The following data are from Sindhi, an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan
family, spoken in Pakistan and India.
Examine the distribution of the phones [p], [ph ], and [b]. Determine if the three
are allophones of separate phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme. What is
Is the relationship among the sounds the same as in English? Why or why not?
(1) Sindhi labials:
a. [p@nu] leaf g. [t@ru] bottom
b. [v@dZu] opportunity h. [kh @to] sour
c. [Seki] suspicious i. [b@dZu] run
d. [g@do] dull j. [b@nu] forest
e. [d@ru] door k. [b@tSu] be safe
f. [ph @nu] hood of snake 1. [dZ@dZu] judge
Tojolabal is a Mayan language of the Kanjobalan-Chujean family, spoken in Mexico.
Determine whether plain [k] and ejective [k’] are allophones of a single phoneme
or in contrast. Support your answer with speciﬁc examples.
(2) Tojolobal velars:
a. [kisim] my beard g. [sak]
b. [tsak’a] chop it down h. [k’iSin] warm
c. [koktit] our feet i. [skutS u] he is carrying it
d. [k’ak] ﬂea j. [k’u:tes] to dress
e. [p’akan] hanging k. [snika] he stirred it
f. [k’aPem] sugar cane l. [Pak’] read
The following data are from English, an Indo-European language of the Western Ger-
manic subfamily spoken in Europe, North America, South America, the Caribbean,
Africa, Asia and Australia.
Many speakers of (American?) English systematically add lip rounding to /ô/ in
a certain context:
(3) English rounded rhotics:
real ["ôw il] par ["pAô]
Erie ["iôw i] stare ["stEô]
era ["Eôw @] tornado [toUô"neIRoU]
carry ["kEôw i] forming ["foUômIN]
apparition [æp@"ôw IS@n] lure ["luô]
arrange [@"ôw eIndZ] bear ["bEô]
reveal [ôw @"vil] part ["pAôt]
rope ["ôw oUp] ear ["iô]
What rule accounts for the distribution of these two allophones of /ô/?
Russian is an Indo-European language of the Slavic family.
Determine from the following data whether [a] and [A] complement each other
as allophones of the same phoneme, or whether they are in contrast as separate
phonemes. If they are separate phonemes, provide evidence for your claim. If they
are in complementary distribution, pick one allophone as the basic sound, and give
the conditioning phonetic contexts for its allophones.
(4) Russian low vowels:
a. [at@m] atom f. [upAë] he fell
b. [dva] two g. [dAë] he gave
c. [dar] gift h. [pAëk@] stick
d. [masj ] ointment i. [ukrAë@] she stole
e. [mj at@] mint j. [brAë] he took
[a] is a front vowel. [A] is more back. [ë] represents a velarized [l]. [sj ] and [mj ] are
palatalized consonants: front part of the tongue is raised, as a secondary articulation.
5 Canadian English
In some dialects of English, common in Canada and parts of the United States, the
diphthong /aI/ has a predictable variant [@I]. What phonetic segments condition this
change? What feature(s) characterize the class of conditioning segments?
(5) English [aI] and [@I]:
[b@It] bite [faIl] ﬁle
[taI] tie [l@If] life
[raId] ride [taIm] time
[raIz] rise [t@Ip] type
[r@It] write [naInT] ninth
[f@It] ﬁght [faIrô] ﬁre
[baI] buy [b@ik] bike
[r@Is] rice [saIrô] sire
Spanish is an Indo-European language of the Romance family.
Examine the phones [d] and [ ]. Determine whether they are allophones of one
phoneme or of separate phonemes. If they are allophones of one phoneme, identify
the type of distribution. If they are in complementary distribution, state a rule that
describes the distribution. If [d] and [ ] are allophones of separate phonemes, give
minimal pairs that prove this.
(6) Spanish dentals:
a. [dRama] drama g. [komi a] food
b. [doloR] pain h. [anda] scram
c. [dime] tell me i. [duRaR] to last
d. [ka a] each j. [sweldo] salary
e. [la o] side k. [toldo] curtain
f. [o jo] hatred 1. [falda] skirt