9 Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment
This chapter reviews the archaeological and cultural heritage potential of the
GasPort Project area, focusing on land to the north and south of the River Tees. This
information has been used to provide an assessment of the potential effects on
archaeology and cultural heritage arising from the planned development. The
assessment has been carried out in accordance with Planning Policy Guidance note
16 and the Tees Valley Structure Plan, and has been undertaken by CgMs
(consultants in archaeology and cultural heritage).
This assessment has comprised a desk-based review of archive information,
• identify known and potential archaeology within the development sites and
the immediate area;
• provide a preliminary assessment of their significance and the impact the
proposed development may have upon them;
• provide the basis for recommendations regarding impact mitigation.
A plan showing known sites of archaeology and cultural heritage considered in this
assessment is included as Figure 9.1. This chapter draws from the full
archaeological desk-based assessment which is included as Appendix 9.1.
9.2 Legislation and Planning Policy Context
The framework for the protection, assessment and mitigation of archaeology is
provided by Planning Policy Guidance note 16 (1990).
In considering any planning application for development, the Local Planning
Authority will be guided by the policy framework set by government guidance, in this
instance Planning Policy Guidance note 16, by current Development Plan policy and
by other material considerations. With regard to the GasPort project, the relevant
development plan policy framework is provided by the Tees Valley Structure Plan
In summary, these national and Local Plan policies:
• protect Scheduled Ancient Monuments;
• protect the settings of these sites;
• protect nationally important un-scheduled ancient monuments;
• in appropriate instances, seek adequate information to enable informed
• provide for the excavation and investigation of sites not important enough to
merit in-situ preservation.
9.3 Assessment Mythology
In accordance with government guidance on archaeology and planning (PPG 16)
and the Tees Valley Structure Plan (2004), an archaeological desk-based
assessment of the proposed GasPort Project development area has been prepared
and is included here as a Technical report (CgMs Consulting May 2006, Appendix
9.1). English Heritage was consulted as part of the data gathering process.
All readily accessible sources were consulted to obtain the maximum information,
regarding the archaeological and historical background of the development area.
These characteristics are described in the following sections.
9.3.1 The Site and Monuments Record
The Sites and Monuments Record (SMR) for Teesside is compiled and maintained
by Tees Archaeology. It is a register of all known archaeological sites and find
locations within the area, including Scheduled Monuments. All entries falling within
the GasPort Project site and within land extending to a 1km radius were examined.
9.3.2 Documentary Sources
A search of relevant primary and secondary sources was carried out from the
• Teesside Archives;
• Durham County Record Office;
• Durham University Special Collections;
• CgMs Reference Library.
Recent volumes of local and national journals were consulted, and both published
and unpublished archaeological reports relating to excavations and observations
within the assessment area were examined.
The desk based assessment has considered the following elements:
• development plan framework;
• geology and topography;
• archaeological and Historical Background;
• the archaeological impact of previous land use and the potential
archaeological impact of the proposed development.
Standards and Guidance for the preparation of archaeological desk-based
assessments, issued by the Institute of Field Archaeologists, has been followed.
9.3.3 Cartographic Sources
A search of archive maps was undertaken at the appropriate Record Offices and a
map regression for the site prepared. Early maps and associated documents may
indicate changes in land use, ownership and property boundaries, and can also
provide information on the sequence of buildings on a site.
9.3.4 Site Visit
A walk over inspection of the GasPort Project area was undertaken to assess the
potential impact of existing buildings and development proposals on features of
archaeological interest and to identify potential areas of artefact survival.
9.3.5 Baseline Review
220.127.116.11 Archaeological Background
Full details of archaeological resources within and around the development sites are
given in the ‘Archaeological Desk Based Assessment, GasPort, Teesside. CgMs
Consulting May 2006. A summary of this assessment is provided in the following
Historically the coastline on the northern and southern banks of the River Tees was
set back from its present-day shoreline. Both the northern and southern
development sites comprise reclaimed land and as such they have no archaeological
potential. However, they do lie adjacent to a known medieval landscape, as the
Tees was used for shipping during this period. In addition, the first recorded use of
land adjacent to the northern development site was in the medieval period when land
along the coastline belonged to The Bishop of Durham and was used as pasture for
The SMR contains five entries for medieval salt mounds which were located to the
northeast of the southern development site up to the late 19th century. Two brine
wells (SMR 4303) dating to the 19th century show that the salt industry was also
located on the northern bank of the River Tees. In addition, the SMR also contains
reference to a medieval spear found to the nearby to the southern development site.
The spear was found on the site of an old blast furnace in a slag tip and was not in
situ (SMR 239). An additional SMR entry contains reference to a 19th century
harbour (SMR 4683) immediately to the west of the northern development site, and a
rifle range (SMR 4424) to the south. On the south bank of the River Tees there is
also a 19th century railway station and later 20th century signal box (SMR 4782).
No other significant activity took place in the immediate vicinity of the GasPort
Project area until World War II when a series of coastal defences, comprising
pillboxes (SMR 0985, 3287, 4684) bombing decoys (SMR 3288, 4365, 4366, 4375)
and a mortar post (SMR 3289) were constructed. One of the bombing decoys (SMR
4385) is located in close proximity to one of the pipeline corridors within the GasPort
Project proposals area.
9.3.6 Site Conditions
As stated earlier in this chapter, the northern and southern parts of the GasPort
Project development site lies on land reclaimed from the sea as part of an on-going
programme from the 19th century onwards. Ground levels have been increased by
up to 6m with imported material. Both sites have a primarily industrial character.
9.4 Assessment of Significant: Archaeology
On the basis of the available evidence, there are no Scheduled Ancient Monuments,
listed buildings or archaeological remains of local, regional or
national importance within the proposals area. In addition, no archaeological sites of
greater than local importance have been identified within a 1km radius of the
With the exception of where the pipeline crosses the line of the River Tees, the pipe
trench will be contained within the 4-6m depth of imported material. It will not cut
into any underlying peat deposits. Therefore, no further archaeological work is
required in mitigation of the potential impact of the proposed redevelopment.
9.5 Impact Prediction
9.5.1 Short to medium term impacts (Construction phase)
The development sites and pipeline corridor comprise land which has been
reclaimed from the sea and built-up with 4-6m of imported material. They are not
considered to be of archaeological value and construction will, therefore, have no
impact on the archaeological resource. Horizontal directional drilling beneath the
River Tees may have a limited impact on previously unrecorded buried maritime
remains; but this methodology precludes any meaningful archaeological
9.5.2 Long term impacts: (Operational phase)
Following the completion of the GasPort Project construction phase, no long term
impacts on features of archaeological interest are considered likely to arise.
9.6 Impact Mitigation
Baseline studies have identified no known archaeological resources within the
GasPort Project development area. As a consequence, no special archaeological
mitigation measures are required.
9.7 Residual Impacts
No residual or cumulative impacts on features of archaeological interest would arise
from the GasPort Project proposals.
Based on available information, this assessment concludes that no part of the project
area contains sites of cultural heritage interest. There will be no requirement for
mitigation and there are no short, medium or long-term impacts on the