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					The bottom of the barrel

HOW THE DIRTIEST HEATING OIL POLLUTES HEATING OUR AIR AND HARMS OUR HEALTH OUR
December 16, 2009

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These sludge-burning buildings – which represent 1 percent of the city’s buildings – contribute 87 percent9 of the city’s heating oil soot pollution. E 0 0 Figure 1: NYC asthma hospitalization rates
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Figure 2: This Figure depicts the dramatic difference in pollutants generated by No. 6 oil compared to No. 2 heating oil or natural gas. No. 4 oil is typically a 50/50 mix of No. 6 oil and No. 2 heating oil.
Comparison of Harmful Emissions from Different Heating Fuels No. 6 Oil
100%

No. 4 Oil

No. 2 Oil

Natural Gas

Emissions per BTU (as % of No. 6 Oil)

80%

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Figure 3: Distribution of the approximately 7,000 buildings burning No. 4 or 6 oil with active permits (an additional 2,000 buildings have permits “under review” meaning buildings trying to renew their permits or buildings that previously didn’t burn No. 4 or 6 oil applying for a permit to burn No. 4 or 6 oil.

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Figure 4: Top ten zip codes with most buildings burning No. 6 oil

New York State relies heavily on dirty No. 4 and 6 oil for heating
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Comparison of petroleum fuel oils Property Energy content (Btu/gal) Flash point (° F) Specific gravity Maximum Allowable Sulfur content (ppm)—NYC No. 1 135,000 100 0.82 2,000 Distillate fuels No. 2 140,000 100 0.86 2,000 No. 4 146,000 131 0.91 3,000 Residual fuels No. 5 No. 6 144,500 131 0.94 3,000 150,000 140 0.96 3,000

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Comparison of Harmful Emissions from Different Heating Fuels No. 6 Oil No. 4 Oil No. 2 Oil Natural Gas

Emissions per BTU (as % of No. 6 Oil)

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Comparison of heating fuels price projections (Average 2010 - 2020)

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Historical/projected price comparison ($/mmBtu) for heating fuels: 1990–2020
$25 .00

No. 2
$20 .00

No. 6

Natural G as

$15 .00

$/mmBtu
$10 .00 $5 .00

Dashe d line in dica tes "Projected Data" $-

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

Pollution Savings When Switching To Cleaner Fuels (Source: City of New York):

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Equivalent Pollution Reductions (Source City of New York): A 1 A 1 "E : 1 (E B 8 C /8-- 3 8 - <8= ; 8 2 C8C = 8 -D38:=C 8 3F %-3 / K K K K B ( )" ' + %-<</8:;;= * %L )+ 'B -;0 -<<<8:;;: )+

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Source: EPA AP-42 emission factors

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Boiler efficiency can be monitored through daily stack temperature readings with the help of a permanent stack thermometer. For every 40°F rise in stack temperature, fuel consumption increases by 1%. An increase in stack temperature is an indication of dirty tubes and a signal to clean the boiler fire tubes.
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Thermostatic radiator valves and shutoff valves can bring between 3–20% fuel savings

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Boiler controls in larger buildings can save approximately 15% in fuel (using energy management systems)

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Heat-Timer; www.heat-timer.com

# & $

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Appendix A: Case studies of costs and savings of heating fuel conversions
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%

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Fuel switch from No. 2 heating oil to natural gas
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Fuel switch from No. 6 residual oil to natural gas (2% efficiency increase); Add a condensing heat exchanger (10% savings)
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# & $

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Fuel switch from No. 6 residual oil to natural gas/No. 2 oil dual fuel (1% efficiency increase);Add closed-loop O2 control (5% fuel savings)
0 !
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Appendix B: Case studies of efficiency measures

Case study: Thermostatic radiator steam traps and thermostatic steam trap replacements
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Case study: Energy management system (EMS)
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Case study: Thermostatic radiator valves
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Case study: Energy management system
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Appendix C: Getting in touch with Con Edison or National Grid to switch to natural gas
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posted:1/1/2010
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