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45 Collingwood Road                 No 2 Tanteliet Street   Saamstaan Building   38 Voortrekker Street
OBSERVATORY 7925                    Industrial Area         31 Stigling Street   CITRUSDAL
Tel: 021 448 5605                   SPRINGBOK               CALVINIA             7340
Fax: 021 448 0105                   8240                    8190
Visit our website:   Tel: 02771 81370        Tel: 0273 411753     Tel: 022 9212 682
Email address:       Fax: 02771 81302        Fax: 0273 412548     Fax: 022 9212 682
S   U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E       O       P   L       E       P       R   O       J   E   C       T

                                A   N       N   U   A   L       R   E   P   O   R   T       2   0   0   5
 A big thank you to all the rural women and men
        from whom we continuously learn.
       Your struggles always encourage us
to selflessly strive to make a better world possible.
S   U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E   O       P       L    E             P    R       O       J       E       C        T
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                                                Chairperson’s Report                                        page 1

                                                Director’s Report                                           page 3

                                                Building Organisation - Internally                          page 5

                                                Building Organisation - Externally                          page 8

                                                West Coast Programme                                        page 19

                                                Hantam Karoo Programme                                      page 25

                                                Namaqualand Programme                                       page 28

                                                Audited Financial Reports                                   page 34

                                                Funding Partners                                            page 35
                                                            chairperson’s report   C H A I R P E R S O N ’ S                             R E P O R T

                                                                                   The Land Summit, which was held in Johannesburg in July 2005 was undoubtedly
                                                                                   one of the highlights for those of us in the land sector. At this Summit,
                                                                                   far-reaching resolutions were adopted. Some of these included the rejection
                                                                                   of the willing seller, willing buyer principle, expropriation of land and a
                                                                                   land reform programme which benefits the poor, particularly women, farm
                                                                                   workers and youth. These demands were further given a boost by the remarks
                                                                                   of President Thabo Mbeki in his State of the Nation address delivered on
                                                                                   3 February 2006. He specifically singled out for review - during the course
                                                                                   of 2006 - the willing seller, willing buyer principle, land acquisition models and
                                                                                   possible manipulation of land prices, as well as the conditions under which foreigners
                                                                                   buy land.

                                                                                   In many ways, the democratic state is responding to a range of criticism and
                                                                                   pressures. From the late 1990’s civil society organisations consistently
                                                                                   criticised the emerging policy direction, and NGO’s including the Surplus
                                                                                   People Project were increasingly able to articulate this criticism based on
                                                                                   their experiences on the ground. Over and above these internal pressures
                                                                                   from below, developments in neighbouring Zimbabwe were a constant reminder
                                                                                   of what could happen to this country. By 2003, senior government officials
                                                                                   were acknowledging the very serious challenges of redistributing land in
                                                                                   South Africa pointing to unwillingness of white farmers to sell land and
                                                                                   sharply rising land prices. It is against this background that the Land
                                                                                   Summit and the statements by the President in his State of the Nation
                                                                                   address should be viewed.

                                                                                   Since the Land Summit and the President’s address, critics are wondering how
                                                                                   the resolutions of the summit and the statements by the President will be
                                                                                   taken forward. In particular, critics are asking whether a review of the
                                                                                   willing seller, willing buyer principle constitute a more active involvement
                                                                                   of the state in the land reform process, albeit within a capitalist and
                                                                                   market framework, or what. Radical critics of current government land
                                                                                   policy lament that the land summit and the President’s address did not
                                                                                   address constitutional issues such as the protection of existing property
                                                                                   rights whose history are traceable to colonial conquest, land dispossession
                                                                                   and naked exploitation of black labour.
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The above events raise a number of questions and challenges for the land
sector in general and SPP in particular. A critical question that needs
more serious investigation is the demand for land. Specific questions in
this regard include: Who wants land? What do they want land for? It is
important that we begin to question assumptions that those living in rural
areas and the unemployed will look at land as an alternative source of
living. Apart from these questions, there is an urgent need to address the
question as to how land will be held and used by beneficiaries of the land
reform programme. So far, most of the energy is on the acquisition of land,
with very little reflection and planning on issues around land holding and
use. Lastly, it becomes critical for the landless to be organized and
further build the movement of landless women and men.

Finally, as we celebrate our achievements of 2005, it is important to
reflect on these challenges. On behalf of the Board of the SPP, it is my pleasure
to present to you the Annual Report of the SPP for 2005. We hope that you find
it insightful.

Prof. Lungisile Ntsebeza

                      S    U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E   O   P   L   E   P   R   O   J   E   C   T

                                                director’s report   D I R E C T O R ’ S                     R E P O R T

                                                                    The past year has been a period of deepening our practice, analyzing our
                                                                    context and changing our approaches, paradigms and perspectives through
                                                                    supporting the development initiatives of landless women and men. We were
                                                                    challenged to secure the resources for effective implementation, had to deal
                                                                    with the effects of staff turnover as well as manage the shift towards a
                                                                    holistic agrarian reform approach. The shift to agrarian reform has made it
                                                                    an exciting period as it challenged our existing practices and led us into
                                                                    areas such as the ecological impact of industrial agriculture and the
                                                                    development of a vision towards sustainable agriculture. New partnerships
                                                                    were forged, new challenges emerged and new struggles were identified.

                                                                    The report will attempt to take you on a journey of our work and our
                                                                    reflections over the period under review. Hopefully it will provide some
                                                                    insight into the complex nature of the work of development practitioners in
                                                                    their quest to engender a pro-poor agrarian reform agenda. Successes and
                                                                    achievements can however only be assessed based on the benefits to and
                                                                    opportunities for the women and men we work with.

                                                                    The theme for this annual report is Building Organisation. It will reflect
                                                                    on the mechanisms we used within the organisation as well as narrate our
                                                                    interventions and activities at grassroots level. The examples and stories
                                                                    cited in this report will attempt to highlight the interventions of SPP and the effects
                                                                    and learnings drawn from our practice. The levels of poverty in the geographic areas
                                                                    make it critical that our development interventions contribute to the alleviation of
                                                                    poverty especially for resource poor women and that our strategies are effective and

                                                                    The struggle for agrarian reform in South Africa is fundamentally a struggle
                                                                    to improve the living conditions of landless poor women and men,
                                                                    transformation of rural relations and the development of the rural economy.
                                                                    It should give landless women and men access to and control over land, water
                                                                    and seeds and the right to practice sustainable agriculture. Ten years into
                                                                    the new dispensation, we are observing increasing poverty, unemployment,
                                                                    inequality, rural displacement and underdevelopment. The redistribution target
                                                                    of 30% of agricultural land within the first five years has only reached the 4% mark.
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Land sector organisations and the landless are entering a critical period in
the history of agrarian transformation in South Africa. This context sets
the tone for and determines our strategies and activities, now and into the
future. In July 2005 the Minister of Land Affairs and Agriculture hosted the
National Land Summit. Civil society organisations and in particular the
Landless People’s Movement and National Land Committee have since 2001 asked
for such a process to review the market based land reform programme. A
central demand from both the provincial and national summits was a review of
the ‘willing buyer, willing seller’ principal and a moratorium on the
evictions of farm dwellers. An informal alliance of mostly affiliates from
the National Land Committee and other land based organisation, called the
Alliance for Land and Agrarian Reform Movements (ALARM) was formed prior to
the land summits in order to articulate a common set of demands. The role
of this alliance will have to be clarified in the near future based on learnings
from other initiatives like the failed Rural Development Initiative (RDI).

SPP believes that local / social organisation should be strengthened.
Sharing information with the landless about the rapid changes in the
agrarian sector is an important element of this practice. We use different
means (case studies; newsletters, popular education and horizontal learning
exchanges) to achieve this objective. The local actions of emerging farmers
and landless workers, with limited support from SPP, are an indication of
their tenacity, independent thinking and creativity.

Thank you to the SPP Board and team for your commitment and invaluable
contributions to land and agrarian transformation. Gratitude to the women
and men who allow us to enter into their lives and who selflessly share
their experiences and indigenous knowledge.

Herschelle Milford
Managing director
                     S   U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E   O   P   L   E   P   R   O   J   E   C   T

                                                                “Turning the mirror on ourselves”
                                                                BUILDING ORGANISATION - INTERNALLY

                                                                The strategic thinking and review process in 2003 changed the path and direction of
                                                                SPP. It now seeks to be a multi-skilled, efficient, radical and committed organisation,
                                                                instrumental in facilitating the redistribution of resources to the poor and marginalized
                                                                - women and farm dwellers in particular - and in transforming power relations in rural
                                                                and peri-urban areas. Supporting women and men in their agrarian struggles for sustainable
                                                                livelihoods and food security will achieve this.

                                                                We believe that the people themselves should drive and determine choices, strategies
                                                                and approaches of struggle. We choose to work with the rural poor and therefore supports
                                                                the voice and actions of the poor. We pursue radical alternatives with the women and
                                                                men we work with to change their economic, political and social conditions within (local)
                                                                communities & institutions that represent their interest.

                                                                The strategic focus areas that guide our interventions and strategies are:
                                                                • Land rights:
                                                                Access to and control over land and water for food security and sustainable livelihoods
                                                                • Land use planning and development:
                                                                Access to productive and development resources and markets by women and men faced
                                                                with diseases of poverty particularly people living with HIV/Aids
                                                                • Research, lobbying and advocacy:
                                                                Pro-poor policy changes effected and influenced through SPP’s direct engagement in
                                                                and facilitation of the participation of poor men and women
                                                                • Social organisation and mobilisation:
                                                                Build organisation, raise awareness and facilitate social action with poor women and
                                                                men in the Northern and Western Cape

                                                                Board development
                                                                The Board of SPP continued to advocate good governance and ensure sound organisational
                                                                policies and practices through their committed leadership. The consolidation, deepening
                                                                and cementing of our experiences and work over the last twenty years have been
                                                                a key mandate from the Board. Overseeing the implementation of the recommendations
                                                                of the 2004 organisational evaluation was a key priority as well as monitoring a
                                                                rather critical period of cash flow challenges during the first part of the year.

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Organisational management and development
The biggest management challenge has been to acquire and secure the necessary resources to implement our strategies as well as
facilitate an effective performance management system to achieve the set objectives. Four staff members resigned during this period.

Staff organisation
The relationship with the Local Staff Forum remains a challenge as they build their organisation and engage management. It is in finding
common ground that we are able to strengthen internal capacity and build new leadership.

    POSITION                                        BLACK                                  WHITE                                           TOTAL
                                             FEMALE            MALE             FEMALE                     MALE
   Board                                       2                  3                1                           0                               6
   Director                                    1                  0                0                           0                               1
   Management                                  1                  3                0                           0                               4
   West Coast                                  2                  1                0                           0                               3
   Hantam Karoo                                2                  0                0                           0                               2
   Namaqualand                                 0                  2                0                           0                               2
   Finance & Administration                    4                  1                0                           0                               5
   Research, Information & Advocacy            2                  1                0                           0                               3
   STAFF TOTALS                                12                 8                0                           0                               20

Staff development and training – in order to meet the demands / external challenges
Our staff was reduced to twenty full time staff (from 22 fulltime) with the resignation of a few staff members. A staff member was promoted
and two new staff members employed. We continue our practice of competency-based recruitment as it provides a space for applicants to
assess their strengths and identify areas for development.

Staff members continued to develop their skills and expertise through postgraduate studies, formal and informal training courses. This adds value
to the quality of support and interventions and our development practice more broadly. Implementing agrarian reform requires a broad range
of skills, which is considered when new staff is recruited eg. agriculturalists.

One staff member attended the Africa Stockpiles Programme training in Dar es Salaam - an area that compliments our work around sustainable
agriculture, organic farming and pesticide use.

We were represented at a four-day training workshop in Botswana arranged by SADC on integrating HIV/AIDS issues through the use of
environmental assessment and management tools in the water sector in Southern Africa. The workshop brought together researchers, policy
makers and practitioners from Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland and South Africa. The workshop also allowed practitioners to share their
experiences across the SADC region.

                                                                                       S   U   R   P   L   U       S   P   E   O   P   L   E   P    R   O   J   E   C   T

                                                                Organisational learning spaces
                                                                We have embraced our organisational learning processes and spaces, as it aims to
                                                                improve our field practices. Our objective for learning furthermore, is to build organisation;
                                                                change power relations; develop a critical mass and to most importantly remain relevant
                                                                and innovative. We are committed to sharing our development practices and experiences
                                                                with stakeholders through various case studies written by development practitioners
                                                                and community representatives. Joint programme reviews and planning with community
                                                                groups inform our work.

                                                                Resource mobilisation
                                                                2005 has been a challenging year in terms of both acquiring the resources for programme
                                                                implementation and effectively managing the cash flow. Despite, it enabled a process
                                                                to introduce new cost cutting measures based on a review of implementation approaches
                                                                and methodologies. Building alliances and partnerships is a natural consequence of

                                                                Lessons learnt from implementation
                                                                Social mobilisation:
                                                                Political education programmes need to be enhanced - people need information and
                                                                must know their rights. EFAs also need to be granted more opportunities to be
                                                                exposed to decision-making processes of government and departmental institutions.

                                                                Technical/ Agricultural training needs are growing in the field. EFAs need more exposure
                                                                to the practical side of farming. Agricultural technology is changing at a rapid pace. A
                                                                positive point for SPP was triggering an interest in pesticides and GMOs in emerging
                                                                farming and planning on taking it forward, raising more awareness and bringing
                                                                more interest groups into the discussion and challenges that we are facing.

                                                                Not all stakeholders have the commitment and / or the political will to support emerging
                                                                farmers. Municipalities generally creates the perception that they would give all the
                                                                moral support EFAs would be needing, and nothing more. This seemingly dereliction of
                                                                responsibility is unacceptable and needs to be addressed and challenged by both SPP
                                                                and communities. Various means are used to discourage emerging farmers from farming.
                                                                A specific practice is to point to the lack / scarcity of resources, e.g. water, and to tell
                                                                people that farming is not a viable production option because there is no water.

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“From the inside out”

Building Social Organisation

Local organisation - Emerging farmers / farm dweller forums
SPP actively supports the building and strengthening of landless formations, structures and
emerging farmer organisations, as well as their struggles and efforts to build their own
movements. Our methodology is to organize and mobilize EFA Forums according to municipal
areas. In the Hantam Karoo these forums are already organized on a regional base. Farm
workers have identified the need for a similar initiative. SPP formalise our relationships with
EFA’s through signing of Memorandums of Understanding, which defines roles, responsibilities
and accountability mechanisms to assist us to develop “exit strategies”.

Regional organisation
The regional EFA, (REFA) of the Hantam Karoo is functioning well; despite challenging
moments within the group. This is made more difficult due to the long distances members
have to travel and the financial constraints that accompanies these long distances. The REFA
has drafted a funding proposal to address some of these needs to funders, and they have
been successful. At the last AGM held in November 2005 processes were put in place as to
the correct spending, control, management, responsibility and accountability of the fund.
Again this is a sure reflection of the growth in terms of leadership, planning and skills that
have been built within the REFA, which is also a reflection of the growth in the local EFAs
and Women’s groups.

Popular education, social mobilization, horizontal learning exchanges and Information sharing,
are some of the instruments we use to contribute towards strengthening rural movements
and their development initiatives.

                                 S   U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E   O   P   L   E   P   R   O   J   E   C   T

                                                                Popular Education as a practice

                                                                Popular education as a practice within SPP is used as a tool to equip the landless with
                                                                the necessary tools to effectively engage in the agrarian transformation process and
                                                                participate in the different spheres of government. It is a mechanism to raise awareness
                                                                and deepen the understanding of landless men and women in a systematic way in the
                                                                context of increasing poverty, inequality, unemployment and landlessness in rural areas.
                                                                The content of our popular / political education programme emerged from the needs
                                                                expressed by EFA forums. These were amongst others noted to be Social Movement
                                                                formations and Local Government. Horizontal exchanges and linkages with other regions
                                                                as well as training were identified as opportunities to build a movement.

                                                                GMO’s and its potential impact on small-scale agriculture

                                                                SPP in collaboration with Biowatch conducted a workshop with emerging farmers on
                                                                GMO’s and its impact on agricultural development of emerging farmers. The focus of
                                                                the workshop was to deepen the understanding of emerging farmers on GMO’s and its
                                                                potential impact on small- scale agriculture. Representatives of the emerging farmers
                                                                associations of the Bergrivier and Cederberg municipal area and Community Development
                                                                Workers of the Bergrivier Municipal Area attended the workshop. The workshop was
                                                                able to raise awareness around GMO’s and the current legislation drafted by the state.

                                                                Our practice is to make submissions and lobby different spheres of government based
                                                                on our experiences and the daily-lived realities and experiences of people we work with.
                                                                A submission was therefore made to the Portfolio Committee of Land Affairs and
                                                                Agriculture based on the input from emerging farmers. We proposed that the portfolio
                                                                committee consider provincial public hearings where emerging farmers and communities
                                                                are given the opportunity to give inputs. The public hearings should also in detail explain
                                                                to communities the possible impacts and effects of GMO’s on sustainable development
                                                                and biodiversity.

                                                                Organic farming practices

                                                                A workshop was organised with a range of stakeholders (emerging farmers, land use
                                                                organisations; government, other NGO’s) to inform and raise awareness on the risks of
                                                                pesticide usage and the challenges with farming organically. Community groups like
                                                                Bitline Family Farm presented and shared their daily experiences and alternative farming
                                                                methods and practices. The value of this form and method of learning could not be
                                                                emphasized enough by the participants. In fact, SPP was challenged to facilitate more
                                                                of these dialogue sessions and hence our decision to enhance this development practice.
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                                                    N O. OF   LAN D      LAN D             PE S TI C I D E                                  T RA I N I N G
 PROJECT NAME                 PROJECT TYPE          PEOPL E    SIZE       U SE               NAM E                    FREQUENCY             RE C E I V ED
West Coast Municipal Area

Doringbaai EFA                Food Security     20            1 ha     Vegetables     Organic Methods               Once a month .          Yes. GARC
                              (Organic)                                                                             Mix certain plants to   organic
                                                                                                                    keep insects away.      methods
Goedverwacht                  Food Security     40 men        250 ha Vegetables,      Decis , Horizon
                                                12 women             Rooibos &        250/EC Folicur,               Once a month            Yes. AVCASA.
                                                                     Buchu ,          Nimrod, Rosecare,                                     Elsenberg
                                                                     Citrus Orchard   Mercaptothian 500
                                                                                      EC, MCPA 400SL ,
                                                                       Vegetables,    Benomyl
Tharakama                     Semi Commercial   8 men         -        Wine Grapes,   Nemacur, Roundup,             Weekly (6 months per Yes. Supplier of
                                                6 women                               Tamaron, Dursban,
                                                                       Tomatoes       Abamecton, Cartap, Bulldog,   year) Follow industry Chemicals.
                                                                                      Rimon, Dithane, Milraz,       programme             Farmer
                                                                                      Koper, Kumulus, Melody
                                                                                      Duo, Tokuthion, Temik,                              provides
                                                                                      Dithane, Prosper 200 EC,                            training to
                                                                                      Matador, Flint 50WG,
                                                                                      Controler, Melody Care,                             workers
Genadenberg                   Semi-Commercial   4 men         10 ha    Vegetables,    Bulldock                      Once a month            None
                                                10 women               Rooibos &
Rastafarian EFA               Subsistence       8 men         1.5 ha   Vegetables     Organic                       -                       None
Sandveld EFA                  Food Security     14 men        13 ha    Pig Farming,   -                             -                       -
                                                                       Vegetables     -                             -                       -
VSB                           Semi-Commercial                 25 ha    Grapes,        Bulldock, Tamaron,            Weekly                  Yes . DOA
                                                              14 ha    Vegetables     Aqua right 5, Bursban                                 extension

Aurora                        Subsistence       8             18 ha    Rooibos Tea, Organic conventional                                    None

Namaqualand Municipal Area

Garies Women                  Subsistence       8 women       1 ha     Vegetables     Lebaycid, Diesis,             Follow Industry         SPP
                                                                                      Grap, Bulldock ,              Programme. Pest and     agriculturalist
                                                                                      Polyfeed                      Disease Control
Kamieskroon Women             Subsistence       5 women       0.9 ha   Vegetables     Lebaycid, Diesis,             Follow Industry
                                                                                      Grap, Bulldock,               Programme. Pest and     SPP
                                                                                      Polyfeed                      Disease Control         agriculturalist

Hantam Karoo Municipal Area

Bitline CC                    Commercial        -             133 ha Organic,         Organic, Bio Insects,         Once a year before      Yes. Dalmark
                                                                     Rooibos          Xterminator                   harvesting
Saamstaan Vroue               Food Security     14 women      3 ha   Vegetables       Round up, Dithanem,           Follow Industry         None
                                                                                      Ripcord                       Programme 1 - 5
                                                                Social mobilisation as a strategy
                                                                SPP adopted social mobilisation as a key strategy towards agrarian transformation. We act as
                                                                catalysts in the process, raise awareness and conscientize through our popular education
                                                                programme and information sharing activities. It is our view however that the landless workers
                                                                and farmers should be central in the struggle for agrarian transformation.

                                                                In mid 2005 the Minister of Land Affairs and Agriculture announced without consultation of
                                                                civil society that a National Land Summit would be held. In preparing for the Provincial and
                                                                National Land Summits SPP facilitated popular education workshops on Land and Agrarian
                                                                Reform with landless formations. The research findings of “Why the landless remain landless”
                                                                were presented and two of the emerging farmers who went on an exchange visit to Brazil
                                                                (MST) gave a report back. This resulted in local protest action within three municipal areas of
                                                                the West Coast to highlight their struggle for agrarian reform. A direct result from these actions
                                                                was the signing of an agreement with one of the Municipalities.

                                                                A Post-Summit joint gathering of 119 emerging farmer representatives from the West Coast,
                                                                Namaqualand and Hantam Karoo was held to report back on the summit proceedings and
                                                                resolutions and to strategize on how to take the resolutions forward. A key objective was to
                                                                work towards greater unity amongst emerging farmers. A decision was taken to explore linkages
                                                                with the Landless People’s Movement as a vehicle to strengthen the voice of the landless, with
                                                                the support from SPP.

                                                                Information sharing and dissemination
                                                                Information to communities is shared through SPP NEWS, our quarterly newsletter. It is a
                                                                medium used to stimulate debates, generate local news around land and agrarian reform as
                                                                well as communicate policy changes and developments to emerging farmer groups.

                                                                Two newsletters, which focused on land and agrarian reform, particularly the National Land
                                                                Summit outcomes and prospects for landless communities and the impact of the WTO rules
                                                                on developing countries and emerging farmers, were produced.

                                                                The newsletters are also used as a space where other NGO’s can share views. Biowatch
                                                                contributed two articles to our newsletter: Understanding GMO’s and Sustainable Agriculture.
                                                                The newsletters have been distributed within the three regions and to other development
                                                                partners that we work with. Emerging farmers, particularly women, and development facilitators
                                                                have contributed articles to the newsletters.
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Case studies
Case studies are powerful lobbying and learning tools. Its purpose is to          communities were briefed and provided with information on the current
explore those aspects of our practice that make development work so               land policies and documentation on land sector initiatives. Post summit
difficult and enable us to share particular dilemmas, issues, or problems.        materials were also developed for a joint session of emerging farmers from
They substantiate any argument, demand or action as it details the actual         the West Coast, Namaqualand and Hantam Karoo.
challenges and experiences of women and men as well as mirror our
interventions and development practice and the implication for field              Media
practitioners. Through sharing new ideas, strategies can be formulated and        We have been able to highlight a number of issues related to the struggle
lessons learnt.                                                                   for land and agrarian reform in the media. The proceedings of the seminar
                                                                                  on the risk of pesticide usage and organic farming, particularly SPP’s
Community persons and development facilitators collectively contributed           situational analysis were published by the Landbou Weekblad magazine
14 stories to reflect, assess, highlight and share experiences. They focused      that is read by both commercial and emerging farmers.
on the different themes as it relates to SPP strategic objectives. The case
studies would be published in a booklet to highlight SPP’s and community          Farm dwellers, which are also the most marginalized sector of our society,
experiences and challenges in the field. The publication would be distributed     continuously face evictions from commercial farms. We have highlighted
to development practitioners and other communities to share experiences.          the plight of one woman faced with eviction, in a local daily newspaper.
                                                                                  This led to a documentary that was screened on national television.
The seminar series of SPP is a forum for stimulating debate and thinking          Support to local emerging farmers and farm dwellers to develop their own
related to land and agrarian transformation. It is a space where alternative      capacity to involve the media form part of our approach to development.
voices to the dominant paradigm could share their views. A seminar was            They use local newspapers and radio stations to highlight their struggles,
organised, which focused on the theme “Lessons of Agrarian Struggles in           which in 2005 particularly focused on the slow pace of agrarian reform at
Brazil”. Prof Marcello of Brazil, a friend of the MST, gave a presentation. The   a municipal level. This allowed them to reach a wider audience within the
representatives of the MST and National Organiser of the LPM gave brief           local municipal areas.
inputs. Development practitioners from diverse backgrounds and academics
attended the seminar.
                                                                                  Advocacy and Lobbying as strategy
Resource centre
The resource centre has been kept up to date with relevant material. An           The principle objective of advocacy and lobbying is to influence government
internal resource newsletter is distributed to staff to keep them informed        policy at all three spheres of government. Our development practice is to
about / abreast of new materials and developments. The website are updated        support our lobbying activities with experiences from projects we work with.
with the latest SPP research reports while we are in the process of redesigning   During this period we continued to engage different spheres of government
the website and updating it on a quarterly basis.                                 to influence policy and inform members of parliament.

Reading is an essential component of development practice to deepen our           A presentation was made to the Portfolio Committee on Water Affairs and
understanding because of the rapid changes within the agrarian sector. SPP        Forestry on the problems faced by emerging farmers to access water. The
development practitioners are provided with relevant readings on a                presentation was supported by case studies. This once again strengthened
bi-monthly basis. The primary objective is to stimulate debate and further        our lobbying action since the portfolio committee also had site visits to
entrench the culture of reading within SPP. An information booklet was            some of the projects and experienced that which were noted in our
developed on the impact of GMO’s on agricultural development, to assist           presentation.
emerging farmers to understand and effectively engage within the policy
arena. In preparation for the Provincial and National Land Summit                               S   U   R   P   L   U   S   P   E   O   P   L   E   P   R   O   J   E   C   T

                                                                As part of SPP’s collaboration with Biowatch a written submission was made to parliament
                                                                on the proposed GMO Amendment Bill. This was part of a joint initiative by civil
                                                                society organisations led by Biowatch to challenge the new Amendment Bill.

                                                                SPP contributed to the development of a submission by civil society organisations tabled
                                                                at the National Land Summit.

                                                                As part of an ongoing strategy we use all possible spaces and events to highlight the
                                                                plight of landless workers and farmers for example, in Namaqualand we make formal
                                                                inputs at council meetings of the Nama Khoi, Kamiesberg, Richtersveld and Khai Ma
                                                                Municipalities to inform members of the issues around land and agriculture and the role
                                                                of local government to support emerging farmers. At a Provincial Food Security Workshop
                                                                organised by the Department of Agriculture in the Western Cape we noted the experiences
                                                                from the West Coast region and the problems of agrarian reform and support to emerging

                                                                In preparation for a visit by President Thabo Mbeki to the Hantam Karoo region, SPP
                                                                facilitated a process to prepare emerging farmers to make their presentations on the
                                                                issues facing emerging farmers in the region.

                                                                The extent and depth of poverty and unemployment has led to many initiatives to
                                                                combat poverty and unemployment. In August 2005 the COSATU launched a Coalition
                                                                to fight poverty and unemployment. Emerging farmers and SPP actively participated in
                                                                this initiative. An emerging farmer representing the West Coast gave a short input on
                                                                the demands of the landless and their support for the coalition to fight poverty and
                                                                unemployment. SPP should critically review involvement in such initiatives that have a
                                                                very short life span and is not driven by people.

                                                                A community person representing emerging farmers and a staff member was represented
                                                                at the National Consultative workshop on Water Allocation Reform. Our development
                                                                practice is to ensure that representatives are properly informed in order for them to
                                                                participate in discussions and that feedback is given to their organisations / structures.
                                                                The Water Allocation Reform policy is currently in the process of being finalized by

                                                                The outcome of the workshop (the risks of pesticide usage and organic farming) was to
                                                                develop a lobbying strategy to engage the Department of Agriculture to present emerging
                                                                farmers with alternative extension and other support methods like organic farming.

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Horizontal learning as strategy                                                  Resource Sharing
Learning from others (peer learning) is a common method used by development      Farming implements bank
facilitators/ practitioners. SPP has been no exception. Through our reflective   Bitline CC is a family farm that farm organically. Despite no support from
practices and the value and benefit that groups we worked with expressed,        DOA the farming business is progressing positively. Due to good maintenance
we have realized that horizontal learning as a method should be expanded         and care of government implements, the Department of Housing and Local
and become one of our key strategies. During 2005 we have facilitated farmer     Government has extended the use of the implements by them. They are in
-to-farmer extension work, as well as exchange visits for groups.                process to create a farming implements sharing bank for the purpose of
                                                                                 assisting other farmers struggling to gain access to farming implements.
• Farmer to farmer extension
The value system of small farmers is visible in the Bitline Family Farm. They    Some commercial farmers show goodwill and are willing to mentor and support
have committed themselves to mentoring other struggling farmers. We believe      EFAs in the Hantam Karoo amidst high levels of hostility that also still exist.
that peer learning will be the key to unlock de-motivated groups, and in         Commercial farmers donated 29 rams, which were shared amongst the EFAs
particular are hopeful that the stagnation in the Helpmekaar situation will be   of Williston, Carnarvon, Van Wyksvlei, Brandvlei, Calvinia, Loeriesfontein,
reversed, with the support from Bitline.                                         Bitline and Heiveld. These rams are of high quality and EFAs are looking
Our strategy for 2006 will include demonstration sites and field schools.        forward to the next mating season to examine the quality of lambs.

• Exchange visits                                                                Livestock bank
SPP / DAG to MST                                                                 SPP has piloted this initiative in one of the three participating mining towns
Two women (one an emerging farmer and the other a farm worker) accompanied       in Namaqualand. The project will be phased in over a three-year period and
SPP & DAG staff members on a visit to MST in Brazil. They participated in a      will involve three towns and 12 farmers. Its main aim is to increase livestock
12-day march and were exposed to the processes and programmes of the             numbers as well as the quality of livestock to ensure greater markets and
MST. On their return the women held a report back session on their experiences   better pricing. This will contribute and enhance greater income levels and
and learnings. At a gathering of small farmers from the West Coast region,       improve living conditions of farmers in the towns.
they decided on similar actions prior to the Land Summit. This was a clear
result of the benefits of exposures and learning exchanges of this nature.       Rams of genetically superior breeding material will be purchased to mate with
                                                                                 the five ewes of the cooperating farmers. Marking methods are used to compare
MST and LPM to SPP and EFA’s                                                     their lambs with those of a control group of non-participating farmers. Carcass
We also hosted representatives from the MST (Brazil)! This time they were        mass and quality will be the criteria to make comparative studies. Farmers
visiting the LPM and for four days we facilitated discussion / dialogue in       will be trained in breeding and other techniques.
collaboration with our development partners DAG and TCOE. LPM and MST
representatives visited the informal settlements in the Cape Flats and the       The Dept of Agriculture introduced a similar initiative in Witbank over a 3-5
fisher folk in Stanford respectively. The MST/LPM exchange visit was concluded   year period and positive gains have been made. SPP wants to monitor and
with the delegation attending the AGM of the Cederberg Emerging Farmer           evaluate this initiative and replicate its principles of sharing and collectivism
Forum where the MST shared their experiences from Brazil and the LPM their       in other regions.
struggles for agrarian reform and building a social movement in our country.
Key learnings emerged for the Cederberg emerging farmers particularly in         The concept seems to be a possible way for EFA’s to gain access to sheep, to
how to build a movement and the strategies of land occupations in Brazil.        increase their livestock numbers, as well as the quality of their livestock.

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                                                                Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA)
                                                                as a methodology
                                                                The piloted SLA process conducted with the local EFA in Williston was recorded and the draft
                                                                report presented at our Organisational Week of Learning held in June 2005. As an organisation
                                                                we reviewed and assessed the report and concluded that the implementation of SLA has been
                                                                a costly exercise both in terms of human and financial resources. The use of consultants further
                                                                increased the cost but was a necessary source at the initial conceptualization phase. The
                                                                supporting / guiding role during the implementation of the pilot phase in Hantam Karoo
                                                                (Williston) was of great value.

                                                                As an organisation we critically reviewed the impact of SLA. Key questions were asked on what
                                                                the benefits to the community / groups were; what was different about the approach (to what
                                                                we have done in the past?) and what the next steps should be to include learnings into future
                                                                work with community groups.

                                                                We identified methodologies which was either new in relation to our current practice e.g.
                                                                Seasonal mapping / calendars; PIT (Prioritising of Information Terms); Life-giving forces (Garies
                                                                process) or known methods not effectively used during community interventions and strategising
                                                                e.g. Resource mapping; household profiling. It was explicitly noted that we should not idealize
                                                                any given methodology, but should as a practice identify linkages with other methods, experiences
                                                                and tools as necessary.

                                                                Various contexts and situations will require specific strategies and approaches. The key learning
                                                                was that we need to go to the basic elements of development and development practices - this
                                                                means incorporating old and new methods into our interventions, through joint planning with
                                                                community groups to ensure ownership by and benefit to the groups / community.

                                                                The Courts of Women –
                                                                a campaign on landlessness
                                                                and poverty
                                                                Storytelling – powerful tool to mobilise and organise

                                                                In 2005, the Women’s Access to Land Programme, in partnership with the Gender Equity Unit
                                                                from University of the Western Cape, embarked on a social mobilisation campaign through
                                                                “The Provincial Courts on Landlessness and Poverty: Our Grandmother’s stories”.
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The theory behind the Methodology of the Courts
The methodology of the courts is rooted in storytelling in recognition of          women were not part of the initial process (and is still not part of the process),
women’s reflective and interactive tools of conversation and dialogue. This        but it highlighted the systematic way in which they began to see the
required an in depth understanding or search for the meaning and value of          importance of them telling their stories.
the story to unearth hidden individual memories.
                                                                                   After the first six months the methodology shifted so that women could
The process unfolds…                                                               begin to speak of their current experiences and linked it to the past. For
The first phase focused on firstly, gathering the stories on women’s experience    example, in the absence or poor quality or under resourced primary health
of land dispossession, secondly, understanding and questioning the current         care facilities in most rural areas, women turned to indigenous practices.
forms poor rural women’s organization takes and thirdly, to look at the current
realities and experiences of landlessness and resultant impoverishment of          However current legislation as well as the lack of black owned land prohibits
women in rural areas in the Northern and Western Cape.                             women from accessing farms to harvest these natural resources. These
                                                                                   conversations highlighted different women’s negotiating or bartering strategies
Gathering the local stories of the participating women was the primary             to gain access to limited resources on white-owned farms. At the end of
objective, while at the same time, we wanted to unearth the stories of black       these conversations the flow of the discussions were shifted not only to
rural communities in the targeted areas.                                           policy implications but also to the sharing of radical alternatives in the face
                                                                                   of continuous alienation. This approach has seen more women participate
The outcomes of the process – a brief reflection:                                  and their inputs being validated who have normally taken a back seat in
                                                                                   discussions. This increased participation could have been as a result of
This process has provided spaces for women, to not only speak of their             familiarity of the process, but also because the validation of each and every
experiences, but also to name the perpetrators, to voice their hurt and to         woman’s voice was a conscious political strategy.
honour their resistance. As a quantitative indicator it sought to use as its
point of departure women’s own lived multiple realities. The assumption            The pre-court process has also strengthened SPP’s existing strategy to
was that the naming of the process as a ‘women’s only’ space, would                ensure equal representation of women in local community processes.
automatically make room for women’s experiences as central to the telling          Currently we are working with 19 women’s groups in the various regions.
of their stories. This did not happen. Initially much of the telling used the
telling of their ‘grandfather and father’s stories’. The ‘mother’ and “the self
“ became secondary. This reflected an unquestioning situational dialogue of
the women in her own eyes as other and therefore as less than. This required
a conscious strategy around the naming of women’s realities. As part of the
                                                                                   The aim of our research programme is to contribute towards the development
methodology it then required that we centered our approach on the subtle
                                                                                   of an alternative agrarian reform framework. Central to this is to develop
transformative power of exposing this telling for what it was. As long as the
                                                                                   strategies for both SPP and communities to critically engage with the policy
participants were not able to speak their experiences, their silence by its very
                                                                                   framework and effect changes at the different spheres of government. A key
nature could not compel them to demand recognition of their systemic
                                                                                   focus of the programme is also to build local level capacity to implement the
                                                                                   research. The research for 2006/2007 would focus on “Land and Agrarian
                                                                                   Reform, Social Movements and Poverty Eradication: a focus on the Western,
Women began to write their stories themselves. Those who were not able
                                                                                   Eastern and Northern Cape”. The broader aim is to contribute towards
to write asked their children to write for them. Two young women from the
                                                                                   the development of an alternative land and agrarian reform framework.
West Coast collected stories of more than ten women farm dwellers. These

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                                                                HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Reform:
                                                                Strategy Development
                                                                This research was implemented and aimed to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on agrarian
                                                                reform within three municipal areas (West Coast, Namaqualand and Hantam Karoo)
                                                                and to develop strategies with stakeholders at a local municipal level. Changes in staffing
                                                                delayed the implementation of the research.

                                                                As part of strengthening local level research capacity three community persons were
                                                                trained and employed to conduct the research. An interview schedule was designed to
                                                                facilitate data collection and the policies of the different institutions were gathered.
                                                                The research was constrained by the reluctance of health practitioners to provide statistics
                                                                on the extent of the disease, particularly in the Northern Cape. In this regard we had
                                                                to rely on secondary data.

                                                                The next phase of the research is to conduct strategy workshops with the different
                                                                stakeholders within the three different municipal areas that would directly feed into the
                                                                final report. The preliminary findings would be presented at the different workshops for
                                                                participants to critically engage with the results presented. The final report would be
                                                                distributed to a broad range of stakeholders within the land sector and the three municipal

                                                                The preliminary findings indicate that in some of the municipal areas there are limited
                                                                awareness programmes and a shortage of counsellors. In the Cederberg municipal for
                                                                example, an effective treatment program is constrained by the availability of transport.
                                                                In the case of farm dwellers they are responsible for providing and paying for their own
                                                                transport. This impacts on the success of the treatment program in the area.

                                                                There is also a high prevalence rate amongst seasonal farm workers. This is attributed
                                                                to the fact that many of the workers are only employed on a seasonal basis in the area
                                                                for a period of three to six months. For example pregnant farm worker women are tested
                                                                within the one municipal area and leave the area because the seasonal work has come
                                                                to an end before they can go on the prevention of mother to child transmission program.
                                                                The impact of HIV/AIDS could have a devastating effect on farm workers because of the
                                                                their resource deficit and vulnerable position within society.

                                                                The final report will be presented in the form of a booklet for the use of development
                                                                organisations and stakeholders within the three regions.

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Service Delivery to Residents of Farms
and Act 9 within the Municipalities
of the Western Cape
SPP conducted a study commissioned by the Western Cape Department of Local Government
to assess the general level of services to residents on farms and Act 9 areas. The study also
assessed some of the challenges facing municipalities and other institutions in extending
basic service delivery to rural areas.

The research will inform the Department of Local Government’s strategy in assisting
municipalities. Some of the critical issues highlighted by the study were that municipalities
have limited information on farm dwellers and generally lack the financial and administrative
resources to deliver services to farms.

Assessment of Community and
SPP Research Needs
The best practice of SPP is to do planning with communities and programme staff of SPP
to ensure that the research and information programme is informed by the day-to-day
struggles of communities and implementation challenges faced by development facilitators.
The research and information unit actively participated in the planning meetings of the
three regional programmes of SPP.

The objectives of the programmes, including research was developed based on these
interactions with landless formations (emerging farmers and farm dwellers), agrarian social
movements (like the Landless People Movement) and joint planning sessions with these

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                                                                the west coast programme
                                                                                            T H E           W E S T              C O A S T

                                                                                           The West Coast Program focus primarily on providing support to emergent farmers
                                                                                           and farm workers / dwellers from rural communities who wish to broaden their
                                                                                           livelihoods through agricultural production practices and securing their land and
                                                                                           tenure rights. Some of the major challenges in these processes are lack of access
                                                                                           to land and livelihood resources; commercial orientation of the agricultural sector
                                                                                           in the Western Cape Province and lack of expertise, skills and experience of client
                                                                                           communities on agricultural production systems and agribusiness amongst others.

                                                                                           The period under review saw no drastic changes within the agrarian structure in
                                                                                           the West Coast in relation to land access for agricultural production in particular.
                                                                                           Another year has past where government renewed its promises for putting land
                                                                                           in black hands and once again disappointed the landless poor. People are not
                                                                                           discouraged and are willing to wait once more. A lack of land and development
                                                                                           resources is still evident in the West Coast. More than sixty percent (60%) of the
                                                                                           Emerging Farmers Associations (EFAs) in the West Coast are still waiting for
                                                                                           opportunities to acquire land. Although government spent thousands of rands on
                                                                                           providing people the opportunity to voice their concerns, no definite actions and
                                                                                           resolutions are on the table as yet.

                                                                                           Much of our focus and energy was spent on strategising and participating in
                                                                                           different processes related to land access. This includes providing support to our
                                                                                           client communities to actively participate in the provincial and national land
                                                                                           summits, the West Coast land reform strategy process, marches and demonstrations
                                                                                           at local level and participation in the provincial initiatives. Valuable issues and
                                                                                           concerns were raised at these occasions, which in turn triggered more conversation
                                                                                           within SPP and other stakeholders.

                                                                                           Communities are more aware of provincial and national processes and willing to
                                                                                           mobilise and participate. The West Coast program has, as far as possible embarked
                                                                                           on raising awareness, mobilise and educate politically.

                                                                                           SPP has however achieved successes in terms of organising people at community
                                                                                           level, networking and acquiring more assistance for EFAs that are already producing.
                                                                                           Consistent lobbying of District and Local Municipalities resulted in more consultation
                                                                                           and improved service delivery. New relationships have been established with
                                                                                           relevant stakeholders and valuable insights gained in terms of grants and general
                                                                                           development of resources. The West Coast program has tried to optimise on these
                                                                                           opportunities as far as possible by facilitating extra funding and training opportunities
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                                                                                                                                                                   ME MB E R-
 PROJECT                                         PROPOSED LAND-USE                                       L AN D SI Z E             LAN D H OLD I N G                 SHIP
Cederberg Municipality                                                                                                                                         men women

Graafwater EFA                                  Crops (potatoes)                                        5.5 ha (proposed)          Commonage                       8            3
Lambertsbaai Women                              Crops (vegetables)                                      2.5 ha                     Commonage                       0            40
Lukhanyo Agricultural Project                   Livestock & apiculture (pigs, chickens, beehives)       2.5 ha                     Commonage                       0            11
Rastafarians                                    Vegetables                                              1.5 ha                     Commonage                       9            0
Olifantstrust                                   Vegetables                                              No land                    -                               12           4
Clanwilliam small farmers                       Rooibos                                                 20 ha                      Commonage                       9            8
Masakhane                                       Goats                                                   No land                    -                               8            0

Matzikama Municipality

Klawer Women                                    Agriculture                                             No land                    Private                         0            8
Vanrhynsdorp Women                              Crops (vegetables)                                      1 ha                       Commonage                       0            5
Vanrhynsdorp EFA                                Livestock                                               14 ha                      Commonage                       28           5
Vredendal EFA                                   Livestock and crops (vegetables)                        301 ha                     Commonage                       13           2
Lutzville EFA                                   Livestock                                               14 ha                      Commonage                       23           7
Koekenaap EFA                                   Livestock                                               260 ha (Proposed)          Private                         15           7
Klawer Landbou                                  Crops(vegetables) and livestock                         No land                    No land                         15           5
Klawer Omsien Boerdery                          Crops(vegetables) and livestock                         No land                    No land                         5            2
Vredendal Beginner Boere (Klawer)               Crops(vegetables) and livestock                         No land                    No land                         10           8
Doringbaai EFA                                  Crops (vegetables)                                      1 ha                       Commonage                       7            4
Wilgenhof (Tharrakama)                          Agriculture                                             70 ha                      Private land                    8            6
Nuwehoop okkupeerders                           Agriculture                                             25 ha                      Private land                    26           21

District Management Area

Dagbreek Kleinboere Vereniging (Kliprand)       Livestock grazing                                       1 ha                       Commonage                       11           5
Vlakte Kleinvee Boerevereniging (Bitterfontein) Livestock grazing                                       1 ha                       Commonage                       13           3
Nuwerus Kleinveeboerdery                        Livestock grazing                                       1 ha                       Commonage                       16           7

Bergrivier Municipality

Redelingshuys - Sandveld Kleinboere             Agriculture                                             13.7 ha                    Private land                    9            0
Genadenberg Kleinboere Vereniging               Agriculture                                             7 ha                       Church land on lease            4            11
Gonjemans Kleinboere Vereniging (Piketberg)     Agriculture                                             3.5 ha                     Church land on lease            8            5
Porterville Kleinboere Vereniging               Agriculture                                             125 ha (proposed)          Commonage                       18           12
Aurora Kleinboere Vereniging                    Crop                                                    38 ha                      Commonage                       6            3
Bergrivier Kleinboere Vereniging (Eendekuil)    Agriculture                                             654 ha (proposed)          Private land                    26           46

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Emerging Farmer
support and development
Although most of the emerging farmers associations (EFAs) we work with have been able
to access productive resources through the Department of Agriculture, particularly its
Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP), it was considerably less than what
they have requested from the department. According to the department most of the budget
went into the appointment of community workers in the province. While we welcomed
the appointment of the development workers their appointment have not been able to
solve the human resource constraint within the areas. If we want to ensure that agricultural
reform and development occur we need to have sufficient extension services with the
appropriate skills. Our experience has shown that there is very limited extension support
to emerging farmers in most of the municipal areas. In the Matzikama and Cederberg
municipal areas emerging farmers often indicate that there is only one extension officer
that has to service these vast two areas. The increase in demand for land for agricultural
purposes make it even a more urgent task.

Lutzville EFA
emerging farmers’ farming practices
The Lutzville EFA has access to 14 ha of commonage on the peripheries of the town of
Lutzville. Members have livestock, which include pigs, chickens, goats and sheep. The lack
of grazing land, forced the farmers to feed their animals in kraals. Kraals by their very nature
inhibit the economic progress and viability of livestock farming. The farmers are supported
by the veterinary services, which regularly attend to the animals and minimize diseases.
A farming practice emerged, given the limitations, where they have an integrated farming
approach. However some of the kraals are not in an ideal condition for animals, particularly
for sheep and goat farming. The farmers (5 women and 26 men) have animals in 42 kraals.
Some of the kraals are used to grow patches of lucerne for additional feed, as most of the
farmers cannot afford quality feed. The local municipality has supported the group to
rebuild their pigsties.

Establishing formal markets for their animals is a big challenge for farmers, as they are not
by means to rear the right quality and quantities of animals. Emerging farmers have been
able, given all the constraints, to develop their own local market within their local community.
They have been able to negotiate the best price for their livestock. Most of their income
is generated within the local community by selling piglets and pigs. This resulted in
commercial farmers also approaching the emerging farmers for piglets and lambs. As a way
of enhancing their market value, the EFA have explored the methodology of exchanging
ewes, rams, boars and sows amongst each other to increase animal numbers and at least
have a reasonably quality animal that will satisfy the local market within the community.
                                                                Local commercial farmers also support them by exchanging or “leasing” animals. A commercial
                                                                sheep farmer would for example exchange two piglets for a lamb. No formal agreement accompanies
                                                                these arrangements.

                                                                A farming practice is emerging that has all the elements of sustainability even though practiced
                                                                on a small scale. SPP will support the struggle of these farmers to deepen their practice and gain
                                                                access to sustainable grazing land. The experiences will also be shared through horizontal learning

                                                                Gonjemans Agricultural Association
                                                                the struggle for water resources
                                                                Groundwater is an important water source for the agricultural sector. Access to water for emerging
                                                                farmers is often not given the adequate priority in the struggle for agrarian reform.

                                                                Gonjemans Agricultural Association was settled on church land owned by the AME Church. SPP
                                                                facilitated the development of a business plan to access productive resources. The main challenge
                                                                and obstacle for the farmers has been accessing resources to make the groundwater accessible
                                                                and usable. In this regard the, Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC), a cement mining company, was
                                                                approached for assistance by the Gonjemans farmers. The application was successful and two
                                                                boreholes were drilled (one pumps 5000 litres of water per hour and the other one pumps 6900
                                                                litres of water per hour). SPP has supported the farmers throughout all the negotiations and
                                                                lobbying of the various stakeholders / institutions. These initiatives and struggles have yielded
                                                                the desired positive results. A key development practice emerged from this process: the consistent
                                                                engagement and lobbying of relevant departments pay off especially when people themselves
                                                                lead the processes!
                                                                Funding was also received from the Department of Agriculture to purchase water pipes. Funds
                                                                for the testing of the borehole was done and approved by the Department of Agriculture.

                                                                A myriad of constraints still face the farming enterprise / initiative. A constraint has been the
                                                                bureaucratic processes and limited human resources within the Department of Agriculture. Farming
                                                                is not possible as the water pumps are not yet in place due to a delay on the side of the Department
                                                                of Agriculture. Poor communication between the extension officer and the emerging farmers in
                                                                terms of giving information and feedback is a concern. This situation impacts negatively on the
                                                                Gonjemans. The limited number of extension support in the region impacts on the day-to-day
                                                                struggles of especially new emerging farmers. This situation will be addressed in 2006 as we
                                                                continue to support the struggles of the Gonjemans.

                                                                Generally the policies that are in place for services delivery in the Department of Agriculture
                                                                follow lengthy bureaucratic procedures which impacts on the progress of agrarian reform. The
A   N   N   U   A   L   R   E   P   O   R   T   2   0   0   5   next phase for SPP is to facilitate good farming practices to protect and conserve water resources.

                                                                Doringbaai EFA
                                                                Doringbaai is faced with unemployment and poverty due to the closure and downscaling of the
                                                                Fishing Factory. Land for vegetable production became an obvious alternative. The Doringbaai EFA
                                                                started (a group of seven people - 4 women and 3 men) now have access to 1 ha of commonage
                                                                land which they lease form the Matzikama Municipality. The EFA managed to fence the 1hectare
                                                                of land that they have access to. Organic farming practices have been introduced through extensive
                                                                training with a partner organisation, GARC, on 250 square metre of the land. SPP assisted with
                                                                discussions with the DOA and the Matzikama municipality about creating access to local markets
                                                                for their produce. They were awarded with CASP funding primarily earmarked to buy infrastructure
                                                                such as piping, tanks, pumps and the implementation of a water / irrigation system. The initiative
                                                                now face delays. The water connection needs to go across a main road and the cost for this rest
                                                                with the municipality. They have, despite several efforts from both the EFA and SPP to speed up
                                                                this process, not been able to provide the connection. No alternative land is available. Plans are
                                                                underway to engage with commercial farmers in the area for alternative land. The local multipurpose
                                                                centre has agreed to provide a base to support with resources and communication. A process of
                                                                lobbying with the municipality hopefully will create movement.

                                                                Vukani Makosikazi –
                                                                Access to land and livelihoods
                                                                constrained by water access
                                                                40 women from Lamberts Bay, a coastal town known as an attraction for tourists, have established
                                                                an emerging farmers association. 25 women are interested in pursuing a livelihood from agriculture,
                                                                vegetable production in particular. 2 ha of land have been allocated but no formal lease agreement
Agrarian reform is not possible or                              has been signed with the Municipality.
sustainable if it is not accompanied
                                                                A local fish factory has committed support for infrastructure based on a signed agreement. SPP’s
by comprehensive agricultural reform
                                                                role has been to negotiate with and lobby the municipality to finalise lease agreements. The
i.e. agricultural reform that seeks to
                                                                groundwater quality has always been a problem to use for agricultural purposes. DWAF has in
empower emerging farmers and farm                               discussions with SPP and the group indicated that there might be an alternative source of water.
workers / dwellers to ensure agrarian                           Additional 30 ha of land has been promised to the women. The municipality is not in a position
transformation that contributes                                 to develop this land, despite a need within the community. The women now work in groups to
towards the development of the rural                            prepare the land. SPP will support with institutional arrangements once the agreement has been
economy.                                                        signed.

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Farm worker evictions
ongoing phenomena on the
rural landscape…
The displacement of farm workers and farm dwellers is continuing in the
areas where SPP works despite many policies and procedures intended
to protect the human rights of this vulnerable sector of society. Over
seventy evictions case have been dealt with, affecting over 400 men,
women and children. The violent nature that these evictions take is a
concern for all players in the land sector. The household structure is
disrupted and normal family life ruthlessly damaged and destroyed.

Willem was illegally evicted. His house was demolished. He moved his
belongings to his family on a neighboring farm. Willem did not wish to
lay criminal charges against the farmer. Entrenched beliefs of many of
the farm dwellers become evident through our interventions during
evictions. They are of the opinion that they cannot and should not resist
farm owners as the land and houses belong to the farmer, a clear
indication of the extremely unequal power relations that continue to
exist on farms.

Accessing land for productive use is a continuous struggle that has thus
far proven limited positive results. Despite the involvement of many
stakeholders, the fundamental problems with ESTA are not addressed.
Local government furthermore, does not prioritise the needs of farm

A review of the ESTA legislation is long overdue. A key resolution taken
at the National and Provincial Land Summits was a moratorium on
evictions. Farm workers have now begun to organize themselves to resist
these evictions and the human rights abuses they face daily. SPP is
committed to building the organisation of the landless farm workers and
emerging farmers and supporting local struggles for agrarian

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                                                            the hantam karoo programme   T H E          H A N T A M                  K A R O O

                                                                                         The scope of work in the Hantam Karoo region is located in the towns of Calvinia,
                                                                                         Sutherland, Fraserburg, Williston, Brandvlei, Loeriesfontein, Nieuwoudtville, Van
                                                                                         Wyksvlei and Carnarvon. A partnership with a local NGO, Environmental Monitoring
                                                                                         Group (EMG), enabled us to extend our geographic area to include Heiveld Farm
                                                                                         and the town of Wupperthal. The other important partnership SPP have is with
                                                                                         the Legal Resources Centre, (LRC) an NGO who provides legal support when

                                                                                         In spite of the continued slow pace of land and agrarian reform in South Africa,
                                                                                         we have been able, since 2001 to facilitate access to 76346,24ha of land for the
                                                                                         use of EFA’s and women’s groups.

                                                                                         Family farming
                                                                                         An economic and social model
                                                                                         to pursue?
                                                                                         The family farm Bitline became members of the Heiveld Coop and gained organic
                                                                                         farming status. They were able to increase their Rooibos tea production and are
                                                                                         in a position to do their own business planning, execute their own meetings and
                                                                                         negotiations, and manage their finances. The support by SPP is indeed bearing
                                                                                         fruits. Bitline are now planning to act as mentors to Helpmekaar Farm (Scelitium
                                                                                         farm of physically challenged women and men) with the assistance of SPP.
                                                                                         The Bitline farm is adding much economic value to the region and is contributing
                                                                                         in the eradication of poverty in the area. They are creating employment
                                                                                         opportunities and have already have employed four women and four men to
                                                                                         assist with the harvesting of the tea.
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Securing land rights
SPP, in partnership with EMG and LRC, support the community of
Melkkraal to secure the rights of 26 families living and farming near
Nieuwoudtville on the farm Melkkraal.

The farm Melkkraal (1300ha) has been occupied and used by a
‘coloured” community of 26 families for a 50 year period. Ownership
of the land vests jointly in the name of four persons and in the name
of two deceased estates, in unequal undivided shares. The use and
occupancy of the long-term occupants are protected as a result of
the Interim Protection of Informal Land Rights Act (IPILRA).

The process ahead will be a lengthy one to formalise the tenure of
the occupants in law. In 2006 the Constitution will be adopted and
residential site agreements accepted as well as the initial discussions
of proposals for wheat, rooibos tea allotments and grazing agreements.
SPP& EMG is primarily responsible for all the community facilitation
and support to identify and acquire additional land.

Legal organisations, like the LRC, might be taking the matter to court
(if necessary) for a declaration of the rights of the occupants and
possibly for a directive that the Minister of Land Affairs must take to
honour the promise of the Constitution in terms of Section 25 (6)
that: “A person or community whose tenure of land is legally insecure
as a result of past racially discriminatory laws or practices is entitled,
to the extent provided by an Act of Parliament, either to tenure which
is legally secure or to comparable redress. The central point that will
arise is whether the Communal Land Rights Act 11 of 2004 (CLARA)
is indeed applicable to the community and if so, whether it will, upon
implementation lead to the provision of legally secure tenure.

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                                                                Women ensuring food security
                                                                Fourteen women (Kleinbegin Saamstaan) from Carnavon produce vegetables on
                                                                4.5 ha of commonage leased from the Kareeberg Municipality. Water is available
                                                                and formal partnerships for seedlings / plants with commercial farmers / individuals
                                                                in the area contribute to the success of the farming initiative. Food production is
                                                                based on a rotational system, which forms the foundation of their management
                                                                plan. Production is market driven in the form of secure agreements. Garlic will in
                                                                the near future be produced - it grows well in the region and is in demand by
                                                                HIV/Aids institutions and caregivers. They in turn share seedlings with other women
                                                                who produce in their backyards. Accessing additional markets through adding value
                                                                to their produce further enhances the economic viability of the farming. This is
                                                                particularly through canned / pickled produce which is in demand by the local
                                                                tourism market.

                                                                This is indeed an inspiration to and model for other women’s group; they too can
                                                                begin small and later increase their production. The scarcity of water does however
                                                                impact on production. An example is the women’s group from Williston who are
                                                                constrained by the scarcity of water for food production.

                                                                Limited land stifle farming
                                                                The Sutherland EFA is divided into two groups, the one group farms with Latel
                                                                sheep (high quality wool produced) on a bigger portion of the land. They are more
                                                                resourced (have part-time jobs in town) and could therefore purchase these sheep
                                                                from a commercial farmer from the region. The Dorper sheep farmers (mostly for
                                                                meat and wool of lesser quality) utilise a smaller piece of land and are not able to
                                                                increase their livestock numbers, because they do not have the means to acquire
                                                                and also because of the limited land available. The Latel farmers have received a
                                                                substantial income from the selling of sheep for meat and wool and wish to expand
                                                                into commercial farming, but no land is available in the region. They also grow
                                                                potatoes, onions and lucerne, using local labour and on their own also managed
                                                                to obtain farming implements.

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the namaqualand programme   N A M A Q U A L A N D

                            Conservation vs Agrarian Reform?
                            In the last number of years there has been a resurgence of the conservation discourse in
                            Namaqualand. The discourse primarily revolves around the increase in the conservation
                            areas of the region as a result of its significant biodiversity. However, in Namaqualand the
                            extension of conservation areas is also viewed as an area of conflict for communities who
                            try to get access to land through the land reform program. In these cases land -hungry
                            communities need to compete with conservations agencies for the same land. For example
                            in Namaqualand, SANPARKS purchased land for the extension of the Namaqua National Park
                            at a rate well above the current market rate, while the community of Hondeklip Bay has
                            been struggling to acquire land since 1994. This effectively excludes the state of acquiring
                            such land for land reform purchases because it can only purchase land at market-related

                            Update on the
                            Transformation process (TRANCRAA)
                            The TRANCRAA process is critical for the six Act 9 areas of Namaqualand (Komaggas,
                            Leliefontein, Steinkopf, Pella, Concordia and Richtersveld). On 25 August 2005 SPP & LRC
                            held a regional meeting with representatives from all the areas that completed the
                            transformation process. The purpose of the meeting was to develop a strategy for taking
                            the TRANCRAA process forward in Namaqualand. In September 2003 the final reports were
                            presented to the Northern Cape Provincial Office of DLA who are to draw up the final
                            memorandum with recommendations for the transfer of the commonage land (to the Minister
                            of Agriculture and Land Affairs). DLA was invited to the meeting and asked to make an input
                            on the progress with the TRANCRAA process but could not attend. SPP also requested for
                            information on the progress with the memoranda to the Minister, but we did not receive a
                            reply from DLA on this issue. As part of the preparation for the meeting SPP and LRC made
                            a compilation of all communication (written and digital) between SPP, LRC and DLA and
                            circulated this to the delegates who attended the meeting. The purpose of this compilation
                            was to document the progress with the process and agreements that were reached between
                            SPP, LRC and DLA. A key process agreement of 1994 was that DLA agreed to circulate the
                            draft memorandum to SPP & LRC for comment before discussing it with the different
                            municipalities and Transformation Committees. Unfortunately this did not happen.

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                                                                In Hondeklip Bay we are still actively assisting the community to acquire land. Currently
                                                                Hondeklip Bay is the only community that have not as yet benefited from the land reform
                                                                program. The issues in Hondeklip Bay is that they are surrounded by land holders (state,
                                                                private farmers, mining companies) that do not want to make land available to them, or
                                                                have earmarked the land for other purposes, for example the state land is earmarked for
                                                                the future development of a nuclear power facility.

                                                                During the review period we assisted the community and advised them on their land claim
                                                                that they submitted in 1996. We have advised them to write a letter to the commission
                                                                to enquire about the status of the claim and also to express their concern about the lack
                                                                of progress since 1996.

                                                                The principle outcome of the meeting was the development of a clear strategy from the
                                                                Transformation Committees and the municipalities in terms of taking the TRANCRAA
                                                                process forward. Delegates at the meeting requested LRC & SPP to write to the Northern
                                                                Cape Provincial director of DLA requesting information on the status of the process. The
                                                                content of the letter was discussed in the meeting and the finalised letter was sent to DLA
                                                                on the same day. Other proposed strategies included meetings with local & provincial
                                                                politicians and a meeting with the Minister of Agriculture and Land Affairs.

                                                                We received no response from DLA dated the 25 August 2005. On 21 September 2005
                                                                DLA invited Namaqualand role-players, including SPP to a meeting to discuss the establishment
                                                                of a district assessment committee (DAC). At this meeting the Northern Cape Provincial
                                                                Director, reported on the TRANCRAA process, although this was not part of the official
                                                                agenda. At this meeting the director indicated that his office has sent the memoranda to
                                                                the Minister, but did not disclose what they recommended in terms of the transfer of the
                                                                land. According to him the memos (with recommendations) are embargoed until they
                                                                receive an answer from the Minister. No clear indication was given of when the communities
                                                                could expect an answer from the Minister.

                                                                SPP and LRC will continue its engagement with the provincial office of DLA. The issue of
                                                                the embargoed content will be taken up with the provincial office. SPP will also publish
                                                                another newsletter to inform the broader Act 9 communities of the status of the process.

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Access to water
are we facing a crisis?
The National Water Act sets out a framework for the management of water resources in South
Africa. The Act provides for the establishment of water management institutions, which include
Catchment Management Agencies and Water Users Associations. Water is an important resource
in the alleviation of poverty and for the implementation of sustainable agricultural projects. A study
conducted by SPP in 2002 indicates that the participation of poor women in particular and emerging
farmers are marginal. This is in part due to a limited experience in water resource management and
the dominance of white commercial farmers on these institutions.

During the review period SPP has kept the community and municipality informed about the
developments in the WADE project. A detailed household survey using participatory questionnaire
design methods have been used and covered aspects of water use and management, livestock issues
and gender-related issues regarding water use and management. Two community research assistants
have been trained in the administration of the questionnaires. Currently we are in the process of
analysing the data from the survey.

In Garies the farm Roodebergskloof has adequate water resources and farmers make use of the
water on the farm. The women are still struggling with infrastructure to get the water closer to the
productive land. There are agreements between the women and the Municipality for the use of
some equipment to get the water to the productive land but the women are still looking at possibilities
to purchase their own infrastructure. Another piece of land was also made available to the women
to extend their area for food security production units. This area is far away from the water sources
and this will definitely need reliable equipment for the transfer of the water.

In Kamieskroon the farm Dikmatjie is well equipped with windmills and pumps although not all of
them are in a working condition. SPP has assisted the farmers of Dikmatjie with some of the
equipment received from the Department of Housing and Local Government in order to fix some
of the priority water points. Currently there is adequate water available for the recommended grazing
capacity. The Kamieskroon Women struggle with water. In general there are water problems in
Kamieskroon, quantity as well as quality. The Kamieskroon Women started a project in the past at
a local Home for Abandoned and Homeless Children and this project was a failure due to the lack
of adequate water. The women were recently offered a piece of land by the Kamieskroon School
to start with a food security project. SPP is responsible for the drafting of an agreement between
the Women and the School. The Department of Agriculture (CASP) also supports this project.

In general, SPP through the expertise of our local agriculturalist assisted the commonage committees
in the Nama Khoi Municipality with the developing of inventories of all water resources and required
maintenance work. We can report that the Nama Khoi Municipality reacted positively to our inputs
and recommendations and as a result water infrastructure were repaired.
                                                                Land use and management,
                                                                market opportunities and access
                                                                to infrastructure
                                                                SPP is part of the commonage structures of Namaqualand. These structures are in all areas
                                                                that have acquired new commonage land. We played an active role on land use management
                                                                issues in the Nama Khoi area where SPP’s agriculturalist assisted the different commonage
                                                                committees and farmers associations with the development or the review of management
                                                                plans for the newly acquired commonage land.

                                                                An area that we did not pay adequate attention to is the issue of marketing, and in particular
                                                                the marketing of livestock. Currently most livestock sales in communal areas happen through
                                                                speculation. There are no formal market outlets for small stock farmers.

                                                                A key development in Namaqualand has been the number of projects that received support
                                                                for infrastructure development through the Comprehensive Agriculture Support Program
                                                                (CASP). Infrastructure development, in particularly water supply and fencing projects were
                                                                undertaken in Port Nolloth, Steinkopf, Concordia, Komaggas, Leliefontein, Buffelsrivier and
                                                                Pella. The total values of these infrastructure improvements are more than R2 million. SPP
                                                                played an active role in lobbying government in providing after care support, especially in
                                                                the light of our experience with the acquisition of commonage land.

                                                                We have been able to provide agricultural inputs such as seeds, livestock for the Livestock
                                                                Bank, pesticides, protective clothing, fertilizer, etc to projects in Kamieskroon and Garies.
                                                                Intensive training has also been provided by our in-house agriculturalist on all aspects of
                                                                vegetable production. These groups received extensive capacity building and training on
                                                                organizational aspects related to vegetable production (e.g. record keeping of all inputs and
                                                                expenditure, etc). The use of chemical pesticides is being phased out as the shift to an
                                                                integrated / ecological farming practice approach is being adopted.

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Namaqualand Colloquium
A key feature in 2005 was the joint hosting of the Namaqualand Colloquium (24-26 May
2005) by SPP, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), Institute for Plant
Conservation (IPC), Conservation International (CI) and the Range and Forage Institute of
the ARC (at the University of the Western Cape). The purpose of the colloquium was to
bring together social and natural scientists that work in Namaqualand to reflect on how the
different research agendas could contribute to development in the area. A joint presentation
was made by SPP and PLAAS on a review of land reform over the last decade in Namaqualand.
This paper will later be submitted for publication in the Journal for Arid Environments:
Namaqualand Special Edition. Four community delegates attended and also made presentations
at the conference. The keynote speaker and municipal manager of the Nama Khoi Municipality,
challenged researchers about relevance and impact of their research. A similar challenge
was also put for example to municipalities to indicate to the research community the issues
they would like to have investigated and to develop partnerships.

Emerging trends and issues
The downscaling of mining is still continuing. The issue of the post-mining economy needs
to be addressed and the contribution of land based livelihoods opportunities need to be

An expansion of land for conservation purposes, which can potentially impact, on the land-
based livelihood opportunities of local land seeking communities needs to be monitored and

The completion of the tenure reform process in terms of the Transformation of Certain Rural
Areas Act, Act 94 of 1998 (TRANCRAA) will require the development of new institutional
arrangements (either with CPA’s or municipalities) as owners of the trust land. It is envisaged
that this process will be completed by 2006 for Leliefontein, Concordia, Steinkopf, Pella and
the Richtersveld. The Department of Land Affairs (DLA) is still facilitating this process in
Komaggas due to the fact of their non-participation during the transition period (of the Act).

The finalisation of the Richtersveld Land claim is at a critical juncture. Currently the parties
namely the Richtersveld community and Alexkor and the state are busy negotiating a
restitution package.

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audited financial statements
as at 31 December 2005                                        2005                2004
                                                                  R                  R
Non-current assets
Property, plant and equipment                               267,384            450,385
Current assets                                            2,497,703          2,132,693
Trade and other receivables                                 422,308            268,655
Accrued income                                                    -            618,354
Cash and cash equivalents                                 2,075,395          1,245,684
Total assets                                              2,765,087          2,583,078

Equity and liabilities
Capital reserves
Distributive reserve                                        2,301,946        1,595,909
Current liabilities                                           463,141          987,169
Trade and other payables                                      128,228          230,539
Income received in advance                                    334,913          756,630
Total equity and liabilities                                2,765,087        2,583,078

for the year ended 31 December 2005                            2005              2004
                                                                   R                 R
Gross revenue                                              6,585,861         6,121,820
Other income                                                 219,008           234,315
Operating costs                                          (6,161,999)       (7,086,961)

Operating profit/(loss)                                      642,870         (730,826)
Investment Income                                             63,167           105,411
Finance costs                                                      -                 -
(Loss)/Profit for the year                                   706,037         (625 415)

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY                                          Distributable
for the year ended 31 December 2005                                           reserve
Balance at 01 January 2004                                                 2,221,324
Loss for the year                                                          (625,415)
Balance at 01 January 2005                                                 1,595,909
Loss for the year                                                            706,037
Balance at 31 December 2005                                                2,301,946

                                                                Funding partners
                                                                1. European Union Foundation for Human Rights

                                                                2. ICCO (Interchurch Organisation for Development Co-operation)

                                                                3. PLAAS (Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies)

                                                                4. Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust

                                                                5. SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation)

                                                                6. Broederlijk Delen

                                                                7. Ford Foundation

                                                                8. CCFD (Comité Catholique contre la Faims et pour le Développement)

                                                                9. UCC (United Church of Canada)

                                                                10. CIDA (Canadian International Development Aid)

                                                                11. NDA (National Development Agency)

                                                                12. Embassy of Finland

                                                                13. EED (Evangelischer Entwicklungsdienst)

                                                                14. Rockerfeller Brothers Fund

                                                                15. CSIC (Consejo Superiro De Investigaciones Cientificas)

                                                                16. Belgian Embassy

                                                                17. Mama Cash

                                                                18. Department of Housing and Local Government

                                                                19. De Beers Fund
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                                    Design and Layout: Duo Designs

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