PROGRAMMA RETI DI CALCOLATORI (COMPUTER NETWORKS) INTERNET by pharmphresh24

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									                                     PROGRAMMA
                                 RETI DI CALCOLATORI
                                (COMPUTER NETWORKS)
                                   A.A. 2006/2007


INTERNET STRUCTURE
   Past, Present, and Future
   Perspectives
      Network Users
      Network Designers
      Network Provider

DATA LINK CONTROL (DLC) PROTOCOLS
  Physical link and its Characterization
      Transmission Rate (bandwidth)
      Latency or Propagation Delay
      Bit Error Rate (BER)
  DLC Functions
      Framing
      Error Control
      Flow Control
  Stop-and-Wait
  Go-Back-N
  Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

MAC PROTOCOLS
  Performance Metrics of a MAC Protocol
     MAC Protocol Capacity
     Average Transfer Delay
  ALOHA Type Networks
  ALOHA MAC Protocol
     The ALOHA Vulnerable Period
     ALOHA Capacity
     Delay Analysis
  Slotted ALOHA
     Slotted ALOHA Capacity
  Carrier-Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
     Nonpersistent, 1-persistent, and p-persistent CSMA
     Comparison (Qualitative) Between ALOHA, Slotted ALOHA and CSMA
   Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
      Jamming Signal
      Backoff Algorithm
      CSMA/CD Capacity
   Ethernet
      Configuration
   Token Ring
      Configuration
      Token Ring Capacity

EXTENDED LANS
   Extending LANs
      Fiber Modems
      Repeaters
      Bridges
   Learning Bridges

ETHERNET AND TOKEN RING CABLINGS
   Ethernet cabling and adapters
      10base5, 10base2, 10/100baseT, GbEthernet
   Interconnecting Ethernet LANs
      Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, VLANs
   Token Ring Technologies
      Connection and Cabling
      Source Routing Bridging
   Structured Cabling
      Planning an Ethernet LAN for a building or campus
      Horizontal and vertical cabling

OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION (OSI)
   Motivation for OSI
   OSI Approach
   Terminology
      Real System
      Real Open System
      Open System
   OSI Reference Model (OSI/RM)
      Functions Within a Layer
      Protocols
      Services
      Interfaces
   OSI/RM Concepts
      (N)-Entity
      (N)-Protocol
      (N)-Service
      (N)-Service Provider
      (N)-Service User
      (N)-PDU (Protocol Data Unit)
      (N)-SDU (Service Data Unit)
      (N)-SAP (Service Access Point)
   OSI/RM and TCP/IP
   Repeater, Bridges, and Routers in the Framework of OSI/RM

INTERNETWORKING
   Quick Review of IPv4
   IPv4 Address Classes
   Summary of Special IP Addresses
   Routing and Forwarding Tables
   IP Packet Forwarding
   ARP, RARP, Proxy ARP, and Gratuitous ARP
   Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
   DHCP
   NAT and PAT
   Scalability Problems with the Classfull Approach
   Subnetting
   Subnetting Efficiency
   Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
   Subnetting vs. CIDR (Supernetting)
   Forwarding Algorithm Based on the Longest Match
   CIDR Examples

MOBILE IP
  Mobility Considerations
  Elements of a Mobile Network Architecture
     Mobile Node
     Home Network and Home Agent
     Foreign Network and Foreign Agent
     Foreign Agent Care-of Address
     Co-located Care-of Address
  Mobile IP Components
     Agent Discovery
     Registration with the Home Agent
     Routing Packets
NEXT GENERATION IP (IPV6)
  Major Features
      Extended Addressing Capabilities (128-bit Address)
      Multicast
      Real-time Service
      Authentication and Security
      Autoconfiguration
      Enhanced routing Functionality, Including Support for Mobile Hosts
  IPv6 Datagram Format
      IPv6 Base Header Structure
      IP Extension Headers
  Tunneling between IPv4 and IPv6 Islands

END-TO-END (TRANSPORT) PROTOCOLS
  End-to-End IP Delivery Service
  Transport Layer Protocols (UDP, TCP)
  Protocol Stack

USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)
  UDP Header Format
      UDP Multiplexing/Demultiplexing)
      UDP Port (Source and Destination Ports)
      Socket Concept
      Type of Ports (Well-known, Ephemeral)
      UDP Message Length
      UDP Checksum
  Applications Using UDP
      UDP Multiplexing/Demultiplexing
      UDP Port (Source and Destination Ports)

TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP)
   TCP End-to-End Services
      TCP Multiplexing/Demultiplexing
      Reliable and In-order Delivery
      Connection Oriented
      Full Duplex Connections
      End-to-End Flow Control
      Congestion Control Mechanisms
   TCP Header Structure
   Connection Establishment (Three-Way Handshakes)
   Data Transfer
   Duplicate Detection
   TCP ACK Generation
   Connection Termination
   TCP Flow Control
   Zero Window Probes
   TCP Extensions
   Adaptive retransmission
   TCP State Transition Datagram

TCP CONGESTION CONTROL
  Introduction
  Additive Increase/Multiplicative Decrease
  Slow Start
  Fast Retransmit
  Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery

TCP CONGESTION AVOIDANCE
  Possible Approaches
      Router- Centric
         – DECbit
         – Random Early Detection (RED)
         – Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
         – Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)
      Host-Centric
         – TCP Vegas

ROUTING
  Network as a Graph
  Link State Routing
     Meet Your Neighbors
     Share the Information
     Route Calculation
  Dijkstra’s Algorithm
  Performing the Dijkstra Calculation
  Comments on Dijkstra’s Algorithm
  Metrics

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST (OSPF)
   Internet Structure
      Autonomous Systems (ASs)
      Areas Within an AS
   OSPF Areas
      The OSPF Backbone Area (Area 0)
     Stub Areas
     Not-So-Stubby-Areas
  Types of OSPF Routers
     Internal Routers
     Area Border Routers (ABRs)
     AS Boundary Routers (ASBRs)
     Backbone Routers
  OSPF Virtual Link
  OSPF Network Types
     Broadcast
     Nonbroadcast Multiaccess
     Point-to-Multipoint
     Point-to-Point
  Router Identification
  Neighbors
  Adjacencies
  Designated Routers
  Backup Designated Routers

TYPES OF OSPF PACKETS
   Overview of OSPF Packet Types
      HELLO
      Database Description
      Link State Request
      Link State Update
      Link State Acknowledgement
   Some Types of Link State Advertisement (LSA) Packets
      Router LSA
      Network LSA
      Summary LSA
      AS Boundary Router Summary LSA
      AS External LSA
   Summarization with OSPF
   Types of OSPF Summarization
      Summarize Area Routes
      Summarize external routes
   Summarizations Effect on the Routing Table
   Configuration Examples
      Summarize Area Routes
      Summarize external routes
BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL - VERSION 4 (BGP-4)
  BGP Overview
  When to Use BGP
  BGP Characteristics
  Internal BGP (IBGP)
  External BGP (EBGP)
  BGP Messages and their Formats
  Path Attributes
  Route Filtering and Attribute Manipulation
  Routing Process Overview
  Building Peer Sessions
  Full IBGP Mesh Within the AS
  BGP Route Synchronization
  Controlling Large-Scale Autonomous Systems
     Route Reflector
     Route Reflector Topology Model
  Avoiding Loops Within an AS
  Redundancy, Symmetry, and Load Balancing
  Specific Scenarios
     Single-Homing
     Multihoming to a Single Provider
     Multihoming to Different Providers
     Customers of the Same Provider with a Backup Link
     Customers of Different Providers with a Backup Link
  BGP Performance Issues
  BGP Strengths
  BGP Weaknesses

								
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