The Effects of Independent Reading on Fluency Author Newcomb by slappypappy116

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									                The Effects of Independent Reading on Fluency
                          Author: Newcomb, Caroline
                       Date of Publication: April 19,2009

         The purpose of my action research was to see if independent reading
has an effect on fluency. I found that all of my kindergarten students’ sight word
recognition and decoding skills improved through this process. I think I saw
improvement because of the independent reading that they did, the
instructional activities that we did in class and parental support. I do not think
that independent reading without proper instruction would help the students’
fluency increase. My students were also expected to read to the preschool
students so this activity helped to motivate them to practice reading the same
two or three books. Rereading familiar text helps to increase fluency and their
Assisting Low Socioeconomic Children with Oral Language Deficiencies Achieve
                           Author: Mann, Thomas
                      Date of Publication: April 21,2009
         Research indicates that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds
may enter school with severe oral language deficiencies. By second grade, the
absence of a rich oral language background can leave a child with a vocabulary
deficiency that is already too great to overcome. By implementing a systematic
approach to vocabulary instruction, children from low socioeconomic
backgrounds perform at the same level as their peers from higher
socioeconomic backgrounds. With repetitious instruction consisting of
standardized vocabulary, oral conversation, and prompting, my four kindergarten
students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have overcome their
deficiencies and perform oral language activities at the same level as their peers.
The implication is teachers should challenge all students equally, expecting
nothing but the best from all students.
 Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Small Group Differentiated Instruction
                       Author: Newcomb, Francine
                    Date of Publication: April 21,2009

         The focus of this paper is Phonemic Awareness and the impact it can
have on pre-reading learners. The purpose of my action research is phonemic
awareness (the knowledge of sounds and how they work within words) and the
importance of phonemic awareness activities before teaching phonics (the
sound symbol association) and in combination with teaching phonics. Four
students that scored low strategic on Dibels assessment received explicit and
systematic instruction during small group instruction for thirty minutes daily in
phonemic awareness activities and after showing significant improvement the
instruction began to include phonics instruction. The students showed significant
improvement in phonemic awareness, phonics, reading, and writing.
      Building Capacity Through Peer Coaching and Reflective Discussion
                             Author: Lutz, Suzette
                       Date of Publication: April 23,2009

          The focus of this project was to explore the effectiveness of peer
coaching and facilitated reflective discussion to build teacher capacity of
classroom practices to meet student instructional needs resulting in increased
student achievement. Four classroom teachers provided instruction during a
daily intervention period to forty-two second grade students. The instructional
coach observed instruction and met with teachers to facilitate reflective
discussions both individually and as a group and made instructional
modifications to match student needs based on anecdotal notes and progress
monitoring data. The coach observed improvement in teacher reflection,
planning, and implementation of lessons and differentiated activities. Analysis
of both DIBELS progress monitoring data and Developmental Spelling Inventory
scores indicated the majority of the students made progress.
 Using Multisensory Instruction to Increase High Frequency Word Knowledge
                          Author: Blasko, Jennifer
                      Date of Publication: April 24,2009

           The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of
multisensory techniques on high frequency word (HFW) learning with struggling
readers. For eight weeks, three first grade students received multisensory
instruction using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile (VAKT) method,
simultaneous oral spelling, HFW games, rainbow writing, letter tiles, and flash
drills to simultaneously activate their visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile
pathways. The students’ HFW learning and retention significantly
improved. Students gained an average of 66 words in their HFW vocabularies.
Oral reading fluency also increased an average of 35 wpm. In conclusion,
multisensory instruction was proven to be an effective instructional method for
teaching struggling readers with poor HFW vocabularies. Recommendations
would be to continue using multisensory instructional using HFW lists.
 Reading Workshop: An Independent Reading Approach t Developing Fluency
                        and Comprehension Skills
                          Author: Colgan, Diane
                    Date of Publication: April 24,2009
 This action research was conducted to see the effects of a structured
independent reading program on kindergarten students’ fluency and
comprehension. Students were assessed to determine baseline scores in word
and sentence reading and an informal reading inventory was given to determine
an oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency and comprehension baselines. Reading
Workshop took place 30 minutes per day. During this time, mini-lessons were
conducted to address students’ needs, students read leveled text and individual
conferences took place to monitor students’ oral reading and comprehension. As
a result of Reading Workshop students demonstrated an increase in their oral
reading rate, fluency, accuracy and comprehension. Also, confidence and an
increased interest in reading were evident.
   Impact of Contextual Learning on High Frequency Word Automaticity and
                                Reading Rate
                          Author: Hentscher, Nicole
                      Date of Publication: April 24,2009
        The purpose of this action research study was to determine the impact
of contextual learning on high-frequency word automaticity and reading rate.
For eight weeks, eight first grade students were given instruction via high-
frequency word phrases. Weekly fluency probes were given to determine
individual student abilities to recall these words in text, as well as gauge
increases in reading rate that may have occurred as a result. The average gain in
high-frequency word automaticity was 39 words, while the average gain in rate
was 22 words per minute. Evidence shows that the use of high-frequency word
phrases does have an impact on student abilities to automatically recall these
words in context, as well as increase reading rate on grade-level texts.
Strategies to Improve Reading Fluency for Below-Level Readers in First Grade
                          Author: Kansagra, Melanie
                       Date of Publication: April 24,2009

           My action research focused on strategies to improve reading fluency
among struggling first grade students. For eight weeks, I provided instruction for
four first grade students in a small group setting for 20 minutes each day. The
strategies I implemented included Readers’ Theatre, booktalks, blending,
repeated readings, and phrasing. Both the SRI and DIBELS results showed the
students improved. Their Lexile levels increased by an average of 84 points
while their oral reading rate improved by nine words per minute. Fluency is a
fundamental skill that must be achieved in order for readers to find meaning.
Therefore, the instruction delivered in this study was beneficial because it
implemented strategies that increased students’ reading fluency, which, in turn,
increases comprehension.
  Using Phonics for Reading With First Graders Who Struggle With Decoding
                           Author: Lamer, Andrea
                      Date of Publication: April 24,2009
          The purpose of this action research project was to determine if Phonics
For Reading could help improve students’ abilities to decode and recognize short
vowels a and i. A group of four first grade students who struggled with decoding
skills received eight weeks of instruction on recognizing the sounds of short a
and short i, using them in blending words, building new words, matching words
with pictures, writing words, etc. Students did make progress and were
progressed monitored with Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills
Nonsense Word Fluency and the Developmental Reading Assessment. Student
progress has shown that the program is effective. The program proved the
positives in explicit and systematic instruction.
    Language Development: The Impact upon the Behaviors and Literacy of
                    Students with Emotional Disorders
                          Author: Kleintop, Emily
                     Date of Publication: April 25,2009
         The goal of this action research was to prove the efficacy of utilizing
intense, direct language instruction activities to improve the classroom
behaviors of third grade students with emotional or behavioral disabilities who
demonstrated a deficit of at least one grade level in literacy development.
During the course of the eight week study, the students participated in activities
designed to prompt the behaviors expected of a typical kindergarten student
such as Show and Tell, field trips, sharing experiences, and guessing games. All
students demonstrated improvement in language skills, while three out of five
improved in their overall behavior and in their following direction behaviors. The
research supports the value of implementing language activities as a means of
improving students’ behavior.
  Does Kid Writing and High Frequency Words Help Struggling Kindergarten
                         Author: Kochubka, Jeffrey
                     Date of Publication: April 25,2009
          The goal of this study was to investigate if combining Kid Writing and
high frequency word instruction would help struggling kindergarten students in
their writing. The eight-week investigation was given to four struggling students
in writing. The students were instructed in Kid Writing and high frequency words
in whole group and then in a small group mini-lessons, five days a week. They
were assessed by sentences wrote, letter name/sounds, convection’s, and
positive behavior during Kid Writing. The results showed that students
instructed in both Kid Writing and high frequency words saw an increase in their
writing. By teaching the students Kid Writing and high frequency words together
these students will be better prepared for writing in first grade.
 Enhancing Reading Fluency Through Repeated Readings and Reading-While-
                Listening by Using Common Word Phrases
                        Author: Schiefer, Katherine
                     Date of Publication: April 25,2009
          This action research study was designed to pair Dr. Edward Fry’s word
phrases and the research of Dr. Timothy Rasinski’s idea of repeated readings and
reading-while-listening into a systematic, explicit, and structured intervention to
enhance reading fluency. The study evaluated the progress of six second grade
students when using repeated reading and reading-while-listening activities.
Thirty to forty minute activities were conducted each day. These activities were
based on twenty word phrases per week and one reading passage that
contained the word phrases. The frequent modeling and gradual release of
responsibility through continuous repeated readings resulted in average fluency
gains of twenty two words more per minute. In addition, teacher response to
the repeated readings and reading-while-listening was overwhelmingly positive.
   Teacher-Directed Differentiated Instructional Interventions for Intensive
                          Students: Action Research
                            Author: Gilroy, Melissa
                      Date of Publication: April 26,2009
          The purpose of this research was to determine if providing one-on-one
instruction for thirty minutes daily would affect the literacy comprehension and
application of a struggling kindergarten student. Teacher-directed instruction
was provided in phonemic awareness, letter naming, high frequency words, and
sound correspondence. Progress monitoring was completed and analyzed
weekly to determine growth in comparison to a control group that did not
receive individualized instruction. When looking at a combined score of all
literacy interventions, the subject showed minimal gains with an average
progression of 7.95% while the control group had an average gain of 40.59%.
Additional tests will need to be completed and specialized resource instruction
will need to be considered to support this student's academic needs.
          Building Letter/Sound Correspondence to Increase Fluency
                            Author: Kelleher, Elissa
                       Date of Publication: April 26,2009

          The goal of this research study was to build a letter/sound
correspondence to increase reading fluency. This eight-week study included four
learning support and emotional support students in first and second grade that
are reading below grade level. The students were instructed in letter/sound
identification and sight words in a small group daily for thirty-minutes. To help
increase the student’s letter/sound correspondence and sight word recognition I
had the students write letters and sight words in shaving cream, create them
with yarn and identify the words and letters in leveled short stories. At the
conclusion of the study, I saw an average increase of eight words read per
minute in ORF. The average gain in sight word identification was thirteen and the
average in letter sound/identification was four. The results proved that explicit,
systematic instruction in letters/sounds and sights words increased the student’s
reading fluency rate.
      Increasing Sight Word Exposure to Help Students Increase Fluency
                           Author: McMyne, Donna
                       Date of Publication: April 26,2009

           The goal of this action research was to determine if through increased
instruction in sight word recognition students would be able to increase their
abilities to read their sight words both in isolation and context with more
accuracy and fluency. Through extended instruction in sight words recognition
the 6 students in my group were exposed to an increased number of sight words.
Explicit and systematic instruction was conducted using flash cards, sight word
worksheets, poetry pages, high frequency and decodable readers, sight word
sentences, center activities and games. To measure growth, pretests, progress
monitoring tests and posttests were administered using the pre-primer and
primer Dolch word lists. This study has shown that extended sight word
instruction aids in sight word recognition in both isolation and context and helps
to increase confidence in the early reader.
            Implementing Independent Reading to Increase Fluency
                           Author: Miller, Jasmine
                      Date of Publication: April 26,2009

         The focus of this action research is to determine the effectiveness of
independent reading on the fluency rates of second grade students. After direct
instruction in whole group and small group settings, the students participated in
a thirty-minute independent reading block. During the independent reading
block, mini-lessons, conferences, and reading logs were used to guide
instruction. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency
and Scott Foresman Fluency assessments were used to determine the outcomes
of incorporating an independent reading block into the schedule. The findings
agreed with past research that there is no link between time spent
independently reading and an increase in fluency rates of students. Despite
these results, other benefits of independent reading, such as increased
motivation, were discovered.

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