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Atul Kumar Singh Departement of Pathology, College of Veterinary Sciences,GB.Pant University of Agriculture and Pantnagar-263145 (Uttaranchal) INTRODUCTION This disease is spread in almost all parts of the tropical and subtropical countries as southern Europe, north, central and east Africa & south east Asia. In India, it is of enzootic in nature and most commonly during or following monsoon. Annual loss is estimated around 40000 cattle. ETIOLOGY Gram-negative coccids, short rod, and filamentous organism cause this disease. Bollinger investigated this fatal disease in cattle in 1978. Rossenbusch and Merchant used Pasteurella multocida as a causative agent. Robert told that it is serotype 1 who is responsible for this disease. PREDISPOSING FACTOR This organism is natural habitant of upper respiratory tract particularly of tonsillar and nasopharyngeal mucosa. This organism acts as secondary invader in other diseases or certain debilitating condition or animal under stress. Main predisposing factor is fatigue, transportation, overexertion, starvation, close confinement to damp and humid atmosphere. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY RATE Both morbidity and mortality rate vary between 50% and 100%, and animal that recover require long convalescence. The over all mean case fatality rate for buffalo is nearly three times as high as in cattle. and Animal Technology,

SUSCEPTIBLE HOST Cattle are most susceptible host; young growing cattle within the group age 6 months to 2 years are often affected. Sheep, pig and goat do suffer. Horse susceptible up to less extent and dogs are comparatively immune. MODE OF TRANSMISSION  Through contact with infected anim als.   Through inhalation or ingestion Saliva is abundant in pasteurallae thus salivary transmission is possible. Carrier animal may transmit the disease to its young one through milk.









bronchiole, bronchi, and alveoli. This organism cannot invade lung due to lungs defense mechanism. But stresses as malnutrition, long transportation, climatic changes make the organism virulent and there by bring about changes in the lung and lung is unable to clear to pathogens. Organisms are efficient in destroying bovine mononuclear leukocytes of blood and macrophages of lungs. From death of macrophages pharmacologically active substances like histamine prostaglandins as well as some fibro elastic elements are released. The changes thus produced in lungs comprises of broncho pneumonia. The changes thus produced causes consolidation of lungs that in turn produces high bronchial sound (moist rail). Death of animals occurs due to hypoxia and toxemia. CLINICAL FINDINGS  Sudden onset of temperature (106 o F to 107 o F)  Profuse salivation, lacrymation & nasal discharge.


Sign of conjunctivitis and visible mucous membrane becomes deep red in colour. In less acute cases, there is rise in body temperature and localization of oedema in the subcutaneous pocket of the head neck dewlap and brisket region. Death usually occurs within 20 to 24 hours. Severe dyspnea is produced due to respiratory obstruction.


LESIONS    Pneumonic changes are manifested by p leuritis, pericarditis, and hepatization of lungs with deposition of sero -fibrinous exudate. Oedema of glottis, perilaringeal and peritracheal tissues. Enlargement of lymph nodes.

DIAGNOSIS 1) ORGANISM IDENTIFICATION  Smear from heart blood, liver, lung, spleen and intestinal content from dead animal is stained with LEISHMAN’S STAIN. Bipolar organism is seen in smear.  Smear can also be prepared in methylene blue stain also.

2) ORGANISM CULTURE  Sample is cultured on blood agar and BGA pl ates, non-hemolytic dewdrops like colonies may be seen.  Tryptose-tryptone agar containing 0.1% sucrose and its extracts makes very small to grow.

3) ANIMAL INOCULATION  Rabbit is most susceptible lab animal for this bacterium.  Mice and G. Pig are used generally for this purpose.


Material is inoculated through subcutaneous or intra -peritoneal route, animal dies within 24 to 48 hours; having haemorrhagic lesion.

TREATMENT  In initial phase of disease intra -venous administration of sulfonamides i.e. sulfamethazines @ 150mg/kg for three days or sulfadimidines @150mg/kg for three days.  Oxytetracycline can be used @ 5-10mg/kg for three days. Beside these, treatment may be extended with chloramphenicol@10mg/kg or ampicilline@10mg/kg.  Along with these anti-inflammatory drugs are also given e. g. betamethacine@ 1mg/5kg or dexamethacine @1mg/5kg.

SUPPORTIVE THERAPY Supportive therapy is very much important part of treatment for survival of the animals. Because after causation of disease the animal has to be prevented from further aggravation of the conditions. As organism causes the septicemia in the body of the animals and as result of it there will be high level of bacteria and the toxins. Animals throat feels strangulation and also there will be problem in breathing. So along with antibiotic therapy the animal has to be provided with supportive therapy to complete the need of vitamins, minerals and also intravenous administration of glucose must be given, as animal needs instant energy due to severe deficiency of glucose. PREVENTION AND CONTROL This disease can be controlled by use of different practices to check the stresses to the animals and by checking of the growth of organism in animals’ body. These are some of the important factors that have very effective role in causation of disease.

Effective management, rational execution of vaccines and care in transportation of animal should be taken. In enzootic areas compulsory vaccination should be carried out before o ne or two month of monsoon. 1. Immunization: Immune serum is injected s/c @15ml/300kg in cattle and 20ml/300kg in buffalo. Vaccine: Broth vaccine - 5ml/ 300kgs Agar wash - is also a method of vaccination being used.

Adjuvant vaccines are being practice in some area. 2. Management: During transportation of the animals all the points should be followed as there should be proper management of transportation, no over-crowding, and proper rest to the animals. Animal’s houses should be in decent cond itions, there should be proper ventilations, very less humidity, and temperature should be normal. For control of disease the animal must be kept away from the healthy animals to avoid the contamination of food and drinking materials. And healthy animal must be away from a potent source of infection, which may lead to causation of disease in healthy animals. And animal should be housed in a properly ventilated houses and hygienic condition must be taken into consideration.

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