German Geopolitics II

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					German Geopolitics II.

     Nazi Geopolitics
Rural Landscape & Highway as
   Signs of National Identity
           Karl Haushofer
      The Man Behind the Curtain
•   Father of English Geopolitics
•   Mackinder: 1861-1947
•   Father or Nazi ‘Geopolitik’
•   Haushofer: 1869-1946
•   Same age, same dilemmas,
•   different approaches
                   His Life
• Studied Political sciences in Sweden at Rudolf
  Kjellén in 1891
• Then military-diplomatic career:
• German Military Attache to Tokyo 1908-1910
• Close relation with Japanese Emperor’s family
• Close study of Japanese traditions and
  problems, future alliance system
• Annexation of Korea
• Japanese Leader Tradition
           Military Career
• WWI
• General of Artillery
• He had a soldier named Rudolf Hess
• Experience of war, experience of other
  European nations
• Comparism of War and Peace (Realism)
  Scientific Career and Munich
• Munich in the twenties HQs of the NSDAP
  established as a Bavarian regional party
• Haushofer back to the University in Munich
  Japanese studies dissertation
• 1921 establishing Geopolitical Institut
• He had a student called Rudolf Hess
• ‘Beer Hall Revolt’ 1923
• Hiding Hess and Hitler sharing his ideas with
  them, visiting them in the jail
• 1924 establishing Geopolitical Journal
  (definitions of a science)
  Good Relations with NSDAP
• Hess, Hitler, Goebbels, Ribbentrop, Himler
• Similarities: against neighbours, revenge
  for WWI, conservative, militarist traditions
• Haushofer as ex Imperial General
  introduced Nazi leaders to German and
  Swiss high society
• Haushofer: real author of Hitler’s books
• ‘Mein Kampf’ and ‘Second Book’ with
  exatly his early ideas
‘Geopolitik’ Became a Pillar of Nazi
 Ideology & International Relations:

• (more details and data from History of
  Diplomacy)
• Lebensraum
• Autarchy
• Pan Regions
• Naval and Land (Continental) Powers
• Borders
The Role of (Mass)Communication
• Zeitcshrift für Geopolitics: 750 000 copies
  per year
• Literature: Nation without Space
• Radio: Haushofer had weekly speeches
  (def. of soap opera)
• Head of German Publishing Company
• Science and Communication 2 levels
• The entire German nation accepted the
  ideas (propaganda)
  His Ideas Forming International
             Relations
• ‘Shopping List’ expansion in Eu and Worldwide
• Organiser of Munich Conference in 1938
  (Czechoslovakia), his son draw the new borders
  of Europe
• Supporter of Ribentrop-Molotov pact 1939
• Organiser of Italian-Japanese-German-
  Hungarian alliance system (similar problems,
  need for space, WWI experience)
     Career and Success in Various
                Levels
•   Science
•   Military
•   Political
•   Political Adviser in International relations
•   Communication
•   Thomas Mann: General Dr. von Staat
•   1946 Nürnberg trial