Cassava Fertilization and Erosion Control by slappypappy128

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									Cassava Fertilization and
    Erosion Control


      Reinhardt Howeler
         July, 2009
                                    30



        Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                    25

                                    20

                                    15

                                    10       = Sattahip
                                             = Huaipong
                                    5        = Korat

                                     0
                                    1955   1960   1965    1970 1975    1980   1985   1990
                                                           Crop year

Decline in cassava root yields due to continuous cultivation without
                  fertilizers in three soil series in Thailand.
Soil Productivity Decline
      due to
1) Nutrient Depletion
2) Erosion
Average nutrient removal by cassava and various other crops,
as reported in the literature.

                             Yield (t/ha)      (kg/ha)
                                      
Crop/plant part            Fresh      Dry   N     P    K

Cassava/fresh roots        35.7    13.53     55   13.2   112
Sweet potato/fresh roots   25.2     5.05     61   13.3    97
Maize/dry grain             6.5     5.56     96   17.4    26
Rice/dry grain              4.6     3.97     60    7.5    13
Wheat/dry grain             2.7     2.32     56   12.0    13
Sorghum/dry grain           3.6     3.10    134   29.0    29
Beans/dry grain             1.1     0.94     37    3.6    22
Soya/dry grain              1.0     0.86     60   15.3    67
Groundnut/dry pod           1.5     1.29    105    6.5    35
Sugarcane/fresh cane       75.2    19.55     43   20.2    96
Tobacco/dry leaves          2.5     2.10     52    6.1   105
Table 4. Effect of fertilizer application on total dry matter and root production as well as on
         the accumulation of N, P, and K in the whole plant and in the roots of 1-year-old
         cassava (cv. MCol 22) grown in Quilichao, Colombia (Howeler & Cadavid, 1983).

                                                Without fertilizer             With fertilizer1)

Total DM production, tons/ha                           18.2                           30.1
Fresh root yield, tons/ha                              33.2                           52.1
Dry root yield, tons/ha                                12.7                           21.7

Total N uptake, kg/ha                                 209                           315
N in roots, kg/ha                                     101                           152

Total P uptake, kg/ha                                  18                             37
P in roots, kg/ha                                      10                             22

Total K uptake, kg/ha                                 144                           238
K in roots, kg/ha                                      90                           162
1)
 Application of 100 kg of N, 131 kg of P, and 83 kg of K/ha, broadcast and incorporated
 before planting.
In Vietnam farmers not only harvest the roots……
   …..but sometimes
   also the leaves and
  fallen leaves to feed
the animals or start the
   fire in the kitchen
…..while stems and stumps are used as fuel for cooking
              Nutrient Depletion

• It was found that cassava extracts from the soil
  and removes from the field less nutrients than
  most other crops, except when yields are very
  high or stems and leaves are also removed
  from the field
Nitrogen
N response in sand culture with nutrient solution
N sufficiency in Mandim Branca variety in back, N deficiency
      in Mico variety in front, in Santa Catarina, Brazil
Mandim Branca: without N
    in front and with N
application in back, in Santa
      Catarina, Brazil
  Jatikerto station,
 Malang, East Java:
Without N application
in the front, with N in
        the back
Fertilizer experiment in Nanning, Guangxi, China; without
N in front, with N in back; SC201 on left, SC205 on right
                                    25




                                    20




        Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                                       Days after planting
                                    15
                                                  0       30      120        150
                                                           % applied

                                                100        0        0         0
                                    10            0       50       25        25
                                                 25       25       25        25


                                     5

                                     0
                                         0   50      75      100             150
                                             N applied – (kg/ha)


Response of cassava to different levels and times of
    application of N in Carimagua, Colombia
Phosphorus
P response in nutrient solution
Cassava plants with and without P application in a pot trial with
                soil from Quilichao, Colombia
  In some varieties P
deficiency results in one
 or more yellow lower
         leaves
 Some yellow lower
   leaves due to P
deficiency in an NPK
 trial in Carimagua,
       Colombia
Response to application of 400 kg/ha of P2O5 as banded TSP
                 in Carimagua, Colombia
                             25


                             20
   Cassava yield (tons/ha)



                             15


                             10                                                       = rockphos. Huila-broadcast
                                               = TSP banded
                                               = basic slag-broadcast                 = 20% acidulated R.P Huila
                                               = SSP - banded                         = R.P Huila – Sulphur (5:1)
                              5


                              0
                                  0   50 100    200               400 0    50 100      200               400

                                                         P application (kg P2O5/ha)



Response of cassava, Llanera, to the application of different
     levels and sources of P in Carimagua, Colombia
Cassava is much more tolerant of low levels
of P in the soil than most other crops, but
sometimes the crop responds well to P-
applications during the first few years of
cropping.


                   Why?
1. Cassava removes from the field much less
  P than N and K in the root harvest

2. Cassava forms a very effective symbiosis
   with naturally occurring VA mycorrhizal
   fungi in the soil; these help the plant in
   the absorption of P
 Schematic diagram of roots with (right) and without infection by
mycorrhizal fungi and the effect on the volume of soil from which P
                         can be absorbed
 Cassava has a very
coarse root system as
 compared with rice,
   both growing in
  nutrient solution
  But, when inoculated
  with mycorrizal fungi
  (right), cassava grows
   much better due to a
more effective uptake of
P from the low-P nutrient
          solution
     With VAM
 inoculation, cassava
   growth is much
  improved as roots
become covered with
      masses of
 mycorrhizal hyphea
Fibrous root of cassava with
mycorrhizal vesicles inside
    the root and hyphea
covering the root in nutrient
          solution
Fibrous root of cassava with
 root hairs and mycorrhizal
    hyphae and vesicles
 Masses of mycorrhizal
   hyphae attached to
cassava roots growing in
    nutrient solution
Growth response to five levels of applied P in a sterilized
    Quilichao soil, without mycorrhizal inoculation
Growth response to five levels of applied P in a sterilized Quilichao
               soil, with mycorrhizal inoculation
Soil sterilization with methyl bromide to eliminate all
                natural mycorrhiza fungi
   Cassava growth in
sterilized soil in front, in
non-sterilized soil in back
  Cassava growth in sterilized soil on left, in non-sterilized soil on
right; note recuperation of border row plants due to mycorrhizal re-
                  invasion from non-sterilized soil
                                         M Col 638   M Col 1684

                                    50




                                    40


        Cassava root yield (t/ha)                                 Sterilized soil
                                    30                            Uninoculated

                                                                  Non-sterilized soil
                                                                  Uninoculated
                                    20
                                                                  Non-sterilized soil
                                                                  Inoculated


                                    10




                                     0




Effect of soil sterilization and mycorrhizal inoculation on the root
      yield of two cassava varieties in Quilichao, Colombia
After several years of continuous cropping, excellent cassava growth
  even in P-check plot due to an efficient mycorrhizal association
Potassium
Response to application of different levels of K in nutrient
                     solution culture
K deficiency symptoms
    in lower leaves
Severe K deficiency in K check plot in Carimagua, Colombia
K deficient plant; note short internodes and light green top
Growth response to K application in Carimagua, Colombia;
    zero K in front, zero NPK and high NPK in back
K response on sandy soil in Kampong Cham, Cambodia;
     in front without K application, in back with K
K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia; note leaf
   curling and light green color of younger leaves
                                   20
                                             MVen 77


                                   18




       Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                                                Days
                                   12                   0      30    60   90
                                                                  %
                                                 E1 =   100     0     0    0
                                                 E2 =    50     0    50    0
                                    8
                                                 E3 =     0    50     0   50
                                                 E4 =     0   100     0    0
                                                 E5 =    33    33     0   33
                                    4



                                    0
                                        0   42         84                 168
                                                    kg K/ha



Cassava root yield response to levels and times of
   application of K in Carimagua, Colombia
                                  20                                      40
                                                          Yield


                                  16                                      35




             Cassava yield-t/ha
                                  12                       Starch         30




                                                                               % Starch
                                   8                                      25




                                   4                                      20



                                   0
                                       0   42        84             168
                                                K-kg/ha


Effect of the application of different levels of K on the root yield and
      starch content of cassava grown in Carimagua, Colombia
Long-term fertility
  maintenance
Fertilizer response in Tamanbogo, Lampung, Indonesia; without fertilizers
in front, with high fertilizers in back, after 14 years of continuous cassava
                                   cultivation
                            60    A.

                            50                                                        Annual application
Cassava root yield (t/ha)




                                                                                          (kg/ha)

                            40                                                      100 N-200 P2O5-150 K2O

                                                                                    0N-0P-150 K2O
                            30
                                                                                    100 N-0P-0K
                            20                                                      0N-200 P2O5-0K
                                                                                    0N-0P-0K
                            10

                              0
                                  1     2      3      4     5      6      7     8

                            Response of cassava to the application of different levels and
                            combinations of N, P and K during eight years of continuous
                                         cropping in Quilichao, Colombia
    Exchangeable K (meq/100 g)   0.5   B.
                                                                                        300 K2O
                                 0.4

                                 0.3
                                                                                        150 K2O
                                 0.2

                                 0.1                                                    0K

                                  0
                                       0    1     2     3     4     5       6   7   8
                                                Cassava cropping sequence


Effect of the application of different levels and combinations of N,
 P and K on the exchangeable K content of the soil during eight
       years of continuous cropping in Quilichao, Colombia
Long-term NPK trial in
Rayong in the 20th year:
100-50-0 vs 100-50-100
 with 12.5 t/ha compost
Effect of the application of
K on the growth of cassava
during the 10th year of
continuous cropping in
Khon Kaen, Thailand


Without K in the front,
with K in the back
Long-term NPK trial at Hung Loc Center: no NPK in front,
  with N3P3K3 in back during the 15th year of cropping
                                                               = KM 60                    = SM 937-26
                                 30                                                                                                                30




     Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                 25                                                                                                                25

                                 20                                                                                                                20

                                 15                                                                                                                15

                                 10                                                                                                                10

                                  5        40 P2O5              80 N                        80 N                                                    5
                                           80 K2O               80 K2O                      40 P2O5
                                  0                                                                                                                 0
                                      0   40    80   160   0   20       40       80   0   40      80     160   0-0-0       80-40-80   160-80-160



                                 32                                                                                                                32
     Starch content (%)




                                 28                                                                                                                28



                                 24                                                                                                                24

                                           40 P2O5              80 N                           80 N
                                           80 K2O               80 K2O                         40 P2O5
                                 20                                                                                                                20
                                      0   40    80   160   0   20       40       80   0   40       80    160   0-0-0       80-40-80   160-80-160
                                           kg N/ha                  kg P2O5/ha              kg K2O/ha                  kg N-P2O5-K2O/ha




Effect of annual applications of various levels of N, P and K on the root
yields and starch contents of two cassava varieties grown at Hung Loc
 Agric. Research Center in Dong Nai, Vietnam, in 2000/01 (11th year)
                                                       = N0P0K0
                            40    Hung Loc             = N0P2K2                                                40
                                                       = N2P0K2




Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                                       = N2P2K0
                            30                         = N2P2K2                                                30


                            20                                                                                 20


                            10                                                                                 10


                             0                                                                                  0



                            120                                                                                120
                            100                                                                                100
Relative yield (%)




                            80                                                                                 80
                            60                                                                                 60
                            40                                                                                 40
                            20                                                                                 20
                             0                                                                                  0
                                  1    2     3     4     5        6         7      8   9   10   11   12   13
                                                                      Crop cycle


                            Figure 3. Effect of annual applications of N, P and K on cassava root yield and on the
                                      relative yield during thirteen years of continuous cropping in Hung Loc Agric.
                                     Research Center, Dong Nai, Vietnam.
                                                 = N2P2K2
                                                 = N2P0K2
                   0.25         Hung Loc                                                                             0.25
                                                 = N2P2K0
                   0.20                                                                                              0.20




Soil K (me/100g)
                   0.15                                                                                              0.15
                                                   Critical K-level
                   0.10                                                                                              0.10

                   0.05                                                                                              0.05

                         0                                                                                                0




                         40                                                                                          40
          Soil P (ppm)




                         30                                                                                          30

                         20                                                                                          20

                         10                                                                                          10
                                                                      Critical P-level
                         0                                                                                            0
                                1     2      3         4       5        6       7        8   9   10   11   12   13
                                                                         Crop cycle

                              Figure 4. Effect of annual applications of N, P and K on exchangeable K and available
                                        (Bray II ) P in the soil during thirteen years of continuous cropping in Hung
                                        Loc Agric. Research Center, Dong Nai, Vietnam.
Table 10. Average nutrient content of one tonne of various types of
          wet manure as compared to 50 kg of 15-15-15 chemical
          fertilizers.

                                                  kg ha-1
                                   % DM      N        P      K
       1 t cattle manure            32     5.9       2.6     5.4
       1 t pig manure               40     8.2       5.5     5.5
       1 t chicken manure           57    16.6       7.8     8.8
       1 t sheep manure             35    10.5       2.2     9.4
       50 kg 15-15-15 fertilizer   100     7.5       3.3     6.2
Soil acidity-Al toxicity
                                                  Exch. Al
           pH                                     me/100g

                                                       3.0
         5.5
                          Al 3+



                                                       2.0
        5.0


                         pH

         4.5                                           1.0




         4.0                                              0
               0   0.5            2.0               6.0

                                    Lime (t/ha)


       The effect of lime application on the pH and
exchangeable Al content in an Oxisol in Carimagua, Colombia
Screening of maize varieties for tolerance to soil acidity;
 zero lime application in front, with 6 t/ha lime in back
Screening of cassava varieties for tolerance to soil acidity;
         zero lime and 500 kg P2O5/ha in front
                                                                         Cassava (42)                      30




        Beans, maize, rice, cowpea yield (kg/ha)
                                                   1,500
                                                                                  (96)
                                                                           Rice




                                                                                                                Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                                                                   (8)
                                                                           Cowpea                          20
                                                   1,000                            ans (4)
                                                                            Black be

                                                                            Maize (20)
                                                                                                           10
                                                    500

                                                                                               s (8)
                                                                                       ck bean
                                                                             No   n-bla
                                                      0                                                    0
                                                           0 0.5    2                                  6
                                                                   Lime applied (t/ha)




The response of cassava, rice, cowpea, beans and maize to the
application of lime in Carimagua. The number of cultivars or
                 lines screened is shown in parenthesis.
                                                             NPK + Zn
                                      16


                                                            NPK
                                      12

            Cassava yield (tons/ha)

                                       8
                                                   Carimagua – 1974
                                                   Chirosa de Acacias

                                       4



                                       0
                                           0 1/2      2                   6
                                              Lime application (ton/ha)




.   The response of cassava to four levels of lime, with and without
      the application of 20 kg/ha of Zn in Carimagua, Colombia
                              200



                              150




           ppm Zn in leaves
                                                        NPK + Zn2

                              100



                                                       NPK
                              50



                               0
                                    0 0.5      2                         6
                                            Lime application (tons/ha)


The effect of liming on the Zn content of cassava leaves at two
       months of age, with and without soil applied Zn
  Severe Zn deficiency;
   note the light green
   color and deformed
leaves with narrow lobes
    pointing outward
                                                  gypsum-banded
                                                  gypsum-broadcast         + Mg SO4. 7H2O
                                                  calcitic lime
                                       16         dolomitic lime




           Cassava root yield (t/ha)
                                       12



                                        8



                                        4


                                        0
                                            0   100         200                    400
                                                      Ca applied (kg/ha)


Root yield response of cassava to levels, sources and methods of
           application of Ca in Carimagua, Colombia
Mg deficiency symptoms
 in lower leaves in Thai
Nguyen University, Thai
    Nguyen, Vietnam
Root yield (t/ha)
                            CM 507-37                 MgSO4    MgSO4    MgO        Dolom. lime
      20
                                                      Banded           Broadcast

      16


      12                               M Ven77


       8


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  )
  a
  l
  i
  o
  /
  d
  e
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  h
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  v
  C




       4
                  Aver. 4 Mg sources

       0
              0           20           40        60
                               kg Mg/ha                  = M Van 77       = CM 507-37



         Response of two cassava varieties to the application of
      different sources and levels of Mg in Carimagua, Colombia
           Soil Fertility Maintenance
Cassava grows better than most crops on infertile soil,
but does respond well to fertilizer applications

Cassava requires relatively high applications of N and
K, but generally does not need high applications of P or
lime as the crop is very tolerant of low P or high Al in
the soil

Soil fertility can best be maintained through applications
of animal manure supplemented with chemical fertilizers
with the right balance of N, P and K
Soil Erosion
Even on gentle slopes a lot of runoff water can accumulate in
               natural drainage ways………
……and break the contour ridges causing loss
           of soil and plants
It can also create these incredible gullies
                                                                                       Soil loss (t/ha)




                                                                              0
                                                                                  10
                                                                                         20
                                                                                                30
                                                                                                          40
                                                                                                               50

                                                           Ca
                                                              sto
                                                                  rb
                                                                      ean
                                                                 Be
                                                                     an
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                                                                Co
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                                                                 So
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                                                                  po
                                                                      tat
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                                                                ga        o
                                                                   rca
                                                                        ne
                                                                 Ma
                                                           Ma        ize
                                                               ize
            erosion control trials in Brazil
                                                                  +b
                                                           Sw          e
                                                              eet an
                                                                  po
                                                                      tat
                                                                          o
Effect of various crops on soil losses due to erosion in
 A simple and inexpensive way to measure erosion losses is
to use plastic covered channels below plots laid out side-by-
                   side on a uniform slope
Once a month the eroded wet soil is collected and weighed,
after which a sample is dried to determine its water content
Cassava caused a lot more
 erosion than sorghum or
       other crops
Table 11. Total dry soil loss by erosion (t/ha) due to the cultivation of eight
          crops during four years on 7% slope with sandy loam soil in
                   ,
          Sri Racha Thailand from 1989 to 1993.

                                          First     Second
                             No. of crop period      period     Total
                               cycles (22 months) (28 months)(50 months)

  Cassava for root production      4       142.8        168.5       311.3
  Cassava for forage production    2        68.8        138.5       207.3
  Maize                            5        28.5         35.5        64.0
  Sorghum                          5        42.9         46.1        89.0
  Peanut                           5        37.6         36.2        73.8
  Mungbean                         6        70.9         55.3       126.2
  Pineapple                        2        31.4         21.3        52.7
  Sugarcane                        2         -           94.0         -

   F-test                                   **           **
   cv (%)                                   11.4         42.7
Fertilizer application
  improves canopy
  development and
 markedly reduces
 runoff and erosion
Contour ridging (foreground) can markedly reduce
erosion as compared to up-and-down ridging (back)
                                                                                       no fertilizers
                                             40


         Accumulative dry soil loss (t/ha)
                                                                                       2 plowing, 2 disking
                                             30                                        no ridging with fertilizers
                                                                                       up-down ridging
                                                                                       peanut intercrop
                                             20
                                                                                       contour ridging

                                                                                       no tillage
                                             10


                                              0
                                                  0   2   4        6          8   10                12

                                                          Months after planting




Effect of various soil/crop management practices on the accumulative
  dry soil loss by erosion in a farmers’ field in Sri Racha, Thailand.
  Contour hedgerows of
  vetiver grass (in back)
were the most effective in
reducing erosion in north
         Vietnam
Seven years after planting contour hedgerows of vetiver grass in Hoa
 Binh, Vietnam, these had caused the formation of natural terraces
                  which markedly reduced erosion
Ten years after establishment of
 contour hedgerows of vetiver
grass in Phu Tho, Vietnam, one
meter high terraces had formed,
markedly reducing soil erosion
Cassava farmers in Thailand have planted a total of about 150 km of
 vetiver grass hedgerows to control erosion in their cassava fields
 Farmers in Van Yen district of Yen Bai province in north Vietnam
have planted 500 km of double row hedgerows of Tephrosia candida
                        to control erosion
Direct planting of cassava without soil preparation in Marechal C.
                      Rondon, Parana, Brazil
Planting cassava along contour lines and on contour banks to
  control erosion in Ivinhema, Mato Grosso del Sur, Brazil
Research has shown that cassava can be grown
sustainably for many years as long as soil fertility is
maintained and soil erosion is prevented

The most suitable varieties and practices will depend
on the soil and climatic as well as the socio-economic
conditions in each location

Researchers, extension workers and the private
sector have to work together to help farmers and
cassava producers select and adopt the most suitable
varieties and agronomic practices to increase
cassava yields without degrading the soil
     The Future is Bright




The future is … ..La Mandioca en Brasil!!

								
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