The Effects of Independent Reading on Fluency Author: Newcomb, Caroline Date of Publication: April 19,2009 The purpose of my action research was to see if independent reading has an effect on fluency. I found that all of my kindergarten students’ sight word recognition and decoding skills improved through this process. I think I saw improvement because of the independent reading that they did, the instructional activities that we did in class and parental support. I do not think that independent reading without proper instruction would help the students’ fluency increase. My students were also expected to read to the preschool students so this activity helped to motivate them to practice reading the same two or three books. Rereading familiar text helps to increase fluency and their confidence. Assisting Low Socioeconomic Children with Oral Language Deficiencies Achieve Success Author: Mann, Thomas Date of Publication: April 21,2009 Research indicates that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds may enter school with severe oral language deficiencies. By second grade, the absence of a rich oral language background can leave a child with a vocabulary deficiency that is already too great to overcome. By implementing a systematic approach to vocabulary instruction, children from low socioeconomic backgrounds perform at the same level as their peers from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. With repetitious instruction consisting of standardized vocabulary, oral conversation, and prompting, my four kindergarten students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have overcome their deficiencies and perform oral language activities at the same level as their peers. The implication is teachers should challenge all students equally, expecting nothing but the best from all students. Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Small Group Differentiated Instruction Author: Newcomb, Francine Date of Publication: April 21,2009 The focus of this paper is Phonemic Awareness and the impact it can have on pre-reading learners. The purpose of my action research is phonemic awareness (the knowledge of sounds and how they work within words) and the importance of phonemic awareness activities before teaching phonics (the sound symbol association) and in combination with teaching phonics. Four students that scored low strategic on Dibels assessment received explicit and systematic instruction during small group instruction for thirty minutes daily in phonemic awareness activities and after showing significant improvement the instruction began to include phonics instruction. The students showed significant improvement in phonemic awareness, phonics, reading, and writing. Building Capacity Through Peer Coaching and Reflective Discussion Author: Lutz, Suzette Date of Publication: April 23,2009 The focus of this project was to explore the effectiveness of peer coaching and facilitated reflective discussion to build teacher capacity of classroom practices to meet student instructional needs resulting in increased student achievement. Four classroom teachers provided instruction during a daily intervention period to forty-two second grade students. The instructional coach observed instruction and met with teachers to facilitate reflective discussions both individually and as a group and made instructional modifications to match student needs based on anecdotal notes and progress monitoring data. The coach observed improvement in teacher reflection, planning, and implementation of lessons and differentiated activities. Analysis of both DIBELS progress monitoring data and Developmental Spelling Inventory scores indicated the majority of the students made progress. Using Multisensory Instruction to Increase High Frequency Word Knowledge Author: Blasko, Jennifer Date of Publication: April 24,2009 The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of multisensory techniques on high frequency word (HFW) learning with struggling readers. For eight weeks, three first grade students received multisensory instruction using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile (VAKT) method, simultaneous oral spelling, HFW games, rainbow writing, letter tiles, and flash drills to simultaneously activate their visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile pathways. The students’ HFW learning and retention significantly improved. Students gained an average of 66 words in their HFW vocabularies. Oral reading fluency also increased an average of 35 wpm. In conclusion, multisensory instruction was proven to be an effective instructional method for teaching struggling readers with poor HFW vocabularies. Recommendations would be to continue using multisensory instructional using HFW lists. Reading Workshop: An Independent Reading Approach t Developing Fluency and Comprehension Skills Author: Colgan, Diane Date of Publication: April 24,2009 This action research was conducted to see the effects of a structured independent reading program on kindergarten students’ fluency and comprehension. Students were assessed to determine baseline scores in word and sentence reading and an informal reading inventory was given to determine an oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency and comprehension baselines. Reading Workshop took place 30 minutes per day. During this time, mini-lessons were conducted to address students’ needs, students read leveled text and individual conferences took place to monitor students’ oral reading and comprehension. As a result of Reading Workshop students demonstrated an increase in their oral reading rate, fluency, accuracy and comprehension. Also, confidence and an increased interest in reading were evident. Impact of Contextual Learning on High Frequency Word Automaticity and Reading Rate Author: Hentscher, Nicole Date of Publication: April 24,2009 The purpose of this action research study was to determine the impact of contextual learning on high-frequency word automaticity and reading rate. For eight weeks, eight first grade students were given instruction via high- frequency word phrases. Weekly fluency probes were given to determine individual student abilities to recall these words in text, as well as gauge increases in reading rate that may have occurred as a result. The average gain in high-frequency word automaticity was 39 words, while the average gain in rate was 22 words per minute. Evidence shows that the use of high-frequency word phrases does have an impact on student abilities to automatically recall these words in context, as well as increase reading rate on grade-level texts. Strategies to Improve Reading Fluency for Below-Level Readers in First Grade Author: Kansagra, Melanie Date of Publication: April 24,2009 My action research focused on strategies to improve reading fluency among struggling first grade students. For eight weeks, I provided instruction for four first grade students in a small group setting for 20 minutes each day. The strategies I implemented included Readers’ Theatre, booktalks, blending, repeated readings, and phrasing. Both the SRI and DIBELS results showed the students improved. Their Lexile levels increased by an average of 84 points while their oral reading rate improved by nine words per minute. Fluency is a fundamental skill that must be achieved in order for readers to find meaning. Therefore, the instruction delivered in this study was beneficial because it implemented strategies that increased students’ reading fluency, which, in turn, increases comprehension. Using Phonics for Reading With First Graders Who Struggle With Decoding Strategies Author: Lamer, Andrea Date of Publication: April 24,2009 The purpose of this action research project was to determine if Phonics For Reading could help improve students’ abilities to decode and recognize short vowels a and i. A group of four first grade students who struggled with decoding skills received eight weeks of instruction on recognizing the sounds of short a and short i, using them in blending words, building new words, matching words with pictures, writing words, etc. Students did make progress and were progressed monitored with Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills Nonsense Word Fluency and the Developmental Reading Assessment. Student progress has shown that the program is effective. The program proved the positives in explicit and systematic instruction. Language Development: The Impact upon the Behaviors and Literacy of Students with Emotional Disorders Author: Kleintop, Emily Date of Publication: April 25,2009 The goal of this action research was to prove the efficacy of utilizing intense, direct language instruction activities to improve the classroom behaviors of third grade students with emotional or behavioral disabilities who demonstrated a deficit of at least one grade level in literacy development. During the course of the eight week study, the students participated in activities designed to prompt the behaviors expected of a typical kindergarten student such as Show and Tell, field trips, sharing experiences, and guessing games. All students demonstrated improvement in language skills, while three out of five improved in their overall behavior and in their following direction behaviors. The research supports the value of implementing language activities as a means of improving students’ behavior. Does Kid Writing and High Frequency Words Help Struggling Kindergarten Writers Author: Kochubka, Jeffrey Date of Publication: April 25,2009 The goal of this study was to investigate if combining Kid Writing and high frequency word instruction would help struggling kindergarten students in their writing. The eight-week investigation was given to four struggling students in writing. The students were instructed in Kid Writing and high frequency words in whole group and then in a small group mini-lessons, five days a week. They were assessed by sentences wrote, letter name/sounds, convection’s, and positive behavior during Kid Writing. The results showed that students instructed in both Kid Writing and high frequency words saw an increase in their writing. By teaching the students Kid Writing and high frequency words together these students will be better prepared for writing in first grade. Enhancing Reading Fluency Through Repeated Readings and Reading-While- Listening by Using Common Word Phrases Author: Schiefer, Katherine Date of Publication: April 25,2009 This action research study was designed to pair Dr. Edward Fry’s word phrases and the research of Dr. Timothy Rasinski’s idea of repeated readings and reading-while-listening into a systematic, explicit, and structured intervention to enhance reading fluency. The study evaluated the progress of six second grade students when using repeated reading and reading-while-listening activities. Thirty to forty minute activities were conducted each day. These activities were based on twenty word phrases per week and one reading passage that contained the word phrases. The frequent modeling and gradual release of responsibility through continuous repeated readings resulted in average fluency gains of twenty two words more per minute. In addition, teacher response to the repeated readings and reading-while-listening was overwhelmingly positive. Teacher-Directed Differentiated Instructional Interventions for Intensive Students: Action Research Author: Gilroy, Melissa Date of Publication: April 26,2009 The purpose of this research was to determine if providing one-on-one instruction for thirty minutes daily would affect the literacy comprehension and application of a struggling kindergarten student. Teacher-directed instruction was provided in phonemic awareness, letter naming, high frequency words, and sound correspondence. Progress monitoring was completed and analyzed weekly to determine growth in comparison to a control group that did not receive individualized instruction. When looking at a combined score of all literacy interventions, the subject showed minimal gains with an average progression of 7.95% while the control group had an average gain of 40.59%. Additional tests will need to be completed and specialized resource instruction will need to be considered to support this student's academic needs. Building Letter/Sound Correspondence to Increase Fluency Author: Kelleher, Elissa Date of Publication: April 26,2009 The goal of this research study was to build a letter/sound correspondence to increase reading fluency. This eight-week study included four learning support and emotional support students in first and second grade that are reading below grade level. The students were instructed in letter/sound identification and sight words in a small group daily for thirty-minutes. To help increase the student’s letter/sound correspondence and sight word recognition I had the students write letters and sight words in shaving cream, create them with yarn and identify the words and letters in leveled short stories. At the conclusion of the study, I saw an average increase of eight words read per minute in ORF. The average gain in sight word identification was thirteen and the average in letter sound/identification was four. The results proved that explicit, systematic instruction in letters/sounds and sights words increased the student’s reading fluency rate. Increasing Sight Word Exposure to Help Students Increase Fluency Author: McMyne, Donna Date of Publication: April 26,2009 The goal of this action research was to determine if through increased instruction in sight word recognition students would be able to increase their abilities to read their sight words both in isolation and context with more accuracy and fluency. Through extended instruction in sight words recognition the 6 students in my group were exposed to an increased number of sight words. Explicit and systematic instruction was conducted using flash cards, sight word worksheets, poetry pages, high frequency and decodable readers, sight word sentences, center activities and games. To measure growth, pretests, progress monitoring tests and posttests were administered using the pre-primer and primer Dolch word lists. This study has shown that extended sight word instruction aids in sight word recognition in both isolation and context and helps to increase confidence in the early reader. Implementing Independent Reading to Increase Fluency Author: Miller, Jasmine Date of Publication: April 26,2009 The focus of this action research is to determine the effectiveness of independent reading on the fluency rates of second grade students. After direct instruction in whole group and small group settings, the students participated in a thirty-minute independent reading block. During the independent reading block, mini-lessons, conferences, and reading logs were used to guide instruction. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency and Scott Foresman Fluency assessments were used to determine the outcomes of incorporating an independent reading block into the schedule. The findings agreed with past research that there is no link between time spent independently reading and an increase in fluency rates of students. Despite these results, other benefits of independent reading, such as increased motivation, were discovered.
Pages to are hidden for
"The Effects of Independent Reading on Fluency Author Newcomb"Please download to view full document