The Political System of Pakistan

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					The Political System of

  Political and Religious positions
     Presented by Frances Hill and Amanda Bailey
      Brief History of Pakistan
• Pakistan was first established as an
  independent nation on August 14 in

• Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of
  Pakistan, emphasised the
  importance of Islam.
 Religious composition of Pakistan
• 97% Muslim
  – 77% Sunni-Muslim
  – 20% Shi-a-Muslim

• Remaining 3% Christian, Hindu, Sikh or
  other beliefs.
Government of Pakistan


Government of Pakistan
         Presidential Power
• President acts on advice of Prime

• May adopt absolute power to
  dissolve National Assembly,
  according to the 8th Amendment of
  the constitution.
        Islam in Government
• Increased involvement of Islam in the
  Pakistani Government since 1984
• Enforcement of Sharia or Islamic Law
  since 1985
• Assessment by the Shariat/Islamic Court
  regarding federal laws
        Military in Government
• The Military long standing force in Pakistani
• The President General Pervez Musharraf was
  never elected, came to power after a military
  take-over of government in 1999
• Resigned as Army Chief of Staff in November
• Regarding Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan accords
  with UN Security Council Resolutions
  – developments and changes are to be made
    according to the will of the Kashmiri people

• Pakistan is willing to take a bilateral approach
  with India in order to begin constructive
  dialogues regarding Jammu & Kashmir.
• President Musharraf (2008) says Pakistan is a
  peaceful country, but a strong national
  defence is important in maintaining peace.

• Musharraf (2008) maintains an adequate
  defence force in Pakistan is necessary to
  defend the country and to support its
  economic development.
           Pakistan’s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policy as proclaimed by Quaid-e-Azam
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, to the people of the USA in February

  “Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards
  the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive
  designs against any country or nation. We believe in the
  principle of honesty and fair play in national and international
  dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to
  the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of
  the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its
  material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed
  peoples of the world, and in upholding the principles of the
  United Nations Charter.”

(Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1948, in Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008a)
Five Principals of Friendly Co-existence
• Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty,
  equality, territorial integrity and national identity of
  all nations;
• The right of every state to lead its national existence
  free from external interference, subversion or
• Non-interference in the internal affairs of one
• Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful
  means; and the
• Renunciation of the threat or use of force;

      Member organisations
– United Nations;

– Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC);

– South Asian Association for Regional
  Cooperation (SAARC); and the

– Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO);

        (Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2007, p.1)
           2007 Foreign Affairs
• In spite of turmoil and insecurity in Pakistan
• State remained focused on:
  • Promotion of regional and international peace and
  • Economic and social development of the country
  • Welfare of its people.
• Maintained and improved relations with
  neighbors and major world powers
                                   (Kasuri 2007, p.3)
  Negotiations & Actions 2006-7
• Joined the international coalition against terrorism
• Initiated dialogue with India regarding Kashmir dispute
• Supported initiatives and contributed to reconstruction
  efforts in Afghanistan
• Deployed forces to counter extremism on the border
  between Afghanistan and Pakistan’s tribal areas
• Deepened relations with the US
• dismantled the AQ Khan network in Pakistan
• Maintained and developed ongoing relations with
  China, Iran, Russia and Japan
• Maintained close relations with their ‘brotherly Islamic
  countries including Turkey and special relations with
  Gulf countries in particular with Saudi Arabia and
  United Arab Emirates (UAE)’ (Kasuri 2007, p.3-4).
Religion in Pakistan politics

  (   (
             Islam in constitution
  The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973,
  Preamble states:

• Whereas sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to
  Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by
  the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him
  is a sacred trust…
• Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality,
  tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be
  fully observed…
• Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives
  in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with
  the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the
  Holy Quran and Sunnah.
    Constitution Articles pertaining to
• Article 31: relates to supporting the Muslims of Pakistan in
  the Islamic way of life.
   – the provision of facilities; and
   – the compulsory teaching of the Holy Quran and Sunnah, as a
     means of promoting unity and the observance of Islamic moral

• Article 40: relates to the strengthening of bonds with other
  Muslim countries based on Islamic unity and the promotion
  of international peace and security.

• Article 41: states the minimum requirements of an elected
  president, which include that he must be a Muslim.
   Constitution Articles pertaining to
• Article 227: provides that all existing laws are brought into
  ‘conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the
  Holy Quran and Sunnah’.

• Article 228: provides for the establishment of a council of
  Islamic ideology( the Islamic Council) and the responsibilities
  of the president in relation to the establishment of the
  members of the Islamic Council.

• Article 229, refers to the provision that members of
  parliament may seek advice from the Islamic Council on
  matters regarding proposed law and whether they are
  compatible to the Injunctions of Islam.

• Article 230, provides for matters referring to the functions of
  the Islamic Court.
       Role of Islam in Pakistan
• Islam established as state ideology to distinguish
  Pakistan’s identity as separate from Hindu India.

• Islam used as the basis for the creation and
  unification of a separate state, not expected to
  serve as a model for government (Blood 1994).

• Islam remains an important element of national
  identification and is a central issue in Pakistan’s
                               (Haqqani 2004, pp.87-9)
   Controversy over Islam’s role
 Arguments :

• Islamic ideology is essential to bind its
  culturally diverse people together.

• Insistence on Islamic ideology, in
  opposition to regional demands, has
  alienated regional groups and eroded
  national unity (Pakistan 2008).
             Islam in Pakistan
• Islam deeply rooted in Pakistan’s history
• Links to Pakistani military and the Pakistani
  elite’s world view (Haqqani 2004, p.85).
• Military rule fomented religious military
  presence in Pakistan.
• Islamists gained disproportionate influence
  over the country’s overall direction.
• Islam used as the means of achieving a
  common bond and unity (Haqqani 2004,
While Islamic ideology remains
important in Pakistan, the
implications exacerbated by military
rule and fundamentalism complicate
Pakistan’s political situation and
reduce its ability to be identified as a
functional modern state.
•   Association of South East Asian Nations 2006, Overview, viewed 10 May 2008,
•   Bielawska, A 2008, State Church Relations, unpublished.
•   Blood, P 1994, ed. Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, viewed
    5 May 2008, <>.
•   Haqqani, H 2004, The Role of Islam in Pakistan’s Future, The Washington Quarterly • 28:1 pp. 85–
    96, viewed 4 May 2008 <>.
• n.d., Information of Pakistan, Basic facts, viewed 4 May 2008,
•   Kasuri, KM 2007, in Foreign Office Year Book 2006-7, Message from the Minister of Foreign Affairs,
    viewed 10 May 2008, <>.
•    Pakistan 2008, In Encyclopædia Britannica, viewed 6 May 2008 <>.
•   Pakistani Student Association 2008, National Emblem, viewed 10 May 2008, <>.
•   Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2007, Foreign Office year Book 2006-7, viewed 10 May 2008,
    < >.
•   Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008b, Pakistan Foreign Relations 2003-
•   4, Year Book, viewed 10 May 2008, < >.
•    Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008a, Pakistan: Brief Introduction, viewed 4 May 2008,
    < >.
•   The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, viewed 4 May 2008,
•   Witte, G 2007, Bhutto Assassination Sparks Chaos, Washington Post Foreign Service, 28 December;
    Page A01, viewed 6 May 2008, <> .