End of Study Thesis - Mainframes in IT environnments

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					End of Study Thesis



Mainframes in IT
 environments




                www.supinfo.com

                Last Name: Salsmann
                First Name: Flavien
                Campus Booster ID: 28622
                                                                      Mainframes in IT environments         2




Abstract

This end of study thesis focuses on the Mainframe computer systems. Not very known, these
platforms are often victims of many prejudices which veracity must be verified. Are they deprecated?
Are they still used? Are they doomed to disappear? Will they be replaced by distributed GNU/Linux
server? What are and will be their state? To answer these questions, we will study the position of
Mainframes in enterprises, as well as their legitimacy in big infrastructures. To better understand
their importance, we will present several aspects of this platform, theoretical as well as technical.

First, after having defined the context of this thesis, we'll study the current position of Mainframes in
the world, especially in companies. We'll try to understand what they really are and to have a new
look on them. We’ll then briefly present their evolution and study why they are still used despite
criticisms that are often made about their age. We’ll identify factors of their continued existence,
such as the need to capitalize on the existing structure, notably in banks.

Therefore, we'll see that billions of dollars as been invested in them and that most important
consulting group such as Gartner still believe in them. Then, we will present an overview of their
qualities not present on distributed servers, or not enough efficient for big infrastructures. After
having study its overall strength, its place in IT environments will be presented, as well as its market.

In a second step, we will present technologies used under these environments, their efficiency and
their legitimacy in a modern world. We will add system commands to theoretical concepts in order to
concrete their presentation. If possible, we will compare existing technologies under conventional
systems as Linux with Mainframe technologies, in order to see if they are really obsolete or modern.

Obviously, we will present the hardware used by these machines, as well as their IBM proprietary
operating system called z/OS. As basic concepts such as file system are very different compared to
those that customers are often used to use on other OS, we will briefly explain their specificities,
advantages and defects. Several products will then be described, in order to better apprehend most
subtleties of this platform, as security and workload management. Then, we'll see how it deals with
needs as disaster recovery and virtualization thanks to technologies like Parallel Sysplex and z/VM.

Finally, we will attempt to define the future of Mainframes. To do so, we will present the role they
can have in server consolidation projects. Then, we will describe why it could be interesting in Data
Centers, notably for its TCO, and according to the new emerging problems, such as energy and place
costs. New applications scheduled on this platform will also be presented, such as Gameframe for
online gaming, and the recent zSolaris contract validated with Sun. At last, we will project the broad
market trends, and the position Mainframes could occupy in few years. We’ll try to define if they can
be attractive to a wider range of businesses, and get out of their “niche” market status.




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Acknowledgement

First, I’d like to thank all IBMers I met during my internship, especially Mr Alain Richard, Mr Frederic
Rondeau, Bruno Paganel and Eric Gaillard for their patience, advices and many courses. They spent a
lot of time each day to answer all my questions, teach me a lot of concepts, and give me invaluable
feedbacks from their experience in Mainframe environments. I’ve really been impressed by their IT
culture. It’s been a real pleasure to work with them. And I would even say an honour.

I thank ESI SUPINFO and IBM for organizing the IBM zNextGen training. Thanks to it, I realized that I
lacked many skills that could be interesting to acquire. It has changed my professional aspirations.

I’d also like to thank all the persons who read my thesis and gave me their impression,
incomprehension, and then helped me to improve it.

I would like to thank my friends, who supported me during my studying at SUPINFO, and who made
these years unforgettable, especially Louis Champion, Nathalie Rufin, Guillaume Sudrie, Florent
Chambon, Brice Dekany, Rémi Vincent, Philippe Job, Jérome Masse, Laurent Bodin, Mickeal Desbois,
Rémi Assailly, Selim Meskine, Gilles Dallemagne and Gaëtan Poupeney.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents and my sister who helped me to join SUPINFO and for all the
support and love they gave me. This document would surely not have been written without them.




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Table of Content

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................... 3

Table of Content .............................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

1/ Mainframe Computers: Myths and Realities ................................................................................................ 7

    1.1 What’s all about these old dinosaurs? .......................................................................................................... 8

    1.2 Who is enough mad to use it? ...................................................................................................................... 9

    1.3 Why are they still running? ........................................................................................................................... 9

    1.4 What is its place in IT environments? ......................................................................................................... 19

    1.5 The Mainframe market nowadays… As dead as itself? .............................................................................. 21

2/ Mainframe Today: Denver the Last Dinosaur? ........................................................................................... 23

    2.1 An impressive advanced Hardware ............................................................................................................ 23

    2.2 Specialty Engines ........................................................................................................................................ 27

    2.3 z/OS : the IBM Operating System ............................................................................................................... 35

    2.4 An horrible user interface ........................................................................................................................... 36

    2.5 z/OS file system .......................................................................................................................................... 40

    2.6 JCLs for batch processing ............................................................................................................................ 46

    2.7 Jobs, performances, and network management ........................................................................................ 49

    2.8 Transaction Servers and Database: Middleware ........................................................................................ 52

    2.9 RACF Security Server ................................................................................................................................... 54

    2.10 DFSMS: Managing Data ............................................................................................................................ 61

    2.11 Health Checker: Auditing system .............................................................................................................. 68

    2.12 Virtualization technologies ....................................................................................................................... 71

    2.13 Solutions for high and continuous availability .......................................................................................... 78




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3/ Mainframe in the future: Dead or Messiah? .............................................................................................. 85

   3.1 Server Consolidation ................................................................................................................................... 85

   3.2 An interesting total cost of ownership ....................................................................................................... 92

   3.3 A mature and credible platform ............................................................................................................... 106

   3.4 Emerging applications............................................................................................................................... 108

   3.5 SWOT and future market .......................................................................................................................... 110

Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................... 111

References ................................................................................................................................................... 112




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Introduction

Nowadays, the IT market seems to be divided into two sectors, composed of either Linux or
Microsoft Windows platforms. The advent of distributed servers during the 90’s has amplified this
simple representation. However, other solutions were used before the rise of the personal computer.
Indeed, between the 60’s and the 80’s most companies primarily used huge computers called
“Mainframes”. Most popular were IBM models, from OS/360 to the AS/400. Every modern
infrastructure had a Mainframe, and it was used for most application, such as bank transactions. As a
result, most critical programs were written during that period, most of time in COBOL language.

As these critical applications are perfectly working and needed many investments from companies,
they are still running today on Mainframes. Most of them are then still executed for historical
reasons and are must have for many companies. Yet, these systems are ignored or even unknown by
general public and by most IT Specialist. They are often judged as old machines doomed to
disappear, and are compared to "dinosaurs", because they execute very old programs. Many people
tend to say Mainframes have become totally obsolete and no longer meet the modern market
criteria, and thus will be irreversibly replaced by distributed servers defined as “modern”.

However, major infrastructure continue to use it, and not only because it can help them to capitalize
on their existing. Indeed, Mainframes are systems implemented in big companies to meet very
specific needs. They propose very advanced technologies helping enterprises to better define their
Business Recovery Plan, such as Parallel Sysplex for continuous and high availability, or Copy Services
for high level data replication. Therefore, they constitute an essential component of IT environments.

In recent years, Mainframes greatly evolved, notably through the System z9 range from IBM, having
impressive hardware capabilities and offering uptime of about 99,999%. More and more IT managers
find Mainframe to be the only system able to effectively support very large workloads, such as in
banks for transactions, and to meet their performance, security and reliability needs.

As virtualization technologies are more and more used to execute several instances of Linux systems,
with solutions such as Xen Source which are very popular in companies, the Mainframe alternative
could be seriously considered in many infrastructures. Indeed, Mainframes benefit from more than
thirty year of experience in the virtualization domain, and could have a major place in server
consolidation projects. It could then conquer a new market, usually reserved for x86 platforms.

In the next year, the Data Center crisis will explode, because of considerations that were not suitably
taken into account, such as energy and place costs du to massive use of distributed servers. The
Mainframe could be effective to solve these problems, as its TCO is not so high, despite prejudices.




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1/ Mainframe Computers: Myths and Realities

Mainframe Computers are often seen as old and archaic systems. When one talk to average people
about “Mainframes” and ask them to think about these machines, they will probably ask you if
you’re talking about these huge “things” which need so much place that a small room is not enough.
Well, maybe that’s a caricature… But give it a try and you’ll see by yourself! If only there were living
during the 60’s they would be probably true.

Mainframes were indeed systems hosted in huge room-sized metal box, needed an incredible
amount of electricity, space and air-conditioning. It needed about thousand square meters, up to
3000 to take place. But this time is over. It’s now like a big refrigerator, nothing more, taking the
place of about two frames containing standard x86 servers.

Mainframe evolved. This is all about this thesis.




Lot of people will also tell you Mainframe Computers are dead, and that the small ones still being
used will be replaced by grid computing technologies… Well… In fact, the truth is while people’s mind
didn’t evolve about Mainframe Computers technologies, these last one did.

Another reality is that even if it’s been said they were finished, they’re still used. People don’t really
have a concrete idea about what a Mainframe really is, even in most IT Environments.

It thus remains important to precise what are Mainframes, which companies are using them, their
real place in the world and why they’re still there, despite violent criticisms and jokes.




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1.1 What’s all about these old dinosaurs?


First of all, it seems important to precise that our modern world couldn’t be what it is without
Mainframes. Although Mainframe technologies are referred as a legacy platform which is no longer
strategic for companies, they play an essential and central role in all usual operations people does
each days. Whatever you do, if you deal with some kind of data, then you’ll pass through a
Mainframe for sure. Most of Fortune 500 companies own one or more!

Banks, finance, insurance, health care, government, each transaction of big infrastructures is treated
by Mainframe. It really is the heart of all great Data Centers. It’s the only system which can handle so
much data with such speed and reliability.

The situation is very paradoxical, indeed, these machines are seeing as old and creepy, but in reality
they’re the most technologically advanced. Here is a definition I found quite ironic and relevant.



        An obsolete device still used by thousands of obsolete companies serving billions of obsolete
                      customers and making huge obsolete profits for their obsolete shareholders.”

                                                                              The Devil’s IT Dictionnary

Behind all these concepts and passionate debates, what really is a Mainframe? Well, the most
important point is it’s a machine which has been designed since its beginning to achieve all its
customers’ workloads in time. It automates thousand of actions in order to reach consistent business
objectives.

This is the only system we expect to NOT stop, crash or fail. It requires unmatched qualities, such as
security, availability and integrity. Supporting hundred of thousands I/O operations due to numbers
of simultaneous transactions which can be potentially vital for initiators, it just have to be sure. In
people mind, a machine crash is a “normal” thing, it can happen anytime for any reasons, you just
have to reboot it, and that’s it. A Mainframe executes so much critical applications it cannot crash.

                                                             Fail, crash or slow-down is NOT an option

Then, a Mainframe is a device which can serve at the same time thousands of users without any
errors. Customers who use Mainframe expect them to have 24/24 up-time, as they can’t allow a
minute of down-time, since it means millions of dollars lost. Since its own reputation is concerned,
customers want the best machine to host their most hot applications. That’s what Mainframes do.
They’re just reliable machines, what are not others on the market, nothing less.



                  A Mainframe is a computer system designed to continuously run very large, mixed
                 workloads at high levels of utilization meeting user defined service level objectives.”

                                                                                                   IBM
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1.2 Who is enough mad to use it?

Even if Mainframe computers dominate the landscape of large-scale business, they remain obsolete
for much people, and as it was said before, being considered as “dinosaurs”, since emerging
technologies leap into the public eye such as cool 3D effects, great look and feels… All that stuff.

Then who make them still live?

Well… To be honest, as you maybe should have guessed it, everyone use Mainframe at least once in
his life. This is obvious. You used a Mainframe computer at one point or another. Let’s take an easy
example. Got an American Express or a Blue Card? Then you’ve used a Mainframe to interact with
your bank account. This is also the same process when you use ATM (Automated Teller Machine).

In fact, world’s economy rests on Mainframe Computers. Then, people just can’t forget about it and
says it’s dead, it would be totally wrong. This is, was, and continue to be the foundation of business.
Just think about it: there are more transactions daily executed on Mainframe than web pages server!

Most members from Fortuna 500 are running a Mainframe. Every big project involves a Mainframe in
some part. Only big enterprises are aware of there existence and more precisely of their advantages.



1.3 Why are they still running?

Companies still use Mainframes for a numbers of reasons which people are not enough interested in.

     Capitalize on existing IT infrastructure

You have to understand Mainframes are the base of every big IT infrastructure. When big society
raised these last years, the only way to provide them a correct way to deal with their data was
nothing but to use Mainframes. IBM machines were the only one able to do it. Then, every large
batch jobs dealing with big services such as general ledger and payroll processing were running on
these infrastructures. A lot of money has been spent for these applications which are bases of many
modern structures.



 Applications hosted on Mainframe systems represent an investment about 1500 billions of dollars.”

                                                                                        Gartner Group

Every critical application, which are currently running in structures such as bank were written in
COBOL. They’ve been tested, fixed and run perfectly. Even if they’ve thirty years old, they work.
Customers don’t want to lose their passed investments, and they know it will be less expensive to
reuse or adapt existing applications than rewrite them again in a “cool and hype” new language.

They don’t care about it; they just want their program do run correctly. Furthermore, this is more
careful to use something which as been validated, it reduces risks related to new developments.

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          More than 200 billions of COBOL code lines are still used and 5 more are added each year.”

                                                                                         Gartner Group

Companies also know that if they launch a huge project under Mainframe environment; it will still
work in many years. Contrary to other platforms such as Windows or UNIX/Linux, IBM wants its
platform to hold its entire legacy. It means that customers are able to launch their oldest applications
on the latest z/OS and System z. Let’s have a try with another system, such as Windows, or even
Linux. Take an old application from Windows 3.1 and make it run on your new Windows Vista... If it
works without doing anything but trying to make it run, you’re lucky. With Mainframes, customers
know they have continuing compatibility, there capital is preserved.

This compatibility across decades of changes and enhancements is the Mainframe’s hardware and
software designer’s top priority. That’s why JCLs are still used in order to preserve compatibility with
older tasks so that they can continue to be executed without any modifications.



 The ability of our system both to run software requiring new hardware instructions and to run older
    software requiring the original hardware instructions is extremely important for our customers.”

                                                                                                    IBM

IBM Mainframes make possible to reuse all applications customers invested in. That’s a huge point,
because big enterprises really live thanks to their “old” and legacy applications.

     Huge Workloads

Mainframes benefit from comfortable and huge hardware to process very significant workload. As a
result, a single system can scale up to process a billion transactions per day, and up to 13 billions for
a clustered System z9, which represents more than the amount of transaction in a week for the New
York Stock Exchange!

Mainframes support different kinds of workloads, which can be defined in two categories, “basic”
batch processing (often old applications running during nights, to make statistics and long jobs), and
online transaction processing, which are the most used during days.

     Batches processing don’t need any user interaction. They’re often planned to be executed
      nightly, when all machine power is available. They have to advantages to be able to process
      huge data, such a as terabytes to create valuable statistics.

        Banks use them to produce important reports about their customers. You can see it as Cron
        defined in an UNIX Cron tab, but with advantages with often lacks it distrusted servers
        environments, such as a huge available processors capacity and significant data storage do
        deal with. These jobs do not need an immediate response but have to be complete in what
        we called a “batch window”, which in the maximum period it can be running.

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     Online processing occurs interactively with users. Unlike batches processing, they have to be
      executed very fast, and response time is the most important thing with, of course, data
      integrity. As these transactions often depend of the enterprise core functions, each of them
      is critical and has to be treated with attention. When you take money in an ATM machine,
      you want it to be fast. Every user who uses the same transaction at the same time wants the
      same thing. Them, they have to be treated in fraction of seconds. Immediate response is
      needed, which supposes high performance, integrity, and data protection.

        Numbers of industry use Mainframe to be as fast as possible: banks with, ATM, travel
        enterprise with online ticket checking reservation, government to process tax processing,
        etc… If customers use a distributed server infrastructure, time needed to meet their needs,
        especially integrity, will need much important. Indeed, even if they can effectively process
        the job, their I/O capacity cannot be compared with a Mainframe. As the whole system is
        running on the same hardware, data check and processing is far more speed.

Mainframe systems also use advanced technologies hardware and software, to improve huge
workloads processing. As a result, IBM designed its machine as “balanced systems”. It means it
balances server’s components to processor, memory and I/O scalability. It’s then able to deal with
large quantities of data available to support transactions. In the Operating System, a manager called
WLM (Work Load Manager) allocate resources when and where needed, offering dynamic resource
prioritization. Then, WLM decides the resources level to be applied to meet a particular service goal,
in a particular part of the system for example.

Workload Manager monitors the system and continuously readapts processing to meet needs, and
then systems can run at 100% utilization. For really big infrastructure, EWLM (Enterprise WLM) allow
you to automatically monitor distributed and heterogeneous or homogeneous workloads across an
IT infrastructure to better achieve defined business goals for end-user services.

Please note that as Linux can be executed under Mainframe environment thanks to z/VM, workloads
can be balanced and allocated as if you were under a distributed server infrastructure for some kind
of needs (Apache Web servers responding to numbers of http requests for example). It also benefits
from all features due to the System Z partition system, as HiperSocket for data exchange between
each virtual operating system. Data flow then operates at memory speed. In other words, in this
situation, a Mainframe can be an improved x86 cluster.

     Reliability, Availability and Serviceability

These three concepts are also known as “RAS”. RAS is one of the most important things when you
talk about a system or an infrastructure, as it includes numbers of aspects of a computer and
application, revealing its capacity to be in service every time. In fact, we can define a system in
seconds knowing its RAS level.

The more an infrastructure RAS level is high, the more it may be trusted. We can then talk about a
24/24 and 7/7 service, which mean there is no down-time accepted, and we expect IT infrastructures
with RAS characteristics to have a full up-time. These features help a system to stay fully operational
for a very long period (months and even years for Mainframes) without reboot or crash.

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     The IBM Mainframe platform retains industry-leading availability characteristics even for single-
     system instances. For example, standard service availability commitments from tier one service
        providers in commercial Data Center outsourcing agreements suggest that the Mainframe is
              delivering 99.9% to 99.999% scheduled availability versus 99.5% for distributed server
                                                          platforms in non-clustered configurations.

                                                                                                    Forrester

It seems important to define precisely each terms of RAS. As you may notice, these are hardware and
software attributes, which may be founded in distributed environment systems but which truly are
prized by Mainframe users. Here is the definition of each characteristic.

    Reliability: Ability to avoid faults, if founded, they’re very quickly fixed

    Availability: Deals with the up-time, which means the amount of time a machine will be
     running and being fully operational, even if a problems occurs. For example, a system with
     continuous availability would stop a process causing problem and will go on without having
     to launch other services after fail.

    Serviceability: Ability of the system to diagnose itself. It can then detect faults before they
     happen and fix them. It avoids significant human intervention and downtime caused by
     maintenance.




          RAS works as if each of its part was some kind of layer, used by hardware and software.




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                  To illustrate that concept, let’s take a very simple example: a CPU fails




Customers should be aware that Mainframe technologies are very advanced to support all these
features. For example, there are no SPOF (Single Point of Failure) in a Mainframe, every hardware
component is redundant: CPs, memory, I/O channel, etc… You can even change hardware without
having to stop the system. It’s been designed to handle this kind of operations.

Errors detections are also used every time: each instructions sent to CPs are mirrored, and then
double-checked. If this comparison does not provide the same results, the CP is known as unreliable
and a spare is then used to execute its workloads.

It a fantastic feature to assure integrity of every data processing. Other technologies are used to
ensure data safety, integrity and backup, as RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Drives) and cyclic
redundancy check checksums.

At last but no least, very modern technologies such as Parallel Sysplex enable scalable runtime
execution which presents extreme high availability and reliability for companies. Thanks to these,
Mainframes can run at about 99.999% up-time, with average unplanned downtime of under 5.3
minutes per year. They can also play a major part on disaster recovery solutions, as presented below.




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     Disaster Recovery

What would happen if a bank production Data Center was victim of a natural disaster? Can it say to
its customers: “well we’re sorry but we’ve lost all your data”? No, it can’t be, such structures should
be able to fully recover from a disaster, even catastrophic.

We distinguish numbers of possible disasters, there are not that rare, more recent and famous being
Terrorist Attacks of September 11, Indonesia Tsunami, floods in Western Europe, fire in Greece, etc...

There really is a recrudescence of sinister, and companies shouldn’t neglect their potential effects...



                                         43% of American enterprises immediately file for bankruptcy
                                                    after a disaster and 29% after about three years

                               40% of American enterprises disappears in less than seventy two hours
                                                           following its IT and telecoms equipments

                                  93% of enterprises which lost significant part of their data stop have
                                                        to stop their activities at the end of five years

                U.S Bureau of Labor, U.S National Fire Protection Agency and Richmond House Group

To protect themselves, enterprise should have a BCP (Business Continuity Plan), which is a logical
plan describing a practiced and validated methodology. Its then helps to fully recover from disasters
and to restore partially, or even better, completely their critical functions to continue business
process. There are much ways to do it, but the most efficient is to have a full backup of its production
Data Center. It’s as if customers had a spare of their entire system, if you prefer.

A Distributed Systems should be very difficult to replicate exactly. Even if efficient cluster solutions
exist, they remain long and complex to configure, even more if the machines number is high.

Systems configurations are one thing, but data are other things. They are even more important for an
enterprise, and should be replicate in another site. When you deal with Terabytes, it’s not that easy.

Mainframe infrastructures offer advanced tested and validated technology which can help
companies to create their BCP efficiently, such as GDPS (Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex)
and Metro Global Mirror. They are able to manage the remote copy configuration and storage
subsystems, to perform failure recovery from a SPC (Single Point of Control) and automate
operational task. If customers want it, they can also use XRC (eXtended Remote Copy), to use a
secondary backup site which can be thousand of kilometres away the primary.

This solution also allows enterprises to manage huge workloads across multiple sites. It supports
both synchronous and asynchronous data replication for a continuous availability, operations and
data integrity. These technologies help companies to meet their RPO (Recovery Point Objective) and
RTO (Recovery Time Objective). We’ll describe them later... but they not really seem obsoletes, huh?


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     Security

In big infrastructure, especially in banks, security is a must have. System hosting hot and sensible
data must then be highly secured: customers lists, account details, there are the most valuable
resources for an enterprise. Accesses must be controlled as much as possible, and Mainframes use
many technologies to do so, from hardware to applications, passing through, of course, by the OS. Its
legacy is impressive: it benefits from about forty years of unmatched security.



        The System z9 has been built on top of the security platform that is the Mainframe. It boasts
       a range of updated and new security features that push system security to a whole new level.
                 There is no doubt that the Mainframe remains the platform for secure computing.”

                                                                                       Bloor Research

        LPAR Systems: In Mainframe systems, every logical partition is isolated from the others, in an
        LPAR. If we had to do comparison with x86 architectures, it’s like the partition concept in the
        Xen virtualization system. As a result, applications cannot overlay, write or even read code
        running on the other partitions. This doesn't mean they can't communicate each others. If
        they're configured to do so, they use HiperSocket technology which offers a very speed
        (memory transfer rate) and highly secured way to communicate.

        Certifications: IBM Mainframe obtained a very high EAL (Evaluation Assurance Level) for
        most of its technologies: LPARs are certified EAL 5, and z/OS is EAL 4+, which is best rated
        than the over solutions available on distributed servers. RACF (Resource Access Control
        Facility), the main security system, is also EAL 4+ thanks to its LSPP (Labelled Security
        Protection Profile) and CAPP (Controlled Access Protection Profile) achievements.

       It also use other technology such IDF(Introduction Detection Service), which is a very
       advanced feature built into the software stack defending the system against intrusion and
       detecting attacks, using a special policies. It's the proof that these it can be trusted, and
       explain why it's used by all government agencies.

        APF System: APF (Authorized Program Facility) is a program used by z/OS and MVS to
        explicitly precise which programs can run in the system storage protection key. In fact, there
        is some kind of memory which must only be used by the system. Its access is then protected,
        as it contains critical data and can interact with serious part of the OS. However, some
        programs need to be executed in that memory to directly interact with the system.
        Customers can thus select which product can do it or not. It avoids massive attacks or
        systems modifying. As a library specified in APF can potentially allows users to by pass all
        RACF authorisations, it's very important to exactly know how many they are, who can access
        them, and who can update APF libraries themselves.

        Data Encryption: Mainframes are designed to be secured, and they can use direct built in
        function to encrypt data. IBM has been one the first enterprise to encrypt its data, with
        hardware cryptographic solutions, such as DES (Data Encryption Standard).
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        It now uses services directly available via ICSF (Integrated Cryptographic Service Facility)
        which help customers to encrypt their data on tape or other devices. Each general purpose
        processor in Mainframes provide cryptographic function called CPACF (CP Assist for
        Cryptographic Function), offering a huge set of features which enhance the encryption/
        decryption performances. It can be used for the popular SSL protocol.

        Simplify Secure and Audit: In a distributed server environment, you would have to configure
        each server to define your access policies. You would have to collect and aggregate all logs
        records to have a concrete and global view of the whole data access. The more you have
        computer, the more it will take time, energy; CP time wasted, and the more humans errors
        could happen. With a Mainframe, you only have to use a product such as RACF or Top Secret.

        As data is centralized, you can also centralize your security. You will only need to specify your
        policies on the current system. Configure it once for more, and that's it. It considerably
        reduces maintenance time and costs. Furthermore, these products can record very detailed
        logs, which can be analysed to measure your whole security. More secure and more
        simplified... Could you possibly ask more?

        No virus and malware: Mainframes architecture provides a so high level of protection and
        isolation it prevents them to be attacked. Hardware is also designed to avoid problems
        caused by programming errors such as buffer overflow. Note the system will not have to be
        updated every months or weeks with patches just to be sure it will be secure. It is already.



     Scalability

World changes, always, continuously, at a dramatic speed. If there's a thing pretty sure about IT
infrastructures, then it's that it will always change for sure. Customers might be aware of that fact.

Customer’s computers have to be ready to evolve with these infrastructures, to bring more power,
more feature, without having to reinstall an OS or buy new machines. This is the concept of
scalability: the ability to handle growing amounts of work without having to be changed.



                                             Scalability is the ability of a system to retain performance
                                                 levels when adding processors, memory, and storage

                                                                                                    IBM



There are several dimensions in scalability, people often think about the load scalability, which is the
ability to accommodate higher workloads with the current system. But there’s also the geographic
scalability, which is the ability to have same performances regardless of system geographical
localisations. As a result, you must approximately have the same performance if your machines are in
the same room or in a more big area, as a country or even dispersed in the entire world.

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Scalability can assured in both ways, each having its advantages and defects:

     Scale Up also called Scale Horizontally: you simply add more nodes to your systems. That’s
      the way most companies follow, as they’re using distributed servers infrastructure for the
      most part. It means that they will add power adding a new computer.

       For example, if their three database server can’t handle any more transactions because there
       are too many, they will add a fourth server to “help” the others. This seems to be a good
       solution, but with time it horribly complexes customer’s infrastructures. Adding more and
       more machines is not efficient, because when they’ll remain obsolete, enterprises will have
       to renew most of them… This is not the greatest way to invest money, huh?




                                             Mario wants to be helped: Scale Up!

     Scale Out also called Scale Vertically: you only add needed resources to a single node of your
      system. Most of time, it’s about memory or CP. Then, the current system is able to execute
      more processes, faster, etc… It simplifies your IT infrastructure as it doesn’t change.
      Mainframes are designed for that. Let’s see why this method is interesting.




                               Mario wants to do it all by himself: Scale Out method!

In a distributed server architecture, scale out is not that simple. Indeed, most of computers must be
shutdown when you change their hardware, which mean a significant down-time due to
maintenance… which means lost money. Furthermore, imagine you’re in a big company which has
plan about twenty millions transactions per day during a week.

Let’s say you have more than planned, for example about twenty five millions… you have to react
and add power, and quick! Even if you’re able to do it, what will you do with your added CP after this
week? They won’t be that used. You’ve lost money only for few days. That wouldn’t have been the
case with Mainframes.



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On the System z, you can add and remove CP on the fly. Hot-plugs on these machines are very
advanced. Then, you can add power when needed for permanent or temporary growth, with a
maximum of 54 CPs! Need power? Just active a CP with the CUD (Capacity Upgrade on Demand)
providing the capability to non-disruptively add general purposes processors, zAAP, zIIP, IFL or even
ICFs! Don’t need more power anymore? Deactivate them.

Could you imagine such features in a distributed server environment, with zero down-time and all
advantages it supposes? It’s not possible. CUD is the only solution allowing customers to use
hardware capacity by day, turning it on in needs, turning it off when it subsides and only pay for days
it’s been used.

Scalability means processing power, but also I/O performances. With System z, customers can
benefits from up to 512 GB of central processor storage to deal with large workloads, and up to four
LCS (Logical Channel Subsystems) able to use up to 256 channel paths to support intense I/O
operations. They don’t have to worry anymore when their hardware will be obsolete, as with x86.



           With system Z, you can dynamically increase or decrease machine capacity in a way that is
                                                        transparent to active applications and users.

                                                                                                          CA

     Here is the representation of a well known situation is banks: unplanned workloads. CUD in action!




You should say that scale up is also important and might be present, and you’ll be right. That’s why
z/VM is here, and it’s very interesting for scalability. It helps customers to accommodate growing
workloads of varying performance characteristics in order to meet their business service needs.

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                       The Mainframe offers the broadest performance range of any universal server.

                                                                                                           CA

With z/VM, customers can add z Linux images on the fly to deal with additional new workloads and
to offer fault tolerance. It’s as if you had a Data Center in a box, with overall power which can be
changed, and numbers of problems forgotten, such as network connection between each server.

     Migration Costs

At last but not least, even if big infrastructures wanted to migrate to a distributed server model, they
couldn’t do it. Most customers who tried quickly stopped these kinds of projects, mostly MVS to
UNIX or even Linux operation systems. Rewrite programs, rebuild them, and buy a whole new server
farm represents too much costs. It’s not interesting for them, and these kinds of project, when
almost succeeded, take years to be accomplished. Enterprises cannot give a try to migration, as its
repercussions are not sure.

1.4 What is its place in IT environments?
Mainframe is the heart of every big infrastructure. It hosts very critical applications, such as
transactions engines, database, etc... It’s used as a reliable base for everything and offers many hot
services needed by enterprises’ core functions. Then Systems such as UNIX and Linux come as
distributed servers, and finally desktop running Operating Systems such as Microsoft Windows XP.




              Diagram resuming the three IT infrastructure pillars: from huge server to desktop




                                        Our customers devote between 60 and 80% of their budget ICT
                                                     to maintain their Mainframe and its applications

                                                                                              Gartner Group

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If you’ve always work in average companies, you shouldn’t understand this place. You should say
“it’s wrong, systems such as Red Hat works very well, as Windows Server 2K3 if it’s greatly
administrated...” and you’re right; most companies don’t need a Mainframe. You’re also right about
the fact other Operating Systems and hardware as newest BladeCenter can be reliable. They can be
enough in average companies, that’s true. But not in the ones needing everything we talked about.

You have to focus on the fact that this thesis deal with extremely big infrastructure or with
enterprises which need a system having all advantages we described. They can’t rely on system
which need to be reboot to apply patch, which don’t have a serious support able to solve a problem
in minutes if it’s really critical, etc... They also need a system able to run there old applications, there
payroll, all that stuff. They can do nothing but use again and again Mainframe computers.

Mainframe computers are not only machines used for their hardware, technologies allowing great
Disaster Recovery Plan or their “legacy side”. It’s also used in very modern projects, in particular
Server Consolidation, which is a concept “in the groove” nowadays. We will talk about this one in few
chapters, explaining why Mainframe is so much interesting today, for its ability to run hundred of
Linux at the same time and on a same machine for example. An incredibly amount of money can be
saved with Mainframes such as the IBM System Z, that’s why companies invest so much money in
them. Here are the results from a study which ask big companies their strategy about Mainframes...




Results are enough to show that Mainframe is still the strategic platform in which companies invest
in and also that it’s seeing as a system which has its place in the future, as investments are growing.




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1.5 The Mainframe market nowadays… As dead as itself?

Mainframe market was really important between the 60’s and the 80’s… That’s quite
understandable; this was the only way to have an IT infrastructure. Then came distributed server
solutions, running Linux and Windows Server. Numbers of specialist said things like “it’s over, the
Mainframe is gonna die…“or “This is time for modern machine and Operating System”. Well… maybe
Mainframes were and continue to be seeing as dinosaurs, but fact is they’re still there, and market is
surprisingly good. Market even had a growth of about 8% last year.




                            Mainframe hardware sales in the fourth quarter of 2006 were the largest
                                             that IBM has seen since the fourth quarter of 1998!”

                                             Bob Hoey, Worldwide vice president of IBM zSeries sales

Sales are successful thanks to the news specialty engines, such as zAAP, zIIP and IFL which we’ll talk
about in few chapters. The new politic aiming enterprises which want to consolidate their servers
into a tough one is also very good to seduce new potentials customers. As VMWare and Xen become
very popular, IBM wants to take back the virtualization market, and can do it, because its system use
these technology since the 70’s with the S/370, tested and approved for years.




         Mainframe is the best solution to virtualize Linux servers. Nowadays, on a VMware machine,
          customers typically consolidate about twelve servers. With z/VM 5.3, it’s about hundred. »

                                      Ray Jones, Worldwide vice president of IBM system Z softwares

IBM earns also a lot of money with its installed MIPS, which is a very original way to invoice
customers, not present on distributed server’s infrastructure. It’s based on the “on demand” system:
customers only pay in function of the power they use. This model is very effective.




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Sun Microsystems and its Sun Enterprise 10000 which weren’t really successful, has found a partner
in Fujitsu, creating processors for the new Sun Fire R15K and E25K. He agrees with IBM and thinks
that Mainframes will be still used and will have a second life in consolidation projects.




                            Server consolidation projects on Mainframe are really important, and DRP
                                       needed by Bâle II had a considerable impact on our incomes. »

                                             Jacques-Yves Pronier, Sun Microsystem marketing director

However, others historic vendors, such as Bull don’t believe anymore in Mainframe. As a result,
famous GCOS 7 and 8 won’t be on market anymore, and prefer to use standard x86 technologies.




                                   We don’t use proprietary components anymore, since three years,
              we use pressed Intel, Xeon and Itanium processors on our new Nova-scale server range.

                                                                    François Bauduin, Bull sales director

As Bull now equips its machine with both Linux and Windows to set up SOA architecture, its
customers are not really the same aimed by IBM. But it’s very interesting to see they don’t fallow the
same path, whereas they shared the same market few years before.




Mainframe’s market was quite disastrous in the 21 century’s beginning. But during these last years, it
impressively grew, especially System z9 from IBM. With all the new security needs, the 11 September
effect, and even more huge workloads coming, it could seriously be back. Server consolidation will
for sure play a major role in sales. Question is, will this market remain niches, or will it transform into
a visionary players, leading to innovations and interesting less imposing customers than now?


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2/ Mainframe Today: Denver the Last Dinosaur?

Now that you’ve understand why Mainframes are still used and so important, you should be asking
yourself which are technologies behind all concepts we talked about… You’ll probably be
disappointed as some of them will really seem old and archaic like JCL, as others will appear
incredibly modern, such as Parallel Sysplex and Global Mirror.

2.1 An impressive advanced Hardware


You should be aware than IBM System z is the most advanced and self tolerant platform. Indeed,
everything in a Mainframe is doubled. As a result, each hardware elements will have a spare. For
example, if a CP fails, another one will execute its workload and this operation will be fully invisible.

There are two system z9 model, the Business Class, and the Enterprise Class. Mainframe software
can be executed on both model, the difference is only about hardware: CP provided, Memory, etc…
As the Enterprise Class is the most interesting, we will base our study on its architecture.

                                       IBM System z9 Hardware




First things first, Mainframe are used for their power, and IO/capacity. To deal with so much data,
System z9 uses a CEC (Central Electronic Complex) cage. You can see it as a mother ship where you
could add or remove a book. A system z9 can use up to four books. Each book is interconnected with
a very high speed internal communications links and has a refrigeration subsystem to cool itself.


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Processor Book




                     A book is a piece of hardware which include several elements:

    MCM: MultiChip Module: contains processors, also named “PU” for Process Unit. A MCM
     contains up to 12 (or 16 for S54 model). However, they’re not all used, as some are just
     spares and others as SAP (System Assist Processor); which is a dedicated I/O processor
     helping to improve performances and reduce the overhead of I/O processing. When a
     customer install its Mainframe, it decides to install a specify number of books according to its
     needs. These books’s CP can then be activated or not, according to its capacity planning.
     Most customers first buy books to activate few CP later, when they really need power. Why?
     The more you buy a high model (with more processors), the more IBM will propose you a
     percent off. That’s a good reason, huh? Better than install hardware few months later.

  Model          Books               MIN CP            MAX CP              Standard           Standard
                                                                             SAP's             Spares
    S08              1                  1                 8                    2                  2
    S18              2                  1                 18                   4                  2
    S28              3                  1                 28                   6                  2
    S38              4                  1                 38                   8                  2
    S54              4                  1                 54                   2                  2
                         Each processor can be specialized, as we’ll see in next chapter

    Memory: Clipper memory card using DDR2 DRAM technology, up to 128GB per book

Physical Memory in book      16 GB     32 GB      48 GB     64 GB     80 GB       96 GB    112 GB   128 GB

Memory Card Config           4 x4GB    4x8GB      8x8GB     8x8GB     8x16GB      8x16GB   8x16GB   8x16GB




    MBA (Memory Bus Adapter) out cards: up to 8 per book. Each can be connected to two
     different STI (Self-Time Interface), offering high availability.



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I/O Connections

Processor Books are directly connected to I/O cages (up to three), via their MB out cards. Each I/O
cage can contain up to 28 I/O cards. There are four types of cards (CHPIDS is a I/O cards « port)

     ESCON, up to 15 CHPIDS (16MB/s)

     FICON, up to 4 CHPIDS (4GB/s)

     OSA, up to 2 CHPIDS, for network connections

     Crypto Express, for encryption data process, using coprocessor




With such design, System z9 has a very high availability I/O processing, and proposes a total system
I/O bandwidth of about 172.8GB/s!

To configure this hardware, administrators use a “Support Elements” which is an IBM Think Pad. One
is running, the other being its spare. It’s also used to operate console commands, activate LPAR,
define network setup, schedule an operation, inspect the system via an events monitor, or even IPL
the machine. It’s then a very important part of System z9, offering a nice Java based interface.




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Key Concepts

     Up to 512GB memory

     Up to 64 x 2.7GB/s STIs

     Up to 336 FICON channels

     Up to 1024 ESCON channels

     Up to 54 Processors, each activated remotely and temporarily if needed

As every component has potentially its own spare, this hardware offers the greatest high availability
possible in IT environment. Each element, from an entire processor book to I/O cards is hot-
pluggable and never need an IPL. These features offer an optimum up-time, which is required as a
Mainframe should never, ever stop, especially in banks.

IBM System z9 is the only system providing the ability to activate a processor on demand.

It can be used both ways:

     Customers can activate it permanently. Do to so, one CP must be available on a processor
      book. If so, it will cost nothing if its part of the contract. If not, customers will have to pay a
      new processor book and it will be far more expensive that if he had bought it with the
      Mainframe. People should ask why all processor are not activated since the beginning, and it
      would be a good question. Answer is quite simple: most software used in Mainframe
      environment has a price based on the activated processors number. Then, it’s not interesting
      for customers to use them if they are not really needed. That would cost too much.

     Customers can also activate it temporarily, for one or more days. In big infrastructures such
      as banks, dealing with huge unplanned workloads, it can be very nice. To execute these
      workloads, customers activate a processor. This operation cost much more than if it was a
      permanent activation, but customers don’t care as they only need it for a moment, and don’t
      want to permanently pay more software licenses, like after a “normal” activation.

This power proposed “on demand” is one of the greatest advantages of the IBM System z9.




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2.2 Specialty Engines


zAAP

Java based applications are more and more used in big IT infrastructure. This programming language
became very popular these last years for its reliability and its portability. Java applications use JVM
(Java Virtual Machine) to execute themselves, using a JIT (Just in Time) compiler, converting
intermediate bytecode into a machine code. It can thus be executed on many platforms such as z/OS.

As numbers of customer use Java software such as Websphere, their general purpose CPs are utilized
by considerable workloads to execute them. Then, it should be very interesting to have CPs which
will only execute Java Application code. That’s what zAAP processors propose.

  zAAP, for IBM System z Application Assist Processors, are specialized and dedicated processors
which provide a Java execution environment for z/OS, in order to exclusively run Java workload code

                                 zAAPs are used to operate asynchronously with the others
                                 processors which are part of the zSeries’s Processor Books to
                                 execute Java code under control of the exclusive z/OS IBM JVM. As
                                 a result, it helps to reduce use of general purposes processors and
                                 make them available for other workloads. Capacity requirements
                                 are then cheaper than they were before. They are designed to help
                                 free up general purpose CPs capacity which may be utilized by
                                 more important workloads.

                                 zAAPs can help simplify, reduce server infrastructure and improve
                                 operational efficiencies.




One of the most interesting things about these processors is the fact that they won’t ever need
customers to change their Java application code. Every processing Java code executed on the JVM is
directly and dynamically treated to be dispatched on zAAP processor. This function is entirely held by
the IBM JDK and PR/SM, which make it completely invisible to IT staff, once configured.

Please also note that z/OS XML System Services can now exploit zAAP for eligible XML workloads.
XML System Services is a new feature available since z/OS V1R8, which offers to customers a system-
level XML parser. This function supports either zAAP or zIIP in order to benefits from their
advantages, such as non software charges… which helps to save a lot of money!




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How does it work?

In fact, zAAPs physical architectures are very similar to the other processors available on zSeries, such
as IFL, zIIP and standard processors. Then, only the microcode differs, in order to only execute Java
code. As a result, zAAPs can do nothing but execute Java code, they can’t be used to run operating
systems, to initiate an IPL (Initial Program Load), and do not support manual operation controls.
However, customers might not expect their Java performance to be improved. zAAPs offer a way to
differentiate Java workloads to others, not to improve it.

They help to save critical capacity demands on general purpose processors. Even if the amount of
general purpose processor workload saved can vary in function of the Java application code really
effectively executed on zAAP, it’s often significant to be really interesting. It also depends on the
zAAP execution mode used by the customer. Note that they won’t support Java software executed
under Linux based systems such as RHES, only on z/OS.




A zAAP processor cost about $125k in USA, so it costs less than a general purpose CP, and its
maintenance price is also lower than that of the general purpose CP. It’s thus interesting for
customers using Java Apps and significant XML parsing.



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Limitation

As for every technology, zAAPs cannot be used without conditions.

Then, customers should be aware that:

       zAAPs can be used with z/OS V1R6 minimum

       zAAPs have to be configured to be used within z/OS LPARs only

       zAAPs number may not exceed the general purpose CPs (active or inactive, whatever)

       z9 Business Class can handle a maximum of 3 zAAPs, Enterprise Class can deal with 27

       For each zAAP installed, one has to own a permanently purchased and installed general
        purpose CP

Why should customer use it?

zAAPs enable customers to create a specialized and more cost effective execution environment for
z/OS Java workloads. Java applications which were once executed on general purpose CPs will be
dispatched on zAAPs. The new “cool and hype” XML format can also be treated, during parsing
operation by zAAP, which will also save workload on general purpose processor. As this format is
very popular and will be more and more used in big infrastructure such as in banks (as XML will be
the new format for bank Exchange as defined in the SEPA project), this feature is welcome…

Customers can then purchase additional processing power without affecting their current workloads.
As IBM does not impose software charges on zAAPs, they then help them to save money and
decrease TCO of their Mainframe, lowering the overall cost of Java based application thought
hardware, maintenance (zAAP themselves), and software(MSU/MIPS used) cost save.



Who really need it?

In fact, most of IT environment using Java products on z/OS might use zAAPs. However, it’s not that
easy to know if it will really be interesting in an infrastructure. As its price is significant, ROI (Return
on Investment) must be interesting.

We must admit that cost saves vary according to the society using zAAPs. To help them to project
how much they can save and how it will change the way their workload will be treated, they can use
the zAAP Projection Tool for Java 2 Technology Edition, which gives information about how much CP
percentages are used executing Java code, and how a zAAP could have dispatched the Java workload
on a given system. It then should be useful to predict the zAAPs number which are necessary, and if
they are, to save money and improve the System z infrastructure.




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Here is an example of projection we can do in order to define number of zAAP we should use.

First, we have to use RMF reports to know how many percentages CPs are running.




In this example, we general purposes CPs are used at about 49% and zAAPs would be used at about
30% if they were equipped. If this was the case, this charge would be in the parameter “AAP”.

With these values, we can study workloads which run for an extended period of time, such as an
entire day, in a 24 by 7 environment. Let’s use an IBM known case, with a machine using ten
processors.




During all day long, Java applications are used; consuming an average of about 5 CPs. zAAPs
processors would clearly be an advantage here and will help to save money. First analysis would
come to this conclusion: let’s use 5 zAAPs and 5 general purposes CPs. This could be a good solution,
but in fact, it’s terribly awful...




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Let’s have another look of the current situation…




Well, it seems quite different now, huh? During night, batches use about 8 CPs. Differences between
nights and day workloads type appears more clearly with that chart. The first solution appears now
to be incredibly mediocre, indeed, you should remember that zAAPs execute nothing but Java code.
This is what most IT staffs forget when they’re doing their capacity planning. As a result, with only 5
general purposes CPs, night batches will be too slow, and will never be finished at time. Then, you
just HAVE to use a minimum of 8 general purposes CPs to match the night’s power needs. Two more
zAAPs will be used to handle the Java workload.



With that solution, general purpose CPs will be available to support the normal z/OS work as well as
the Java workload which will exceed the capacity of the two zAAPs.




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zIIP



Since their beginning, the most important thing in big infrastructure such as banks, with security, is
their customer records. Without a structured collection of their records, they couldn’t provide
financial services, correct follow-ups, etc… In fact, everything in our world is about collection of data
of all kind. That’s why Databases are one the most used application; enterprise have to just use
them. They can be executed on every platform, including, of course, z/OS.

As numbers of customer use database such as DB2, their general purpose CPs are used to treat
considerable workloads to execute them and to execute every SQL transaction. In a bank, number of
transaction can reach more than one thousand per second. Then, it should be very interesting to
have CPs which will only care about DB2 eligible workloads. That’s what zIIPs processors are able to
do. So far so good, that’s not all! Indeed, since April 2K7, zIIPs are also able to deal with network
encryption workload, such as IPSec used by z/OS Communication Server. It’s now doubly interesting!

 zIIP, for IBM System z Integrated Information Processors, are specialized and dedicated processors
                 which run DB2 and network encryption processing eligible workloads

zIIPs are used to operate asynchronously with the others processors which are part of the zSeries’s
Processor Books to execute DB2 workload under control of the IBM z/OS V1R6 to z/OS V1R9. As a
result, it helps to provide an economical DB2 workload redirection environment and to reduce use of
general purpose processors and make them available for other workloads.

Capacity requirements are then cheaper than they were before. They are designed to help free up
general purpose CPs capacity which may be utilized by more important workloads. zIIPs can help
simplify and reduce server infrastructure and improve operational efficiencies

One of the most interesting things about these processors is the fact that, as with zAAPs, they won’t
ever need customers to change their DB2 installation. Every processing DB2 workload will be
dynamically treated and dispatched on a zIIP processor. This function is entirely held by z/OS, which
make it completely invisible to IT staff, once zIIP configured.

Concerning IPSec and other network encryptions, it will not be entirely executed on zIIP processors.
As a result, if you used general purpose CP between 6 and 10 percent to perform IPSec operations,
you’ll probably use between 5 and 6 percent of general purpose CP. Workloads “saved” may not
seem that big, but remember IBM does not impose software charges on its specialized CPs, such as
zIIPs!

Please also note that z/OS XML System Services can also exploit zIIP for eligible XML workloads. XML
System Services is a new feature available since z/OS V1R8, which offers to customers a system-level
XML parser. This function supports either zIIP or zAAP in order to benefits from their advantages,
such as non software charges… which helps to save a lot of money!




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How does it work?

As zAAPs, zIIPs physical architectures are very similar to the other processors available on zSeries.
Only its microcode differs, in order to only execute DB2, network encryption and XML parsing
workloads. As a result, zIIPs will do nothing but these specialized tasks, they can’t be used to run
operating systems, to initiate an IPL (Initial Program Load), and do not support manual operation
controls. However, customers might not expect their DB2 performance to be improved. zIIPs offer a
way to differentiate DB2 workloads to others, not to improve it. They help to save critical capacity
demands on general purpose processors.

Even if the amount of general purpose processor workload saved can vary in function of the DB2
eligible workload, which is in SRB mode, effectively executed on zIIP, it’s often significant to be really
interesting. It also depends on the zIIP execution mode used.

Eligible DB2 workloads executed in SRB mode which can be dispatched on zIIP also include
applications (running on z/OS or Linux for system Z) accessing a DB2 database hosted on zSeries.

A zIIP processor cost about $125k in USA, so it costs less than a general purpose CP, and its
maintenance price is also lower than that of the general purpose CP. It’s thus interesting for
customers using DB2, network encryption such as IPSec and significant XML parsing.

Limitation

As for zAAPs processors, zIIPs cannot be used without conditions.

Then, customers who will use them should be aware that:

       zIIPs have to be configured to be used within z/OS LPARs only

       zIIPs can be used with z/OS V1R6 minimum with adequate PTF

       zIIPs number may not exceed the general purpose CPs (active or inactive, whatever)

       z9 Business Class can handle a maximum of 3 zIIPs, Enterprise Class can deal with 27

       For each zIIP installed, one has to own a permanently purchased and installed general
        purpose CP. If you use one zIIP, one zAAP and one IFL for one general purpose CP, it’s ok.

Why should customer use it?

zIIPs enable customers to create a specialized and more cost effective execution environment for
DB2 and network encryption workloads. Transactions which were once executed on general purpose
CPs will be dispatched on zIIPs. As said before, zIIPs will be able to treat XML format during parsing,
with the same effectiveness of zAAPs. Dispatches will save workload on general purpose processor.

Customers can then purchase additional processing power without affecting their current workloads.
It will help them to improve their resource optimization and. As IBM does not impose software
charges on zIIPs, they may help them to lower cost and decrease TCO of their Mainframe, lowering
the overall cost of application using DB2 access and network encryption thought this news hardware.
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Others Engines

There are three others engines available on IBM System z9. As zAAP and zIIP, the best advantage
is to save critical capacity demands on general purpose processors, without having any effects on
software licenses based on activated processor number and daily MIPS used.

SAP

SAP (System Assist Processor) is a needed processor in System z9, dedicated to deal with I/O. It helps
to improve efficiencies and reduce average I/O processing, on every operating system running on the
system, from z/OS to zLinux. Customers can add one or more SAP to improve there I/O workloads.

IFL

IFLs (Integrated Facility for Linux) are processors dedicated to Linux workloads. Providing a very
attractive price, about $95k, IFLS enable customers to purchase additional processing capacity
exclusively for their Linux partition. As it doesn’t deal with other usual workloads, it doesn’t raise any
software charges. It’s both supported by LPAR zLinux partition and z/VM zLinux partition.

Also note that Linux systems can both use HiperSockets technology to communicate with others
operating systems running on the same System z System and IFLs, to execute their workloads. This
thesis will focus on these processors in next chapters, in particular in servers consolidation projects.

ICF

ICF (Internal Coupling Facility) are processors dedicated to Coupling Facility workloads. A coupling
facility is a major component of Parallel Sysplex, a high availability technology, allowing several LPARs
running z/OS to share, cache, update and balance data access. ICF is not a prerequisite to use
Coupling Facility and Parallel Sysplex, but allow Internal Coupling (IC) links to help eliminate
requirements for external CF links. These are complex concepts, which will treated in next chapters.

Key Concepts

Specialty engines allow customers to lower cost of ownership, as they help them to decrease specific
workloads treatment on general purpose processors. Furthermore, their price is really attractive,
about $95 to $125k. They can complement each other, IFL running Linux workloads, zIIP DB2
workloads and zAAP Java workloads. Customers should also remember that these CP cannot deal
with usual workloads, and won’t be interesting in every infrastructure, according to their software.




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2.3 z/OS : the IBM Operating System


z/OS is the IBM Operating System used on its Mainframe. Since it benefits from more than forty
years of innovations, its design offers a very stable and secure environment, with an average up-time
of 99.999%. This availability percentage means that z/OS tolerates only 5.26 minutes per years of
down-time, not more. z/OS means “Zero down time OS” and claims to be the most reliable system.




z/OS is designed to use the z/Architecture, and then only run in 64bits. However, it can still execute
old MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) or OS/390 applications, whether they use 24 or 31 bits addressing.
It helps customers to capitalize on their existing applications, and to use the 64 bits addressing for
their new ones. As it includes since MVS a direct built in UNIX system called OMVS, z/OS is full POSIX
compliant. It also uses TCP/IP and SNA protocols for networks workloads, and then offers a high
compatibility with old and new applications, whether the protocols used.

z/OS offers a packaging of over 70 functions, such as z/OS XML System Services enhancing zAAP and
zIIP processors exploitation during XML parses, Z/OS Communication Server allowing network
encryption as IPSec, and supports a lot of hype languages such as Java, PHP, Perl, etc…

Key Characteristics

     Actually in V1R9

     Implements UNIX built-in with OMVS

     Has been designed for security since the first day (no hacking!)

     Control a large number of users and terminals (several thousands)

     Manage a large number of jobs (multiprocessing, multiprocessors)

     Manage workloads with automatic balancing (based on task priorities)

     Support is planned for up to 4 TB of real memory on a single z/OS image

     Manage a high I/O load and connections (providing backup and restore capabilities)

     Offer system and software recovery level (preserve integrity and restart, great maintenance




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2.4 An horrible user interface


Here is the worst part of IBM Mainframe system: the GUI (Graphical User Interface). Most users
might think they miss something when they’ll log themselves on a system z9. Indeed, the interface
will seem archaic, and people will surely think “What is that thing?! It looks like it was thirty years
olds… Give me my MS Windows back please, I wanna click! “

Well, it seems so old… because it IS that old! First Operating Systems on Mainframe were used to
deal with batch processing jobs, able to run without any human interaction, or just a little.
Administrators more and more needed to interact with the system, meaning to be able to operate
commands and to have a fast and direct answer from the system. And then the User Interface came.

Time Sharing Option

The first one being proposes was TSO (Time Sharing Option), on OS/360, as an optional feature. It
was standard with MVS, on S/370 family model. TSO is like a UNIX shells, without auto completion. It
allows users to directly access to some MVS functions, such as logon, data set allocation, etc… Thank
to it, JCLs (Job Control Language) are not necessary for each simple request. TSO also allows several
users to connect themselves on the system at the same time. They deal with their own interface, as if
each user had their own MVS.

It’s a line-by-line interpreter; as a result, it will do nothing but wait to user’s command and display
responses. This interface isn’t really used nowadays. However, here are some important commands.

Command           Effect
ALLOCATE          Allocate A Data Set With Or Without An Attribute
COPY              Copy A Data Set
DELETE            Delete A Data Set
EDIT              Create, Edit, And/Or Execute A Data Set
LIST              Display A Data Set
LISTCAT           Display User Catalogued Data Sets
LISTDS            Display Data Set Attributes
RENAME            Rename A Data Set
LOGOFF            End Terminal Session
LOGON             Start Terminal Session
SEND              Send Message To Operator/User
ISPF              Launch Interactive System Productivity Facility




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Interactive System Productivity Facility

Most users prefer to use ISPF (Interactive System Productivity Facility) than TSO. Indeed, this
interface provides access to many of the functions most frequently needed by users, as it was
possible with TSO, but with nice menu and panels. It then offers a more “user-friendly” interface, and
assists users. ISPF make it easier for people with various levels of experience to interact with the
system. In fact, many administrators exclusively work with ISPF, as it increases speed and
productivity. It includes a text editor and a file browser allowing users to list locate specific data set
and perform utility functions such a renaming, deleting, etc…




Nowadays, every z/OS products use ISPF panels to offer user an easy interface. Each one proposes an
online help using F1 shortcut key. This interface is rudimentary, but remains the most “modern” way
to administrate a z/OS. That’s why this system is seeing as old and archaic: this user interface is far
from what is proposed under others platforms, such as Microsoft Windows or Linux Debian. They are
no windows, no mouse clicking, and no auto complementation. But it consumes few resources, and
administrators who work under z/OS are accustomed to use it. That’s why it never changed.




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z/OS UNIX interactive interface

As z/OS contains a built-in UNIX system called OMVS (Open MVS), it offers special interactive
interfaces to administrator, allowing them to easily use it. z/OS OMVS can be managed via two
different interface: ISHELL and OMVS standard interface, they’re used according to user’s experience.




     ISHELL (Unix System Service ISPF Shell): this interface uses ISPF panel interface. It’s used for
      Mainframe users who are familiar with TSO and ISPF, who don’t know UNIX commands but
      who need to use its services. Many commands can be executed via this interface, such as file
      system mount, file creation, browsing, etc…




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    z/OS shell: based on the UNIX System V shell. It’s used by users who are familiar with UNIX
     systems, and who want to be able to use its commands. This shell then provides an
     environments offerings most functions and capabilities a user would find in a standard UNIX.




How administrators connect themselves to a Mainframe?

One can easily understand that it is difficult to be physically connected to a Mainframe. As every
system, z/OS can be managed remotely, requiring a 3270 display device. Then, administrators use a
connection providing access to an IBM zSeries host over a TCP/IP network, using TN3270 or TN3270E
interface. It can support Service Location Protocol, SSL V3 and TLS1.0 secure layer, and can also be
used to connect to an IBM zSeries host through a firewall which supports NVT terminals.




Then, they will be connected as if they were UNIX administrators using Telnet or SSH to work
remotely, or Windows Administrators using remote desktops for example.

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2.5 z/OS file system

File system concepts are not that simple in Mainframe environments. Indeed, they are not based on
the same technology used under distributed environments systems. As z/OS file system is very
special and complex, it could be the subject of a whole Thesis. However we’ll try to briefly describe it.

Contrary to traditional systems such as UNIX or Windows using a unique hierarchical file system once
installed, z/OS uses several types of data very different each others, including their access methods
and structures, in order to be more efficient according to their utilization.

Usual Operating Systems use a byte stream file system, while z/OS uses record-oriented file system.
In a byte stream file system, every file is sequential, meaning a huge stream of bite, split into several
fixed numbers of bytes called “records” by a special character. This special character can be visible
using programs such as Notepad++ on Windows. If the program has been configured to do so, users
should see a “CR/CF” characters (meaning Carriage Return and life Feed) after each line.

z/OS doesn’t only used sequential files accessed as byte streams and doesn’t use a hierarchical
system. Instead, it uses a catalogued file system, referencing each Data Set available on the system.

Data Set

“Data Sets” is the name given to z/OS files. As they are record-oriented, administrator will need to
reserve space for them before to be able to write data into them. Maybe it sounds like archaic, but
by explicitly defining the attributes of its data set’s records, administrator helps to save system
resources, as it won’t have to check the CR/CF characters each time it will read data. When it opens a
file, the system will then already know how it’s formatted. As a result, performances are very good.

There are several types of data sets, but the three more used are the following:

     Sequential Data Set: Also called PS (Physical Sequential), this is a very simple type, which can
      be seeing as a file, constituted by a sequence of one or more records.

     Partitioned Data Set: Also called PDS, they can be seeing as folders, as they are a collection of
      Sequential Data Set. PDS are composed of two elements:

            o   Members which are the PS included in the PDS, as file contained in a folder

            o   A directory which is a list of every PS available in the current PDS, as a list of pointers.

Partitioned Data Set offers numbers of great features, such as making possible to process all PDS
members as a unit, concatenate multiple PDS to form huge libraries, etc…

However, their utilization imposes some disadvantages, as wasted space. Indeed, when a member is
deleted, its pointer in the directory is also deleted, and there is no mechanism to reuse its space
unless compressing PDS with a utility such as IEBCOPY. These disadvantages aren’t present in the
evolution of PDS called PDSE Partitioned Data Set Extended), which automatically reuse free space
for new members. They also extend other PDS limits as members max records.

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     VSAM: Virtual Storage Access Method. This term is used for special data as well as the
      associated access method. With their structure, VSAM files incredibly improve the read
      access performances. For example, DB2 and IMS use them. This is one of the most complex
      Data Set type, containing four subtypes, each one having its characteristics.

            o   KSDS (Key Sequence Data Set): Probably the most used VSAM type. Each record is
                associated with a key value. As a result, each record can be accessed using this key
                index, allowing read access to be very efficient. We can see it as a tiny data base.

            o   ESDS (Entry Sequence Data Set): Records are accessed sequentially, without any key

            o   RRDS (Relative Record Data Set): Allow records access according to its number: first
                record, second record, etc… It’s like a numbered index.

            o   LDS (Linear Data Set): a recent and not really used VSAM type, which is a byte-stream
                data set, and which is used as a “traditional” sequential file, with CR/CF, etc…

Other types of data set are available, such as GDG (Generation Data Group) which are a collection of
historically related data sets arranged in chronological order. It can be seen like a feature as shadow
copies in MS environment, or like time-machine from Apple... but with thirty years of experience.

GDG data set use sequentially ordered numbers following their name to represent their age. As a
result, the 0 refers to the latest version, -1 next to the latest, and so on. GDG are often used to stock
statistics. For example, the data set IBM.ZSTAT(0) will be the most recent data set, IBM.ZSTAT(-1),
will be the second most recent, etc… Administrators can also use in their script the (+1) value to
manually specify they want to create a new generation.

z/OS can also use byte stream files such as HFS (Hierarchical File System) or zFS (zSeries File System)
which are containers holding a whole UNIX directory tree. These files can represent mounted Linux.

PDS Limitations

As in every system, file cannot be allocated without having to follow some special rules.

To better understand how a PDS work, let’s see an example: POP.HOME.JAVA. This PDS:

       Is composed of three qualifiers, also called segments: “POP”, “HOME” and “JAVA”. They
        represent a level of qualification. Each are limited to eight characters, must begin with an
        alphabetic characters (A-Z), or a special one (# $ @). Other characters can be alphabetic,
        numeric or special. Each segment is separated by a comma.

       Is composed of an HLQ (High Level Qualifier): POP

       Is composed of an LLQ (Low Level Qualifier): JAVA

The most important thing about PDS to remember is:

     PDS can have a maximum of 22 name segments
     IBM advice to use PDS with three level qualifiers
     PDS name must not exceed 44 characters, including all name segments and periods
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Allocating a Data Set

As z/OS file system is record-oriented, administrators have to allocate data set before being able to
write data into them. As a result, they must define their characteristics when allocating them, in
order to define the data set internal structure which will inform the system the way it will read them.
Here is an example of interface allowing administrators to allocate data set. This is the ISPF panel.




Several attributes are not mandatory, such as the one used by DFSMS (Data Facility Storage
Management System), which we will present. The most important attributes are the following:

     Volume Serial: the name of the disk or tape volume where the data set will be created
        Example: DASD01 (Always a six character name)

     Device Type: the model of the disk device used. Nowadays, it’s almost always 3390 models

     Space Units: Unit used to stock the data: blocks, disk tracks or cylinders, or more
      “understandable” ones as KB, MB or Bytes. It defines units you will use for allocation.

     Primary Quantity: The number of space units chosen for the file allocation
        Example: 10

     Secondary Quantity: The number of space units used if the file allocation exceeds primary
      quantity. It can be seen as an “extended” space quantity. The value is multiplied by 10.
        Example: 3 (then the system will extend 30 spaces units for the file allocation)

     Directory Blocks: Number of directory block for PDS. As a result, having a non-zero directory
      block will cause a Partitioned Data Set to be created, and a zero value will cause a Physical
      Sequential to be created. The more this value is important, the more administrators will be
      able to create members in the PDS. Indeed, numbers of potential members in a PDS directly
      depends on its directory blocks value, as it’s the “index” for PDS members.
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These attributes define “how” the data set will be allocated, on which DASD, with how much space,
etc… But they don’t define their internal structure. To do so, administrators use three parameters:

    Record Format: Records have either fixed or variable length in a data set. Format define how
     the data set records are structured, there are five type of records:

           o F (Fixed): Every blocks and record are the same size. As a result, a physical block on
             disk is one logical record. This is the simplest record format.

           o FB (Fixed Blocked): There can be multiple records in one block, providing good space
             utilization. This is the most used format, with a Block Size of 80.

           o V (Variable): Blocks and records are the same size, but there value can be different,
             according to the different records. As the system must know how the data set is
             formatted before reading it, this format use a RDW (Record Description Word) of 4
             bytes describing the record and its length.

           o VB (Variable Blocked): Uses the same RDW system than Variable record format, but
             here, multiple records can be placed in one physical block.

           o   U (Undefined): Blocks and records don’t have any defined structure. It’s used for
               executable modules, and may not be used for other applications.

    Record Length: The length (number of characters) in each record. Also called LRECL, record
     length is the logical record size (F and FB record format) or the maximum allowed logical
     record size (V and VB record format) for the data set. Format U records have no LRECL.

    Block Size: Also called BLKSIZE, it’s always a multiple of the record length value. It’s the
     physical block size written on the disk for Fixed and Fixed Blocked record format. For
     Variable, Variable Blocked, and Undefined records, it’s the max physical block size that can
     be used for the data set. System can be configured to calculate the most efficient BLKSIZE.

                       Summarization of Record Format and Block concepts




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Using Catalogs to locate Data Sets


As z/OS doesn’t use a hierarchical system and its file system doesn’t have a “root” concept, it has to
use another way to locate data. That’s what the Catalog proposes.

A catalog describes data sets attributes, including their location. You can see it as a database which is
used by the system to know where its resources are. As a result, when a data set is “catalogued”, it
can be accessed referring to its name, without having to precise where it is physically. Data Set can
then be catalogued to be seen by most users, uncatalogued to become “invisible” to them, unless
they know where it is stocked physically, etc... Users don’t have to use a catalog to physically access
their data. Indeed, if they know when they are, precising their name and their volume (DASD used),
they will be able to catch it, unless RACF security policies explicitly prevents them from reaching
these data sets. A catalog “only” allows user to access their data by their name, wherever they are.

Even if one catalog could be enough to reference every data set, enterprises often use several
catalog, to avoid too many accesses to a unique catalog, in order to have better performances.

As a result, there are two types of catalogs:

     Master Catalog: where system data set, such as critical load module are referenced
     User Catalog: where other specific data set are referenced, according to the enterprise
      infrastructure and policies. These catalogs are catalogued in the Master Cat.

A standard z/OS often use a master catalog for its critical data set, such as the ones used during the
IPL (Initial Program Load) procedure, and then several user catalogs, to “split” data access references.

When a user searches for a data set, he first asked to the Master Cat if it “knows” where the data set
is, and if not, it passes the request to the adequate user catalog.

This catalog concept can be very powerful. Indeed, administrators can for example have two
different master catalog: the first one referencing load modules on a specific DASD, and the second
one referencing the same load modules on another DASD, but configured differently. With such
configuration, administrators can use a different system without having to change anything but the
master catalog used during the IPL. This is all about file pointers, so their use is very convenient.




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z/OS file system is not easy to understand for UNIX or Windows users. Here is a brief analogy with
usual hierarchical file system, which will help to appreciate concepts we’ve talk about.




To clear these hash concepts, there’s nothing better than examples. Here is one easy to understand.




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2.6 JCLs for batch processing


JCL (Job Control Language) is a scripting language instructing the system how to execute a program.
Indeed, JCL is usually a description of a batch program, and describes its parameters, inputs and
outputs resources, etc… If one has to make an analogy with distributed system, one could say that
JCLs are like a sophisticated Shell Script, using libraries to launch several programs.

JCLs Syntax

Writing JCL is not really hard, but as every scripting language, it has a very special syntax and rules.
As a result, administrators have to write it with much attention and rigor, and be aware that:

       Every line must begin with “//”

       Every line beginning with “//*” is treated as a comment

       As z/OS is non case-sensitive, every character has to be in uppercase

       JCL instruction have to be in columns 1-71, every characters in and after 72 cause an error

       If an instruction has to exceed 71 columns, its first line is finished by a “,“ and continue on
        the next line between the 4 and 16 column

JCLs Statements

Any JCL should have a least three statements, each one having several parameters:

     JOB: the first JCL instruction, providing a name for the JCL and the information treatment.
      The job name must be eight characters long maximum, and alpha-numeric. Its parameters
      allow defining the user who submits it to precise its operation.

            o   REGION: Memory resources allocated to the JCL

            o   TIME: Define the maximum total CPU usage of the JCL

            o   MSGLEVEL: Define the system messages number to be received

            o   CLASS: Define the input queue used by the JCL, and define its priority

            o   NOTIFY: User to be notified of the JCL result, in particular its return code

            o   USER: Define the user who will use the JCL, allow to inherit its authorities

            o   MSGCLASS: Define the output queue used by the job output (tape, printer, etc…)

JOB Statement example:

//JOBCOPY1 JOB 1,'IEBCOPY',CLASS=A,MSGCLASS=W,TIME=1440,
//         MSGLEVEL=(1,1),NOTIFY=&SYSUID,REGION=0M


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    EXEC: Define a step in the job, using a particular program. It must be the first statement after
     the JOB one. It identifies the program to use, and how it will be run. A job can comprise up to
     255 steps. Its parameters define according to which conditions the program must run:

           o   PARM: Allow to pass data to the program, as “sub parameters”

           o   COND: Define condition define the condition according to which the program must
               run. Other parameters such as IF, THEN and ELSE can be used under EXEC statement

           o   TIME: Define the maximum total CPU usage of the step

EXEC Statement example, executing IEBCOPY:

//STEP1        EXEC PGM=IEBCOPY

    DD: Define input and output resources needed by the program. Each DD card is associated
     with a particular EXEC statement, and then a particular step of a JCL. It the most complex
     statement for JCL, as it needs number of parameters which define how we access data:

           o   VOL=SER: Serial Number of the unit used

           o   UNIT: Type of the disk used (3380, 3390, etc…)

           o   LIKE: Define the DSN attributes as being those to use

           o   DSNAME: Data Set Name to be used as a I/O resources

           o   SPACE: Allocation needed for a new Data Set to be created

           o   DISP: Data Ste Disposition: if it exists, if it has to be created, cataloged, etc…

DD Statement example, defining the Data Set SYS1.IPLPARM to be used on 3390 disk named SYSZ8B

//SYSUT1       DD    DSNAME=SYS1.IPLPARM,UNIT=3390,VOL=SER=SYSZ8B,
//                   DISP=SHR

JCLs Example

The following example is a JCL used to copy a data set “SYS1.IPLPARM” from “SYSZ8B” DASD into a
new data set also named “SYS1.IPLPARM” on “TARG00” DASD, using IEBCOPY utility. As it use the
previous statements examples, it should be easily understandable.

//JOBCOPY1     JOB 1,'IEBCOPY',CLASS=A,MSGCLASS=W,TIME=1440,
//             MSGLEVEL=(1,1),NOTIFY=&SYSUID,REGION=0M
//STEP1        EXEC PGM=IEBCOPY
//SYSPRINT     DD SYSOUT=A
//SYSUT1       DD DSNAME=SYS1.IPLPARM,UNIT=3390,VOL=SER=SYSZ8B,
//                 DISP=SHR
//SYSUT2       DD DSNAME=SYS1.IPLPARM,UNIT=3390,VOL=SER=TARG00,
//                 LIKE=SYS1.IPLPARM,DISP=(NEW,KEEP)
/*
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Using SDSF to check JCLs execution

Once a JCL is submitted, administrators can check its operation via an ISPF panel called SDSF (System
Display and Search Facility). Indeed, this program provides a nice way to monitor every program
running on the system, as process monitor in Windows, or the “PS –aux” command in UNIX systems.




Thanks to SDSF, administrators will be able to check in real time I/O resources used by a specific JCL,
CP time, and so one. It also provides a way to read the output messages generated by JCL, and then
help administrator to know why some of them crashed, etc…

SDSF allows administrators to:

       Display job output
       Control the jobs order
       Operate system commands
       Monitor jobs when they’re running
       View the whole system log and searching into it for any string
       Control job process (hold, released, canceled, and purged jobs)




When a job is finished, administrators have to check their RC (Return Code), which indicates if the
program ended well, or if errors occurred. If an administrator was in the “NOTIFY” parameter of the
JCL JOB statement, he won’t have to use SDSF to know its results. Otherwise, SDSF will allow him to
check the JOB output, and then its Return Code. A job which finished normally has a RC of 0. Other
value means there has been a problem, such as 12 value for critical crashes.

JCLs are very old, and still have a syntax which seems archaic nowadays, and which doesn’t make
sense for many persons. However, it remains the universal way to run a program on a Mainframe,
and software such as SDSF simplifies their management, like a process monitor


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2.7 Jobs, performances, and network management

There are several others product integrated in z/OS allowing the whole system to work. The most
important are the one dealing with batch, performance and network resources: JES2, WLM and CS.

JES2
JES2 (Job Entry Subsystem) is a collection of program used by z/OS to handle batch workloads. It
receives every jobs submitted, schedule them, and deal with their input/output. It will manage the
job queues, including different jobs types: already running, waiting for execution, waiting their
output to be generated, waiting to be purged, etc… Thus, JCLs output messages readable with SDFS
are managed by JES2. It’s also this program which will verify if every I/O resources is well defined,
read, and eventually written.




Once the JCL is handled by JES2, it’s passed to the z/OS initiator, which will verify that there are not
any access conflicts for data set and make sure that device used are well allocated. It will also search
for the executable program used in the JCL, such as IEBCOPY for example.

JES2 will manage and control every step of every job “life” through the system, beginning its
submitting to it purge. This flow is quite simple to understand and composed of five steps:

            1. Input step: JES2 handle the job, accept it, and give it a unique job identifier, which
               will be readable under products such as SDSF for example.

            2. Conversion step: JES2 convert the job’s JCL into a format which can be use by itself,
               but also by the z/OS initiator. During this “translation”, it will check if there are any
               syntax errors, and if so, will not pass into the execution step but into the output one.

            3. Execution step: Job is executed by the initiator, and keep running until it ends, and
               according to its parameters, such as “time”.

            4. Output step: Every output stream, such as output system message generated by the
               job, output having to be written or to be processed locally or at a remote location is
               controlled by JES2. It analyses their characteristics, according to their class.

            5. Purge step: As the job has been executed, checked, as well as its output, it’s purged
               by JES2. It means that it releases the spool space than had been assigned to it.




To summarize, JES2 is used to handle workload and to JCLs execution. It must be running and without
it, z/OS couldn’t run, as it couldn’t deal with its programs and their output messages.

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WLM
WLM (Workload Management) is a z/OS component used to manage the system resources. It works
in collaboration with every program, checking their performances, response time, resources used,
etc… It helps to manage the system resources, such as processors, memory, and storage, to achieve
program priority goals.

Workload Management is used to achieve business goals, also called “goal achievement’”. These are
the most important objectives. As a result, each workload has a different importance, and thus
“weight” (priority). Some workloads are more critical than other, WLM deals with this concept, and
helps administrator to define what the system MUST do. It also uses hardware resources the best it
can. This is called the throughput. That’s why Mainframes are always running at about 90% of their
capacity: they will always be solicited.

Basically, administrators set a list of policies in WLM, defining each workload’s goal, such as a needed
response time, and its weight. In companies, these policies are based on a SLA (Service Level
Agreement), which is the quality level of services promised to customers and users, for every
application. A SLA could be, for example, that your bank promise to treat any transaction in less than
two second. WLM is used to match the system capacities with defined SLA. To do so, it works in
collaboration with JES2. WLM checks everything on the system, CP Time consumed, I/O resources
used, etc… and compared it with goal needed. It then indicates to JES2 how to reorder the job queue,
and readapt their resources.




WLM will manage every system resource in order to reach these goals. For example, if there are
several batch running, and that one specific job needs to be finished in few time for business reasons
(critical transactions), then WLM will dynamically readapt the system in order to give it more power.
To do an analogy with distributed system, it’s as if windows administrators manually redefine,
thousands time per day, the system process priority. That’s the same deal, but WLM does it
automatically, according to its policies. As a result, we could see z/OS as a motorway, JES2 being the
roads, each job a road, and WLM their speed limitation, each road having its own limitation, which
could change anytime: its role is only to check overall performances, and give more or less resources.

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To summarize, WLM is used to match with needed performances, achieve business goals, and to
benefit from the installed hardware and software platform.

Communication Server

z/OS CS (Communication Server) which is used for Network communications. It’s composed of a set
of many programs, allowing the system to use many different protocols. Communication Server is
used to deal with two major protocols:

   o SNA (System Network Architecture), which is an old protocol developed by IBM and still used
      in many infrastructures for critical applications. It’s handled by VTAM (Virtual
      Telecommunications Access Method), which can also support other LAN technologies such as
      Token Ring and SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control).

   o TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), the most used communication
      protocol, delivered with every modern system. CS benefits from all its features, as well as
      well-known command such as PING, NETSTAT, TRACERT, etc…




Thanks to Communication Server, administrators can also benefit from other great feature. Indeed,
VTAM can be configured to use APPN (Advanced Peer to Peer Networking) and HPR (High-
Performance Routing) permitting z/OS to send SNA data through existing TCP/IP network equipment.
It allow big infrastructure to use SNA over intranet or internet.

Communication Server is also available on other systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux, in
order to benefits from the TCP/IP and SNA functions which can be interesting.
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2.8 Transaction Servers and Database: Middleware


Sub-systems of z/OS are part what one calls its “middleware”. It’s composed by several applications,
such as transaction servers, database or products such as MQ (Message Queue) and WebSphere.

Transaction Servers

In big infrastructure such as banks, transaction servers are very important, as they directly deal with
business needs. Mainframe environments propose two major transaction servers: CICS and IMS TM.



             A transaction is a collection of operations on the physical and abstract application state”
                                                                          Jim Gray and Andreas Rueter

In France, most customers use CICS, that’s why I will only present this transaction server. However,
IMS TM (Information Management System Transaction Manager) is very close to it, and is usually
used for a high number of transactions, which are different each others. The notable difference
between CICS is that this one treats one transaction a time, whereas IMS TM can deal with several
transactions simultaneously. Basically, IMS is composed of various “sub transaction server”, which
can handle different type of transaction according to their characteristics (weight, volume, etc…). It’s
also interesting to note that IMS can work with its own database: IMS DB.

CICS (Customer Information Control System) is an online transaction processing system which
controls information by providing system management, database and network communication
functions. It provides an interface between application programs and operating system. It runs as a
unique z/OS batch job and allows hundreds of users to interactively access several applications.

As IMS, it’s a core system for about 490 of the fortune 500. It’s a must have for any financial system
(ATM machines, credits cards, etc), stock trading system, insurance, etc… Most transactions
processed each day are handled by CICS, when you buy something with a credit card, etc…



                                 CICS represents over 30 years and $1 trillion invested in applications.
                                      It’s used for more than $1 trillion business transaction per day!”
                                                                                                    IBM

CICS helps to ensure that every transaction is ACID, meaning:

     Atomicity: All or none: either all related changed are done or not

     Consistency: Action done don’t violate any integrity constraints

     Isolation: All transaction don’t care about the others, and are not aware of their presence

     Durability: All transaction committed have to survived to any failure that could occur

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Every step of a transaction handled by CICS must be verified. You shouldn’t want to make an
important transaction in your bank and see it hasn’t been well committed, right?

CICS is also available on other platforms such as Windows, Solaris, or Linux, but it then know as
TXSeries. It nearly offers the same features than in its z/OS version. However, it’s used under this
environment, because of z/OS usual strengths: scalable, per formant, secure and reliable.
Furthermore, CICS is optimized for this environment, as it’s been developed since years on MVS.

Database

Transaction Servers often directly deal with database. Most known under Mainframe environments
are without any doubt DB2, IMS/DB and Oracle for z/OS. This one is used by some customers, but
most of them use IBM DB2 UDB (Universal Data Base), because it’s really optimized for this system.

A data base centralizes data used by several applications. Then, multiple programs can access the
same data simultaneously, using SQL (Structured Query Language). Data integrity is always checked.

DB2 is a very efficient relational data base, and it’s more interesting to use it on a z/OS environment
than under distributed system. Indeed, under z/OS, it uses VSAM files and as a result, its
performances better than if it used standard bite stream files. Its tablespaces can be up to 16TB.

One of the most interesting things about DB2 in its last version is its XLM integration. Indeed, XLM
documents can be stocked in a CLOB column, in their native format or in multiple columns (which is
called “shredding”). Customers can still use SQL, as DB2 manage the XPath parsing, retrieve data and
their XLM result. As it uses XLM workloads and usual DB2 workloads, DB2 can be executed under zIIP
and zAAP processors, which can help customers to save money (no software charges). Both SQL/XML
and XQuery language can be used with DB2, which make DB2 very interesting products for banks.




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2.9 RACF Security Server


Security is a must have in critical systems. As z/OS is used to host applications dealing with sensible
and confidential data, such as bank accounts, it needs a very reliable application to restrict all
accesses. There are multiple applications allowing customers to deal with security their on
Mainframe environment, most known are RACF, Top Secret and ACF2. As RACF is probably the most
used, it seems important to present its main functionalities.

RACF, for Resource Access Control Facility, is a security program, which controls what users can do
on a z/OS. It can also be used to define security polices on z/Linux. It’s a very reliable solution as it’s
placed on the EPL by the NCSC at a B1 level of trust. It can then deal with massive attack attempts.



                On a typical day, the security team logs 38,000 attempts – by unauthorized individuals
                                                  or automated probes – to access the state’s networks

                                             Dan Lohrman, Michigan Chief Information Security Officer

RACF is used to provide user verification, resource authorisations, logging capabilities and
identification. RACF is not a unique product, but also include tools which simplify the system
administration. It can for example create security reports resuming every access attempts and RACF
command failed, or helps you to erase a user identifier, as all its correspondences in the RACF base.

Defining users in RACF

As a software controlling accesses, RACF must first identify the user who is trying to access a
resource, and then verify if this user really is who he claims to be. To perform this operation, RACF
check a user ID and its password, which is system encrypted. First things come first; administrators
will initially have to define users accessing the system. When you create a user, its password will be
temporary. As a result, during it first logon, he will have to change it. With that method, the user will
be the only one to know its password, unless he divulges it to someone.

Add a user:

ADDUSER TOTO

This user whose ID is “toto” won’t initially have any password, but will have to create one during its
first logon. This user definition is really minimalist; he is a more complete one:

ADDUSER FLAVIEN OWNER(RACFMST) NAME(‘F. SALSMANN’) PASSWORD(KIKOOLOL)
TSO (ACCTNUM(000011) PROC(IKJACCNT)) WHEN(DAYS(WEEKDAYS) TIME(0700-1800))

This command will create a user whose ID will be FLAVIEN, and its profile will be managed by the
RACFMST user. He will be able to use TSO as he has a TSO account number and a defined logon
procedure. However, he will only by able to log himself Monday through Friday, from 7h to 18h.



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Every parameter has specific syntax rules. User ID must then be eight characters long, without a
number at the beginning. It must be unique in the system. Password is also eight characters long.

Please note that the ADDUSER command can be far more complex in a production system. There can
be more than twenty parameters, each, as said before, responding to precise rules.

Of course, you can change information in a user profile, or temporary revoke its user ID. To do so,
you can use the ALTUSER command.

ALTUSER TOTO PASSWORD(TATA)
ALTUSER TOTO REVOKE

The first command changes the TOTO user password, and then revokes this user ID. You can also
delete its profile with the “DELUSER” command. It will clear of its correspondence in RACF as well.

Defining groups in RACF

RACF also use the group concept, very famous is UNIX or even Microsoft Active Directory
environment. As in these other operating systems, groups will simplify security administration and
help to avoid human errors when defining a new security rules, as it deal with much users
automatically. Indeed, when administrators have to manually define the same security policies for
hundred of users, they can easily forgot few of them. This can be a long and rebarbartive task. With
groups, administrators can apply security models to a lot of users, in seconds and with the same
efficiency. To create groups, we use the “ADDGROUP” command.

ADDGROUP SALSMANN SUPGROUP(SYS1) UNIVERSAL

Here, we defined a group named SALSMANN (eight characters max) and its superior group is SYS1. As
a result, SALSMANN will be a subgroup of SYS1, which is also a group. If SUPGROUP is not specified,
the current group of the user who operate this command is used instead. Universal is used for groups
which will have a high number of users, potentially infinite.

As with users, you can edit group information with the “ALTGROUP” command, and delete them with
the “DELGROUP” command. Once administrators have created your users and groups, they have to
link each others. To do so, they can use the CONNECT command. Here is an example:

CONNECT (FLAVIEN) GROUP(SALSMANN) OWNER(RACFMST) AUTHORITY(CONNECT)

Well, with that command, Flavien will be in the “salsmann” group. He will also have the “connect”
authority on that group. Let’s have a look to this concept of group authority.

    USE: Allow user to access resources to which group is authorized. It’s the default authority

    CREATE: Allow user to create RACF data set profile for the group (we will see that concept)

    CONNECT: Allow user to connect others users to the group

    JOIN: Allow user to add new subgroup or users to the group, as well as assign group
     authorities to new members. It’s as a mini-administrator if you prefer, or admin delegation.


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When administrators have finished to define users, groups and to link them, they can have a look of
their global RACF definition using the LISTUSER and LISTGRP command. Please also note that
administrators can define in which group a user will be directly during its creation using the
“DFLTGRP” parameters. Administrators can also define the UNIX UID GID to use RACF users in the
OMVS environments which is part of Z/OS. To do so, administrators can use these commands:

ALTUID FLAVIEN OVM(UID(10))
ALTGROUP SALSMANN OVM(GID(110))

Defining Data Set Profile in RACF

Defining security policies is not that easy. A security administrator must clearly define all the rules
needed by every team manager before to do anything. Each policy must have a priority, and must be
testing before being approuved and validated. With RACF, administrators can set permissions for file
patterns. As a result, files can be secured according to their name, and then associated permissions
can be defined even before their creations. In a company which use naming convention, it can be
very useful. Also note than when RACF is installed, every data are protected. In Windows
environments, default security is “everyone/full control”. In RACF, it will be “everyone/none”, so
administrators have to define each access. It’s far longer, but also far more secure! Let’s study some
examples allowing defining dataset accesses to some users.

First of all, if we want to use “enhanced generic naming dataset”, we have to activate this function:

SETROPTS GENERIC(DATASET)

Well, now we can create our data set profile. These will allow administrator to secure accesses using
data set name. They create rules for some dataset which will apply to all users.

Dataset profiles have specific rules. Dataset aimed must have at least two qualifiers, and the first one
(called high level qualifier) has to correspond to a user or a group.

A data set profile contains:

     A data set name

     A Owner: by default : the data set profile creator

     An UACL : Universal Access List, which is the default access level to define

     Etc…. (auditing information for example)

There are two kind of data set profile:

     Discrete: a unique data set, which needs unique security requirement

     Generic : protecting similar naming structure data set, and using “joker” characters

Generic Profile Data Set, are, of course, the most used, because far more simple and powerful.
Furthermore, discrete data profile directly deals with its physical volume. Then, if you change its
volume, security is not effective anymore…
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Let’s create a generic data file profile:

ADDSD (**.FB*) UACC(NONE)
ADDSD (FLSA**.FB*) UACC(UPDATE)

     The first rule specifies that any data set with a second qualifier beginning with FB will have a
      Universal Access List of None. Example: SYS1.FB89, FAC.FBP, etc…

     The second rule specifies that any data set with a second qualifier beginning with FB AND the
      first qualifier beginning with FLSA will have a UACC of Update. Example : FLSA00.FB98

     Then, if you have a data set called FLSB00.FB80, it will be “None”, and FLSA00.FB80 “Update”

Administrators should know the generic profiles rules, especially for the enhanced generic naming:

     % match any single character in a data set name

     * matching as :

     A character at the end of a data set profile name (for example, FLSA.FB*) to match zero or
      more characters until the end of the name, zero or more qualifiers until the end of the data
      set name, or both

     As a qualifier in the middle of a profile name (for example, FLSA.*.FA) to match any one
      qualifier in a data set name

     As a qualifier at the end of a profile name (for example, FLSA.FB.*) to match one or more
      qualifiers until the end of the data set name

     As a character at the end of a qualifier in the middle of a profile name (for example,
      FLSA.OP*.DA) to match zero or more characters until the end of the qualifier in a data set
      name.

You can delete a rule with the “DELDSD” command, and list them with the “LISTDSD” command.

Giving special permission to Users and Groups

When you need a user or a group to by-pass the UACC, you have to specify it in RACF. To do so, we
use the command “PERMIT”, as defined here:

PERMIT (**.FB*) ID(FLAVIEN) ACCESS(UPDATE)

This data set previously had a UACC of “NONE”. With that command, the user “FLAVIEN” will have to
“UPDATE” permission on all data set matching the naming structure “**.FB*”.

You can then delete this special ACL when you want, with the command:

PERMIT (**.FB*) ID(FLAVIEN) DELETE

Flavien won’t have special permissions anymore once this command will be executed.


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There are different five kinds of permissions:

     NONE: Should be the default UACC for all your data set! Does NOT allow users to access.

     EXECUTE: Allow users to load and execute a library, but not to read it or copy.

     READ: Allow users to read the data set. He can copy it.

     UPDATE: Allow users to read from, copy from, or write the data set.

     CONTROL: For VSAM data sets, equivalent to the VSAM CONTROL password and then allows
      users to perform improved control interval processing. For non VSAM, CONTROL is
      equivalent to UPDATE

     ALTER: Allow users to read, update, delete, rename and move the data set




                            RACF Permissions, more limited to most permissive

Special groups

There are three groups in RACF which allow administrators to use this security product. As a result,
they might be used with caution.

     Auditor: analyse logs and is aware of access violations

     Operation: allowed to by-pass the UACC

     Special: create all the rules, he is some kind of “root” in RACF

Usually, when security needs are met, companies don’t use Special profile. It’s too powerful and can
potentially be a security hole. Administrator should use it to define their rules, and once it’s done,
don’t use it anymore. You should note that thanks to these key roles, delegation is possible in RACF.

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Permission priorities considerations

As in every security product, there can be different security policies applied on a data set for a user,
its group, and the others. Administrators need to know the priority affected to each level. RACF
obeys to a simple rule: the more the permission is precise, the more it will be a priority.




RACF will only take care of the most precise profile. As a result, it permits administrators to secure
their system without having to focus on concepts such as inheritance. However, they might not
forget that a user owning “OPERATION” authority will have a default “alter” control.




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Interaction with other products

Every product of z/OS can directly interact with RACF to match with its security policies. To do so,
they use an interface called SAF (System Authorization Facility). It provides an interface between a
product or any component requesting an access to a resource in the system and the current security
product. This concept is very important, because SAF can also by use with other product than RACF,
such as Top Secret. In our example, we use RACF, so SAF and RACF will work together to determine
the access permissions to a resource. We can approximately see it as a universal API.




RACF is thirty years old… Whatever?

RACF seems old and archaic, but as all things in the world, and particularly in Mainframe
environment, old means tested, approved and working. RACF has acquired features for years:

    Multilevel security

    Enhanced PKI Services support

    Very advanced password recycling detection

    Support for the Network Authentication Service

    Access control lists (ACLs) for z/OS UNIX System Services

    IBM Health Checker RACF Support, helping diagnose configurations errors

    Receive user and password updates from LDAP, and notify user and password changes

    Many other features!

Note that this presentation is far from being exhaustive and only shows basic RACF commands.




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2.10 DFSMS: Managing Data


DFSMS for Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem is a software suite which allows customers
to manage their data from creation to suppression. It provides tools able to control data space
allocation, performance and availability needed according to specific data set, backup, etc…

Why do we have to manage data?

In Mainframe environments, when you allocate a data set or a member, you have to define space it
will use as well as other information such as its target volume. System programmer will then waste
time to indicate where and how their file might be created. Furthermore, number of programming
mistakes can occur due to human errors. As a result, devices can be full whereas they don’t contain
much data. Indeed, allocation space needed for data set is considered like a “reserved” space. Then,
you can reserve a huge space for a data set which will be however very small. It’s a huge loss of
space. In big infrastructures, this could be measured in megabytes or even gigabytes losses!

Other errors can occur, for example if a programmer wants to allocate a file in a volume which is
completely full, it won’t work. It should be placed in another volume. It would be nice to use a
program which could deal with these considerations, according to specific rules and template. That’s
what DFSMS can do. It’s designed to determine object placement and automatically manages data
set backup, movement, and space.

Another advantage of DFSMS is to avoid rewriting old JCLs when changing device type. Indeed, if a
customer replaces its old 3380 volumes with 3390, he will have to change much parameters in his JCL
programs, such as the “UNIT” one (3380/3390) or “SPACE”, which effects directly depends on the
device attached, as it uses track and cylinders concepts. When SMS is installed, you can use the
“AVGREC” parameters in JCL, which can be specifying in absolute space: bytes (U), kilobytes (K), or
megabytes (M). As it won’t change with time, we talk about Device Independence.



With DFSMS, user’s usual operations are automated, and optimized, avoiding errors and numbers of
boring checks. It allows system administrators to define to each parameter which was once required
a default value, using template classes called SMS Constructs.




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Defining SMS Constructs

DFSMS establishes classes called SMS constructs defining how data set will use device resources to
meet user requirements and automate operations such as allocations. SMS Constructs define
parameters used as default when you’ll deal with data set. They are defined in ISMF panel:

    Data Class (optional): Define allocation defaults. It supplies information on the how data will
     be created. It then includes space parameters, attributes, data set types, etc…




            Any values explicitly specify in programs always override values specified in a data class.
                This is to prevent the system from modifying the intent of your allocation.

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 Storage Class: Define different levels of performance and availability services for the data
  sets. Thanks to these parameters, you can define a needed level of service, according to
  specific data set which will use that class. SMS will then define where it will allocate data set,
  in order to meet performances needed. You can also supply information such as dynamic
  cache management, sequential data set striping, and concurrent copy.




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 Management Class (optional): Define a list of backup and retention values for DASD data
  sets. It then specifies how we will manage our data after their creation. It then also allows
  you to supply such information such as expiration attributes or migration attributes.




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     Storage group: Represent the physical device on which the data sets reside.

        There are six types of storage groups:

        Pool: Contains SMS-managed DASD volumes managed as a single entity
        Dummy: Contains volume serials of volumes no longer connected to the system which
            are treated as SMS-managed; allows existing JCL to function unchanged
           VIO: Contains no volumes; allocates data sets to paging storage which simulates the
            activity of a DASD volume
           Object: Contains optical volumes and DASD volumes used for objects
           Object Backup: Contains optical volumes used for backup copies of objects
           Tape: Contains SMS-managed private tape volumes

Storage Group also allows defining whether or not automatic migration, backup, and dump are
allowed within the pool, as you can see.




SMS constructs are rules templates. As every template, you have to apply them on something. Let’s
guess… To what thing could be applied SMS constructs? With data set, of course.

Data sets allocated with SMS are called SMS-managed data set. When allocating it, we can manually
specify classes used by a data set. However, administrators use SMS to automate actions as much as
possible… It would be quite stupid to manually define SMS structures, unless being having to do it in
some precise cases. That’s why we can use ACS routines to define which classes will be applied on a
data set, according to its name. Remember the enhanced generic naming dataset concept from
RACF? Well, ACS routines use the same concept: applying a class template on a data set template.



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Assigning SMS constructs to data set using ACS Routines

An ACS routine is a mechanism used under DFSSMS helping system administrators to automate
storage management using data set profile template. It’s a sequence of multiples instructions using
parameters for having the system assign SMS classes and groups to data sets. These parameters are
multiples and although we often use the data set name as reference to define the SMS constructs to
choose, ACS can also match the volume serial number, the data set size, the job name, etc… It will
fetch all these parameters to assign classes to data sets.

There are four types of ACS routines, and a SMS configuration can use one of each of them. They are
read by DFSMS in that order:

     Data Class routine (optional): Assign data class, used to simplify allocations by using default
      values for JCL parameters or DCB attributes, such as “UNIT”, SPACE, etc…
     Storage Class routine: Assign storage class, used to deal with performance considerations
     Management Class routine (optional): Only read if a storage class is assigned to the data set
      fetched. Assign management class, used to define backup, retention, etc...
     Storage Group routine: Even if it’s only read if a storage class is assigned to a data set, this
      ACS routine is required. It’s used to assign storage group.

ACS routines may be a few confusing without examples, here is a template for a data class routine:

PROC 1 DATACLAS
IF &DATACLAS = '' THEN
DO
   IF &HLQ = 'FLSA00' && &LLQ = FB* THEN
        SET &DATACLAS='FLSADC'
   ELSE
        SET &DATACLAS= ''
END
END

This example uses ACS three parameters: DATACLAS, HLQ and LLQ. Of course, there can be much
more. In this Data Class ACS Routine, we first check if a data class hasn’t been manually assigned. If
so, we check if the High level qualifier equals “FLSA00” and if the Low level qualifier begins with “FB”.
If so, we assign the “FLSADC” data class (also known as SMS constructs). It then fetches,
“FLSA00.FB80”, “FLSA00.FBA”, but not “FLSA01.FB80” or even “FLSA00.FAB”.

This is a really basic example, which helps to better understand things we can do with ACS routines.
These are extremely powerful, and allow administrators to properly define their data sets allocation
according to different characteristics. As ACS routines use conditions such as “IF”, ELSE” or
“OTHERWISE”, and numbers of parameters such as “LLQ”, “HLQ”, “USER” or even “GROUP”, it’s very
easy to customize them. However, they often are as the one presented.




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Applying DFSMS configuration

Once configuration is done, administrators have to apply it. DFSMS use a special VSAM file, called
ACDS (Active Control Data Set), containing your ACS routines. You then have to create it:

//STEP EXEC PGM=IDCAMS
//SYSUDUMP DD SYSOUT=*
//SYSPRINT DD SYSOUT=*
//SYSIN    DD *
DEFINE CLUSTER(NAME(SMS.ACDS1.ACDS) LINEAR VOL(SMSV02) -
TRK(6 6) SHAREOPTIONS(3,3)) -
DATA(NAME(SMS.ACDS1.ACDS.DATA)REUSE)
/*

Then, in ISMF, you specify which ACS routines ACDS will have to use.




  After having validated your ACDS file (option 4) you will need nothing to do but apply it (option 5)

Note administrators can backup ACDS file into SCDC files (Source Control Data Set). It will allow them
to have different “ACDS” potential templates, without having to link several time ACS routines.

To do so we allocate the SCDS file: same JCL as before except data set name and SHAREOPTIONS(2,3)

Then we copy current ACDS used to it:

SETSMS SAVESCDS(SMS.SCDS1.SCDS)

That’s it, DFSMS basic configuration is finished!


     Remember that DFSMS is a software suite composed of several products. We only saw few concepts of
DFSMSdfp (Data Facility Product) which can also deal with Copy Services functions not described here.
Note that DFSMS also proposes optional features such as DFSMShsm (Hierachical Storage Manager), DFSMSdss
(Data Set Services), DFSMSrmm (Removable Media Manager) and DFSMStvs (Transactional VSAM Services),
which offer several backup, recovery, migration, and management functions.

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2.11 Health Checker: Auditing system


IBM Health Checker is an advanced software helping administrators to identify problems in their
system before they impact the business. It checks several products settings and compares them with
the ones suggested by IBM, or with those defined by administrators as having to be used. If it doesn’t
fit, Health Check will output detailed messages to administrator to let them know the potential
problems, with a detailed suggested solution. You can see it as a Nagios solution for z/OS system, or
more precisely as a Microsoft Operation Manager: a product using template to check your system,
and providing know solutions. Note It won’t change anything, just warn you on suspect parameters.

With such a solution, z/OS management is simpler. Numbers of significant errors can be avoided:

       Configurations which are less than optimal

       Threshold levels approaching the upper limits

       Single points of failure in a configuration in product such as Sysplex

       Changes in IPL parmlibs which could be disastrous once machine rebooted


Configuring Health Checker

This software should be installed and configured in each big infrastructure, as it helps to optimize
products settings and to avoid much human errors. It can be done very easily.

First, we have to allocate the HZSPDATA data set, which is used to save data required between IBM
Health Checker restarts. To do so, we use that JCL.

//HZSALLCP     JOB
//*
//HZSALLCP     EXEC PGM=HZSAIEOF,REGION=4096K,TIME=1440
//HZSPDATA     DD DSN=SYS1.HZSPDATA,DISP=(NEW,CATLG),
//             SPACE=(4096,(100,400)),UNIT=3390,VOL=SER=TRGVOL
//             DCB=(DSORG=PS,RECFM=FB,LRECL=4096)
//SYSPRINT     DD DUMMY

Then, we create a new HZSPRMxx member, or we use the HZSPRM00 default PARMLIB for Health
Checker. It includes policy statements and logger parameters. Once done, you can start it.

//HZSPROC JOB JESLOG=SUPPRESS
//HZSPROC PROC HZSPRM='00'
//HZSSTEP EXEC    PGM=HZSINIT,REGION=0K,TIME=NOLIMIT,
//      PARM='SET PARMLIB=&HZSPRM'
//HZSPDATA DD   DSN=SYS1.HZSPDATA,DISP=OLD
//        PEND
//        EXEC HZSPROC



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Launching Health Checker

To start this task we have to use the command:

S HZSPROC,HZSPRM=00

It will be started using the HZSPRM “00” dataset and will send a HZS0103I system message.
Administrators will then be able to consult every exception, and should be concerned about the red
one, since they represent high severity exceptions. These last one will be consultable via the SDSF
panel, using the CK command. Severity and interval check time exceptions will also be edited here.




Administrators can also use the HZSPRINT utility to generate report resuming all system exception
checked by Health Checker. Here is a sample exception check output, with explanation provided.




Note that Health Checkers also allow administrators to write their own checks, which can be very
useful to standardize product configurations. It can also use RACF to only allow administrators to
check its exception, define them, etc…
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Checking Health Checker Data

Exceptions message can have three different severities: high, medium and low. Every product can be
checked with IBM Health Checker, but the ones having the most interesting templates are IBM
product such as RACF, CICS or IMS. Even if you can consult them with SDSF, IBM also provides a great
solution, available under Microsoft Windows environment: zMC (for z Management Consol).

This program is free, but needs JDK to be installed to run, as it’s written in Java. It also needs DB2 for
Window free edition, and local administrator authority. On z/OS system, Tivoli Enterprise Portal has
to be configured. This interface is great and allows administrators to quickly check their system.




                 Screenshots from “NCACMG Health Checker User Experience” Presentation




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2.12 Virtualization technologies


“Virtualization” became a very used term in IT environments. Nowadays, it’s often used for “server
virtualization”, which consists of hosting multiple operations systems, independent each others, on a
single host machine. It offers more convenient administration solutions, space and machines cost
save, etc… But it can have other significations. Indeed, there is much than one kind of virtualization;
this is not only about Operating Systems or Software, as we’ll see.

Virtualization is not as modern as people often think. In fact, IBM used this process about fifty years
ago! Indeed, virtualization really began in the 60’s during the System/360 Model 67 Mainframe. In
this one, all hardware interfaces were virtualized through a VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor), which
was called after years the “Supervisor”. Finally, when the ability to run Operating Systems on others
comes in the 70’s, it was renamed as the “Hypervisor”.

Virtualizes something means to change its form and to make it appeared differently. As an example,
virtualizes a single computer could be make it appear as multiples computers. Contrary, it could also
mean making many computers appear as a single one. This is often used in clustering, we then talk
about “Server Aggregation” or “Grid Computing”.

Some kind of Virtualization

     Hardware Virtualization

This is an interesting and complex virtualization solution, in which entire hardware configurations are
emulated. You can thus have very different virtual hardware on the same machine.




The main problem is the average performance… It’s slow. Very slow. Indeed, every instruction must
be simulated on the physical hardware. This configuration demands a very powerful machine, and is
not advised. It’s only used in very few situations such as development.

Indeed, its advantage is that you can directly use unmodified OS. With this solution, you can thus run
an OS which have to run under PowerPC architecture on an ARM processor. According to specialists,
it can also be used during development of hardware firmware. Even if the “real” hardware is not yet
available, developers can test their code on a virtual one.

Definitively not a good solution for most users, but can be convenient. Bochs solution uses it.

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     Processor Virtualization

During the 60’s, another kind of virtualization was used to proceed BCPL (Basic Compiled
Programming Language), which was a simple typeless language created by Martin Richards. The
source code was first compiled by a compiler into some kind of intermediate machine code called O-
Code. As a result, the second step was to compile this code with a O-Code Virtual Machine, to
provide native language code for the target machine, also called “bit code”.

The same process was used for the Pascal language in the 70’s, with the P-Code Machine (pseudo-
code). Thus, Pascal was first compiled into P-Code, and this one was executed on P-Code Machine
which generated bit code. These virtual machines and this way to produce program code was really
interesting and modern. Indeed, it allowed programmers to write highly portable applications and to
run them anywhere a P-Code or O-Code machine was available.

This way of doing portable apps is still used. The Java Language was based on the P-Code model for
its Java Virtual Machine. It allows a wide distribution of Java programs, and its success remains on
this ability. But Sun didn’t invent anything, just improved and well used this concept.

     Instruction Set Virtualization

The most recent kind of Virtualization is the instruction set virtualization, also called binary
translation. This is used to dynamically translate a virtual instruction to a physical instruction set. To
better understand this concept, we can have a look to the Code Morphing Technology used in the
Crusoe CPU by Transmetta. It allows you to use any kind of instructions set from any architecture on
a single one. For example, if our program is compiled to use x86 instructions set, it can be launched
on a Power PC. Code Morphing will translate x86 instructions code to its PPC corresponding. In fact,
Crusoe uses VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) instructions. It « only » translates any instruction to
that kind of instruction.

This is the same concept of game system emulators such as MAME or zSNES, this is only about
instructions translations. It’s also interesting to note that the DAISY (Dynamically Architected
Instruction Set from Yorktown) Project from IBM uses the VLIW architecture. It seems to be the
future of instructions set use, in a world in which standards and processes are more and more
important.

Operating System Virtualization on x86

OS virtualization is the most known kind of virtualization… also the most used and interesting. It’s
been more and more democratised during these last years, thanks to solutions such as VMWare or
Virtual PC on x86 architecture. This architecture was not conceived to run several OS at the same
time. OS Virtualization uses several techniques to allow customers to install multiple OS on a single
machine, as if they were running on a unique machine. Their administration is thus much simple and
servers cost less important. There are much ways to virtualize Operating Systems. We can thus count
four virtualizations methods, which have their strengths and weakness.




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     Virtual Machine Virtualization

This is the most know virtualisation solution, as the easier to use and implement. VMWare and
Microsoft Virtual PC use that technique, which is very simple: it runs software on a host system,
adding a virtualization layer. Guest OS are running on this software, and don’t directly interact with
the main system hardware.




Every I/O instructions, for example, are executed and “translated” thought the virtual machine. The
advantage is that most OS can run under these products. However, performances are not that good
as it adds another layer.



     Operating System-level Virtualization

This solution allows customers to create secure and isolated virtual environments on a single physical
machine. It thus allows admins to use the whole machine power, with fewer performance penalties.




This kind of virtualization works on the Kernel Layer, you can then create numbers of virtual servers,
which will act as isolated machines. There partitions are called VE (Virtual Environment) or VPS
(Virtual Private Servers). The solution will theorically ensure that applications won’t conflict each
others, but it’s not always true. As a result, each virtual server perform and execute applications like


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independent servers with their own memory, configuration files, users and applications. Each one
can be rebooted independently. We can see it as an extension of the chroot procedure.

Its advantage is its performance: certainly one of the best we can find for virtualization solutions, as
its based on the same hardware and executed on the kernel layer. Moreover, it can be used on
standard x86 architectures, which are inexpensive. It can be very interesting for small business.

However, as it’s based on the OS kernel, it won’t be able to run different operating systems (which
use different kernel). Then, you can’t run a Windows Server on this architecture, only Linux or AIX
servers, based on the same Kernel. Moreover, it needs a huge security, because DOS (Deny of
Services) can be used against a partition from another… OpenVZ, Virtuozzo solutions and Linux
VServer use that technology.



     Paravirtualization

This solution uses a Hypervisor (VMM) that is quite similar to the real physical hardware. The most
notable thing in paravirtualization is that all guest OS have to be modified and integrate a kind of
“virtualization awareness” code into themselves. They must be aware they are Virtual Operating
Systems. Thus, if you use it, you have to select OS that have been ported to run under a VMM.




This solution is being more and more used in big infrastructure. The famous Xen Server uses this
technology. As it’s been said, you’ll have to use custom OS, and then, then some of your favourite
won’t be able to run on this infrastructure. Moreover, some paravirtualization solutions need special
hardware configuration. This is not easy to install this solution, but once it’s done, it will be quite
easy to manage it, and its performance is very good. However, as guest OS are modified to use to
Hypervisor, they may be updated when the Hypervisor will be. Note that VMWare Workstation uses
that kind of virtualization, but has a large compatibility list. But Xen still remains one of the most
interesting virtualization solutions on x86, has its performance are really impressive… But it’s not
really a surprise, as they’ve been helped by IBM engineers, specialized in virtualization.



                                                        IBM is a major contributor to the Xen Project”
                                              Dr. Ian Pratt, Xen project leader and XenSource founder
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     Full Virtualization

This solution is quite similar to paravirtualization. It thus uses a virtual machine (called “Hypervisor”)
which mediates between the physical hardware and the different Guest OS.




As Guest OS are unmodified, they are not aware they are “virtual”. Thus, the Hypervisor has to
protect some hardware instructions, because it’s not owned by a unique system, but by many of
them. His jobs is to trap these instructions (often I/O instructions), and handle them. The aim is to
manage the whole instructions set used, and the whole hardware for all the Guest OS. It has proven
its reliability and security for years.

Operating System Virtualization on System z9

According to x86 microcomputer market actors, virtualization concepts are based on very modern
technologies. Most people say it’s the future, and that IT infrastructure will benefit as never from its
advantages. Even if they’re right on this fact, they also forget that virtualisation has been introduced
in IBM Mainframes since years. Indeed, first virtualization began in the 70’s; on the S/370 model
family. Today, it thus profits from decade of work and improvements. As a result, the most advanced
virtualization technologies are running under system Z.

     PR/SM

PR/SM (Processor Resource/System Manager) is a Hypervisor provided with system Z. As every
Hypervisor, its transforms physical resources into virtual resources which will be available to each
guest OS running on logical partitions called “LPAR”. PR/SM enables partitions to share I/O resources,
but also processors, memory and networks cards.

As a result, every logical partition will share the same hardware, and operate like an independent
system: unlike paravirtualization, guest OS are not modified and are not aware to be “virtual”. This
partitioning system is EAL 5 certified, which means that each partition is like a servers without any
connections to others, physically as well as logically, unless explicitly defined in their configuration.

Administrators can define up to 60 LPARs on IBM system z9, each one able to run z/OS, z/OS.e (a
“light” version of z/OS, e for “express”), z/VM, TPF (Transaction Processing Facility), z/VSE and CFPP
(Coupling Facility Control Code). Each partition will have dedicated virtual resources.
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With PR/SM, administrators can dynamically modify virtual resources of each partition, adding them
or removing them, without having to shutdown affected LPAR. Then, they can dynamically redefine
all available system resources to reach optimum capacity for each partition. This system is based on
“weight”, which is the priority of each logical partition




                        .

PR/SM also benefits from great features such as Intelligent Resource Director, which attribute virtual
resources to guest OS according to their workloads and priorities.

     z/VM

z/VM (z/Virtual Machine) is a Hypervisor emulating and distributing physical hardware resource to
several machines. As a result, you can create numbers of virtual machines which will be contained in
one logical partition. Each virtual machine will be independent, and will share physical resources with
others, without knowing their existence. Unlike LPARs system, administrators can define an
unlimited numbers of logical operation systems. It only depends on your available hardware
resources. The more it’s powerful, the more you can define logical partitions. Note that z/VM can
host guest running another z/VM. As a result, administrators can use several z/VM running in
another z/VM, without any limitations but your resources.




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What are the differences between z/VM and PR/SM?

                                   PR/SM                               z/VM

Max Numbers of partitions          60                                  Unlimited

License cost                       Free                                Paid (depends on installed CPs)

Partition Adding                   Needs LPARs shutdown                Dynamic

Best Use Case                      Static environment                  Test environments
                                                                       Needing changes,
                                                                       Add/remove servers on the fly



Virtual Network Management

When using z/VM and LPARs, administrators can use virtual networks. They consist of virtual devices
and adapters which are physical resources shared among several virtual systems. As a result, virtual
machines won’t need any equipment such as physical router or switch, because there functions will
be virtualized under z/VM. Each virtual machine will then belong to a virtual guest LAN.

Guest LANs are closed virtual TCP/IP LANs which are running under a z/VM environment. They
simplify internal virtual machine communication. Security is also reinforced; as each virtual machine
will only be able to communicate with other virtual machine belonging to the same guest LAN. Of
course, several guest LANs can communicate each others, but only if they’re configured explicitly.

Communications initiated within a guest LAN use HiperSockets. This is an IBM technology allowing IP
data to use the memory bus. This allows virtual systems to communicate each other at memory
speed without using any processor cache, which minimize contention with other I/O activity.
Furthermore, since they operate at memory speed, bandwidth offered by this technology is far
greater than any LAN technology and overall reliability and availability is far better, as it doesn’t use
networks equipments which could potentially shutdown. Security is also improved, as IP data
transferred can’t be sniffed anymore on the network with software such as Ethereal.

Virtualization on System z is really mature, and IBM is a pioneer in that domain. Every great x86
solutions are based on LPARs system, and the hype Xen projects took IBM technologies in example.
Most advanced projects use paravirtualization, since IBM used full virtualization for years…

It’s then interesting to know that technologies seeing as the more modern ones are used since
decades on the machines seeing as the oldest ones… Seems quite ironic, huh?




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2.13 Solutions for high and continuous availability


Concepts of high and continuous availability have become more and more important these last years.
Indeed, companies want there information systems to be operational every time. It’s even more
important for huge structures such as banks in which their systems directly deal with their business
and customers. Most people don’t know the distinction between “high” and “continuous”
availability, and it seem important to precise their signification:

     Continuous availability directly deals with the software: if a program crashes, such as a
      database, another should be available to handle its workloads. In traditional distributed
      system environment, clustering is a good solution to offer continuous availability.

     High availability directly deals with the hardware: for example, if a processor crashes,
      another one should be available as its “spare”. Nowadays, most servers offer a high
      availability for their power supply, but others elements are seldom redundant.

The most important thing to remember it these two concepts’ goal is to avoid SGOF (Single Point of
Failures). Indeed, SGOF are not possible in huge production having to run under any conditions.

A SGOF is an easy concept: suppose you have a unique modem in your company. If it crashes, you
cannot use external resources anymore, and your customers cannot access your website anymore
too. In such a situation, the modem would be a SGOF. Then, to make it simple, a SGOF is any single
piece of equipment that, if it fails, can stop a whole part of your business. In our example: every
access to the Internet, which could be disastrous for most companies.

It just can’t happen; serious companies have to verify if any SGOF exists on their infrastructure, and
must solve this problem urgently. Then, they will have continuous and high availability.

As we could see it in previous parts, Mainframe environments, especially System z, offer a really
great high availability to its customers, as every component of their hardware are redundant.

In x86 distributed environments, many solutions of continuous availability exists, which are relatively
stable and efficient. The most known solution is the cluster. It’s a group a coupled computers which
work together so closely they can be seeing as a single one. As a result, if a node (a computer being
part of a cluster) fails or crashes, it won’t be dramatic as the others will take care of the workload it
would have to execute. This solution considerably decreases numbers of SGOF.

        Microsoft proposes its own solution: MSCS (Microsoft Cluster Server) allowing machines to
        work together as a single one and providing failover/failback features. It’s a good cluster
        system with products such as SQL Server or Exchange.

        Linux systems also propose their own solutions, such as Linux Virtual Server or OpenMosix,
        offering efficient load balancing features.

Clustering Services are very successful in distributed environment. However, it would be interesting
to study system z solutions for continuous availability. That’s the purpose of Parallel Sysplex.

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Parallel Sysplex

Available since the 90’s on MVS/ESA, Sysplex (meaning System Complex) is a collection of several
z/OS systems or logical partitions able to cooperate together. Multiple systems can then be linked,
even if they’re part of different machines. The main idea of a Sysplex is to deal with multiple system
images as a single one. Thus, standard clusters on x86 distributed server use the same concept.
However, Sysplex benefits from decades of innovations and offers a very advanced clustering system.
Coupling with one or more CF (Coupling Facilities), this system aggregate becomes a Parallel Sysplex.

Parallel Sysplex provides the highest level of application availability on a System z platform. It
implements advanced data sharing and dynamic workload balancing (called load balancing in
distributed environment). It also includes features such as physical resources sharing. In fact, Sysplex
was first used to benefits from the power of several zSeries machines, as they were not enough
powerful to deal with some precise workloads. Thus, the problem evolved from a preoccupation with
power to a preoccupation with systems availability.

In a Parallel Sysplex infrastructure, each node can share all kinds of resources with others systems
being part of the same Sysplex. Nodes then optimize there shared resources to efficiently deal with
workloads having to be executed. Furthermore, as WLM in a single image, Parallel Sysplex directly
checks every partition’s available capacity, and workloads are directed according to these
availabilities. As a result, every partition is used efficiently as well as its resources.

Parallel Sysplex also allow concurrent read and write access the same shared data from all nodes
being part of the same Sysplex. This feature doesn’t impact data integrity and don’t significantly
decrease systems performance. Each node can then work on a same workload, in parallel processing.
It then speed up request and overall performances, as it split a workload in few parts, each one being
processed by a different LPAR (Logical partition) of the Sysplex.




The technology allowing multiple LPAR of a Parallel Sysplex to share all resources, such as catalogs,
disk or even systems logs is called CF (Coupling Facility). There can be one or more CF in a Parallel
Sysplex, but as everything in a Mainframe environment, it’s very advised to have at least two CFs.

A CF is just a logical partition running a microcode called CFCC (Control Facility Control Code). It
doesn’t need to be IPLed as its system if automatically loaded when it’s the partition if activated, and
must be managed under the HMC (Hardware Management Console). A Control Facility includes piece
of data cache called “structure”. These are where shared data are buffered, and accessed by every
partition of the Parallel Sysplex. Then, structures can be seen as huge shared memories.



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To make it simple, a Coupling Facility:

     Is a normal partition including CFCC microcode
     Must be linked with EVERY partition being part of the Parallel Sysplex, three ways to do so:
           o IC: Internal Coupling: logical links in a same machine
           o ICB: Integrated Cluster Bus: to link the CF with another z9 being at less than 7 meters
           o ICL (ESCON/FICON cable): to link the CF with another z9 being at more than 7 meters
     Can be executed on a specialty engine (ICF: Integrated Coupling Facility)

Customers should double their Control Coupling Facility, even if it’s not a prerequisite. They can also
use their CFs both ways: in a duplex mode, every CFs is duplicated, if one of them crashes, it won’t
have any consequences. In a “standard” mode, is one crashes, its data will be transfers on other CFs,
but it they’re full, the customers will lose data. Most of case, companies use non Duplex CFs, and
quantifies their memory, if one of them had suddenly crashed. In this situation, each CF must have
sufficient power processor and memory to allow handle data of another one. However, Duplex mode
remains the best solution, as it avoids any potential SGOF.

Parallel Sysplex needs others elements, as a Sysplex Timer; to synchronize the clocks of all systems
but a Server Time Protocol (STP) can also be used. Couple Dataset are also needed, to define
available Coupling Facilities, the Sysplex state, its WLM policies as well as its structure’s definitions.




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Parallel Sysplex is a very advanced clustering solution, and is used in most big infrastructures for its:

     Continuous Application Availabilities

     Single point of control reducing administration costs

     Performances, Data Sharing and workloads balanced

Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex

Every huge company should be aware of possible natural or human-induced disaster effects. As a
result, most structures like banks have a business continuity plan which defines what to do in order
to recover from a disaster: this is naturally called a disaster recovery. Many solutions proposing a
disaster recovery exist in distributed environments, but they remain quite difficult and long to set up.

The best way to deal with disaster recovery is to have two sites for its production center. Indeed, in
such situations, if an entire site crashes, in a plane accident, earth quake, or something else,
production won’t be stopped, as the second site will handle business workloads. We’ve seen that
Parallel Sysplex offers a great solution for clustering, in a local area. GDPS (Geographically Dispersed
Parallel Sysplex) deals with the same technology, but in a wide area, up to 100km in synchronous ,
and even more in asynchronous (theoretically an infinite distance). GDPS is then an IBM automated
high availability and disasters recover solution.

GDPS offers many different types of implementation, which are based on several Copy Services,
which we’ll present in that chapter:

     GDPS/PPRC: based on the Metro Mirror replication system, used for Continuous Availability
      and Disaster Recovery. Works in synchronous, on a limited distance. It can also support the
      HyperSwap technology, allowing an application-transparent swap of storage devices, which is
      quite convenient in multiple sites environments.

     GDPS/XRC: XRC (eXtended Remote Copy) is an asynchronous mirroring technology, also
      known as z/OS Global Mirror, and which is close to Global Mirror, but working directly on
      z/OS and not on ESS (Enterprise Storage Servers). This solution is used for Disaster Recovery,
      supports any distance and is very similar to GDPS/Global Mirror.

GDPS is then designed to enable data consistency and integrity, with none or minimal data loss.

Copy Services

Parallel Sysplex and GDPS are very interesting technologies, but if a site crashes, customers will also
need their data. These are the most important thing in an IT environment, as they directly deal with
the business needs. If a company loses its machines, it can be ok; it will “just” have to buy new ones.
But if it loses its data, there’s nothing to do about it. Then, it’s very important to save their data,
containing very important information in Mainframe environment, such as bank account, customers’
profile, confidential studies, etc… Conscious of these problems, IBM proposes multiples services in its
enterprise storage servers in order to simplify data backup en synchronization. These solutions are
directly used in GDPS solutions, to have two identical production/backup sites, as we’ll see it.

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There are several technologies included in Copy Services; here are the most used and interesting:

     Flash Copy: used within the same site, this technology is also known as PITC (Point-in-Time
      Copy). It allows customers to create an immediate copy of one or more logical volumes. To
      do so, it first establishes a bitmap between source volumes and target volumes, describing
      the copy process state. Then, in this bitmap, each volume track is represented by a bit. This
      operation takes about more or less three seconds, according to volumes saved. After that,
      source and target volume can both be read and written. Target objects are then exact copies
      of source objects, but they’re empty, physically speaking.

        When a user needs to access an object, Flash Copy will read its corresponding target volume
        bitmap: if the resource is accessed in read mode, it will be read on the source file (thus
        located on the source volume) if the file had not been yet written to the target source.

        But if the object is accessed in write mode, Flash Copy will first backup the source file to the
        target volume, and then user will modify this file in the source volume.

        Flash Copy can be processed both ways:

            o In NOCOPY function: Only modified files are written on the target volume. Files
              accessed in read only will be accessed through the source volume. Thanks to this
              option, performances are boosted, since source volume is not entirely saved, only
              modified file will be backup on the target volume.

            o IN COPY function: it acts like in NOCOPY, but also uses background processes which
              save every files of the source volume to the target volume. Thanks to this option, the
              target volume is a real backup of the source one, when Flash Copy was initiated.

        Flash Copy is not that simple to understand, as it’s not a usual way to backup file. In
        distributed environment, most administrators “just” backup files or even entire volumes
        without using any special technologies. These schemas will help you to understand.




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 Metro Mirror, also known as PPRC (Peer to Peer Remote Copy), this technology is used to
  mirror one or more volumes to another site being in a remote location. It thus works on two
  different sites. It’s a good solution for disaster recovery, as an entire site can be copied in
  another one, avoiding a very long data recovery process before restoring usual operations.




    Once the Metro Mirror relationship is established between the two volumes, each on being
    in a different site, both of them are updated simultaneously. Indeed, Metro Mirror
    technology is based on a synchronous copy. Then, each data written on a source volume
    being in the primary site will be also written on a target volume being on the recovery site. In
    such a configuration, an I/O is not seeing as “completed” as long as its record has not been
    written to both volumes. Then, data on the primary and backup site are always identical.
    Since it’s based on the microcode of Enterprise Data Storage, it doesn’t have any impact for
    the host systems. However, as it’s a synchronous technology, its effectiveness is based on the
    distance between the two sites. Metro Mirror can be used with a distance up to 300
    kilometers, but each I/O would take more than 3.5ms in such infrastructure. In fact, this
    technology is often used for sites being to approximately 10 kilometers one of the other.

 Global Mirror, which is a combination of Global Copy, also known as PPRC XD (Peer to Peer
  Remote Copy Extended Distance) and Flash Copy, presented above.

   Global Copy, as Metro Mirror, is a feature included in the microcode of Enterprise Storage
   Servers. As a result, it doesn’t have any impact for the host systems. The main difference
   between PPRC (Metro Mirror) and PPRC XD (Global Copy) is that PPRC XD is asynchronous.
   Indeed, it’s often used to mirror one or more volumes to another site being in a remote
   location at a significant distance. As it’s asynchronous, local Enterprise Storage Servers don’t
   have to wait for the writing acknowledgment from backup site.




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       The primary storage system then uses a bitmap containing the changed data, and stocks it
       until it’s able to send it to the backup site. Data Migrated on backup site are not consistent,
       as the asynchronous mirror is used. It thus remains a problem, because not consistent data
       cannot be used in case of disaster recovery. As a result, Global Copy periodically changes its
       mode to synchronous, when response time delays are acceptable, to fully synchronize data
       between primary and backup site. The, first volume from backup site are “FlashCopied” to a
       tertiary set of volumes, providing a consistent set of data for Disaster Recovery or Business
       Continuity. With such a configuration; Recovery Point Objective can be few seconds.

    Metro Global Mirror, which is a combination of Metro Mirror and Global Mirror. In such a
     configuration, there are three sites: the first one being the primary connected to the second
     with a Metro Mirror link, and then the second connected to the third with a Global Mirror
     link. There are two backup sites in that kind of configuration, which is really appreciated in
     banks, in particular to fulfill the requirements of Bale II.




Being sure to have a consistent backup of their data is very critical for customers. Several
technologies exists, but as we could see it, Metro Mirror, Global Mirror and Metro Global Mirror;
combined with solutions such as Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex. Furthermore, these Copy
Services solutions also offers features to deal with Open Systems distributed environment data, as
they are independent of hosts systems. They then effectively meet great infrastructures needs and
propose advanced solutions for high availability, continuous availability and Disaster Recovery.




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3/ Mainframe in the future: Dead or Messiah?

In the 90’s, Mainframes were seeing as obsolete machines. There death has been predicted since
years, even by prestigious magazines, consultants, and economists.



                              I predict that the last Mainframe will be unplugged on 15 March 1996”
                                                                                 Stewart Alsop, 1991

This famous sentence seems quite funny nowadays, as Mainframes are still in most IT infrastructures.
Now, press when distributed servers environment begins to show their limits and defects, press
discovers once again qualities of the Mainframe.

The Mainframe’s technologies still remain the most advanced, and it’s not surprising. Indeed, IBM
invests more than $1 billion for each Mainframe generation, to offer the most advanced hardware
and system. There is not much marketing about system Z and others IBM platform products, only
20% of its budget is dedicated to it. The goal is to offer nothing but innovations. Much consulting
groups, such as Gartner or IDC believe that System z is going to be the reborn of Mainframes.

Without any doubts, Mainframes will be still used for the same reasons they are currently used. But
what is new in our decade, is that Mainframes are surely going to conquer some markets. Indeed,
the zLinux “killer feature” included in System z, allowing hundreds of Linux to run on a same
machine, combining such Open OS qualities to Mainframe performances seduces more and more
customers and helps them to deal with the new challenge of IT infrastructures: Server Consolidation.

3.1 Server Consolidation


Server consolidation’s goal is to combine workloads from separate machines or/and applications into
a smaller number of systems or/and applications. More and more used in many enterprises, it helps
to efficiently use computer server resources and to reduce the total number of machines. It thus
supposes a reorganization of the IT Infrastructure, which will reduce its total cost of ownership and
improve its resources control. Indeed, too much computers means too much cost.




                                     “One server to rule them all”


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First, there are the “direct costs”. Data Centers or even small and medium IT infrastructure will
encounters a lot of problems if they have to deal with many machines. Indeed, more and more
computers mean more and more problems: multiple same applications which are doing the same
(such as email servers or database), under-utilised servers, space and energy needed, etc… Number
of x86 arch computers has dramatically increased during these last years… so did their total cost.

Secondly, what we can call the “hidden” costs which are not always considered, and which can
however be huge. There are number of them, but we can define two main hidden costs:


          Utilization: According to famous auditors such as D.H. Brown Associates or IBM, majority of
    servers often run at about 20% of their capacity, which is quite disastrous if we study the return
    on invest. It’s not interesting to buy a machine which won’t be really used. Non used power can
    thus be considered as a hidden cost.


         People: The more you own physical machine, the more you’ll have potential hardware
    problems. That induces people costs which are not negligible. Idem for the IT people who will
    deal with the IT architecture. The more a Data Center contains machine, the more it’s difficult to
    make a correct topology of it.

Server consolidation will be one of the main drivers to cut unnecessary costs and to maximize the
Return on Invest (ROI). Most of big structures will have to do it. Here are the results from a recent
study from Gartner Group done on about 520 enterprises.




It clearly shows Server Consolidation is and will be one of the most hype projects in IT Infrastructure.

There are two ways to do Server Consolidation, and it’s very important to separate them. Indeed,
most of people usually think that Server Consolidation is all about virtualization. They are wrong.
Even it can effectively be done with virtualization; it can also be done in another way.



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The main goal is to combine small workloads from separate computers and/or applications into a
smaller number of computers and/or applications. You can thus:


         Combine them on a single larger computer. Thus, there will be logically and physically less
    OS which will be running in your IT Infrastructure. It’s dangerous because by doing that, all
    resources, even pure Operating Systems are “centralized”. If it crashes, this is a disaster.


          Use Server Virtualization technologies. There will be less physical computers running, but
    the logistical number of OS running will be the same than before, in order to keep resource
    sharing possibilities, which will avoid disasters thanks to technologies such as clustering.

Please also note that Blade Centers are seeing as part of the Server Consolidation concept because
they save much place. Combine with virtualization technology, they can be great too.

As virtualization gives much more advantages than the other solution, it often seen as the best way
to do Server Consolidation and is even became is synonym in most documentations.

Thanks to it, you can use less physical machines, and run them at nearly full capacity.

A Server Consolidation Project which is well done means:


         Reduced Computer Number


         Servers Administration improved thanks to standardization


         Reduce essentials costs, such as server’s cost, energy and place needed


         Reduce hidden costs, as you computer will be more used and run at nearly full capacity


         Reduce management cost, as you have less processes and physical machines to deal with

Moreover, in addition to help you to do a great Server Consolidation, virtualization will help you to
efficiently build new environment very quickly. Indeed, if you need some servers, in production to
have more backup virtual machines on critical applications such as firewall or web servers, you’ll just
have to copy existing virtual machines to a new one. And that’s it. No need to buy a new machine,
configure it, etc… It will help your IT team to have much more time to work on a more important task
than a boring server install.

With rationalized processes, virtualization will make your IT team more efficient.

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Mainframes helping Server Consolidation

      Linux has become these last years the new hype and cool OS to use, even in companies. Its
rapid adoption by the developer’s community, open standards and its increasing on servers make it a
growing and evident long-term player in the OS market. Linux runs on thousand of servers in big IT
Infrastructure, and reorganize such big structure is quite difficult. However, it’s inevitable.

Customers can use Mainframes to efficiently plan your Server Consolidation, in particular for Linux
based system. Although IBM is known for its proprietary technologies, it also leads the industry in
promoting compliance with open standards and interoperability with most systems such as Linux.

When IBM announced its decision to make it possible to run Linux Systems on its Mainframes, it
wasn’t really understood. People used to be ironical and thought it was just an announce to say
“Hey, please remember guys! Look at us! We’re still alive”. However, fact is that the possibility to run
multiple Linux OS on a single huge system is the new strength of Mainframes. I would even say it’s its
chance to reappear as the most “modern” system.

Even its performances were criticized when it was launched; Linux on zSeries is now powerful and
effective. According to IBM, there are more than 1800 customers running Linux on their Mainframes.

Using Linux on System Z

First of all, we have to clarify used terms. Indeed, people often talk about “Linux on zSeries” but
don’t really what it’s about. Here is a summary of common terms and their significations.



Used Term                                           Applies on

Linux on S/390                                      S/390 system specifically

Linux on IBM System z9                              z9 (Enterprise and Business) system specifically

Linux on eServer zSeries                            z990, z890, z900, z800 system specifically

Linux on IBM System z                               All systems above



Linux on IBM System Z are ports of usual Linux to the System z9, S/390 and zSeries architectures. It
benefits known strengths of IBM servers as reliability and security while preserving all Linux qualities
such as openness and stability.




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     Why zSeries is interesting for customers?

First of all, Operating Systems virtualization on IBM Large server benefits from more than 35 years of
innovation in that domain. Indeed, the Virtual Machine (VM) technology which is used by IBM was
created during the OS/370 development! It’s then known as a robust computing platform.

z/VM helps customers to quickly create as many virtual machines as they want, and to benefit from
all zSeries famous advantages such as security and robustness. This solution lets administrators to
easily share available physical resources on all their virtual machines, which will consist of virtualized
processor, storage, networking, and all I/O resources. The zSeries system can then be run at full
capacity, as it’s used to be. If customers need very quickly a test environment which is like their
production’s one, then they just have to just copy/paste their virtual machines HFS or zFS files
representing each machines, ET voila! Much saved time. As time is money, virtualization is good to
save a lot of dollars… during Server Consolidation, and even after as you’ve seen it.


     Communications between virtual machines is much faster and secure using System z

Furthermore, using Linux on z/VM make it possible to use the HiperSocket (HS) technology, this
allows high-speed communications between partitions. It then provides in-memory TCP/IP
connections between all your OS running under z/VM. Use HiperSocket greatly increase overall
performances, as every transfer between two OS running on the same machine will be treated a
memory-speed. There is nothing to do on the Linux Guest OS to use HS, so it’s simple and intuitive.
Please also note that it also greatly increases security, as not exposed and vulnerable to “sniffers”.


        As it’s part of z/VM, a Linux running on a zSeries can also benefices from all great backup
        and recovery features which are available on these platforms such as:

     Capacity BackUp, which is a robust disaster recovery solution, and which can add a reserved
      capacity (CPs activation) in case of unplanned situations.
     Parallel Sysplex and even Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex, for disaster recovery
     IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, which helps to reduce the risks associated with data loss by
      storing backup and archive of all OS Linux Based Image.


        Linux on System z provides security advantages not available on other platforms



     They include exclusive code patches which allows them to use security features only
      available on system Z servers

     Technologies used to run Linux on System z, such as LPAR or z/VM earned Common Criteria
      Certifications, and are Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) 5. Linux advised by IBM are EAL4.


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     Virtual LANs can be configured, and only specified OS can access these networks. As it’s using
      HiperSocket, it provides insulation from other networks and data can’t be sniffed.

     They can use hardware available on System z for cryptographic acceleration, such as Crypto
      Express 2 (CEX2) for clear key RSA. They can also benefits from Assist for Cryptographic
      Function (ACF) instructions available on IBM System z9 Enterprise and Business, which
      include hardware instructions for AES, SHA, and DES in both user and kernel space
      applications using special libraries. It speeds up every security application using
      cryptography.

     They can use the famous and secure RACF (Resource Access Control Facility) for user’s
      authentication. We just need to use the appropriate Pluggable Authentication Module
      (PAM).



In addition to these points, by using IBM Mainframe virtualization technologies and not distributed
servers, you won’t need anymore to buy a new machine when you’ll want to add a new server. Even
if you use virtualization with x86arch solution such as Xen, you will never be able to have as many
servers running on the same hardware. Costs needed for machines, energy and space are saved.




     IBM System z Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL)

The IFL is an optional processor only available on IBM System z dedicated to add additional
processing capacity and to exclusively process Linux Workload, running under z/VM or LPAR.
Although it’s nearly often used in infrastructure using Linux for System z, it’s not required, as Linux
can run on standard CPs. As system z9 Business Class lower price is about $100k and IFL costs 95$,
enterprise can buy an IBM z9 using IFL for less than $200k.

IFL are interesting because once you’ve pay it, you won’t have to pay something anymore. Each
upgrade will be free, and then your Linux performance will always grow up with time. It saves a lot of
cost and avoids buying new machine to add power, as with standard x86 arch servers. Moreover,
software licenses based on running CPs are very interesting if you use IFL. Indeed, a unique IFL
running numbers of Linux will be seen as “one” CP. Then, every environment such as test,
development or quality assurance can run on only one IFL without price rising. Please also note that
customers can choose to only use IFL engines on their IBM System Z. If so, we talk about a “dedicated
IBM System z Linux Server”. It’s often use in small and medium-sized companies.

Customers car also use the On/Off Capacity on Demand for these IFL CP, as for the others. This
feature gives to customers the ability to use CP capacity by the day. They can thus turn them off for
months, and use them when needed. In such example, user will only pay for the day he used it.




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     Which distribution can customers; use on zSeries?



Even if most famous distributions, such as Debian, Slackware or even Gentoo can run under Linux for
zSeries, In fact, any distributions that conforms to the requirements of the System zSeries
Architecture will run. IBM advices its customers to use Novell Suse or Red Hat, because of their great
software support. Moreover, if you use these distributions, you can sign supports contracts with IBM
which will include a fulltime coverage help in case of problems. Thus, these distributions are nearly
always used.




     SUSE Linux Enterprise Server                Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Server



So what’s the deal with Linux on System z?

Well, Linux on System z offers really great feature to customers. Combining the legendary security,
scalability, and reliability from IBM Mainframes with all known Linux systems advantages such as the
rapid innovation from the Linux and Open Source communities, it will be the foundation of your IT
infrastructure and a nice choice for your Server Consolidation projects.

As we’ve saw, Linux on System z will bring customers numbers of advantages such as:

     The best of both worlds

     IFL processor dedicated to Linux workload

     Mature and efficient virtualization technology

     A total cost of ownership (TCO) very interesting

     Overall security with secure layer such as RACF

     Communication fast and secure using HiperSocket

     Needed costs for distributed servers saved (energy, place)

     Hardware equipment saved (machines, FICON adapter, etc)

     Very advanced Backup and Fail Back/Fail Over technologies

     IT environment growing and quick adaptation to satisfy new business needs

Furthermore, it’s important to know that IBM really involves itself to improve Linux performances
and hardly work with important distribution developers such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux.


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3.2 An interesting total cost of ownership


Much specialists use to say that Mainframes are too much expensive, especially compared to
distributed environment. There are true, System z9; even in business class; are much more expensive
than any other servers. The only consideration is about hardware price.

As a result, many customers fail to consider direct and hidden costs when they buy a machine.
Indeed, energy, floor place and cooling solutions costs may be very important and thus should be
considered. We will study each of them, which are the new Data Center’s challenges.

Energy Costs Considerations

Every industry or human activity has to control its energy consumption, for the new ecologic politics,
as well as for its costs. Beyond the financial aspects, it becomes more and more difficult for
companies to have a reliable power: in some areas with a high concentration, notably in United
States, the energy suppliers are unable to cope with demand quantitative and qualitative
requirements of these major consumers. Energy and power are cited as leading concerns of Data
Center managers whereas a few years ago it was hardly an issue.



                                                       In 2009, energy costs will become the second
                                                 highest operating expense for 70% of Data Centers”
                                                                                      Gartner Group


This becomes even more a problem as energy costs themselves are increasing at a rate of about 3%
per year, and some specialists expect this percent to increase with time.

The energy costs increase in Data Centers can be explained by both the energy prices increase and by
the electricity consumption increase. But why energy costs has become such a problem in few times?

     Processors providing computing power are increasing. As they represent between 50 and
      60% of computer’s energy consumption, one can easily understand their effects on energy
      considerations in a Data Center. Manufacturers of processors are really concerned about
      reducing consumption, as AMD which recently present its projects to deal with this problem.
      But much progress remains to be done to significantly improve performance per watt.

     Proliferation of systems such as BladeCenters causing overheating. As a result, it more and
      more solicits heat dissipation and regulatory systems, also consuming electricity.

     Many Data Centers do not meet recent standards that would reduce their overall energy
      consumption of, especially there use of thermal dissipation systems.

     IT owns a much larger place in the world than before and is really crucial now. Critical
      applications have multiplied, and must operate in 24/24. Furthermore, they require more
      and more computing power and storage devices which also consume energy.
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This vision of the situation may seem pessimistic, but it’s clear that energy is a major component of
Data Centers. According to analysts from IDC, 50% of investments in computer equipment are
devoted to their energy consumption needs and it should increase to 71% in four years.

To convince you, a recent study from the serious EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) presents
the reality of a dramatic situation, and quantifies the consumption of Data Centers in the U.S.

The conclusions of this report are impressive:

     American Data Centers consumed more than 60 billion kilowatt/hours in 2006.
        It represents more than 1, 5% of the total electricity consumption in the U.S.

     Energy consumed by Data Centers has doubled over the past 5 years and will certainly
      double the next 5 to reach about 100 billion kilowatt/hours.
        It represents an annual cost of $7.4 billion

     Existing technologies and strategies can reduce energy consumption by 25%

This chart from EPA presents the situation as it will surely happen, but also if Data Center’s managers
take the right decisions to limits energy costs. The difference between the state of the art scenario
and the historical trends scenario is about 85 billion kilowatt/hours, representing an overall economy
of more than $5.5 billion! This amount can not reasonably be ignored.




                                      In 2008, 50% of existing Data Centers will not be able to meet
                the demands of power and heat dissipation of high-density equipment such as blade”
                                                                                      Gartner Group

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                                                Power will be the number one issue for most large
                                            company IT executives to address in the next 2-4 years”

                                                                                  Robert France Group


This situation may appear exaggerated; however it’s already a problem for some Data Center!



                                                 The Data Center energy crisis is inhibiting our clients’
                                           business growth as they seek to access computing power.
                                         Many Data Centers have now reached full capacity, limiting
                                   a firm’s ability to grow and make necessary capital investments.”

                                Mike Daniels, senior vice president, IBM Global Technology Services

Energy costs considerations have reached a critical point. It becomes the nightmare of most Data
Center infrastructure managers, as it represents a significant part of their budget.




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Managers of Data Centers have to choose machine which will consume less electricity, as well as
where their Data Centers should be placed. Indeed, electricity doesn’t have the same price
everywhere in the world, and can even change between each state of U.S.




Some Data Centers can’t be installed in some world areas, because of their energy costs. It’s then a
very important choice when companies outsource their production sites. For example, a recent
outsourcing was quite disastrous, because hidden cost such as electricity had not been planned.



                                   We thought our construction in Bangalore (India) was going well,
                                         until we found out that the land ownership was not clear”

                                Confidential Report of a Global Communication technology provider

A recent study from IDC clearly shows that rack servers will be the most used in big companies
infrastructures. Standard computers seem to be doomed to disappear but still more used than Blade.




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We will base our study on the average energy price in U.S, changing according each state, and the
two more architecture used according to IDC: tower and rack servers.

                                                 Minimum                 Maximum            Average

kW Cost in USA, Avril 2K7 ($ cents)             4,85 (Idaho)           20,38 (Hawaii)         9,37




The most used Tower Servers in IT infrastructures are without any doubt Power Edge from Dell. Their
consumption is really important. One year can represent up to 70% the based hardware price!

Dell Model                 Power (watt)    Cost/Day     Cost/Month         Cost/Year    Minimal Cost

Power Edge 840             420               0,94$         28,33$            340$          950$

Power Edge 1900            800               1,79$         53,97$            647$          1450$

Power Edge 2900            930               2,09$         62,74$            752$          2300$

Power Edge 6800            1570              3,5$              105$          1271$         5000$

Power Edge SC1430          750               1,68$         50,59$            600$          900$



Rack Servers are more and more used in companies. Although their consumption is more interesting
than Tower Servers, one year can still represent up to 35% the based hardware price!

Dell Model                 Power (watt)    Cost/Day     Cost/Month         Cost/Year    Minimal Cost

Power Edge 860             345               0,77$             23,1$        277,2$         1110$

Power Edge 1950            670               1,5$              45,2$        542,41$        2100$

Power Edge 2900            930               2,09$         62,74$           752,89$        4600$

Power Edge 2950            750               1,68$         50,59$            600$          2300$

Power Edge 6850            1470              3,3$          99,17$            1190$         5700$

Power Edge 6950            1570              3,5$              105$          1271$         7600$

Power Edge SC1435          600               1,34$         40,47$           485,74$        1500$



An interesting fact about x86 architecture distributed environment is that usual server at 10% of its
capacity calculation consumes almost as much energy as if 100% of its power was used.



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These costs may seem very high, but they remain realist. Here is another example of energy
consumption, for x86 processors only. It gives an idea of how much they really cost, once bought.




Electricity costs are based on the Annual Electric Power Industry Report presented above. Then, low
kW cost represent energy price in Idaho and high kW cost the one proposed at Hawaii.

Scenario                                     Cost Per Day     Cost per Month         Cost Per Year

Worst Hardware and Low kW Cost                  0,136$               4$                 49,70$

Worst Hardware and High kW Cost                 0,572$             17,16$              208,87$

Best Hardware and Low kW Cost                   0,332$              9,98$               121,5$

Best Hardware and High kW Cost                  1,362$             40,86$              497,20$

Worst Hardware and Average kW Cost              0,263$              7,89$              96,035$

Best Hardware and Average kW Cost               0,643$             19,29$              234,75$

Average Hardware and Average kW Cost            0,400$             12,00$              146,10$




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Here are the system z electric consumptions. They may appear to be very high, but they represent
less than 1% of the total cost of the machine. Keep in mind that a system z9 can run hundreds of
zLinux, contrary to x86 servers which can run in the best case about six operating systems at the
same time, using virtualization solutions presented in previous chapters, as Xen Source.

Z9 EC Model             Power (watt)    Cost/Day      Cost/Month      Cost/Year

S08                     12100           27,21$        816,31$         9795$

S18                     14700           33,06$        991,72$         11900$

S28                     16900           38$           1140$           13681$

S38 and S54             18300           41,15$        1234,59$        14815$



If one bases solely on hardware capabilities and consumption, without taking account of x86
virtualization solutions such as Xen Source or VMWare, System z9 is far more interesting, as we can
see on this recent IBM study.




It would seem “unfair” to compare these technologies without use virtualization. Then, let’s take an
example: how about hundred zLinux on system z9 and five Linux on each x86 server. This last
hypothesis would be a great performance in most production infrastructure. You should also
consider results below don’t take account of software price such as VMWare (thousands of dollars).

Model                   Cost/Year Average     Cost per virtual machine /Year Average

Tower Servers           730$                  150$

Rack Servers            730$                  150$

System z9 servers       12550$                125$

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Managers of Data Centers shouldn’t count on racks to solve energy consideration problems. Indeed,
although many manufacturers make efforts to improve the electrical consumption, their
consumptions will continue to increase, at a dramatic speed, as shown in this IDC study (June 2007).




Mainframes then seem to be a good alternative, and although some blade technologies offer
virtualization capabilities (such as Hypervisor, virtual I/O, etc)… none of them offer the maturity of
virtualization provided by System z. They benefit from nearly 35 years of experience. As a result,
there workloads are often near 100% utilization, whereas distributed servers run at a very low
utilization level, from 10% to 30% for the most used. Customers want to pay for what they can do
with their machines. A server having so much “white space” is not interesting, as it’s not profitable.

Energy used by machines is significant, but the required infrastructure they suppose is even more
important. According to this study from EPA, non IT equipment (cooling, ventilation, pumps, etc.)
represent an average of 60% of the Data Centers electricity consumption.




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Heat in Data Centers

The major reason that electricity has become a problem in the Data Centers is the fact that IT
equipments generate much more heat than before. Therefore, new problems for managers are
about heat removal. A Data Center should be at about 19°, whereas most of them are at about 26°.




       Heat load per footprint evolution (Source: IBM Journal of Research and Development)

Every big company has to install its own air-conditioning system, in order to keep the components of
the electronic equipment within the manufacturers’ specified temperature/humidity range.
Servers which are in a confined space generate a lot of heat, and then their equipment’s reliability is
reduced if they are not adequately cooled. It can be disastrous for the production.



                                  When a Bladecenter is full with a classic breakdown, servers in the
                      middle and top level are so heat so that their rate of failure becomes unusable”

                                         Bertrand Buxman, Emerson Network Power Cooling Director



BladeCenters are very interesting equipments because they typically need about 2 kilowatts of
power per rack (except High Density Blade requiring more than 20kW per rack) but generate much
more heat than over servers. Energy saved on hardware is passed on cooling system consumption.
According to a study from EPA, rack servers are expected to require an additional 20-25 kW of power
for the cooling and power conversion equipment that supports it.


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Despite advices provided by companies such as Ashrae, which is an American Society specialized in
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning advanced technologies, heat in Data Centers remains a
problem. Number of best practice guides more and more increases and how to place its servers
has become very important to optimize its floors cooling in Data Centers.




Even with such practice guide, there will always remain hot aisles. The use of alternating hot and cold
aisles is a method of configuring server, when rack servers are arranged in parallel rows. Naturally,
hot aisle are at a much higher temperature than cold aisle. When warm room air mixes in a colder
air, the results tend to be very difficult to control at a precise temperature.



                  We estimate that in 2006 $29 billion was spent on powering and cooling IT system.”

                                                                                       IDC Analyst Firm

To preserve their own machines and prevent any failures due to overheat, companies must use
cooling systems, but their costs are incredibly high, particularly since they don’t really contribute to
the company, it is an obligation and nothing more. These facilities would never bring money, and
with rigour and attention, hot spot areas will still be present. These are area which generate much
heat, even if they usually occupy a limited floor space, resulting wasted Data Center space.

Indeed, when some machines generate much heat, companies usually isolate them, leaving a
significant space between them and the rest of machines. The goal is to not heat the other machines
more than they are, and to control areas following their heated outbursts.

Place used by machines also remains a very big problem for companies and their Data Centers. It’s
not rare to deal with Data Center of thousand square meters. Mainframes tend to be a solution for
space and electricity problems, as it can easily replace hundreds of tower and dozen rack servers,
without their physical constraints.

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A recent study from IBM confronts power and space consumption needed by usual x86 servers for
from Intel and System z9. It tends to say Mainframes could avoid much problems presented above.




Some key numbers from the Wall Street Journal Online showing hidden costs are not that “hidden”...

    Air-conditioning: Cooling units cost $25k to $50K

    Electrical system: a diesel generator costs $50k to $200k

    Floor space costs: Most companies build new facilities for their Data Centers:
     $250/Square feet to $1500/Square feet, design an deployment costs: $30k to $75k

Equipments and People considerations

Other costs imposed by distributed environments are network equipments such as routers or
switches, allowing machines to communicate each others. These equipments are not necessary in
Mainframe environments, since every network communication between each virtual machine is
done thought the HiperSocket technology, presented above. They can then allow significant
economies (hundreds of dollars per network equipment, such as Cisco products), and even boost
performances as HiperSocket runs at memory speed.




           Network Equipments needs for hundreds of servers, based on Switch 24 ports (such as Cisco Catalyst 2950)

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People costs are also very important according to the choose platforms. The more you have
machines, the more you’ll need peoples for maintenance. Distributed server environments then
need for more people than in Mainframe environments. As people costs are the main source of
expense, companies should seriously think about the System z9 alternative.



         The number of operators and system programmers required per Mainframe MIPS has fallen
           ted-fold in past seven years, and is expected to at least halve again in the next five years.”

                                                                            Arcati (The Dinosaur Myth)




What about Blade Servers?

The most “fashionable” servers nowadays are without any doubt Blade Servers. Indeed, they have
great qualities, but also defects, as seen before, especially their heat release. Still, it remains
interesting to see why they are so much appreciated in IT infrastructure.




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Results of this recent poll from NWC are quite ironic, as the main drivers to choose Blade Servers are
the same which make the strength of the “new” Mainframe, as seeing above! This study clear shows
that Mainframe could attract most people, who wish to benefits from all Blade Servers qualities,
which are even more interesting under Mainframe environments, and without there defects.

Big Green

This approach may appear far too optimistic, but it is revealing of the new reality of Mainframe
servers. IBM recently launched a new project “Big Green”, referencing to its nickname “Big Blue”,
and will redirect more than $1 billion per year to mobilizing the company’s resources to dramatically
increase the level of energy efficiency in IT.




To begin its project, IBM consolidated about 3900 distributed servers on only 33 Mainframes, thanks
to the z/VM technology. This new environment will consume 80% less energy than the current
configuration and will also allow IBM to realize significant savings (energy, software and hardware
support) in the next 5 years. Holding of floor space will also be reduced by 85%.

The replacement of real servers by virtual servers allows IBM to significantly reduce operating costs:

     Energy saved represents the annual electricity consumption of a small town for a year.

     Software is often billed according to installed processor. The 33 Mainframes contain far
      fewer processors than 3900 servers today.

     The project will release technical personnel and assigned them to projects with higher value.


This infrastructure capable of handling 350,000 users serves as a perfect illustration of the
Mainframe transformation, and a perfect showcase for customers. With this consolidation, IBM
wants to prove that the Mainframe is the best solution to meet customer’s requirements in terms of
infrastructure cost reducing and optimal management of energy.



Mainframes seem to be the perfect platform for Server Consolidation: it provides various significant
costs save: power, space, software and people. Furthermore, it has qualities not available on other
platform, as a very advanced security, dynamic allocation of compute power, hardware with
redundant components, etc…




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Effects on market

Customers seem to be sensitive to the new Mainframe qualities, especially the possibility to run
several zLinux on a single system. This chart from IBM presents the evolution of MIPS growth, and it
appears that IFL utilization is very popular, since it’s not software charged.




The IBM System z Mainframes experiments a great resurgence of interest in the world. According the
IDC, in 2006 the income growth of IBM Mainframes was superior to those Windows platforms. High
utilization of Linux servers and big server consolidation projects explain this situation.




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3.3 A mature and credible platform


Mainframes can conquer a new part of market with their virtualization capabilities. But it’s also very
interesting for all its old but efficient technologies. They will then be still used for the reasons they
are actually used, which we have presented in the chapters above. Still, much company’s critical
applications are hosted on Mainframe, and can’t be migrated.



                                                       More than 75% of professional transactions pass
                                     at least once through Mainframes applications written in COBOL.”

                                                                                           Gartner Group



            It’s in the 60’s banks and major companies developed their historic business applications.
           They have not ceased to be improved. Their replacement or rewrite became to expensive”

                                                       Evelyn Bernard-Thewes, ECS Mainframe Director

Mainframe will then keep its niche place in very high quality servers market for these reasons. It’s
also the only platform able to answer to big Business Continuity Plan imposed in banks by prudential
designed to prevent banking risks such as BALE II. Parallel Sysplex or GDPS don’t really have
equivalent in distributed server environment. Serious companies need to be sure of their IT
infrastructure, and breakdowns can be disastrous.




Combined to its advanced hardware, z/OS is the only Operation System offering a system availability
of 99,999% and EAL5 certified. They provide reliability, availability and serviceability.
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Mainframes benefits from decade of experience in big infrastructure, and big companies need them.
Indeed, all most enterprises from Fortuna 500 use Mainframe, even the ones which don’t use z/OS
but only z/VM, such as some banks in Japan, using Linux systems consolidated on System z9.



     There couldn’t be any migration from Mainframes to UNIX in banks. Very few banks are created
                    today, but even the newest choose the Mainframe, such as “La Banque Postale”

                                                                    Stéphane Deliry, Overlap President

With Mainframes, customers are sure to invest on a strong hardware, and to capitalize on their IT
infrastructure. In distributed servers environments, update its infrastructure can be a real nightmare,
as it deals with thousands of servers. It’s too much complex. X86 configuration dramatically change
with time, and thus are not reliable, which is not the case in with Mainframe.

If one has to remember five reasons why Mainframe is going to grown on market, we should say:

    1. Security and High Availability

    2. Investment protection and overall operating costs

    3. Scalability: Scale Out and Scale Up thanks to its hardware and virtualization capabilities

    4. High old and new workloads (COBOL, Java) with great performances

    5. Emergency management: Procedures are documented since years: customers are serene

Finally, a recent study from Arcati present the average cost per end user in 2010. It takes into
account the various parameters we presented in an IT infrastructure. It appears than the Mainframe
with be the most interesting architecture on a five-year costs consideration.




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3.4 Emerging applications


When IBM decided to open its Mainframes to Linux systems, many specialists didn’t understand its
strategy, and thought it was a huge error. Today, zLinux is the new strength of System z9, and is
crucial for IBM, notably in all server consolidation projects. But innovations are not over and
Mainframes are going to discover new horizons.

Gameframe

Indeed, a new kind of System z9 will appear in few months, integrating a Cell Broadband Engine. This
machine, called “Gameframe” will be designed to support MMORPG games and virtual communities.
This project is born of a partnership between IBM and a Brazilian game developer “Hoplon
Infotainment” and plans to create system which will host massively multiplayer online games.



                             As online environments increasingly incorporate aspects of virtual reality
         -- including 3D graphics and lifelike, real-time interaction among many simultaneous users --
          companies of all types will need a computing platform that can handle a broad spectrum of
                                                   demanding performance and security requirements.”

                                                         Jim Stallings, IBM System z General Manager

The IBM system z9 will add a great level of realism to visual interactions in addition to gaming, as
well as much security, thanks to its EAL level 5. It could be also used to enhance the scalability and
performance of existing virtual worlds, as Second Life.

Many consultants think it’s just a huge gadget announcement. But they should reconsider the online
game market, which is exploding, especially since their democratization through Word of Warcraft.




According to me, IBM aims a very promising market with its Gameframe systems.
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zSolaris

Gameframe is not the only innovation promised in Mainframe environment. Indeed, after having
opened its system to Linux, IBM will now open it to Solaris.




zSolaris will then be available in few months, according to a recent agreement between IBM and
Solaris. As Solaris 10 is a very stable and reliable system, combined with the known qualities of
Mainframes, this combination will for sure interest most people, notably webhosting companies
which use Sun Operating System for its complete fault and security isolation with Solaris Containers.

z/OS Simplification

The worst thing about z/OS is its interface, which is more than thirty years old. It considerably
reduces productivity in some case. IBM is aware of the problem, and will launch a huge project
representing an investment of $100 million to make the System z easier to use for a greater number
of IT Specialist. It particularly aims zNextGen Members, who are more efficient with graphical
interfaces. The goal is to enable administrators to more easily manage their Mainframe systems, with
automated configuration checking, modernizing user interface and development environments with
visual tools available on microcomputers. IBM demonstrates Mainframes can be flexible for use.



                                                             IBM aims for user-friendly Mainframes”
                                                                                CNET Networks, Inc.




Other consoles are available under zMC, allowing administrators to configure RACF, WLM, DB2 and
much more with a graphical interface. These innovations will give to the Mainframe a new life.
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3.5 SWOT and future market

Mainframes are in a niche market, but for the first time since years, they can conquer new market,
which where once only composed of x86 servers retailers. Here is, according to me, the System z9
SWOT. SWOT is a strategic tool used to evaluate Strengths and Weaknesses of a product, as well
Opportunities and Threats existing on aimed market. It helps to have an overall view of the situation.




In my opinion, IBM can conquer new market and destabilize many actors, on hardware market as
well on software market, Business Class System z9 equipped of IFL engines being very competitive.
zLinux and zSolaris will surely be the salvation of Mainframes, and most of them will surely be sold
during next years only for their incredible virtualization capabilities.

I think that Mainframes market will be split and will address two distinct types of customers. On the
one hand, we’ll have usual Mainframes customers, who will use z/OS as well as z/VM. On the other
hand, we’ll have “new” Mainframes customers, who will surely only use z/VM capabilities, in order to
execute thousands of zLinux and zSolaris. These customers will be web hosting companies, needing
many servers based on the same “template”, and customers quickly needing tests environments. In
any case, the future of the Mainframe on the market looks very good, for all reasons I’ve presented. I
would be very surprised if it does not take back a prominent place in a few months.


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Conclusion

Mainframes are often seen as old dinosaurs doomed to disappear. However, we have seen
throughout this thesis that this simplistic vision is largely incorrect.


Mainframes are machines running programs written 30 years ago, it’s what makes them so
interesting: with this platform, companies can capitalize on their existing infrastructure, and don’t
lose any money invested for many years notably in old COBOL critical applications. At the same time,
they can use it for recent programs written in Java. Then, they benefits from modern and old
applications. System z9 is still the preferred machine in major infrastructure for its reliability;
availability, serviceability and security, and the world still need it.

Companies know they can count on this platform in case of Disaster Recovery, which won’t be the
case with other technologies. In addition, the migration to UNIX Systems would be far too expensive,
both in terms of hardware than software. The early death of Mainframes is then a utopia.

We have seen that the hardware of System z9 meets large requirements, and is the only one capable
of providing an availability of 99.999%. In addition, its specialized processors not only allow saving
money but also improving the distribution of various workloads following their nature (Java, DB2,
XLM, etc...). Technologies used under z/OS are far from being obsolete, as Parallel Sysplex, GDPS, and
Copy Services offer very advanced features which don’t have any equivalent in distributed server
environments. Older products such as RACF benefit from decades of innovations, making them stable
and effective (EAL 5 certification). The file system, which appears at first sight completely archaic, is
actually very interesting, because it provides very fast read and write access, as the system knows of
it’s formatted since its allocation. Overall system performances are also extremely good, since a
System z is often used at more than 90% by its various tasks, which priorities are managed by WLM.

Virtualization is the new hype technology to use in IT environment, and System z has very significant
advantages, as it benefits from years of experience, particularly through z/VM. Mainframe therefore
seems to be the ideal platform to run Linux servers, and it’s evident it will have a decisive importance
in server consolidation projects. We have also shown the TCO of a Mainframe is more interesting
than the one of distributed servers especially considering hidden costs such as energy, space
infrastructures needed, and other considerations such as network equipment or people costs.

New applications available on Mainframes, such as zSolaris, make it very credible, and the
administration simplification may have a very positive impact on small and medium enterprises.

Today, Mainframes have the ability to penetrate new markets, and their Business Class ranges can
easily attract customers who never thought they could buy a Mainframe. We can therefore say that
the future of Mainframe appears to be bright.




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References

Online Web Resources:

www.01net.com Interviews

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization

Study Groups:

       “Data Centers Challenges” (IDC)

       “The state of the Mainframe” (Gartner)

        “Online Game Market Forecasts 2007” (DFC Intelligences)

       “Energy Information Administration” (Power Plant Report)

       “Meeting the Data Center Power and Cooling Challenge” (Gartner)

       “Financial and Functional Impact of Computer Outages on Businesses” (University of Texas)

       “Power Conservation Inside and Outside the Box - A Systemic Approach to Energy Efficient
       Information Management” (Pund-IT)

IBM Documentations and Redbooks:

       Confidential Study Cases

       Getting Started With SMS

       Positioning zOS and Linux for zSeries

       zOS IBM Health Checker for zOS User’s Guide

       Security Server RACF Security Administrator’s Guide

       Introduction to zOS and the Mainframe Environment

       Mainframe Computing and Power in the Data Center

       Why the IBM Mainframe Is an Effective Choice for Banks

       GDPS Family - An Introduction to Concepts and Capabilities

       Clustering Solutions Overview Parallel Sysplex and Other Platforms

       IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center for Replication on Windows 2003


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