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					Barack Obama


Barack Obama
Barack Obama

44th President of the United States
Incumbent Assumed office  January 20, 2009 Vice President Preceded by Joe Biden George W. Bush

United States Senator from Illinois
In office January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008 Preceded by Succeeded by Peter Fitzgerald Roland Burris

Member of the Illinois Senate from the 13th district
In office January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Alice Palmer Kwame Raoul August 4, 1961 [2] Honolulu, Hawaii Barack Hussein Obama II American Democratic Michelle Obama (m. 1992) Malia Ann (b. 1998) Natasha (Sasha) (b. 2001) The White House (official) Chicago, Illinois (private)
[2] [1]

Birth name Nationality Political party Spouse(s) Children Residence

Barack Obama

Occidental College Columbia University (B.A.) Harvard Law School (J.D.) Community organizer Lawyer Constitutional law Professor Author Christianity

Alma mater


Religion Signature Website

The White House [5] Barack Obama


This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama Background  · Illinois Senate  · U.S. Senate · Political positions · Public image · Family · 2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign · Transition · Inauguration · Electoral history · Presidency (Timeline, First 100 days)  · 2009 Nobel Peace Prize [[#obamaNavbox|more...]]
Barack Hussein Obama II (English pronunciation: /bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/  ( listen); born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008. Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Obama served three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he ran for United States Senate in 2004. During the campaign, several events brought him to national attention, such as his victory in the March 2004 Democratic primary election for the United States Senator from Illinois as well as his prime-time televised keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He won election to the U.S. Senate in November 2004. Obama's presidential campaign began in February 2007, and after a close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries against Hillary Clinton, he won his party's nomination. In the 2008 general election, he defeated Republican nominee John McCain and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Obama is also the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Early life and career
Barack Obama was born at Kapi'olani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States,[6] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[7] an American of predominantly English descent from Wichita, Kansas,[8] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya Colony. Upon his election, he became the first President born in Hawaii.[9] [10] Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[11] [12] The couple married on February 2, 1961,[13] and Barack was born later that year. His parents separated when he was two years old and they divorced in 1964.[12] Obama's father remarried and returned to Kenya, where he had two more sons, David and Mark Ndesandjo.[14] The senior Obama saw his first son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[15] After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Suharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all Indonesian students studying abroad

Barack Obama were recalled and the family moved to the island nation.[16] They lived in the Menteng area of Jakarta.[17] From ages six to ten, Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, including Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School.[18] [19] In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, and attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from the fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979.[20] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972, remaining there until 1977 when she relocated to Indonesia to work as an anthropological field worker. She finally returned to Hawaii in 1994 and lived there for one year before dying of ovarian cancer.[21] Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind."[22] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[23] Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[24] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[25] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as


Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s)

his "greatest moral failure."[26] Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College.[27] After two years he transferred in 1981 to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations[28] and graduated with a B.A. in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation,[29] [30] then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[31] [32]

Chicago community activism and Harvard Law
After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[31] [33] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[34] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[35] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[36] He returned in August 2006 in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.[37] In late 1988, Obama entered Harvard Law School. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[38] and president of the journal in his second year.[39] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[40] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[41] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[38] Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[39] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[42] though it evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[42]

Barack Obama


Return to Chicago
From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and 700 volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[43] For 12 years, Obama was a constitutional law professor at the University of Chicago Law School; as a lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[44] In 1993 he joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a law firm of 12 attorneys that specialized in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[45] Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[31] [46] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[31] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[31] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[31]

Political career: 1996–2008
State legislator: 1997–2004
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which at that time spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[47] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[48] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[49] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[50] Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002.[51] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[52] In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[53] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[49] [54] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[55] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[56]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign
In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002, and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[57] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[58] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an

Barack Obama unexpected landslide—finishing with 53% of the vote in a seven candidate field, which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party and started speculation about a presidential future.[59] In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts,[60] and it was seen by 9.1 million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.[61] Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.[64]


U.S. Senator: 2005–2008
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005,[65] at which time he became the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[66] CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him among the "most liberal" senators during 2005 through 2007[67] He enjoyed high popularity as senator with a 72% approval in Illinois.[68] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[69] Legislation Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[71] He introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[72] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[73] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[74]
Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama [70] Transparency Act

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[76] On the issue of tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[77] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling [75] facility in August 2005. its primary sponsor.[78] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[79] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[80] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[81] neither of which has been signed into law.

Barack Obama Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[82] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[83] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[84] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[85] Committees Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[86] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[87] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[88] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[89]


2008 presidential campaign
On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for president of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[90] [91] [92] The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic[90] [93] because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[92] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence and providing universal health care.[94]

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.

A large number of candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[95] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama was named the presumptive nominee[] and delivered a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[96]

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech in Grant Park.

Barack Obama


Obama proceeded to focus on the general election campaign against Senator John McCain, the presumptive Republican nominee, in the lead up to the Democratic National Convention. He announced on August 23, 2008, that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[97] At the convention, held August 25 to August 28 in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her delegates and supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in support of Obama.[98] Obama delivered his acceptance speech to over 75,000 supporters and presented his policy goals; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.[99]

During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[100] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[101] After McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, three presidential debates were held between the contenders spanning September and October 2008.[102] In November, Obama won the presidency with 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%,[103] and 365 electoral votes to 173,[104] to become the first African American[105] to be elected president. Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.[106]

President George W. Bush meets with President-Elect Obama in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008.

First days
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[107] and ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010.[108] Obama also reduced the secrecy given to presidential records[109] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act.[110] The president also reversed George W. Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions.[111]

Barack Obama takes the oath of office of the president of the United States.

Domestic policy

Barack Obama


Presidental styles of

Barack Obama

Reference style Spoken style Alternative style

The Honorable Barack Obama, President of the United States President Obama Mr. President

On January 29, 2009, Obama signed his first bill into law, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, a response to the Supreme Court's decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. which eased the requirements for filing employment discrimination lawsuits.[112] Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million children currently uninsured.[113] In March 2009, Obama repealed a Bush-era policy that prevented federal tax dollars from being used to fund research on new lines of embryonic stem cells. Although such research had been a matter of debate, Obama stated that he believed "sound science and moral values...are not inconsistent," and that we have "the humanity and conscience" to pursue this research responsibly, pledging to develop "strict guidelines" to ensure that.[114] On May 26, 2009, Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter. Sotomayor was confirmed on August 6, 2009 by a vote of 68-31,[115] becoming the first Hispanic to be a Supreme Court Justice. She joins Ruth Bader Ginsburg as one of two women on the Court and is the third woman ever to be a Justice.[116] On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.[117] [118] [119] On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.[120] [121] [122]

Economic management
On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787 billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession. He made a high-profile visit to Capitol Hill to engage with Congressional Republicans, but the bill ultimately passed with the support of only three Republican senators.[123] The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals,[124] which is being distributed over the course of several years, with about 25% due by the end of 2009. In June, Obama, unsatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus investment, called on his cabinet to accelerate the spending over the next weeks.[125]

Barack Obama


In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the Public-Private Investment Program, which contains provisions for buying up to $2 trillion in depreciated real estate assets that were deemed to be weighing down stock valuations, freezing the credit market and delaying economic recovery. On March 23, The New York Times noted that "(i)nvestors reacted ecstatically, with all of the major President Barack Obama signs the ARRA into stock indexes soaring as soon as the markets opened."[126] Along with law on February 17, 2009 in Denver, Colorado. spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Vice President Joe Biden stands behind him. Treasury Department, about $11.5 trillion had been authorized by the Bush and Obama administrations, with $2.7 trillion actually spent by the end of June 2009.[127] Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry[128] in March, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler Corporation to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat[129] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government shouldering a 12% stake.[130] He also signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers" bill, on August 7, 2009.[131] In the third quarter of 2009, the U.S. economy expanded at a 2.8% annual pace.[132] Obama has claimed that the stimulus package helped stop the economic downturn.[133] Various economists have credited the stimulus package with helping to create economic growth.[134] [135] However, unemployment has continued to rise to 10.2% (the highest in 26 years),[136] and the "underemployment" rate rose to 17.5%.[137] In mid-November, Obama said he was concerned that the excessive deficit spending could cause the economy to slide into a "double dip" recession.[138]

Foreign policy
In February and March, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.[140] Obama's granting of his first television interview as president to an Arabic cable network, Al Arabiya, was seen as an attempt to reach out to Arab leaders.[141] This conciliatory approach to foreign policy has been termed by some the "Obama Doctrine".[142] On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.[143] This attempt at outreach was rebuffed by the Iranian leadership.[144] In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.[145] On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "a new beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.[146] On June 26, 2009, in response to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election, Obama said: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."[147] On July 7, while in Moscow, he responded to a Vice President Biden comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."[148] On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[149]

Barack Obama


Iraq war
During his presidential transition, President-elect Obama announced that he would retain the incumbent Defense Secretary, Robert Gates, in his Cabinet.[150] Early in his presidency, Obama moved to alter U.S. war strategy in Iraq by planning to decrease troop levels.[151] On February 27, Obama declared that combat operations would end in Iraq within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: By August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."[152]

War in Afghanistan
Early in his presidency, Obama moved to change U.S. war strategy by increasing troop strength in Afghanistan.[151] On February 18, 2009, Obama announced that the U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan would be boosted by 17,000, asserting that the increase was necessary to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".[153] On May 11, Obama replaced his military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal, believing that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.[154] On December 1, Obama announced that he would deploy an additional 30,000 soldiers over a period of six months.[155] He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date.[156] [157] The following day, Gen. McChrystal cautioned that the timeline was flexible and “is not an absolute”.[158]

Health care reform
Obama has called for Congress to pass health care reform, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal. On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017 page plan for overhauling the US health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.[159] Obama supported a public health insurance option as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality in the health care sector.[160] After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over his administration's proposals.[161] On November 7, 2009, a health care bill was passed in the House after the inclusion of an amendment written by Republican Joseph R. Pitts and Democrat Bart Stupak that would disallow insurance companies from covering abortion for women who pay their premiums with their own money if other people pay for the same plan with any government subsidies.[162] [163] On December 24, 2009, a version of the bill was passed in the Senate on a party-line vote of 60-39.[164]

Barack Obama


Political positions
During his Senate service, Obama had a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the American Conservative Union[165] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the Americans for Democratic Action.[166] In April 2005, Obama defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[167] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[168] Obama said in 2007 that he supported universal health care in the United States.[169] He has proposed rewarding teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[170] Obama has supported eliminating taxes for senior citizens with incomes of under $50,000, and raising taxes on income over $250,000, on capital gains, and on dividends.[171] He has also supported simplifying tax filings and removing loopholes.[172]

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008

As an environmental initiative, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system with no grandfathering to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[173] [174] In foreign affairs, Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[175] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[176] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[177] and spoke out against the war.[178] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[179] In a March 2007 speech Obama said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, without preconditions, but not ruling out military action.[180] In August 2007, Obama remarked that "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan.[181] Obama stated in 2007 that he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not weaponize space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems", and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia to reduce the pressure on both sides for intercontinental ballistic missiles to be on high-alert status.[182] Obama has called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[183] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[184]

Barack Obama


Family and personal life
In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[185] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[186] Obama's mother was survived by her Barack Obama together with his family, as they Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[187] until her death on wave from the South Portico of the White House November 2, 2008[188] just two days before his election to the to guests attending the White House Easter Egg Presidency. In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's Roll. family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.[189] Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[190] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops during World War II.[191] Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[192] Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian at the conversational level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[193] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[194] Obama is a well known supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a Senator.[196] In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the all star game while wearing a White Sox jacket.[197] In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[198] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[199] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[200] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born on July 4, 1998,[201] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), on June 10, 2001.[202] The Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[203]

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti [195] in 2006

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, the family moved in 2005 from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[204] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[205] In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[206] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[207] Obama is a Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household". He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known". He describes his father as "raised a Muslim",

Barack Obama but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change".[208] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[209] Obama resigned from Trinity during the Presidential campaign after controversial statements made by Rev. Jeremiah Wright became public.[210] After a prolonged effort to find a church to attend regularly in Washington, complicated by security concerns among other issues, Obama announced in June 2009 that his primary place of worship would be the Evergreen Chapel at Camp David.[211] Obama has tried to quit smoking several times,[212] and said he will not smoke in the White House.[212]


Cultural and political image
Obama's family history, early life and upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[213] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[214] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[215]

President George W. Bush invited then-President-elect Barack Obama and former Presidents George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter to a meeting in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.

Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[216] During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama has delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.[217] According to the Pew Research Center, Obama's approval ratings dropped from 64% in February, 2009 to 49% in December, a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years.[218]

Obama's international appeal has been described as a defining factor for his public image.[219] Polls show strong support for Obama in other countries,[220] and he has met with prominent foreign figures including then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair,[221] Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni,[222] and French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[223] According to a May 2009 poll conducted by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of this economic downturn.[224] Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[225] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[226] and received a Daytime Emmy Award.[227] In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible

Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States on January 24, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Barack Obama accomplishments".[228]


Nobel Peace Prize
On October 9, 2009 the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".[229] Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009 with "deep gratitude and great humility."[230] The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.[231] [232] Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He is the third to become a Nobel laureate during his term in office.[233]

[1] " President Barack Obama (http:/ / www. whitehouse. gov/ administration/ president_obama/ )". The White House. . Retrieved December 12, 2008. [2] " Certification of Live Birth for Barack Obama (http:/ / www. politifact. com/ media/ img/ graphics/ birthCertObama. jpg)". Department of Health, Hawaii. August 8, 1961. . Retrieved December 12, 2008. [3] " American President: Barack Obama (http:/ / millercenter. org/ academic/ americanpresident/ obama)". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. . Retrieved January 23, 2009. • United Church of Christ (January 20, 2009). " Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President (http:/ / www. ucc. org/ news/ obama-inauguration. html)". Press release. . Retrieved January 21, 2009. "Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States." • An Associated Press wire story on Obama's resignation from Trinity United Church of Christ in the course of the Jeremiah Wright controversy stated that he had, in doing so, disaffiliated himself with the UCC. (See " Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 27775757/ )". Associated Press. November 17, 2008. . Retrieved January 20, 2009.) http:/ / www. whitehouse. gov/ http:/ / www. barackobama. com/ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). " Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 08/ 23/ AR2008082301620. html)". Washington Post. . Retrieved October 27, 2008. For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19 " Born in the U.S.A. (http:/ / www. factcheck. org/ elections-2008/ born_in_the_usa. html)". FactCheck. August 21, 2008. . Retrieved October 24, 2008. •

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). " For sure, Obama's South Side Irish (http:/ / www. suntimes. com/ news/ politics/ 368961,CST-NWS-ireland03. article)". The Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved November 23, 2008. • " Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 05/ 12/ AR2007051201551. html)". Washington Post. . Retrieved November 8, 2008. [9] NPR's Political Junkie, 23 December 2009, accessed 30 December 2009. (http:/ / www. npr. org/ blogs/ politicaljunkie/ 2009/ 12/ todays_junkie_segment_on_totn_5. html) [10] http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ transcript/ transcript. php?storyId=96126355 Asian Writer Ponders First Asian President Too [11] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see " Barack Obama: Creation of Tales (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927225314/ http:/ / www. nationmedia. com/ EastAfrican/ 01112004/ Features/ PA2-2212. html)". East African. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nationmedia. com/ EastAfrican/ 01112004/ Features/ PA2-2212. html) on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. [12] Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). " Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator (http:/ / www. baltimoresun. com/ news/ nation/ politics/ chi-0703270151mar27-archive,0,91024,full. story)". Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. . Retrieved October 27, 2008. [13] Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). " The Story of Barack Obama's Mother (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ nation/ article/ 0,8599,1729524,00. html)". Time. . Retrieved April 9, 2007. [14] Tran, Tini (November 18, 2009). " Obama says he met with half brother while in China (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ ap/ 20091118/ ap_on_re_as/ as_obama_brother)". Associated Press. . Retrieved November 18, 2009. [15] Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). " The Ghost of a Father (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ story/ 2007/ 12/ 13/ ST2007121301893. html)". Washington Post. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). " From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927223905/ http:/ / www. nationmedia. com/ EastAfrican/ 01112004/ Features/ PA2-11. html)". East African. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nationmedia. com/ EastAfrican/ 01112004/ Features/ PA2-11. html) on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [16] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45. [17] http:/ / thejakartaglobe. com/ home/ statue-of-us-president-barack-obama-to-be-unveiled-in-jakarta-park/ 346178

Barack Obama
[18] From (http:/ / news. xinhuanet. com/ english/ 2009-12/ 10/ content_12624443. htm) [19] http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 24/ AR2007012400371_pf. html Obama Debunks Claim About Islamic School [20] Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). " Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics (http:/ / archives. starbulletin. com/ 2004/ 03/ 21/ news/ story4. html)". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4. [21] Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). " The Story of Barack Obama's Mother (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ nation/ article/ 0,8599,1729524,00. html)". Time. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (November 29, 2006). " Obama for President... of Indonesia (http:/ / old. thejakartapost. com/ yesterdaydetail. asp?fileid=20061129. F03)". Jakarta Post. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [22] Obama (1995), pp. 9–10. [23] Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). " Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ latimes/ access/ 1230439131. html?dids=1230439131:1230439131& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Mar+ 11,+ 2007& author=Richard+ A. + Serrano& pub=Los+ Angeles+ Times& edition=& startpage=A. 20& desc=THE+ NATION)" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. [24] Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). " Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama (http:/ / archives. starbulletin. com/ 2007/ 02/ 08/ news/ story02. html)". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks." [25] " Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ nation/ articles/ 2007/ 11/ 21/ obama_gets_blunt_with_nh_students/ )". Boston Globe. Associated Press. November 21, 2007. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). " Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 02/ AR2007010201359. html)". Washington Post. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). " Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 10/ 24/ us/ politics/ 24obama. html)". New York Times. . Retrieved January 4, 2008. [26] Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). " Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 08/ 16/ warren. forum/ )". (LAKE FOREST, California). . Retrieved January 4, 2009. [27] " Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83 (http:/ / www. oxy. edu/ x8270. xml)". Occidental College. January 29, 2007. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. [28] Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). " Barack Obama '83 (http:/ / www. college. columbia. edu/ cct_archive/ jan05/ cover. php)". Columbia College Today. . Retrieved June 9, 2008. [29] " Curriculum Vitae (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20010509024017/ http:/ / www. law. uchicago. edu/ faculty/ obama/ cv. html)". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. law. uchicago. edu/ faculty/ obama/ cv. html) on May 9, 2001. . Retrieved November 3, 2008. [30] Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). " Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ nation/ articles/ 2008/ 08/ 06/ obama_shows_hints_of_his_year_in_global_finance/ ?page=1)". Boston Globe. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. [31] Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008 (http:/ / www. marquiswhoswho. com/ products/ WAprodinfo. asp). New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. . Retrieved June 6, 2008. [32] Scott, Janny (October 30, 2007). " Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 10/ 30/ us/ politics/ 30obama. html)". The New York Times. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63. [33] Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (March 30, 2007). " Portrait of a pragmatist (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080209030448/ http:/ / www. chicagotribune. com/ news/ nationworld/ chi-0703300121mar30,1,6651421,full. story)". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. com/ news/ nationworld/ chi-0703300121mar30,1,6651421,full. story) on February 9, 2008. . Retrieved June 6, 2008. Lizza, Ryan (March 19, 2007). " The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education (http:/ / www. pickensdemocrats. org/ info/ TheAgitator_070319. htm)" (alternate link). New Republic. . Retrieved April 13, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83. [34] Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). " A Law Review breakthrough (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ politics/ 2008/ articles/ 1990/ 02/ 15/ a_law_review_breakthrough/ )" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Corr, John (February 27, 1990). " From mean streets to hallowed halls (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=PI& p_theme=pi& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_trackval=PI& s_search_type=customized& s_dispstring=Author(John Corr) AND date(02/ 27/ 1990 to 02/ 27/ 1990)& p_field_date-0=YMD_date& p_params_date-0=date:B,E& p_text_date-0=02/ 27/ 1990 to 02/ 27/ 1990)& p_field_advanced-0=Author& p_text_advanced-0=(John Corr)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=_rank_:D& xcal_ranksort=4& xcal_useweights=yes)" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. . Retrieved June 6, 2008. [35] Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (March 2, 2008). " Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer (http:/ / www. newsday. com/ news/ nation/ obama-forged-path-as-chicago-community-organizer-1. 881130)". Newsday: p. A06. . Retrieved June 6, 2008.


Barack Obama
[36] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437. [37] Gnecchi, Nico (February 27, 2006). " Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080321161040/ http:/ / www. voanews. com/ english/ archive/ 2006-08/ 2006-08-27-voa17. cfm)". Voice of America. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. voanews. com/ english/ archive/ 2006-08/ 2006-08-27-voa17. cfm) on 2008-03-21. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [38] Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (January 28, 2007). " At Harvard Law, a unifying voice (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ local/ articles/ 2007/ 01/ 28/ at_harvard_law_a_unifying_voice/ ?page=full)". The Boston Globe. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Kantor, Jodi (January 28, 2007). " In law school, Obama found political voice (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 01/ 28/ us/ politics/ 28obama. html?pagewanted=all)". The New York Times: p. 1. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Kodama, Marie C (January 19, 2007). " Obama left mark on HLS (http:/ / www. thecrimson. com/ article. aspx?ref=516664)". The Harvard Crimson. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Mundy, Liza (August 12, 2007). " A series of fortunate events (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 08/ 08/ AR2007080802038_pf. html)". The Washington Post: p. W10. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Heilemann, John (October 22, 2007). " When they were young (http:/ / www. printthis. clickability. com/ pt/ cpt?action=cpt& title=When+ They+ Were+ Young& expire=& urlID=24417790& fb=Y& url=http:/ / nymag. com/ news/ features/ 39321/ & partnerID=73272)". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92. [39] Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). " First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260)". The New York Times: p. A20. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (February 7, 1990). " Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 28797353. html?dids=28797353:28797353& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 3. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). " A Law Review breakthrough (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ politics/ 2008/ articles/ 1990/ 02/ 15/ a_law_review_breakthrough/ )" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Corr, John (February 27, 1990). " From mean streets to hallowed halls (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=PI& p_theme=pi& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_trackval=PI& s_search_type=customized& s_dispstring=Author(John Corr) AND date(02/ 27/ 1990 to 02/ 27/ 1990)& p_field_date-0=YMD_date& p_params_date-0=date:B,E& p_text_date-0=02/ 27/ 1990 to 02/ 27/ 1990)& p_field_advanced-0=Author& p_text_advanced-0=(John Corr)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=_rank_:D& xcal_ranksort=4& xcal_useweights=yes)" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (March 12, 1990). " Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ latimes/ access/ 60017156. html?dids=60017156:60017156& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times: p. E1. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (March 15, 1990). " Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama (http:/ / www. diverseeducation. com/ artman/ publish/ article_11791. shtml)". Black Issues in Higher Education: p. 5. . Retrieved November 15, 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (April 18, 1990). " Law Review's first black president aims to help poor (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=MH& p_theme=realcities2& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_site=miami& s_trackval=MH& s_dispstring=Title(Law Review's first black president aims to help poor) AND date(04/ 18/ 1990 to 04/ 18/ 1990)& p_field_date-0=YMD_date& p_params_date-0=date:B,E& p_text_date-0=04/ 18/ 1990 to 04/ 18/ 1990)& p_field_advanced-0=title& p_text_advanced-0=(Law Review's first black president aims to help poor)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=_rank_:D& xcal_ranksort=4& xcal_useweights=yes)" (paid archive). The Miami Herald: p. C01. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. [40] Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). 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[44] University of Chicago Law School (March 27, 2008). " Statement regarding Barack Obama (http:/ / www. law. uchicago. edu/ media/ index. html)". University of Chicago Law School. . Retrieved June 10, 2008. Miller, Joe (March 28, 2008). " Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor? (http:/ / www. factcheck. org/ askfactcheck/ was_barack_obama_really_a_constitutional_law. html)". . Retrieved June 10, 2008. Holan, Angie Drobnic (March 7, 2008). " Obama's 20 years of experience (http:/ / www. politifact. com/ truth-o-meter/ article/ 2008/ mar/ 07/ obamas-20-years-experience/ )". . Retrieved June 10, 2008. [45] Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (February 20, 2007). " Obama got start in civil rights practice (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 02/ 20/ AR2007022000045. html)". The Washington Post. . Retrieved March 10, 2009. Pallasch, Abdon M

Barack Obama
(December 17, 2007). " As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking (http:/ / www. suntimes. com/ news/ politics/ obama/ 700499,CST-NWS-Obama-law17. article)". Chicago Sun-Times: p. 4. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. " People (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 24302659. html?dids=24302659:24302659& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 9 (Business). June 27, 1993. . Retrieved June 15, 2008. " Business appointments (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CSTB& p_theme=cstb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_dispstring=(Business appointments) AND date(7/ 5/ 1993 to 7/ 5/ 1993)& p_field_date-0=YMD_date& p_params_date-0=date:B,E& p_text_date-0=7/ 5/ 1993 to 7/ 5/ 1993)& p_field_advanced-0=& p_text_advanced-0=(Business appointments)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& xcal_useweights=no)" (paid archive). Chicago-Sun-Times: p. 40. 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Barack Obama
[177] Glauber, Bill (October 3, 2003). " War protesters gentler, but passion still burns (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 203569621. html?dids=203569621:203569621& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1. . Retrieved February 3, 2008. Strausberg, Chinta (October 3, 2002). " War with Iraq undermines U.N. (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P3-220379051. html)". Chicago Defender: p. 1. . Retrieved October 28, 2008. "Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday." Bryant, Greg (October 2, 2002). " 300 protesters rally to oppose war with Iraq (http:/ / 74. 125. 95. 104/ search?q=cache:joI6vZO9y4UJ:mesh. medill. northwestern. edu/ mnschicago/ archives/ 2002/ 10/ 300_protesters. html)". Medill News Service. . Retrieved February 3, 2008. Katz, Marilyn (October 2, 2007). " Five Years Since Our First Action (http:/ / www. noiraqwar-chicago. org/ ?p=127)". Chicagoans Against War & Injustice. . Retrieved February 17, 2008. Bryant, Greg; Vaughn, Jane B. (October 3, 2002). " 300 attend rally against Iraq war (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=ADHB& p_theme=adhb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_text_search-0=300 AND attend AND rally AND against AND Iraq AND war& s_dispstring=300 attend rally against Iraq war AND date(10/ 3/ 2002 to 10/ 3/ 2002)& p_field_date-0=YMD_date& p_params_date-0=date:B,E& p_text_date-0=10/ 3/ 2002 to 10/ 3/ 2002)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& xcal_useweights=no)" (paid archive). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights): p. 8. . Retrieved October 28, 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177. [178] Obama, Barack (October 2, 2002). " Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama Against Going to War with Iraq (http:/ / www. barackobama. com/ 2002/ 10/ 02/ remarks_of_illinois_state_sen. php)". . Retrieved February 3, 2008. • McCormick, John (October 3, 2007). " Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 1351610621. html?dids=1351610621:1351610621& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 7. . Retrieved October 28, 2008. "The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion."


Pallasch, Abdon M. (October 3, 2007). " Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CSTB& p_theme=cstb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_dispstring=headline(Obama touts anti-war cred) AND date(all)& p_field_advanced-0=title& p_text_advanced-0=(Obama touts anti-war cred)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& xcal_useweights=no)" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 26. . Retrieved October 28, 2008. [179] Ritter, Jim (March 17, 2003). " Anti-war rally here draws thousands (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CSTB& p_theme=cstb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_dispstring=headline(Anti-war rally here draws thousands) AND date(all)& p_field_advanced-0=title& p_text_advanced-0=(Anti-war rally here draws thousands)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& xcal_useweights=no)" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 3. . Retrieved February 3, 2008. Office of the Press Secretary (March 16, 2003). " President Bush: Monday "Moment of Truth" for World on Iraq (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2003/ WORLD/ meast/ 03/ 16/ sprj. irq. main/ index. html)". The White House. . Retrieved February 17, 2008. • " 'Moment of truth for the world'; Bush, three allies set today as final day for Iraq to disarm or face massive military attack (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CSTB& p_theme=cstb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& s_dispstring=headline(Moment of truth for the world) AND date(all)& p_field_advanced-0=title& p_text_advanced-0=(Moment of truth for the world)& xcal_numdocs=20& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& xcal_useweights=no)" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. Associated Press: p. 1. March 17, 2003. . Retrieved February 3, 2008. [180] Obama, Barack (March 2, 2007). " AIPAC Policy Forum Remarks (http:/ / obama. senate. gov/ speech/ 070302-aipac_policy_fo/ index. php)". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. . Retrieved January 30, 2008. ( Archive copy (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ */ http:/ / obama. senate. gov/ speech/ 070302-aipac_policy_fo/ index. php) at the Internet Archive) For Obama's 2004 Senate campaign remarks on possible missile strikes against Iran, see: Mendell, David (September 25, 2004). " Obama Would Consider Missile Strikes on Iran (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 699578571. html?dids=699578571:699578571& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. . Retrieved January 14, 2008. [181] " Obama Warns Pakistan on Al-Qaeda (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 6926663. stm)". BBC News. August 1, 2007. . Retrieved January 14, 2008. [182] Barack Obama. (October 22, 2007) (flv). Obama-Caucus4Priorities (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=7o84PE871BE). Obama '08. . Retrieved May 18, 2008. [183] Obama, Barack; Sam Brownback (December 27, 2005). " Policy Adrift on Darfur (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2005/ 12/ 26/ AR2005122600547. html)". The Washington Post. . Retrieved January 14, 2008. Doyle, Jim (May 1, 2006). " Tens of Thousands Rally for Darfur (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2006/ 05/ 01/ MNGFBIIFOA1. DTL)". San Francisco Chronicle. . Retrieved January 14, 2008. [184] Kuhnhenn, Jim (Associated Press) (May 17, 2007). " Giuliani, Edwards Have Sudan Holdings (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ n/ a/ 2007/ 05/ 17/ politics/ p171906D95. DTL)". San Francisco Chronicle. . Retrieved January 14, 2008.; Obama, Barack (August 30, 2007). " 30, 2007_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html Hit Iran Where It Hurts (http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ opinions/ 2007/ 08/ 30/ 2007-08-30_hit_iran_where_it_hurts. html)". New York Daily News. 30, 2007_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008. [185] " Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First (http:/ / www. oprah. com/ slideshow/ oprahshow/ oprahshow1_ss_20061018/ 10)". The Oprah Winfrey Show. October 18, 2006. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [186] Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). " Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family' (http:/ / www. suntimes. com/ news/ politics/ obama/ familytree/ 545462,BSX-News-wotrees09. stng)". Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. See also: " Interactive Family Tree (http:/ / •


Barack Obama
www. suntimes. com/ images/ cds/ special/ family_tree. html)". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, 2007. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [187] Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). " Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer' (http:/ / www. suntimes. com/ news/ politics/ obama/ familytree/ 545449,BSX-News-wotreeee09. stng)". Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [188] " Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 11/ 03/ obama. grandma/ index. html)". CNN. November 3, 2008. . Retrieved November 4, 2008. [189] Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2, 2007). " A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930033339/ http:/ / www. baltimoresun. com/ news/ nationworld/ politics/ bal-te. obama02mar02,0,3453027. story)". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. baltimoresun. com/ news/ nationworld/ politics/ bal-te. obama02mar02,0,3453027. story) on September 30, 2007. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. Jordan, Mary (May 13, 2007). " Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 05/ 12/ AR2007051201551. html)". The Washington Post. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. " Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises (http:/ / cbs2chicago. com/ topstories/ Barack. Obama. family. 2. 339709. html)". CBS 2 (Chicago). Associated Press. September 8, 2007. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [190] Johnson, Carla K., Associated Press Writer (July 24, 2008). " Obama's great-uncle recalls liberating Nazi camp (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ politics/ 2008-07-24-1654309354_x. htm)". . Retrieved March 12, 2009. [191] " The 89th Infantry Division (http:/ / www. ushmm. org/ wlc/ article. php?lang=en& ModuleId=10006140)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. . Retrieved March 12, 2009. [192] " When Barry Became Barack (http:/ / www. newsweek. com/ id/ 128633)". Newsweek. March 31, 2008. . Retrieved November 6, 2008. [193] Zimmer, Benjamin (2009). " Obama's Indonesian Redux (http:/ / languagelog. ldc. upenn. edu/ nll/ ?p=1025)". Language Log. . Retrieved March 12, 2009. • " Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan (http:/ / cetak. kompas. com/ read/ xml/ 2008/ 11/ 26/ 00223862/ obama. saya. kangen. nasi. goreng. bakso. dan. rambutan)". .


[194] Kantor, Jodi (June 1, 2007). " One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 06/ 01/ us/ politics/ 01hoops. html)". The New York Times. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. See also: " The Love of the Game (http:/ / www. hbo. com/ realsports/ stories/ 2008/ episode. 133. s1. html)" (video). HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel (YouTube ( April 15, 2008. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [195] " Senator Barack Obama Visit to CJTF-HOA and Camp Lemonier: August 31–September 1, 2006 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=d9GqdzQeCz0)" (video). Combined Joint Task Force—Horn of Africa (YouTube). February 6, 2007. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [196] " Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball (http:/ / www. swamppolitics. com/ news/ politics/ blog/ 2008/ 08/ barack_obama_white_sox_serious. html)". The Swamp. August 25, 2008. . Retrieved December 6, 2009. [197] " Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit (http:/ / mlb. fanhouse. com/ 2009/ 07/ 14/ barack-obama-explains-white-sox-jacket-talks-nats-in-all-star-b/ )". MLB Fanhouse. July 14, 2009. . Retrieved December 6, 2009. [198] Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: Brown, Sarah (December 7, 2005). " Obama '85 masters balancing act (http:/ / www. dailyprincetonian. com/ 2005/ 12/ 07/ 14049)". The Daily Princetonian. . Retrieved February 9, 2009. [199] Obama (2006), p. 329. [200] Fornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). " Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet' (http:/ / www. suntimes. com/ news/ politics/ obama/ 585261,CST-NWS-wedding03. stng)". Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [201] Martin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). " Born on the 4th of July (http:/ / www. politico. com/ blogs/ jonathanmartin/ 0708/ Born_on_the_4th_of_July. html)". The Politico. . Retrieved July 10, 2008. [202] Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: " Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama (http:/ / www. gannettnewsservice. com/ ?cat=153)". Gannett News Service. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [203] "Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ ap/ 2008/ 11/ 22/ america/ Obama-School. php), International Herald Tribune, November 22, 2008 [204] Zeleny, Jeff (December 24, 2005). " The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. com/ news/ local/ chi-051224obama,0,1779783,full. story)". Chicago Tribune. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [205] Slevin, Peter (December 17, 2006). " Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 12/ 16/ AR2006121600729. html)". The Washington Post. . Retrieved June 10, 2008. Robinson, Mike (June 4, 2008). " Rezko found guilty in corruption case (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 24973282/ )". Associated Press. . Retrieved June 24, 2008. [206] " Obama's Money (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ galleries/ 2007/ moneymag/ 0712/ gallery. candidates. moneymag/ 5. html)". December 7, 2007. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, 2007). " Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 03/ 24/ AR2007032400305. html)". The Washington Post. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [207] Zeleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). " Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 17/ us/ politics/ 17obama. html)". The New York Times. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. [208] Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). " My Spiritual Journey (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1546579,00. html)". Time. . Retrieved April 28, 2008. •

Barack Obama
Obama, Barack (June 28, 2006). " 'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address (http:/ / obama. senate. gov/ speech/ 060628-call_to_renewal/ )". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois (website). . Retrieved June 16, 2008. [209] Kantor, Jodi (April 30, 2007). " Barack Obama's search for faith (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2007/ 04/ 30/ america/ 30obama. php?page=2)". International Herald Tribune. . April 30, 2007 Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). " My Spiritual Journey (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1546579,00. html)". Time. . [210] " Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 27775757/ )". Associated Press. November 17, 2008. . Retrieved January 20, 2009. [211] " The Obamas Find a Church Home — Away from Home (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ nation/ article/ 0,8599,1907610,00. html)". Time. June 29, 2009. . Retrieved December 14, 2009. [212] " Obama says he won't be smoking in White House (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ politicsNews/ idUSTRE4B61GF20081207)". Reuters. December 7, 2008. . Retrieved 2009-20-21. [213] Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). " The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama? (http:/ / www. washingtonmonthly. com/ features/ 2004/ 0411. wallace-wells. html)". Washington Monthly. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also: Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). " A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2007/ 12/ 28/ america/ obama. php)". International Herald Tribune. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. [214] Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). " In One Country, a Dual Audience (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ newsday/ access/ 1322008241. html?dids=1322008241:1322008241& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT)" (paid archive). Newsday. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. [215] Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). " Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 1353513781. html?dids=1353513781:1353513781& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Oct+ 4,+ 2007& author=Mike+ Dorning)" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also: Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). " Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ 1565992/ Barack-Obama-is-JFK-heir,-says-Kennedy-aide. html)". Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved April 7, 2008. [216] Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). " Obama: Oratory and originality (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ world/ a-classic-orator-obama-learnt-from-the-masters-20081129-6nf1. html)". The Age. . Retrieved December 11, 2008. Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). " How to Inspire People Like Obama Does (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ smallbiz/ content/ mar2008/ sb2008033_156351. htm)". Business Week. . Retrieved February 21, 2009. • " New emotion dubbed 'elevation (http:/ / www. thestar. com/ living/ article/ 551538)". Toronto Star. December 11, 2008. . Retrieved December 11, 2008. [217] YouTube - ChangeDotGov's Channel (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ ChangeDotGov) [218] " Mixed Views of Obama at Year End (http:/ / people-press. org/ report/ 572/ mixed-views-of-obama-at-year-end)". Pew Research Center. 16 December 2009. . Retrieved 30 December 2009. [219] Page, Susan (June 12, 2008). " World poll: Obama more likely to 'do the right thing' (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ politics/ election2008/ 2008-06-12-poll_N. htm)". USA Today. . Retrieved March 10, 2009. [220] " World wants Obama as president: poll (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ stories/ 2008/ 09/ 09/ 2360240. htm?section=world)". ABC News. Reuters (Australia). September 9, 2008. . [221] (August 24, 2005). " Obama to visit nuclear, biological weapons destruction facilities in former Soviet Union (http:/ / obama. senate. gov/ press/ 050823-obama_to_visit/ )". Press release. . [222] Quel giorno di tre anni fa a Washington Barack mi raccontò la sua speranza (http:/ / www. partitodemocratico. it/ allegatidef/ veltroni63375. pdf) Rome Mayor's Leadership Bid May Lead to Early Italian Elections (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ apps/ news?pid=20601085& sid=aea6jJJwShpQ& refer=europe); VELTRONI A NEW YORK - Il politico prevale sull' amministratore (http:/ / archiviostorico. corriere. it/ 2005/ aprile/ 30/ politico_prevale_sull_amministratore_co_10_050430003. shtml); Libreria Rizzoli Galleria (http:/ / store. libreriarizzoli. it/ 4DLink/ 4DAction/ MostraScheda?Codice=978881701658) [223] Pedder, Sophie (February 20, 2008). " Sarkozy, Obama and McCain (http:/ / www. economist. com/ blogs/ certainideasofeurope/ 2008/ 02/ sarkozy_obama_and_mccain. cfm)". The Economist. . Retrieved November 20, 2008. [224] France 24 | Obama remains a popular symbol of hope | France 24 (http:/ / www. france24. com/ en/ 20090529-obama-remains-popular-symbol-hope-harris-interactive-poll-world-leaders). [225] Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). " Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ musicNews/ idUSN0852813420080210)". Reuters. . Retrieved November 24, 2008. [226] Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). " Celebrities join YouTube revolution (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ article3491460. ece)". The Times (UK). . Retrieved December 18, 2008. [227] Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). " Emmys give knuckle bump to; more videos on the way (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes. com/ soundboard/ 2008/ 06/ emmys-give-knuc. html)". Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved December 18, 2008. [228] Von Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). " Why History Can't Wait (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ specials/ 2008/ personoftheyear/ article/ 0,31682,1861543_1865068,00. html?cnn=yes)" (Cover article). Time Magazine. . Retrieved December 17, 2008. [229] " The Nobel Peace Prize 2009 (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ peace/ laureates/ 2009/ )". Nobel Foundation. . Retrieved 2009-10-09. [230] " Obama: Peace requires responsibility (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2009/ POLITICS/ 12/ 10/ obama. transcript/ index. html)". CNN. . [231] Philp, Catherine (2009-10-10). " Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ us_and_americas/ article6868905. ece)". The Times (TimesOnLine). . Retrieved 2009-10-10. • • •


Barack Obama
[232] New York Times (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ gwire/ 2009/ 10/ 09/ 09greenwire-obama-wins-nobel-prize-in-part-for-confronting-55250. html). [233] The award came in Obama's first year.CNN. " Obama's win unique among presidents (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2009/ POLITICS/ 10/ 09/ us. nobel. presidents/ index. html)". . Theodore Roosevelt won the award in 1906 and Woodrow Wilson in 1919, both while still serving as President. Jimmy Carter, who left office in 1981, won the award in 2002." All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ peace/ laureates/ index. html)". Nobel Foundation. . Retrieved 2009-10-09.


• Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-085820-6. • Obama, Barack (1995, 2004). Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-8277-3. • Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-23769-9.

Further reading
• Curry, Jessica. " Barack Obama: Under the Lights ( Barack_Obama)", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • Graff, Garrett. " The Legend of Barack Obama ( html)", Washingtonian, November 1, 2006. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • Koltun, Dave (2005) "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political “Star”" in "The Road to Congress 2004" Editors: Sunil Ahuja (Youngstown State University) and Robert Dewhirst (Truman State University), Nova Science Publishers, Haupauge, New York, Binding: Hardcover Pub. Date: 2005, ISBN 1-59454-360-7 • Lizza, Ryan. " Above the Fray (", GQ, September 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • MacFarquhar, Larissa. " The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From? (http://www.newyorker. com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar)", New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • Mundy, Liza. " A Series of Fortunate Events ( 08/08/AR2007080802038.html)", The Washington Post Magazine, August 12, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • Wallace-Wells, Ben. " Destiny's Child ( campaign_08_the_radical_roots_of_barack_obama)", Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. • Zutter, Hank De. " What Makes Obama Run? (", Chicago Reader, December 8, 1995. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.

External links
Official sites • President Barack Obama ( official White House website • Full transcript and video of President Obama's inaugural address (from (http://www. • (official website) ( • Official Nobel page for Obama (

Barack Obama Site directory • Barack Obama ( Presidents/Obama,_Barack/) at the Open Directory Project • Works by or about Barack Obama ( in libraries (WorldCat catalog) News media • Ongoing news coverage from the BBC News ( obama_presidency/default.stm), Chicago Sun-Times ( html), Chicago Tribune (, The Guardian (http://www., Washington Post ( politics/administration/) • " US election results map (". BBC News. October 29, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010. • " In pictures: Election result reaction (". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010. • " In quotes: US election reaction (". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010. • FACTBOX: Barack Obama, Democratic President-elect ( idUSTRE4A43VA20081105) (Reuters, November 5, 2008) Congressional links • Biography ( at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress • Voting record ( maintained by The Washington Post • Campaign finance reports and data ( at the Federal Election Commission • Campaign contributions ( at • Biography (, voting record ( voting_category.php?can_id=9490), and interest group ratings ( issue_rating_category.php?can_id=9490) at Project Vote Smart • Issue positions and quotes ( at On The Issues • Staff salaries, trips and personal finance ( at • Current Bills Sponsored ( at • Congressional profile ( at


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Karastathis, NXTguru, NYKenny, NYyankees51, Nableezy, Nader85021, Nahabi wandera, Nailbiter, Nakon, Nano649, Nar Matteru, Natalie Erin, Nathan, Natrajdr, NatureA16, NatusRoma, Natwebb, Naught101, Navel80, NawlinWiki, Nawsum526, Ncushman, Ndgp, Ndyguy, Neapolitan Sixth, NeedFiction, Neier, Neightdogwiki, NeilN, Neophytesoftware, Neovu79, Netimah, Netmonger, Neumannkun, Neurolysis, Neutralhomer, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, NewYork483, Newoikkin, Newross, Newyorkgame9, Nexcet, Nford24, Nguasta2, Nhayghe, Nibbo 2, NiceFriend, Nicholas Tan, Nick37, NickBush24, NickCatal, Nickjtorres, Nickshanks, Nigel Barristoat, NigelR, Nigelhenry, Nigholith, Nightkey, Nightmareishere, Nightscream, Nihiltres, Nihonjoe, Nikdahl, Nil Einne, Nimmo27, NinaOdell, Nincb123, NineASpades, Ninja Jordan, Ninja pope, Ninjawarriordex, Ninly, Nippleman, Nips, Nishkid64, Nitishkorula, Nivix, Njc69, Nmajdan, Nniigeell, No Guru, NoRightTurn, NocturnalHorde, Nopetro, Normalmouth, Noroton, Northwestern guy, Northwesterner1, Norum, Not An Ed Puppet, Nothlit, Notontain, Notwist, Novem Linguae, Nowa, Nposs, Nquotes, NrDg, Nsaa, Nubiatech, NuclearWarfare, Nuclearj, Nuggetboy, Nukeless, Numberonemjbfan, Nunh-huh, Nurg, Nurul Akbar, Nuttycoconut, Nwbeeson, Nwe, Nykoreankid, Nyzliljj100, O18, OCNative, OLEAROBERT2, Obaidz96, Obama Fan 08, ObamaGirlMachine, Obamiac, Oberness, Oblesque, OboeCrack, ObserverNY, Ocelot006, Od Mishehu, OdKahaneChai, OffBalance, OfficePuter, OfficerBDicks, Ofhistoricalnote, Ogeez, OhMyMoses, Ohconfucius, Ohirris, Ohnoitsjamie, Okiefromokla, Okielahoma, Old-copy-editor, Oldschooltool, Ollieplatt, Omar.ElNaggar, Omegacommand, Omegared25, Omicronpersei8, OmniWikia, Omnibus, Omphaloscope, One, OneWeirdDude, Oneilius, Onesbrief, Onesmallnote, Onetwo1, Onkelschark, Onlychild13, Onorem, Ooofunny, Opelio, OpenSeven, Opodo123, Oprahwasontv, Optionalusername, Orangejumpsuit, Orangemarlin, OregonD00d, Orel dagmy, Organ123, Orlando75, Orlandoshire, Oroso, Orthopraxia, Otebig, OtherAJ, Otheus, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Ottre, OuroborosCobra, Outgrow, OwenBlacker, Oxymoron83, Oyoyoy, Ozgod, PAK Man, PETA=FAG, PIL1987, PJHaseldine, PS2pcGAMER, Pabstboy, Packard461, Packerfansam, Paco16fer, Padillah, Paexo,


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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg  Source:  License: Attribution  Contributors: Pete Souza, The Obama-Biden Transition Project File:Barack Obama signature.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SyntaxError55 File:Speaker Icon.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Blast, G.Hagedorn, Mobius, 2 anonymous edits File:Ann Dunham with father and children.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Becksguy, Blurpeace, Bratz angel14, Capricorn42, CieloEstrellado, Crunch, DJ Clayworth, Dgies, Entheta, Ferrie, Gilliam, J.delanoy, Jake Wartenberg, Jboy29, Justmeherenow, Kaldari, Lid, MBisanz, Mgiganteus1, Nehrams2020, Oneiros, OsamaK, PSUAviator, Pantherman89, Peripitus, Psantora, Rami R, Scpc92, Sf46, Skier Dude, Szyslak, Travisdst, 66 anonymous edits File:Coburn and Obama discuss S. 2590.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Senate Office of Tom Coburn File:Lugar-Obama.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Senate Office of Richard Lugar File:Flickr Obama Springfield 01.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Ben Stanfield from Washington, DC, USA File:obama08acceptance.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Gabbec File:President George W. Bush and Barack Obama meet in Oval Office.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: White House photo by Eric Draper File:US President Barack Obama taking his Oath of Office - 2009Jan20.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Master Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo, U.S. Air Force File:Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of America.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bjankuloski06en, CastAStone, Clindberg, Gryffindor, Hautala, Kwj2772, Multichill, NE2, Pmsyyz, S1, Superm401, TCY, Wsiegmund File:Barack Obama signs American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 on February 17.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pete Souza, White House photographer File:ObamaAbingtonPA.JPG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Bbsrock File:Obamas at White House Easter Egg Roll 4-13-09 2.JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Lawrence Jackson File:BarackObama-Basketball.JPEG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MCC ERIC A. CLEMENT, USN File:Five Presidents Oval Office.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: White House photo by Eric Draper File:20090124 WeeklyAddress.ogv  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: The United States Government

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