Party Competition Political Party Linkage Institutions Party Image Rational Choice Theory Party Identification Ticket Splitting Party Machines According to Anthony Downs, a "team of The battle of the parties for control of men [and women] seeking to control the public offices. Ups and downs of the two governing apparatus by gaining office in major parties are one of the most a duly constituted election." important elements in American politics. The channels or access points through which issues and people's policy The voter's perception of what the preferences get on the government's Republicans or Democrats stand for, policy agenda. In the United States, such as conservatism or liberalism. elections, political parties, interest groups, and the mass media are the three main linkage institutions. A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as A citizen's self-proclaimed preference politicians. It assumes that individuals for one party or the other. act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives. A type of political party organization that Voting with one party for one office and relies heavily on material inducements, with another party for other offices. It such as patronage, to win votes and to has become the norm in American govern. voting behavior. Patronage Closed Primaries Open Primaries Blanket Primaries National Convention National Committee National Chairperson Coalition Elections to select party nominees in One of the key inducements used by which only people who have registered political machines. A patronage job, in advance with the party can vote for promotion, or contract is one that is that party's candidates, thus given for political reasons rather than encouraging greater party loyalty. for merit or competence alone. Elections to select party nominees in Elections to select party nominees in which voters are presented with a list of which voters can decide on Election Day candidates from all the parties. Voters whether they want to participate in the can then select some Democrats and Democratic or Republican contests. some Republicans if they like. One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The meeting of party delegates every The national committee is composed four years to choose a presidential ticket of representatives from the states and and write the party's platform. territories. One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. A group of individuals with a common The national chairperson is responsible interest upon which every political party for the day-to-day activities of the party depends. and is usually selected by the presidential nominee. Party Eras Critical Election Party Realignment New Deal Coalition Party Dealignment Party Neutrality Third Parties Winner Take-All System An electoral "earthquake" whereby new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often Historical periods in which a majority of displaced by the minority party. Critical voters cling to the party in power, which election periods are sometimes marked tends to win a majority of the elections. by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era. A coalition forged by the Democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930s to the 1960s. Its basic elements The displacement of the majority party were the urban working class, ethnic by the minority party, usually during a groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, critical election period. Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals. A term used to describe the fact that The gradual disengagement of people many Americans are indifferent toward and politicians from the parties, as seen the two major political parties. in part by shrinking party identification. An electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their Electoral contenders other than the two constituencies. In American presidential major parties. American third parties elections, the system in which the are not unusual, but they rarely win winner of the popular vote in a state elections. receives all the electoral votes of that state. Proportional Coalition Government Representation Responsible Party Model When two or more parties join together An electoral system used throughout to form a majority in a national most of Europe that awards legislative legislature. This form of government is seats to political parties in proportion to quite common in the multiparty systems the number of votes won in an election. of Europe. A view favored by some political scien- tists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.
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