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									                    REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
Advantages that rehabilitation of natural
resources and increasing rural poverty
activities bring;
• Conservation of current forests and rangelands,
• Rehabilitation and development of degraded forests
   and rangelands,
• Prevention of erosion, flood and overflows,
• Strengthening and diversifying agricultural systems,
• Creating additional employment opportunities
   and decreasing poverty,
• Strengthening organisational capacity.

Advantages that decreasing and monitoring
agricultural and animal related water pollution
activities bring;
• Increase in the quality of surface and
  underground waters,
• Decrease in nutrient discharge to major rivers
  and Black Sea,
• Compliance with environmental regulations
  with regard to water discharges,
• Compliance with EU regulations and good agricultural
  practices with regard to Nitrate monitoring,
• Creating additional employment opportunities
  and decreasing poverty,
• Strengthening organisational capacity.
Most important reasons for natural resource destruction at the upper watersheds are rapid population growth,
insufficiency of farming resources, rural poverty and as a result of these factors over-grazing, heating and
gaining farmland activities.
First watershed based works in Turkey were introduced with the aim of decreasing the damages of floods and
overflows and thereby providing safety for current dams through erosion and afforestation projects. These
primary implementations at the upper watersheds were realised as decreasing soil erosion, facilities regulating
the water regime and afforestations. In the meanwhile, various supports were provided to the watershed local
communities by conservation of natural vegetation cover and regulating grazing at rangelands. Preventions for
increasing isolation in the houses were developed in order to decrease wood consumption.
In Eastern Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project, which was a first generation watershed
rehabilitation financed by World Bank, integrated participatory approach was embraced and a project
approach was implemented in which all related government agencies cooperated with the local people. All the
activities within the project were aimed at upper parts of the catchment.
Natural resource conservation and rehabilitation was targeted and in order to reach this target, income raising
activities to increase the living standard of local community as well as training the local people for natural
resource preservation and sustainable management activities were realised. Local people were trained while
the capacity building activities for the agencies were also continued.
In Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project, which is a second generation watershed rehabilitation,
the overall watershed was taken into consideration and in the selected micro-catchments integration of
preservation and rehabilitation of natural resources with income raising activities are aimed at. Training of local
people as well as capacity building of related agencies are targeted. In sustainable watershed management,
decreasing the pollution in surface and underground waters deriving from animal related activities and manure
and pesticide used in agricultural activities; thereby decreasing the drainage of nutrients into seas are aimed
at. Monitoring water pollution, supporting organic farming activities, spreading these activities all around the
country and providing support in implementation of EU Nitrate Directive are also targeted.
Çoruh River Rehabilitation Project is similar to the previous projects in a different part of the country
with different characteristics; apart from the abovementioned activities, extending and supporting the solar
energy system, which is a renewable energy source, was targeted in order to reduce consumption of fossil fuel.
In the third generation Watershed Rehabilitation Projects that are in the making, integrated water
management is included within the projects since the need for water resources increases along with
conservation and improvement of natural resources. The following subjects are featured: prevention of
pollution deriving from industrial and domestic wastes, water production, management and operation of upper
watershed forests in line with water production, planning product range according to current water bodies, etc.
The Experience and Development obtained in the Watershed Rehabilitation Projects that are implemented
in Turkey, appear as a model to be used in similar watersheds.

A watershed is a plot of land that is divided
by a stream and has idiosyncratic natural
resources. A watershed starts where the water
is discharged into seas or lakes, proceeds
to the peak and is divided into several              Main elements of watershed
                                                     management are Soil,
                                                     Human and Management.
Is planning, developing and management of
sustainable use of natural resources in a way
that social, cultural and economic development
of the community will be provided by considering
main principals of ecology in a watershed.

Watershed rehabilitation covers all the activities
realised in order to provide social, cultural and
economic development of the local community
in the watershed by taking technical, cultural and
administrative precautions to set natural balance
among soil, water and vegetation in a Watershed.

Management Works
      Watershed management works were
      first started in Europe and then reached
      to America later. In France, the aim of
      these works is flood control, whereas
      America aims to provide continuous,
      safe water of good quality. Because the
      density of the community living in higher
      mountainous catchments is generally low.
      These sites are covered with extremely
      wide forests and rangelands. Unlike the
      abovementioned developed countries,
      in developing countries like our country
      higher catchments have high population
      density. Therefore, the objectives
      in watershed management may differ
      in many ways.

      In all countries, at the beginning,
      watershed rehabilitation was firstly
      implemented for immobilising the soil,
      developing the forests and constructing
      infrastructure facilities such as ponds.
      Today, improvement of local community’s
      life standards and sustainability are
      included among watershed rehabilitation

Policies of Watershed
Rehabilitation Projects
Global warming and climate changes are the most significant problems, today, that stand
before the humanity. Combating against desertification and drought is a common responsibility
for all the countries in the world. The problems, deriving from global warming and climate
change as a result of the increase in the greenhouse gases, are accelerating day by day.

The most significant problem that the world must       The most significant
deal with today is to build up a system which
would provide a sustainable natural resource           problem that the world must
management meeting basic needs of humans. An           deal with today is to build up
important way of providing these is preparation and    a system which would provide
implementation of participatory and Integrated
Watershed Rehabilitation Projects on watershed         a sustainable natural resource
basis which include ecologic, social, cultural and     management meeting basic
economic aspects by common efforts of all sectors.     needs of humans.
In order to decrease the pressure of local
community on natural resources of the watershed,
local community’s opinion should be taken in all
types of activities and the activities should be
supported by income raising activities which would
increase the life standard.
Policies of Watershed
Rehabilitation Projects
• Conservation, Rehabilitation and Management
  of Natural Resources,
• Conservation of Natural Resources through
  Income Raising Activities, Rehabilitation
  and Management Activities Integration
• Developing Human Resources
• Sustainability and Generalisation

The method of approach that prioritises
public participation in the decisions related
to local implementations constitutes the main
theme in this type of projects.

Approach in Watershed
It is considered that water management starts from upper watersheds; that functional forestry
works in these catchments constituting the water bodies have a key role; that degradations
in the upper catchments directly affect the water management in the lower catchments and
the ones that use the water bodies in these catchments; and that it is obligatory to approach
watershed management in an integrated way.

With the activities towards conservation of upper watersheds, and afforestation and plantation
activities; protection from direct rain contact and so prevention of surface flows, erosion, floods
and overflows as well as feeding underground waters are aimed at. All these preventions are
to provide a healthy and natural water cycle in a sustainable way.

Rural poverty is an important element               Water protection can be realised
for pressure on the natural resources
of upper watersheds and it constitutes              through soil conservation.
an important problem leading to the disorder
of the natural balance in these watersheds.
Therefore, attempts are made for integration
of preventions for watershed rehabilitation
and conservation with preventions for
increasing rural poverty.

It is considered that a part of the incomes
collected directly or indirectly as a result
of using water bodies should be spared
for financing the preventive activities
to be realised at the upper watersheds.

Challenges in
the Watersheds
       • Soil erosion
       • Natural resource degradation
       • Over- and irregular grazing at the
       • Poor vegetation
       • Over- and irregular use of forestlands
       • Nomadic animal husbandry
       • Dispersed settlement
       • Decrease in human resources
         (Insufficient manpower due to
       • Decrease in animal productivity
       • Misuse of farmlands
       • Insufficient water bodies
       • Lack of modern agriculture
       • Insufficient organic substance
         at farmlands
       • Rural poverty
       • Lack of training for correct use
         of natural resources
       • Destruction due to industry and
         polluted natural resources
       • Incomplete land cadastre

Results of Land
Degradation at the Watersheds
• Increase in erosion
• Increase in salinization of soil
• Decrease in farm products
  (Quantity + Quality)
• Increase in insects and diseases
  (Plant + Farming)
• Decrease in fodder crop at the rangelands
• Decrease in biological diversity
• Decrease in water yield
• Increase in forest fires
• Plant extinction
• Decrease in water bodies
• Increase in water demand
• Increase in natural resource degradation
• Increase in floods and overflows
• Poverty and migration

Watershed Rehabilitation Projects
By coordination of Directorate General of Afforestation and Erosion Control

                                                  EASTERN ANATOLIA WATERSHED REHABILITATION PROJECT
                                                  ANATOLIA WATERSHED REHABILITATION PROJECT
                                                  ÇORUH RIVER WATERSHED REHABILITATION PROJECT

Eastern Anatolia Watershed
Rehabilitation Project
The project handled with rural poverty and natural resource degradation problems in upper Euphrates and
Tigris River catchments, was carried out by World Bank loan support, aimed at sustainable and improved
rangeland, forestry and agricultural activities at the micro catchments by decreasing soil erosion and
increasing soil fertility.

• The project was started in 1993 at Elaz›¤, Malatya
  and Ad›yaman provinces, continued in 1998 at
  Adana, K.Marafl and Sivas and in 1999 at Isparta,
  Antalya, Mersin, Gaziantep and fianl›urfa provinces;
  in total the project was implemented in
  85 micro-catchments at 11 provinces and was
  completed as of 30 September 2001. At the end
  of nine year project implementation, all agencies
  spent US$78,333,000 in total.

• In the project, participation of local community
  is aimed at as well as decreasing erosion in
  rangelands and forestlands,

• Increasing fire wood and fodder plant production,

• Enabling sustainable use of marginal farmlands,          COLLABORATING AGENCIES WITHIN
                                                           THE INTEGRATED PROJECT
• Supporting income generating activities which
  would result in a short term so that local                •   Directorate General of Afforestation and
  community would embrace the implementations                   Erosion Control (as Coordinator)
  at the rangelands and forestlands,                        •   Directorate General of Forest Village Relations
                                                            •   Directorate General of Forestry
• Increasing the responsibility level of local
                                                            •   Directorate General of Rural Affairs
  community in resource planning and management
                                                            •   Directorate General of Agricultural Production
  and enabling their participation are also aimed at.
                                                                and Development

Realised Works

• 73.156 ha. Soil Conservation Afforestation,

• 19,882 Ha. Rangeland Rehabilitation,

• 2240 Ha. Oak,1687 Ha. Cedar Rehabilitation, works
  were realised and for all these works from the
  beginning until the end of 2001, US$ 27,039,000
  foreign loan was used and US$15,998,000 internal
  expenditure was made and totally US$ 43,027,000
  was spent.

• Within the Project, TÜGEM realised the following works: 7,888 ha Agronomic Package
  implementation, 9,813 ha. Mitigation of Fallowing Land, 1588 ha. Demonstration Work, 1,224,000
  Pistachio Grafting, 238,049 Field Boundary Seedling Plantation, 1,903 ha. Irrigated Fodder
  Production, 8,864 ha. Fruit Orchard Establishment and 34,560 Beehives distribution. Totally,
  US$ 6,047,000 was spent for all these works.

• As a result of project implementations,
  KHGM spent US$29,258,000 in total.

• 1,069,498 m irrigation channel,

• 1.260 irrigation ponds,

• Small water bodies were used,

• 2,643 ha agricultural terrace construction was
  realised and 12,368 ha area was opened
  to irrigation.

Anatolia Watershed
Rehabilitation Project
The Project was put into force following the agreement signed by Turkish Republic and World Bank
on October 4th, 2004 and the coordinator unit of the project is Directorate General of Afforestation
and Erosion Control.

Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project covers natural resource rehabilitation and decreasing rural
poverty activities in 28 upper micro-catchments located in Amasya, Çorum, Samsun, Tokat, Sivas and
Kayseri provinces in watersheds of K›z›l›rmak and Yeflil›rmak rivers; and decreasing and monitoring
agricultural, animal and water pollution activities in lower micro-catchments.

This project aims
at participation
of all related
agencies as
well as local
community for
a sustainable
natural resource

Project Development Objective
The project’s overall development objective is
to support sustainable resource management
practices in 28 micro-catchments in Anatolia
and Turkey’s Black Sea Region and thereby
raise incomes of communities affected by
resource degradation.

Global Objective

The global objective is to introduce farming
practices which will reduce the discharge of
agricultural nutrients into surface and ground
water in watersheds draining into Black Sea.

Project Mission

All communities and related groups that are
responsible for natural resource management
and affected by this management, are involved
in each phase of management including
decision making, planning and implementation,
monitoring, evaluation and assessment.


                      Loan        Grant          Total
 World Bank            15.70        7.00         22.70
 Government            11.49        2.20         13.69
 Participator           7.71        0.80          8.51
 Total               34.90        10.00          44.90


Ministry                                           General Directorates

Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF)        • Directorate General of Afforestation and Erosion Control (AGM)
                                                   • Directorate General of Forestry (OGM)
                                                   • Directorate General of Forest Village Relations (ORKÖY)
                                                   • Directorate General of Environment Management (ÇYGM)

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA)   • Directorate General of Agricultural Production and Development (TÜGEM)
                                                   • Directorate General of Protection and Control (KKGM)


Agencies                                           Related Departments

Governor’s office                                  • Provincial Directorates of Environment and Forestry (AGM, ORKÖY, ÇYGM)
                                                   • Regional Directorate of Forest and Operational Directorates (OGM)
                                                   • Provincial Directorates of Agriculture
                                                   • Special Provincial Administration Directorates
Related agencies within the project                • Municipalities, Mukhtars
                                                   • NGO’s
                                                   • Cooperatives and Associations
                                                   • Others
International Organisations                        • World Bank (WB)
                                                   • Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Project Activities

      I- Rehabilitation of
         Degraded Natural
      • Rehabilitation of forestlands,
        rangelands and farmlands.

      • Environment friendly agricultural

      • Measuring and monitoring water

Rehabilitation of Degraded Natural Resources

 Activities                                                        Unit       Project    Realisation
                                                                             Objective    as of 2008
 Soil Conservation Afforestation                                   Hectare     15.600       13.527
 Protection and Rehabilitation of Poor and Degraded Soils          Hectare      2.265         490
 Soil Conservation Afforestation Maintenance                       Hectare                   9895
 Rehabilitation of High Forest with 10% Canopy Closure             Hectare       807          560
 Planning of Range Management in Forest Land                       Hectare      1.800         950
 Management of Range Rehabilitation in Forest Land                 Hectare      2.350        2.725
 Range Rehabilitation Activities out of Forest Land                Hectare      2.442         503
 Oak Coppice Rehabilitation                                        Hectare      2.875         150
 Participatory Planting                                            Hectare       710           70
 Construction of farm and household type manure store facilities   Number        800          265
 Construction of central manure store facilities                   Number         11            6
 Establishment of water monitoring points                           Point        107           89

II – Income Raising Activities

• Small scaled irrigation.

• Agricultural terrace and production in these terraces.

• Increasing and developing product variety in agricultural products.

• Developing animal husbandry, greenhouse, fishery and beekeeping.

Income Raising Activities

 Activities                                   Unit      Planned     Realisation (*)
 Mitigation of Fallowing Land                Hectare        1.834       1.498
 Correct Use of Marginal Agricultural Land   Hectare         509         604
 Environment Friendly Farming Techniques     Hectare         155            3
 Irrigated fruit production                  Hectare         539         149
 Rainfed fruit production                    Hectare         751         148
 Irrigated fodder production                 Hectare         596         821
 Vegetable Production                        Hectare         199           29
 Trees along field boundaries                Hectare          90           57
 Apiculture                                   Unit           360           69
 Dairy cow keeping                            Unit           168         272
 Dairy sheep keeping                          Unit           169           42
 (*) Realisation as of 2008

III- Strengthening Policy and Regulatory Capacity
     towards Meeting EU Standards

• Supporting implementation of EU Nitrate Directive.

• Setting and introducing agricultural practice rules.

• Corporate support for organic farming.

IV– Training and Awareness                                Training and
   Raising Works                                          awareness raising
• Conservation of natural resources,                      works are focused
• Increasing productivity in farming,                     on income of local
• Training the farmers about inorganic manure and         community and
  pesticide use, and organic farming techniques as well
  as introduction of new techniques to the farmers and    sustainability of
  awareness raising works will be continued during        natural balance.
  the project period.

                                                  Planned Projects

Çoruh River
Rehabilitation Project
                 Çoruh Watershed is located at northeast of Turkey, at the south of Black
                 Sea and adjacent to neighbouring country Georgia border and covers
                 nearly 2 million hectares land. The project is an integrated project and
                 Artvin, Bayburt and Erzurum provinces are included within the project.
                 There are 18 Micro-catchments within the project, 12 of them are of high
                 priority and covers 604,301 hectares land, 242 villages and 55,000 people.

                 Coordination of the Project will be undertaken by Directorate General of
                 Afforestation and Erosion Control and the Project will be financed by
                 Turkish Republic and JICA.

approach and
are aimed at
this project
as are other
projects in
our country.

Planned Projects

 • Subproject A: Conservation,
   rehabilitation and sustainable
   management of natural resource
 • A.1 Erosion control and prevention
   of natural disasters,

 • A.2 Rehabilitation and sustainable management
   of rangelands,

 • A.3 Natural resource development serving                  PROJECT AGENCIES
   for multiple MCs,
                                                             MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT
 • Subproject B: Livelihood                                  AND FORESTRY
   improvement of villagers                                    •   Directorate General of Afforestation
                                                                   and Erosion Control
 • B.1 Small scale irrigation infrastructure improvement,      •   Directorate General of Forest Village
 • B.2 Income generating activities,
                                                               •   Directorate General of Natural
 • B.3 Wood consumption saving practice,                           Preservation and National Parks
                                                               •   Directorate General of Forest
 • B.4 Marketing assistance serving for multiple MCs,
                                                             MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
 • Subproject C: Capacity development                        AND RURAL AFFAIRS
 • C.1 Natural disasters' prevention,                          •   Directorate General of Agricultural
                                                                   Production and Development
 • C.2 Integrated and participatory approach
   on watershed rehabilitation,                              SPECIAL PROVINCIAL
 • C.3 Technical training of line agencies' staffs,
                                                               •   Artvin, Bayburt ve Erzurum
 • C.4 Capacity development of local communities,


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