Emotion and Personality Development of personality Temperament

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					                                                      Development of
                                                        personality
          Emotion and
           Personality                          • Temperament
                                                • Learning (a history of emotions within
                                                  interactions)




         Temperament                                     Temperament

• A general style of response that is
• evident early                                 • May be seen both in reactivity (emotionality)
                                                  and emotion regulation
• can be seen in a wide variety of situations   • Sometimes most evident when situations are
  and
                                                  novel, stressful or somehow challenging
• likely has a biological component




        Dimensions of                             Kagan: Inhibited and
        temperament                             uninhibited temperament
• Effortful control                             • Difference in reaction to unfamiliar
                                                  situations, objects and people
• Negative affect                               • Initial studies looked at children who were
• Extraversion/positive affect                    21 and 31 months old.
• Interest/persistence                          • Continued to follow and reassess them.
                                                • Estimate is that 20% of the children were
                                                  inhibited and 35-40% uninhibited




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      Kagan: Inhibited and                               Kagan: Inhibited and
    uninhibited temperament                            uninhibited temperament
• Question of stability: Approximately 75% of          • Inhibited children (7 1/2 years old): Stayed at
  children originally classified as inhibited            periphery and watched others quietly or
  remained above the mean and approximately 75%          engaged in individual activity
  of those classified as uninhibited remained
  below the mean
                                                       • Uninhibited children (7 1/2 years old):
                                                         Spontaneous talk, smiling and laughter
• Four month old infants: high vs. low reactive.       • Adolescents: Spontaneous speech and
  High reactive: Motor activity and crying.
                                                         smiling distinguished the two groups.
• Fetal heart rate a few weeks before birth            • Stroop test




  Kagan: Inhibited and                                   Kagan: Inhibited and
uninhibited temperament                                uninhibited temperament
• Possibility that differing responses in the
   amygdala may contribute to these
   differences in temperament                          • Allergy susceptibilty
• Psychophysiological measures                         • Eye color
• EEG                                                  • Width of face and body
• fMRI




  Kagan: Inhibited and                                   Kagan: Inhibited and
uninhibited temperament                                uninhibited temperament
• Socialization: Variables that predict a shift from
   an infant who highly reactive to a child who at     • Does an inhibited temperament predispose a
   14 and 21 months is no longer in that group            child to developing an anxiety disorder?
• Proportion of time mother held infant when           • The fit between temperament and
   s/he irritable                                         environment
• Limit setting
• Mothers who rated obedience as important




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           John Bowlby:
                                                            Attachment
            Attachment
• Secure
• Ambivalent (preoccupied)                       • Internal working models of relationships: a
                                                   mental model or set of beliefs about what to
• Avoidant (dismissive)                            expect in intimate relationships
• Disorganized                                   • Influences on attachment style
• Strange Situation (Mary Ainsworth)             • Effects of attachment style
• Adult Attachment Interview (AAI)




    The development of                             The development of
    emotional patterns                             emotional patterns
• History of interactions                        • Different terms are used to refer to the
• Development of mental representations            system of mental representations, e.g.,
• Development of expectations                      transference, working models, emotional
                                                   schemas, scripts, role relationship models,
• Often implicit and automatic                     core conflictual relationship themes
• Patterns of emotional responding develop,      • These emotional patterns may then affect
  which then influence thought and action          the future course of life
• Specificity of context




                  Scripts                                        Scripts
• Drama metaphor
• Scene as basic unit                            • Tomkins: “In the early stages of
• Psychological magnification: 1) Most intense     magnification, it is the set of scenes that
                                                   determines the script; but as magnification
   and enduring emotions 2) Sharpest change in
                                                   increases, it is the script which increasingly
   emotional experience 3) Most frequently
                                                   determines the scenes.”
   reported sequences of emotion and changes
   in emotion




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Luborsky: Core conflictual                          The Hidden Genius of
         themes                                           Emotion
 • Measure of central relationship patterns        • Script theory, attachment theory and
                                                     dynamic systems theory
 • Narratives of interactions which are then       • Three psychotherapists
   coded
 • Three parts: What a person wants from           • Autobiographical writing
   other people, how those people react and        • Writing about psychotherapy
   then how the person reacts to their reaction
                                                   • Film interviews




      Dynamic Systems
                                                    Emotional Intelligence
          Theory
 • Forces (attractors and repellors)
 • Phase shifts and state transitions: Nonlinear
   patterns of change                              • Individual differences in abilities related to
                                                     emotions
 • Fluctuations and variation
                                                   • Four branch model: 1) perceiving 2)
 • In development, behavior is selected from a       understanding 3) using 4) managing
   wide range of possibilities
 • Fractals




  Emotional Intelligence                            Emotional Intelligence
 • Perceiving: The ability to perceive and         • Managing: The ability to regulate emotions in
   identify emotions in self and others              self and others
 • Understanding: The ability to understand        • The measurement of emotional intelligence:
   emotion language and understand                   MSCEIT
   complicated relationships among emotions
                                                   • Norms from others who have taken the test
 • Using: The ability to make use of emotions        and norms from a group of experts
   to facilitate cognitive activities such as
   thinking and problem solving
                                                   • The state of the research evidence




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