ANTISIPASI MASALAH BANJIR DAN BENCANA ALAM LAINNYA by pharmphresh24

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									             FLOOD MITIGATION
               IN INDONESIA

International Training Program for Typhoon and Flood Disaster Reduction
                            May 8 ~ 12, 2006



                             PRESENTED BY
                              B. W. Widjaja

                    NATURAL DISASTER MITIGATION DIVISION
       NATIONAL COORDINATING BOARD FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT INDONESIA
                               BAKORNAS PBP


                                                                       1
                CONTENT

A.   Disaster Profile
B.   Type of Flood in Indonesia
C.   Main factors inducing flood
D.   Flood Mitigation Efforts
E.   Impediments
F.   Conclusion

                                   2
                            DISASTER PROFILE
                           TECTONIC CONFIGURATION


                                                         Indonesian earth segment, the
                                                         coastal and marine waters and
                                                         the atmospheric conditions are
                                                         quite dynamic and potentially
                             Philippines Plate           prone to practically all sorts of
                                                         known natural hazards in the
          Eurasian Plate                                 forms of:
                                   Pasific Ocean Plate    • Geological Hazards:
             INDONESIA                                      earthquakes, Tsunami and
                                                            volcanic eruption,
                                                          • Hydrometeorological Hazards:
                                                            floods and landslides, Storm
Indian-Australian Plate                                     surges droughts and forest fires

                                                                                      3
   DISASTER IN INDONESIA

• Disaster due to Hydrometeorological hazards
  was the most often event in Indonesia. It
  also effected the most number of people
• For single event of disaster, geological hazard
  induce most devastating disaster impact such
  as Tsunami in Aceh and Nias, December 2004,
  Earthquake in Nias, March 2005




                                               4
VOLCANOES DISTRIBUTION MAP IN INDONESIA




  DEPARTEMEN ENERGI DAN SUMBER DAYA MINERAL            500 Volcanoes
  DIREKTORAT JENDERAL GEOLOGI DAN SUMBERDAYA MINERAL
                                                       128 Active Volcanoes 5
TSUNAMI HAZARD MAP




                     6
Landslide susceptibility Map




                               7
           Flood Susceptibility Map




Sorce : Dept of Public Work




                                      8
VOLCANO HAZARDS MAP (Mt.GUNTUR, WEST JAVA




   DEPARTEMEN ENERGI DAN SUMBER DAYA MINERAL
   DIREKTORAT JENDERAL GEOLOGI DAN SUMBERDAYA MINERAL
                                                        9
       Summary of Natural Disasters in Indonesia
                    (2002 - 2005)

No     Type of Disaster     Event         Death         IDP's       Houses
 1 Landslide                        228          553       30,275       3,733
 2 Flood                            488          773    1,339,664     83,541
 3 Fire                             285           79       40,285     11,139
 4 Epidemic                         103          923       31,997         -
 5 Storm                            159           22        7,722     10,932
 6 Earthquake                        66        1,058      116,681     75,784
 7 Tidal/surge                       15            0        1,030           92
 8 Volcanic Eruption                 24            2       79,359            6
 9 Terror                             6           38          149         -
10 Accident                           7          327          -           -
11 Flood and Landslides              47          139       74,123     10,841
12 Earthquake and Tsunami             1     128,858       522,462    179,321
           TOTAL            1,429         132,772      2,243,747    375,389

                                                                         10
                  DISASTER OCCURANCE IN INDONESIA
                              2002-2005
                         Terror   Flood and Landslides
    Volcanic Eruption     0.4%            3.3%           Earthquake and
           1.7%                   Accident                   Tsunami
     Tidal w ave/surge             0.5%                       0.1%
            1.0%
                                                                     Landslide
      Earthquake
                                                                      16.0%
         4.6%
Storm
11.1%


 Epidemic
  7.2%                                                                Flood
                                                                     34.1%
                          Fire
                         19.9%




                                                                                 11
TYPE OF FLOOD IN INDONESIA
1. Inundation
  •   Water overflow from river or drainage and soak a
      lower ground on the river flood plain. It takes some
      time to drain.
2. Flash Flood
  •   a sudden, violent burst of water that surges down
      narrow mountain valleys. It will be dry immediately
3. Mudflow/Debrisflow/Lahar
  •   High viscousity of water consist of debris of soils or
      rocks material flow downstream. In volcanic active
      area It is called lahar flow.
                                                           12
                                      Inundation
                                        Water overflow from river or
                                        drainage and soak a lower
                                        ground of the river flood plain. It
                                        takes some time to drain




Ciliwung river was overflowing into
the dense settlement along the
riverbank, Jakarta Flood, 2002.




                                                                    13
                                   Flash Flood
                                   a sudden, violent burst of water
                                   that surges down narrow
                                   mountain valleys.




The impact of Bohorok flash flood 2003, North Sumatera          14
Mudflow/Debrisflow/Lahar
High viscousity of water consist of debris of
soils or rocks material flow downstream.
In volcanic active area, It is called lahar flow.

               The impact of mudflow in west Java, 2003
                                                          15
    FLOOD IN INDONESIA
• Recent Major Floods and Landslide
  – Jakarta 1996 & 2002, Inundation/seasonal
    Flood
  – Pacet, Malang (East Java Province) 2003,
    Flash flood
  – Bukit Lawang (North Sumatera) 2003, flash
    flood
  – Bojonegoro (East Java) 2003, flash flood
  – Jember 2006 (East Java), flash flood
  – Menado 2006(North Sulawesi), Flash flood
  – Trenggalek 2006 (East Java), Flash Flood 16
MAIN FACTORS INDUCING FLOOD
• Natural :
 – Climate change/Anomaly/Extreme Weather =>
   Tropical Cyclone can cause high rainfall intensity,in
   short duration of time (see the next slide).
 – Topography : River basin, flood plain, many
   places/cities in costal area lower than the mean sea
   level (eg. Jakarta, 40% area under MSL, due to
   geological processes and excessive ground water
   discharging)
 – Sea level rise : water flow barrier at river’s estuary.
   Combination between low level coastal plain and
   sea level rise can generate flood. In Semarang,
   Capital city of Central Java faces flood problem due
   to high tide even there is no rain.
                                                        17
    MAIN FACTORS INDUCING FLOOD

          INDONESIA
                                                            Philippines

                                                    INDONESIA           TROPICAL
                                                                        CYCLONE
                                 TROPICAL
                                 CYCLONE
                    Australia
      GMS DATA 4 FEBRUARY 2002                    GMS DATA 25 AUGUST 2002


Extreme Weather due to tropical cyclones can cause floods and Landslides.
Fortunately, the center of the cyclone never pass through Indonesia Region but the
impact is still devastating due to heavy rain fall they bring.




                                                                             18
 MAIN FACTORS INDUCING FLOOD
• Human
  – Urbanization : complicated problem for big city ( eg. Population of Jakarta
    expanded explosively from 0.8 mill just before world war II to 1.2 mill in
    1948, 5 mill in 1973, 6.4 mill in 1980 and 10 mill in 2000, 12 mill Now)
  – Improper Land or spatial management : Land use plan change due to
    economical reason with less consideration about environmental conservation.
    It has generated uncontrolled urban development.
  – River bank occupation, reducing flood carrying capacity of the river.
  – Solid waste disposal into river channel. ( in Jakarta more than 1400 m3
    solid waste throws into river and drainage every day, 350 m3 enable to be
    cleaned up, 650 m3 flow to the sea, 400 m3 remain left in the channels.
  – Inadequate early warning system: It changes the flood hazard to
    disaster, only big river Ciliwung (Jakarta) and Brantas (Surabaya) have
    Flood Early Warning
  – Inadequate drainage system : low flood carrying capacity, urban flood
  – Deforestation/Environmental degradation : increasing the run off
    water, rivers are over capasity => flooding



                                                                         19
                                    JABODETABEK+




                                                                            Legend:



Source : Landsat image 30-07-1992        Source: Landsat image 17-09-2001



Land Use changed of JABODETABEK+ (1992-2001)

                                                                                20
Uncontrolled urban development in Bogor area located
               just upstream of Jakarta




        BOGOR                            BOGOR




     30-07-1992          U           17-09-2001
                                                   21
Environmental Degradation in the upstream Brantas River
                                                      22
       at Southern slope of Mt Arjuno, East Java
Sedimentation in Wlingi Reservoir, 25 September 2002 23
      FLOOD MITIGATION EFFORTS
1. Structural mitigation
  •   Dam, Sabo, Floodway (interception, diversion), Pumping
      station, water retention, Canal, tidal barrier, National
      movement for environmental improvement by land
      rehabilitation and reforestation.




                                                           24
 FLOOD MITIGATION EFFORTS
2. Non Structural Mitigation
  •   Hazard mapping done by Department of Public
      Work, Local Government, University
  •   stipulating Water resources Management Bill
  •   spatial management regulation
  •   Community preparedness training program




                                                    25
     FLOOD MITIGATION EFFORTS
3.       Preparedness
     –     Establishment of coordination or command post
     –     Weather and climate monitoring by Meteorological and
           Geophysical Agency => Early warning
     –     conducting simulation excersice for emergency response
     –     Maintaining and checking the performance of flood control
           fasilities and equipment
                                    Rainfall Intensity Forecasting




                                                                       26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lampiran - 5

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ciliwu n g - C is ad an e

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pr og ra m 205 . 3.200 2
                           Landslide and Flood                           -160000 0
                                                                                           104°            105°
                                                                                                               -140000 0
                                                                                                                           106°        107°
                                                                                                                                       -120000 0
                                                                                                                                                     108°            109°
                                                                                                                                                                   -100000 0
                                                                                                                                                                                   110°              111°
                                                                                                                                                                                                 -800000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  112°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -600000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   113°           114°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -400000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                115°           116°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -200000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4°
                                                                        4°
                             Potential Map




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5°
                                                                        5°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             - 600000
                                                                          - 600000
  BMG           Dir. Of Vulcanology & Geological Disaster Mitigation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     6°
                                                                        6°
                       Dep. Of Energy & Mineral Resources,




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             - 800000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7°
                                                                          - 800000
                                                                        7°
                               Dep. Of Public Works




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8°
                                                                        8°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -1 000000
                                                                          - 100000 0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9°
                                                                        9°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10°
                                                                        10°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -1 200000
                                                                          - 120000 0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     11°
                                                                         -160000 0                             -140000 0               -120000 0                   -100000 0                     -800000                  -600000                    -400000                   -200000
                                                                                             104°             105°             106°      107°          108°            109°         110°           11° 111°        112°             113°          114°           115°          116°

                                                                                           LEGENDA

                                                                                                  BATAS KABUPATEN                         PETA ANTISIPASI BENCANA LONGSOR
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 3b
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 3a                  PADA MUSIM HUJAN 2002-2003 DI PULAU JAWA
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 2
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian1
                                                                                                  Non DPM                     Sumber: Peta Rawan Longsor DGTL, Prediksi Curah Hujan BMG
                                                                                                                              dan Prediksi Probabilitas Hujan LAPAN



                                                       Gridding GIS                                                               Landslide susceptibility map
                                                             &
                                                       Susceptibility
                                                       Classification     -160000 0
                                                                                           104°             105°
                                                                                                                  -140000 0
                                                                                                                              106°      107°
                                                                                                                                         -120000 0
                                                                                                                                                       108°             109°
                                                                                                                                                                     -100000 0
                                                                                                                                                                                     110°
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -800000
                                                                                                                                                                                                           111°      112°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -600000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          113°           114°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -400000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        115°          116°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -200000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4°
                                                                        4°
                               Rainfall




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5°
                                                                        5°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           - 600000
                                                                              - 600000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6°
                              Prediction


                                                                        6°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           - 800000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   7°
                                                                              - 800000
                                                                        7°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   8°
                                                                        8°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -1 000000
                                                                              - 100000 0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9°
                                                                        9°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   10°
                                                                        10°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -1 200000
                                                                              - 120000 0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   11°
                                                                          -160000 0                               -140000 0              -120000 0                   -100000 0                     -800000                      -600000                     -400000                   -200000
                                                                                              104°             105°             106°          107°          108°            109°          110°        11° 111°           112°              113°          114°           115°          116°

                                                                                           LEG ENDA
                                                                                                                                             PETA ANTISIPASI BENCANA BANJIR
Climate Observed Data                                                                             BATAS KAB UPATEN
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 3b
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 3a
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian 2
                                                                                                  Daerah Perhatian1
                                                                                                                                         PADA MUSIM HUJAN 2002-2003 DI PULAU JAWA

    BMG, NCEP/ NCAR
                                                                                                  Non DPM                      Sumber: Peta Rawan Banjir Dept.Kimpraswil, Curah Hujan BMG
                                                                                                  Dpmbmg
                                                                                                                               dan Prediksi Probabilitas Hujan LAPAN



                                                                                                                   Flood susceptibility 28
                                                                                                                                        map
                   IMPEDIMENTS
• Land acquisition for constructing flood control is costly,
  structural mitigation efforts delayed due to lack of budget.
• Bad Habit : Throwing solid waste into rivers, It is hard to
  change the habit.
• Limited budget : Flood control master plan can not be
  executed timely. During the delay period, parameters have
  been changed, then master plan should be reviewed or
  revised.
• Uncontrolled housing and industrial estate development
• River bank occupation :
   – Regulation related to River Right of Way have been stipulated in
     national law, but detailed in local government have not yet
     issued
   – Removing occupant of river banks will cause high financial and
     social consequences. Government do not want to take the risk.
   – Weak coordination among government agencies
   – Resettlement is costly
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                 CONCLUSION
•   Flood is a seasonal disaster in Indonesia which
    cause significantly impact on national development
    process.
•   The disaster consecutively occur due environmental
    degradation and lack of comprehensive disaster
    management plan or flood control management
    plan
•   The existing plan can not be excecuted completely
    due to limited budget.
•   Eventhough consiousness the need of mitigation to
    deal with disaster has been arose, but in fact disaster
    management still remain focus on emergency
    response and recovery.
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    Thank You
    Very Much
For Your Attention



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