Precision Agriculture and Precision Forestry

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					                                                                              Overview
Precision Agriculture and                                       Research goal
   Precision Forestry                                           Precision Agriculture (PA) - John
                                                                Precision Forestry (PF) - Tim
           Dr. Timothy McDonald
                     and
               Dr. John Fulton


       Department of Biosystems Engineering
                                                                                                Biosystems Engineering




            Research Goals                                           Precision Biosystems?
Develop tools and techniques to implement site-site-            Poultry houses: temperature control is
    condition-
and condition-specific management of natural
resources in Alabama.
                                                                critical - what do we need to know about
Use and development of new (geospatial)
                                                                temperature?
technologies for efficient delivery of inputs.                             it’
                                                                Erosion: it’s affected by innumerable
Development of site-specific decision criteria for
                  site-                                         parameters - do those vary in space?
the development of decision support systems
(DSS).
                                       site-
Develop new technologies to collect site-specific
data for quality assurance.

                                       Biosystems Engineering                                   Biosystems Engineering




   A Question and A Science                                                     The Link
How do we work?                                                 Between biology and management
                           biology’
  DNA becomes ‘molecular biology’
  Science becomes technology
                                 C-
  What do we do with millions of C-G-A-T
  sequences?




                                       Biosystems Engineering                                   Biosystems Engineering




                                                                                                                         1
                Perfect Forestry                                                                                                                   Precision Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                        Current Research and Extension
  How would the ultimate in forestry be                                              Variable-
                                                                                     Variable-Rate Technologies (VRT)
  practiced?                                                                                      Nitrogen of corn production
     Maximize biological productivity and integrity                                               Seeding for cotton and corn production
      -   Knowledge required? Sum of the parts …                                                  Site-          in-
                                                                                                  Site-specific in-furrow fungicide application
                                                                                                  Poultry litter
                                                                                     Assessment of guidance systems
                Forestry’
     ‘Precision Forestry’ means management that
                                                                                     Integration of pressure compensated SDI and
     more fully incorporates knowledge about the                                     autoguidance
      individual’
     ‘individual’ - bridge between production and
                                                                                     Calibration of granular applicators
     biology
                                                                                     Workshops for produces and extension personnel

                                                  Biosystems Engineering                                                                                                                                                Biosystems Engineering




                      VR Nitrogen                                          VR Seeding                                                                                                           Field 1 - Dryland Cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Treatment        Actual         Yield
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Population -   Population     (lbs seed
Goal: To develop cost-effective variable-rate (VR)                                                                                                                                                Seeds/ac)      (Seeds/ac)    cotton/ac)
nitrogen application methods for corn production.                                                                                                                                                   55,000         16,597         1771a
                                                                                                                                                                                                    65,000         36,068         1843a
                                                                                                                                                                                                    75,000         41,876         1858a
                                                                                                                                                                                                    85,000         42,979         1811a
                                                                           Rapid rise in tech fees
N-costs
                                                                           Evaluate opportunities                                                                                               Field 2 - Irrigated Cotton
Rates applied                                                              for increased and/or                                                                                                   Treatment        Actual         Yield
at side-dress                                                              yield or profits.                                                                                                     (Population -
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seeds/ac)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Seeds/ac)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (lbs seed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cotton/ac)
                                                                                                                              206.93          303.07
                                                                                                                                                                                                    55,000         35,622         2792b
                                                                                                                                              248.13


                                                                                                                                                                                                    65,000         43,318         3126b
                                                                                              144.83                105.07      0.00
                                                                                     140.64
                                                                            102.97                                                                          90.42

                                                                                                                               261.87
                                                                           169.17    210.37    182.90                                                        241.27
                                                                                                                                                   131.23



                                                                                     189.77     334.23      0.00                  146.93
                                                                                                                                               138.56
                                                                                                                                                            127.05
                                                                                                                                                                       143.78
                                                                                                                                                                                                    75,000         48,884         2985b
                                                                                               196.63       96.69                     95.64        282.47
                                                                                                                                                                     Prescription Map (kg/ha)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    85,000         50,191         3125b
                                                                                                                                          255.00                            0
                                                                                                   124.95




                          2004 Yield            Productivity Zones
                                                                           ±
                                                                                                             147.97
                                                                                                                                                                            1 - 75

                                                                                                                   151.11
                                                                                                                                                                            76 - 150
                                                                                                                             108.21                                         151 - 225
                                                                                                                                                                            226 - 350


                                                  Biosystems Engineering                                                                                                                                                Biosystems Engineering




Seed-Specific Fungicide Application
Seed-                                                                      Guidance Systems
          in-
  Applied in-furrow during planting
  Goal: Determine minimal amount (size of band)
  needed for proper protection.


                                  Sprayer Hose
            Optical
            Sensor
                                 Miniature Solenoid



                               Band over seed

     2005 - Results indicated that a 2” band was sufficient
     2006 – 1) Assessing smaller bands; 2) Granular products

                                                  Biosystems Engineering                                                                                                                                                Biosystems Engineering




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2
        Auto-
SDI and Auto-Guidance Integration                                                  PA Workshops
Irrigation technology for small,
irregular shaped fields and
rolling terrain
   Water usage
   *Increase cotton production
   Pressure compensated SDI tape
New PA technologies
Wireless technology




                                              Biosystems Engineering                          Biosystems Engineering




               Precision Forestry                                      Precision Forestry
                      Current Research

  Yield mapping
     Merchantable timber
     Profit map generation
  SmartPack
  SmartDibble
  Machine tracking



                                              Biosystems Engineering                          Biosystems Engineering




                                                                        Traffic Density Map
Mapping Harvesting Traffic Impacts

                                   • GPS receivers
                                     placed on feller
                                     bunchers and
                                     skidders

                                   • Position data
                                     recorded during
                                     harvest operations



                                              Biosystems Engineering                          Biosystems Engineering




                                                                                                                       3
        Untrafficked Area                                       Automating Time Study
                                                                                   At least 90 percent
                                                                                   success rate in
                                                                                   identifying skidder
                                                                                   cycles
                                                                                   Can measure:
                                                                                     Elemental times
                                                                                     Distance




                              Biosystems Engineering                                                                        Biosystems Engineering




Time Study of Feller-Bunchers                                       Time Study Results
                    Not just position                                              238 of 240 trees cut
                    Need to know                                                   detected
                      When tree cut                                                47 cycles (cut/dump)
                      When and where laid                                          - 53 detected
                      down
                    GPS + other
                    instrumentation                                                                        60




                                                                                      Percdent of Cycles
                                                                                                           50
                                                                                                           40
                                                                                                           30
                                                                                                           20
                                                                                                           10
                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                < -2   -1   0    1    >2
                                                                                                                 Difference in Number of
                                                                                                                      Trees Per Cycle



                              Biosystems Engineering                                                                        Biosystems Engineering




   Prototype Sensor Field Testing
                                                                      Timber Mapping



                                                                                                                  Value Map



                                                       Merchantable Timber Map



                              Biosystems Engineering
                                                       9 ac. site located at CAT                                            Biosystems Engineering




                                                                                                                                                     4
     Site-Specific Herbicide Application
     Site-
     Site-Specific                                                                       Backpack Concerns
  • Pre-plant:                                                                          Barriers
                                                                               Worker Safety & Compliance
                                                                               Worker Safety & Compliance
     • Banded spraying                                                            Walking Through the
                                                                                  Walking Through the
                                                                                  Contaminated Vegetation All Day
                                                                                  Contaminated Vegetation All Day
                                                                                  (Reentry Issues)
                                                                                  (Reentry Issues)
     • Variable-rate technology
                                                                                  Improper Personal Protective
                                                                                  Improper Personal Protective
                                                                                  Equipment
                                                                                  Equipment
     • Marks location of trees
                                                                               Quality Issues
                                                                               Quality Issues
                                                                                  Ground Speed
                                                                                  Ground Speed
                                                                                  Skips and Double Sprayed Rows
                                                                                  Skips and Double Sprayed Rows
                                                                                  Tank Mix Not Correct
                                                                                  Tank Mix Not Correct
                                                                                  Dumping Product
                                                                                  Dumping Product
                                                                                  Wand Height Not Correct
                                                                                  Wand Height Not Correct




                                                      Biosystems Engineering                                              Biosystems Engineering




                        Hand Planting
  Spatially marking trees during planting using GPS and
  sensors on dibble                                                                                                 Future?
  Spatial inventory of trees planted
  Quality assurance data for landowner
                                                                                                  • Tree ‘quality’ sensors
     Planting density
     Planting density                                                                             • Site-specific management
     Within-
     Within-row spacing
     Within-row spacing
     Row spacing
     Row spacing
                                                                                                  • Variable-Rate
     Errors
     Errors                                                                                       • Transportation
  Worker payment (trees/day)
  Survival rates




                                                      Biosystems Engineering                                              Biosystems Engineering




Precision Agriculture/Forestry


                                       Questions?
                                         Dr. Timothy McDonald
                                         mcdontp@auburn.edu
                                             334.844.3545

                                             Dr. John Fulton
                                          fultojp@auburn.edu
                                             3334.844.3541


              Department of Biosystems Engineering




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