Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

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Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant
Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

Entrance to the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Data Country Location Coordinates Operator Built Start of commercial operation Ceased operation Lithuania Visaginas 55°36′16″N 26°33′36″E Ignalinos Atominė Elektrinė 1978–84 1 May 1984 31 December 2009 Reactors Reactor type Reactors shut down Reactors canceled Power Total power generation in 2006 7,945 GW·h RBMK-1500 2 (2,720 MW) 2 (2,720 MW)

Average annual generation (last 5 yrs) 7,413 GW·h Other details Website [1] www.iae.lt

The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuanian: Ignalinos Atominė Elektrinė, IAE, Russian: Игналинская атомная электростанция, Ignalinskaja atomnaja elektrostancija) is a defunct two-unit RBMK-1500 nuclear power station in Visaginas, Lithuania. It was named for the nearby city of Ignalina. Due to the plant's similarities to the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in both reactor design and lack of a robust containment building,[2] Lithuania agreed to close the plant as part of its accession agreement to the European Union. Unit 1 was closed in December 2004. The remaining Unit 2 accounted for 25% of Lithuania's electricity generating capacity and supplied about 70% of Lithuania's electrical demand;[3] [4] it was closed on 31 December 2009. Proposals have been made to construct

Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant another nuclear power plant at the same site, but the recession of the late 2000s has made financing a replacement power plant a challenging proposition.

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Reactors
The Ignalina nuclear power plant contained two RBMK-1500 water-cooled graphite-moderated channel-type power reactors. The Soviet-designed RBMK-1500 reactor was originally the most powerful reactor in the world with an electrical power capacity of 1,500 megawatts, but this distinction was later superseded by other nuclear reactors elsewhere. After the Chernobyl accident the reactor was de-rated to 1,360 MW. These are of a similar type of reactor (RBMK-1000) as at the Chernobyl power plant, hence the European Union's insistence on closing them.

Unit 1.

Unit 1 came online in December 1983, and was closed on 31 December 2004. Unit 2 came online in August 1987 and was closed on 31 December 2009 at 2300 EET (2100 UTC).[5] [6] [7] [8] Plans to build a third and fourth reactor at Ignalina were never finished because of the public backlash against nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986: the partially completed Unit 3 was later demolished.

History
Preparations for the construction began in 1974. Field work began four years later. In 1987, Unit 2 was completed. Originally, Unit 2 was scheduled for launch in 1986, but its commissioning was postponed for a year because of the Chernobyl accident. The construction of Unit 3 was suspended and its demolition began in 1989. The town of Visaginas was built to accommodate the plant's workers. At the time, the settlements at Visaginas were no more than villages, making it a prominent example of "greenfield investment", a situation when a large town or industrial facility is built in an area with little existing infrastructure. It was sited next to the largest lake in Lithuania, Lake Drūkšiai (part of which lies in neighbouring Belarus) which provided the plant's cooling water. The temperature of the lake has risen by about 3 degrees Centigrade, causing eutrophication.[9] The plant's discharges of radionuclides and heavy metals have accumulated in lake waters and sediments.[10] According to an Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant press release, on 6 June 2009 at 0915 EEST (0615 UTC) the automatic reactor protection system was actuated and Unit 2 was shut down. No radiation was released. Plant officials decided to keep it off-line for thirty days, performing the annual preventative maintenance in June, instead of 29 August–27 September as originally scheduled.[11] Its spent fuel was placed in CASTOR and CONSTOR storage casks during the 2000s.[12]

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Shutdown
As a condition of entry into the European Union, Lithuania agreed in 1999 to close existing units of the station, citing the Ignalina plant's lack of a containment building as a high risk.[13] The European Union agreed to pay €820 million decommissioning costs and compensation,[6] with payments continuing until 2013. Closure of the plant faced fierce opposition from the Lithuanian people. The plant provides income to most local residents. To compensate for this, a project was started to encourage tourism and Ignalina RBMK reactor tube tops other small businesses.[14] Others were afraid that the price of electricity would skyrocket or that Lithuania would be left to cope with the extremely high costs of decommissioning the plant and disposing of its nuclear waste. A 2008 referendum proposed extending the operation of Unit 2 until a new nuclear plant could be completed as a replacement; the referendum gained 1,155,192 votes for the proposal, but ultimately failed to gain the 50% turnout necessary to be passed.[15] President Valdas Adamkus opposed the measure on grounds that continued operation would not respect Lithuania's international commitments.[16] The Lithuanian government forecasts that the electricity price for households will rise by 30% from 2010.[8] [17] Analysts expect that the shutdown could cut Lithuania's gross domestic product growth by 1–1.5%, and increase inflation by 1%.[8] Ignalina's production will be compensated for by production of the fossil fuel Elektrėnai Power Plant as well as by imports from Russia, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, and Belarus.[8] [18] The closure may test Lithuanian-Russian relations.[19] Responding to concerns that Lithuania would become more dependent on Russian energy sources that could be withdrawn if relations deteriorate, President Dalia Grybauskaitė issued reassuring statements in late 2009.[19]

New power plant
There was discussion during the 1990s and 2000s of building a new nuclear power plant at the same site, forestalling the likelihood of an upcoming power shortage in the region. On 27 February 2006, at a meeting in Trakai, the Prime Ministers of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia signed a communiqué which invited state-owned energy companies in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to invest in the design and construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania.[20] On 28 June 2007, Lithuania's parliament adopted a law on building a new nuclear power plant, the formal start of a project.[21] On 30 July 2008, the power companies of Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Poland agreed to set up the Visaginas Nuclear Plant Company, which will be responsible for construction of the new power plant with a capacity of 3,000–3,200 megawatts.[22] The government of Lithuania remains committed to the Visaginas project and hopes to solicit construction bids by late 2009/early 2010, with a completion date of 2018–2020. While several international companies are interested in bidding on the project, the question of how it will be financed amidst a global recession raises doubts on if, not when, construction will begin at Visaginas.[23]

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External links
• • • • Official website [1] The history of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant construction in pictures [24] A short PDF guide to decommissioning [25] Satellite image of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant [26] from Google Maps

References
[1] http:/ / www. iae. lt/ infocenter_en. asp?lang=1& sub=1 [2] Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Sjöstedt, Gunnar (2001). Transboundary risk management (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AEM1GMPGQk0C& pg=PA35). Earthscan. p. 35. ISBN 9781853835377. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [3] Houlton, Susan (31 December 2009). " Lithuania shuts down last reactor (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,,5074094,00. html)". Deutsche Welle. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [4] Jankauskas, Vidmantas (26 January 2006). " Electricity Market in the Baltic Countries (http:/ / events. le. lt/ uploads/ File/ 20060126/ Electricity markets in BalticStates_Jank. ppt)" (PPT). Development of electricity markets and security of supply in the Baltic sea region. Vilnius: Lietuvos Energija. . Retrieved 19 April 2008. [5] Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS: 2003 overview (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NHscLfB64EwC& pg=PA116). OECD. 2004. p. 116. ISBN 9789264015425. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [6] " Lithuania to shut its only nuclear power station (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 8435628. stm)". BBC News. 31 December 2009. . Retrieved 31 December 2009.. [7] Dapkus, Liudas (31 December 2009). " Lithuania shuts down Soviet-built nuclear reactor (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ ap/ financialnews/ D9CUCPIO0. htm)". BusinessWeek (Bloomberg). . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [8] Adomaitis, Nerijus (31 December 2009). " Lithuania to shut Soviet-era nuclear plant (http:/ / uk. reuters. com/ article/ idUKLDE5BU0IC20091231?sp=true)". Reuters. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [9] Björn Hassler (2003). Science and politics of foreign aid: Swedish environmental support to the Baltic States (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=2wAGNHfQSJEC& lpg=PA134& ots=Mv1TXMxFvi& dq=ignalina lake temperature degrees& pg=PA134#v=onepage& q=ignalina lake temperature degrees& f=false). Springer. p. 134. ISBN 9781402011672. . [10] " Evaluation of Ignalina NPP waste waters toxicity by use of biotest complex (http:/ / md1. csa. com/ partners/ viewrecord. php?requester=gs& collection=ENV& recid=4050181& q=ignalina+ lake+ Druksiai& uid=788819292& setcookie=yes)". INSTITUTE OF BOTANY, VILNIUS (LITHUANIA) (Lithuanian Academy of Sciences). 1995. . Retrieved 2010-01-01. [11] Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (6 June 2009). " INPP preventive maintenance (http:/ / www. iae. lt/ infocenter_en. asp?lang=1& note=6& sub=111& newsparam=1611& year=2009)". Press release. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [12] " Radiological and thermal characteristics of CASTOR RBMK-1500 and CONSTOR RBMK-1500 casks for spent nuclear fuel storage at ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (http:/ / cat. inist. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=18041752)". Hanser, cited through CAT.INIST. 2006. . Retrieved 2010-01-01. [13] FAQ on Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant for public affairs (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ lietuva/ documents/ skelbimai/ 2008_08_21_frequently_asked_questions_on_inpp. pdf), European Commission, , retrieved 1 July 2009. [14] A Plan of Measures for the Economic and Social Restructuring of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Region (http:/ / www. lrti. lt/ english/ activities/ Projects/ IgnalinaAE_Research. doc). Lithuanian Regional Research Institute. . Retrieved 9 December 2009. [15] " 2008 m. spalio 12 d. rinkimai į Lietuvos Respublikos Seimą ir Referendumas dėl Ignalinos atominės elektrinės darbo pratęsimo (http:/ / www. vrk. lt/ 2008_seimo_rinkimai/ output_lt/ referendumas/ referendumas. html)" (in Lithuanian). Republic of Lithuania. . Retrieved 2008-12-11. [16] " 'Ignalina referendum misleading,' Adamkus says (http:/ / www. baltictimes. com/ news/ articles/ 21357/ )". Baltic Times. 18 September 2008. . Retrieved 11 December 2008. [17] Day, Matthew (29 December 2009). " Nigeria Set to Become World's Second-largest LNG Supplier – Official (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/ lithuania/ 6904781/ Lithuania-power-crisis-looms-as-nuclear-plant-shuts. html)". Telegraph.co.uk (Telegraph Media Group Limited). . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [18] Seputyte, Milda (31 December 2009). " Lithuania 'Prepared' to Shut Nuclear Plant Today, Premier Says (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ apps/ news?pid=newsarchive& sid=aV6xJ4vaWlos)". Bloomberg. . Retrieved 31 December 2009. [19] Rettman, Andrew (31 December 2009). " Lithuania nuclear shutdown to test EU-Russia relations (http:/ / euobserver. com/ 9/ 29209)". . Retrieved 1 January 2010. [20] " Three Baltic states say "yes" to nuclear energy (http:/ / www. euronuclear. org/ e-news/ e-news-12/ baltic-states. htm)". ENS News (European Nuclear Society) (12). April 2006. . Retrieved 31 July 2008. [21] Nerijus Adomaitis (28 June 2008). " Lithuania adopts law on new nuclear power plant (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ mergersNews/ idUSL2870020520070628)". Reuters. . Retrieved 9 July 2008. [22] " Visaginas recognised with nuclear site name (http:/ / www. world-nuclear-news. com/ NN_Visaginas_recognised_with_nuclear_site_name_3007082. html)". World Nuclear News. 30 July 2008. . Retrieved 31 July 2008.

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[23] Nerijus Adomaitis (5 June 2008). " Lithuania targets 2015–18 for new nuclear plant (http:/ / uk. reuters. com/ article/ oilRpt/ idUKL0544112420080605?sp=true)". Reuters. . Retrieved 31 July 2008. [24] http:/ / www. visaginas. narod. ru/ photos/ history_iae/ index. html [25] http:/ / www. inyourpocket. com/ instant/ decommissioning-instant-guide. pdf [26] http:/ / maps. google. com/ ?ie=UTF8& t=k& om=1& ll=55. 604548,26. 562195& spn=0. 007127,0. 017231

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=335486805  Contributors: 1exec1, 2010 Blowtorch, Akhristov, Alma Pater, Alþykkr, Andrewa, Art LaPella, Balcer, Beagel, Berkut, Biruitorul, Blamed, Closedmouth, Cmapm, Dingar, Dr. Dan, Dubaduba, Felix König, Gang65, Gazpr, Gelingvistoj, Gene Nygaard, Graham87, Gurch, H Padleckas, H-JAM, Hektor, HollyAm, Iulius, Jzbdk, LMB, Lapaz, Levg79, Liftarn, Lokyz, Lstanley1979, Lysy, Meznaric, Mimihitam, Modster, Nesavi, New World Man, New Year, New Decade, Nicaw, Nightkey, Novickas, PMDrive1061, Pauli133, PerV, Petri Krohn, Physchim62, Renata3, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Robert Merkel, Rwendland, Shaddack, Simesa, Swegam, TheDoober, TheGrappler, Theanphibian, Toby Douglass, Tomia, Truthanado, Tulungagung, Xantipe, Xezbeth, 56 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Elektrownia Ignalina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Elektrownia_Ignalina.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Julo Image:Ignalina 20050629.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ignalina_20050629.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Petr Štefek Image:RBMK reactor from Ignalina.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RBMK_reactor_from_Ignalina.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Argonne National Laboratory

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