to tip
        of penis
       Neck of preputial diverticulum is transected
            Sutured in mature boars, but often not needed in younger
             boars




                                                        Lawhorn, 1994
                 Cesarean Section
   Method #1
       Radical C-Section with a gun and knife
          Downer   sows, etc.



   Method #2
       Survival surgery
          SPF   projects, club pigs
       Anesthesia – epidural + line block or TKX
               Cesarean Section
 Vertical incision – left flank
 Horizontal incision – parallel to underline
 Likely need to incise
  both uterine horns
       Make sure you
        reach both ovaries
        to ensure that you
        have all pigs!
   Close uterus with an
    inverting pattern
                      References
   Althouse, GC and LE Evans. Removal of the caudae epididymides
    to create infertile boars for use in estrus detection programs.
    JAVMA 210:5, 678-680. 1997.
   Althouse, GC and LE Evans. A novel surgical technique for
    vascectomizing boars. JAVMA 210:5, 675-677. 1997.
   Althouse, GC, et. al. Closed resection of the preputial diverticulum
    in the boar. Agri-Practice 15:9. 1994.
   Fubini and DuCharme. Farm Animal Surgery. 2004
   Food Animal Surgery, Ch 26 – Extirpating the preputial
    diverticulum in boars
   Kross, SB, et. al. Extirpation of the preputial diverticulum in a
    boar. Vet. Med. 1982
   Lawhorn, B, et. al. Removal of the preputial diverticulum in swine.
    JAVMA 205:1, 92-96. 1994
   Straw, BS, et. al. Diseases of Swine 8th Ed. 1999.
   Tyler, JW, et. al. Preputial diverticulum stone in a boar. Vet
    Record 147, 225. 2000.
    THE END

   Any
Questions??