Lykia An Olive Oil Production Center in Pamphylia: Lyrbotonkome Nevzat ÇEVİK Our surveys in the environment of Antalya have the aim to define the small settlements and units which go unmentioned beside the fame of the large cities of antiquity settlements in the Antalya region and have therefore not attracted the curiosity of explorers(1). These settlements become the focus of our studies, not so much for their own relationship and function in connection with the large settlements in the area. These studies will hopefully enrich out knowledge of Perge and Attaleia. Such studies which are intended to establish the relationship between small units and main cities have also been done in surveys of Trabenna and its region. Lyrboton Kome was found to have been of vital importance to the environment of Perge and is one of the contributing factors for the understanding of Perge in antiquity. In 1910 H.A.Ormerod and E.S.G. Robinson(2), later but in more detail, in 1926 J. Keil(3), in 1988 R. Merkelbach and S. Şahin(4) and in 1995 S. Şahin(5) examined the inscriptions at Varsak in detail. Some interesting inscriptions were published by C. Brixhc and R. Hodot. One of them mentions a name from Lycia(6). As in G. E. Bean's(7), the articles only inform about the existence of the site, the only archaeologycal study about Varsak takes a crater found in the region for its subject8. Detailed archaeological research of ruins in the town were not carried out until recently(9). Topography and defense system(10): The town was built on the slight depression created by the fault which cuts the area from Bey Dağları and now extends in west- easterly direction parallel tothe town in the north of Antalya. The Antalya-Varsak town of to day leans against Örengediği hill. On the east and west, the hill area is limited by two deep cliffs descending to the Pamphylia plateau. A flat area surrounded by a natural wall of rock provides on environment suitable for settlement with its protective structure. While the high fault cliff and the rocks surrounding the settlement from three sides form outer borders, another natural rock-wall passing through the town restricts access to the residental area in the south. The main street extending from south to north was built along this wall. The Urban frame depends completely on the topograpy. The rocks surrounding the town form a natural defense system; on the other hand, traces showing that rocks are completed by walls clearly prove that in most parts the defense system was strengthened by walls. As far as can be understood from the traces on the rocks, especially on the steep southern border, the town had a defense system which was formed through making thick walled units in adjacent order. Roads and town gate: The main gate was in the middle of the south side where the rock escarpment was steepest. This monumental entrance which caused the people to call it today "Ören Gediği" is almost totally carved out of the main rock. The gate can be reached over a very narrow path on the rocks of which most parts are not visible today. Obviously it was built only for pedestrian access. İt consists of a single gate chamber followed by a rock-ramp leading to the town center. This road is 3.00 m wide and 9.00 m long. Between the beginning and end of the entrance ramp there is an altitude difference of 1.80 m and if one includes the irregularly designed gate chamber built right at the entrance, the length of the way is over 11.00 m. Sections of door-posts cut into the main rock are 3.00 m high in the west and 2.50 m in the east, depending on the structure of the rock. It is understood from the traces left on the rock that it was heightened with stone blocks where the main rock ends. At the end of the ramp-road the walll was reduced to zero. A natural cavity in the eastern recess of the gate chamber was enlarged and used. On the front sides of the door-posts, crosses were carved in the Late Period. On the eastern and western extension of the bedrock into which the gate was carved, walls and some other units for defense were also built in both directions along the rock surface. From their foundations cut into the bedrock, which show square planned interconnected rooms, it can be understood that these units must have been rather for defense. When the quality and dimentions of the remaining wall blocks of limestone, the width of the wall foundations cut into the rock are taken into consideration, it can be understood that there was a defense tower to the west of the entrance. As in Antiquity the convenient protection which natural rocks offered was frequently taken advantage of, so here too, the natural rock was primarily used as much as possible. There are fine examples of such rock architecture int Pamphylia: the path to the acropolis at Doyran-Kisle, we found out recently, was cut into the bedrock for much of its length but for the upper structure(11). In many a Lycian acropolis built on steep rocks there is such an entrances. This is a technical choice which was commonly used. Generally, gateways were carved into the rock depending on its condition and large blocks of stone were used where rock was missing. With this system climbing up the rocks became easier and the gate saton a natural firm foundation which extra security as well. The road which is in connection with the main entrance, and which leads towards Perge in the east, can easily be followed, because of the change in its natural cover. Two more gates were found in the north and north-east of the town. Although the road which starts with a narrow passage, then opening among the rocks forming a natural defense system, can be followed partially along the small river beds; it disappears before it enters the valley. Its direction is again towards Perge. These two roads show the characteristics of an improved path. The most important road of the town, with its dimensions and quality, provides connection from to the north. This road going forward through undergrowth in the north of the city-plateau where the buildings end and the plain begins, can be followed for over 200 m. As there are cart- tracks on the road carved into the rock, it is obvious that the main road, on which carts passed, was here connected to the city. Urban Frame: Although it is not possible to exactly determine the Roman and Byzantine settlement, due to the intensive Late Period habitation, Late Period buildings give an idea about the frame of the town which remained the same during all times of habitation. The churches especially dominate and determine the settlement plan during the Byzantine Period. The main street, starting from the southeast extending nortwards, divides the town into two. This main axes should have remained unchanged during all periods of settlement. The churches, for instance, are built on both sides of this main road. Secondary buildings in a dense cluster crowd at the back of these reached by narrow streets. The multi-roomed large dimension houses with two floors and built by qualified design and labour for the distinguished people of the town lie in the southwest of the settlement on the flat area by the main gate. The center of the town is situated here. Most of the ruins are of dwellings of the Late Period. They are well enough preserved to show their plan, except for the roof. In nearly all of these buildings, especially for the door and window frames, Roman building materials have been reused. It can also be seen that later buildings usually sat on foundations stemming from the Roman Period. This means that this visible urban frame can reliably inform us about the earlier period settlement system, because at least the road net and the building pattern and their junctions, due to the natural defense system, would have remained unchanged. While the roads provide the main source of information for understanding the settlement plan, invariable elements used during every period, like cisterns and workshops, complete it. Some building foundations are also seen on the rocky area rising from the plain in the southwest of the settlement. The rocks in this area are quite low, yet they are dominating the settlement spread out on the plane. Work on the rock surface stems from the Early Period only. Flat areas on this small rocky hill allowed buildings to be constructed. Except on the steep western side which faces the necropolis, it appears that there were adjoining structures around as well as on the rocks. However, all the high walls visible today date to the Byzantine and later periods. Just like many permanent installations, like roads and cisterns, so rock bases of the early buildings were used in continuity during many periods of habitation. The last users were presumably the Rum who left Türkiye in 1924. The immigrants, brought from Salonika and from the Donau, settled in today Varsak instead of climbing up to the former settlement. The name Varsak originates from one of the six sons of "Üçok", Varsak Bey(12), it does not come from the 'Baris' of the Hellenistic Age"(13). The Tower: This most important ruin of Lyrboton Kome is situated on the plain, on nearly 100 metres from that town entrance which is carved into the natural rock. The structure has two sections. The first section of which the walls are still standing has a rectangular plan, 4.20x5.50 m.; the second section, which connects on the south- cast, shows only its rock foundation, 4.80x4.35 m. The building which is entered from the northwest is connected to the second section through a door. Only the threshold and a door frame remain today. The wall built of large blocks of cut-stone rises in some parts up to 6 courses (4 metres) high. The rectangular blocks with bossage usually become larger towards the lower courses. Partially trapezodially cut stones are laid in pscudoisodom style. The inner surfaces are not processed and are left without embellishment. The only visible detail within the building is a rock-cut basin on the east corner with the dimensions: 1.40x0.75x0.40 m. On the remaining top course the joist holes belonging to the second floor arc visible. Due to the beam holes which are at 3.25 m high, it is understood that the building was not very high. Including the second floor which should be 2.50-3.00 m., according to the known tower ratios, the building should have been 6.00-7.00 m. in total, including the roof. With its small dimensions, square form and strong walls, the building has the appearance of a two-floor low tower. The most important aspect of the building is that there are inscriptions on the blocks of the western wall. The reason for choosing this wall was in all likely hood that everyone entering the town would see them first. One of the inscribed blocks has fallen down and broken into pieces. The other two arc still in their original place on the wall. Of main importance is the content of the inscriptions; they give information about Lyrboton Komc, this building, its donor and her heirs. The texts, read by Ormerod-Robinson(14) and Keil and completed by Şahin(15). The important sides of the inscriptions are follows: "Demetrios's daughter and Demeler's priestess Arete had this two-storied building constructed from the base using her own wealth in fulfilment of her promise to the village. She had it covered by a roof and dedicated to the Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus Germanikus and to Pcrgc's Artemis who owns the right for asyl. ...In this farm there arc 600 grafted olive trees and an olive nursery garden in the area called "Three olive yard". Besides, bequeath olive trees in the area known as Kallikledos Armaka. ...Yearly elected town elders should take the responsibility in such a way that the things mentioned above (lands, trees) must be given on lease and from their income animals must be sacrificed to Apollon. No one has the authorization on the above mentioned goods or a part of them, such as selling, disposing of or using their income for any other purposes. If this is disregarded or if anybody ever do something against this bequest, he has to pay 1000 Dinars punishment to Perge's Artemis. These provisions of this bequest must remain intact at all times"(17). Land for a temple dedicated to the God Apollo must be bought from this inheritance. With the annual income the town elders must provide a festival of sacrifice to the God and a richly prepared banquet of the adult villagers(18). The first construction of the building is in Domitian's time (81 -96 A. D); the roof repair was in Hadrian's time (117-138 A. D.). S.Şahin maintains that "the inscriptions were added during the repairs and the 2nd century's letter characteristics confirms this". The reason for the building is political: "To receive asylum rights and privileges for Perge's Artemis from Domitian". The architectural specifications and the inscription number I leave no doubt that this building was a tower. Its function is uncertain. When the possibilities are examined, it becomes apparent that to determine the exact purpose for which this "tower" was built is not easy. The first function to be considered regarding the form of the tower would be defense. But the Pamphylian plain cannot be watched by a two-storied tower standing inside the settlement alone on the flat area apart from the town-walls system. In addition, the front part of the tower is obstructed by the town-wall and its buildings in westerly and southern direction facing the plain below. Also, the main tower which certainly had the function of watch-tower was already built in connection with the main entrance and the city walls. Another alternative concerning the defense is that sometimes there is another protective building which is used for shelter in case of any danger: T. MacCay evaluates it as such(19). The other possibility is its function as a storage building. Such a strong building may have been needed for this purpose in Lyrboton where the valuable production of oil took place. The work-shop beside the building and the trough inside as well as the connected second room on the south side show that this is a building for civil purposes rather than defense. Its location in the order of the settlement seems to verify this. In the inscription, essentially, it is told that Arete dedicated the building because of a promise she had given to the villagers. It is certain that there was an absence of something pertaining to the the common needs of the productive villagers. And this is asked to be provided by the rich, noble family. This need would pertain to olives and olive oil production which form the basic industry of Lyrboton Kome and its most common field of labour. Similar forms like the Varsak tower structure are known along the Mediterranean, in Cilicia(20), Lycia, Pisidia and Pamphylia. But those in Lycia and Pamphylia were called tower-farms(21). These are protective farm houses with thick walls and 2-3 sections(22). There are towers similar to the one at Varsak in the close environs, built as if they were all of the same stenciling pattern. One of these stands at the ridges of Doyran village, west of Antalya(23). The other one is on the road to Kelbessos(24). These samples are exactly the same in dimensions, plan and labour, as if made by the same hands. Their only difference is that they are not a part of the settlement, but a farm. In this context, they can be evaluated as tower-farms. The examples found in mountainous Cilicia of towers like the one at Varsak are situated at Yeğenli, Hançerli, Gücük and İmamlı. These arc arranged to inspect the fields around them and to safely store agricultural products(25). Though the "Olbia style home-tower" constructed during the Roman Imperial Period and during the Byzantine Period(26) is of a similar build to the one at Varsak, it differs because of its largedimensions. The tower at Varsak is not convenient to be a house due to its small dimensions and because it has just one section. Its purpose was necessarity connected to the town's important production of olive-oil. That the building was dedicated to serve such purpose is clearly understood from the inscription. Such stores are known in many farms. During the feodal tradition which was common from Hellenistic till Byzantine times productive land was kept under control by to wer-farms(27). Bath: The small building complex is located on the east side of the main road extending in the south-north direction, it faces west to the road. Visible arc three sections and the ruins around. Except for the unit in the middle, the barrel-vaulted ceilings still stand. In the middle section, only the beginnings of the vault arc visible. The walls are of rubble in-fill and in some part brick, the arches arc completely made of bricks. It appears that the whole building was stuccoed. The north section which stands today higher than any other part is 14.00 m. and has a square plan. An arch is formed in front of the entrance. The vault and the two short sides of the middle section have collapsed. It is understood that this section which is 3.00 m wide, was 7.00 m long at least. In the middle of the southern wall, there is a niche 1.70 m long and 0.85 m wide. A rounded piece of a trough was found in front of the niche. The square end of the south edge, whose dimensions are 2.50x2.50 m, stands with its vault. Its front part is not visible. The section is remarkable its excessive openings; while the eastern window is 2.30 m high and 1.30 m wide, the window in the south wall is 2.00 m high and 1.20 m wide. Most of the triangle hatched plaster covering all the walls to half-height in the south room, have survived until the present. They are in various dimensions on the plaster. The wall of the room extending to the front has collapsed hut its junctions can be determined. A water canal 0.60m which is visible, can be seen close to the south corner. Though most of the surrounding walls have collapsed, it is visible that a corridor was on the back and a passage among the units was provided. The partially preserved arched entrance with an arch which has a large opening in the front side of the building facing the road is the main entrance to the whole bath complex. A huge cistern is situated to the north-west of the building. It is carved out of the main rock with all its walls. It appears that the cistern had a barrel-vaulted roof. Its entrance is on the baths side. It extends in southwest- northeast direction. Its dimensions are 19.90x5.40 m. It is understood that the cistern carved into the main rock was deeper. All around it there is a 0.60 m wide wall base carved into the main rock. Some parts of this wall carrying the vault still stand up to 1.20 m. Where the main rock is lacking, it was completed by a wall and plastered. Through an insitu block it is apparent that the entrance to the cistern was from the southwest corner. This block is 2.70 m long and 0.50 m wide. The ruins of a surrounding wall along the east side of the cistern and bath can be seen. Although it is difficult today to determine the exact function of the building, the existing remains show a strong possibility for it to have been the Bath. Besides the adjacent 3 sections which provide access to one another, the building shows the pecularitics of a bath by the organically joint units and by its plan. There are also: the round trough, a piece of a round basin found in fronth of the arched niche in the middle section, the water canal which ends at the south corner and the arched bathing places in the first section. All help us to suggest that the building was a bathhouse. The triangle hatched plaster around the walls of the last section on the south are peculiar to all baths. Of main importance to our suggestion is the large vaulted cistern, half of which is carved to the ground situated to the north of the bath. It is connected to the building, planned together and large enough to supply the water amount needed in a bath. Samples of such buildings having the same material and building technique are met with in Cilicia. Although most of these are house-tombs of Roman times(28), the similarities in the materials and the technique provide the dating of the Bath at Lyrboton Kome after the 3rd century(29). Olive-Oil Production Workshops: The most important aspect of the settlement is the existence of numerous ruins indicating olive oil production. Some of the oil- processing workshops are next to or inside the houses, but there are also buildings arranged solely for the purpose of oil-production. Most of these are carved into the eastern (facing the town) side of the main rock which forms the natural western border of the town. And the others are carved into the natural rock border of the settlement along the southeast. Most upper parts of the buildings were completed by walls where the natural rock is not high enough. While the trapetum trough, pressbeds, oil gathering holes, the holes in which the pressure plank is supported and the shedding canals are carved into the main rock in the workshops which have the base for it, these installations arc independent in the in-house ones. 11 houses complete with all elements were found in the settlement but besides these many more fulcra (holes for the press bar) dispersed in the town show that this number is far higher. Although the independent elements like litus and orbis arc lost or broken, especially the examples number 1-5 whose workshop installations are carved into the rock give satisfying information about Varsak's olive-oil processing units. Not only all these are arranged in an integrated system in which the mill and the presses work together, but also a "processing district" is formed by situating all the workshops close together, an economic arrangement based on providing for common needs. It can be seen that all the presses that could be found of in the technique "with press bar" or "with press bar and spool(30). These, workshops easily described in their technical aspect, are problematic in their dating. As they were cleaned and re-used, generally no pottery of the previous periods can be obtained. A tiny number of Late Roman and Byzantine pottery was found. Though there arc some criteria for dating through the forms of the workshop's equipment, similar samples of simple equipment used to split the olive and obtain the oil can be met with in times which are very far from each other. The commonly used barred press (Cato's press) technique is dated to the Roman Period. But it is easily understood that some of the examples are from the Byzantine Era: It is clear that the workshops right on the east of the northern Church are designed in connection with the church. Other than the oil processing houses which are carved into the rock thereby utilizing it, these workshops around the church are usually built in stone in all their elements. Their structure resembles the Byzantine workshops. From this it is understood that besides the continuous use of the workshops from former times in the Byzantine Period, new workshops were also established and the capacity for oil production was increase. The dates of the olive oil production workshops matches the dating of the rest of the settlement. Their general characteristics are as follows: Fulcra: These are the parts that do most of the job during the process of olive oil pressing, so that the holes supporting the pressure plank (prelum) are mostly carved into the main rock, due to the heavy stress they undergo. Those which are not in the area of the rocks are between vertical stone stands called arbores and strenghtcned by heavy stone blocks fixed on the top of the stands. Their width varies between 0.25-0.40 m. As they are the beds of planks moving up and down, they are arranged in an upright long manner and their base is made with an inclination towards the back, parallel to the entrance of the plank such that when the plank is raised its edge will descend. As they are fixed installations, their remains can be seen at the top, the traces of which are marked on the filling material or carved into the bed rock. It is possible to enumerate the number of olive producing workshops in Lyrboton. The varying width between 0.25-0.40 m gives an idea about the dimensions of the pressure planks. One of the factors affecting these statistics is however, that the plank-beds formed by the blocks have mostly disappeared or remain under rubble, so that an exact enumeration is difficult at this time. Trapeta: These elements which can be called a "developed olive mill" are the first step of the oil producing stage. They consist of a trough and a mill-stone. Mostly parts of troughs (mortaria) have been found. There are two types: one carved into the bedrock and those which stood independently. Though these resemble one another technically, they vary in their dimensions. The diameters of those carved out of the rock are between 2.00 m -2.40 m, while the others are between 1.50 m - 1.90 m. Their depth varies between 0.30 m -0.50 m. Only in workshops No. 3 and No. 7 the columns standing in the center of the trough (milarium) stand firm, the column places in No. 1, 2 and 4 are broken. No other examples of the second main part of a trapetum, which are the millstones in the shape of a turning semi-sphere, have been found except the one in workshop No.1(31). Press beds: These are workshop installations, that come into operation in the second stage, when the oil is pressed. They consist of a round trough, pouring canals and gathering gutter. The diameters of the examples remaining today vary between 1.30- 1.60 m. The pressure bed in the workshop number 7 is the largest in Varsak with its diameter of 1.80 m. Considering the dimensions above, the diameters of the press bags used in these workshops should have been 0.50-0.60 m. The distance between the hole where the press weight enters and the fulcrum in the workshop No. 7 shows that the pressure plank was 5.95 m long. Weight stones: The weight stones called litus which are hung on the independent end of thepressure plank provide more pressure by less effort. One of them is found in each workshop number 1,7,8 and two in workshop no. 10. The weight stone found in the workshop 8 is arranged with a big hollow in the middle and two small hollows on the sides. Such weights are dated to the Late Roman-Early Byzantine Periods(32). Oil Gathering Hollows: Although they are one of the main installations that must exist in all workshops, as a natural result of their structure, namely that they have their place on the lowest level, they now are mostly filled with rubble. In workshops No. 1 and 4 where they are most clearly visible their dimensions are 0.70x1.00x0.50 m and 1.10x1.90x0.50 m. The workshops are built with an inclination towards the front to gather the sediments. Liquid-gathering hollows are not so large, because the oil is already mostly gathered in the vessels put in front of the press. During our surveys in the area, we have encountered many remains of workshops for olive pressing, both in settlements and on their farms. This does not, however, clarify their density at Varsak. Some new finds of oil processing workshops were also made at Kelbessos(33), Trebenna(34) and Neapolis. The most important of these in Kelbessos. While it is visible from the remains that the trapetum trough was carved into the main rock, as well as some other elements, an already carved altar relief on the face of the rock in the workshop gives us a singular glimpse of the agriculture(35) and fertility cult being extended to the olive-oil production. This evidence may help to explain the rock-cut pots carved near the olive oil workshops which were known before from Hasanaliler and Çatıören as having had a function in a cult connected with olive oil production. Cisterns: A total of 65 cisterns has been counted in the city. A large number of cisterns is customary in such cities which don't have spring water. It is noticed that cisterns which have a distribution parallel to buildings in accordance with urban enlargement, were mainly around workshops. As it is necessary to soften the olives in warm water in order to obtain all the oil and, as much water is needed for cleaning in the oil workshops, the number of workshops to the number of cisterns and the relationship of these two installation to each other is essential. Cisterns which are enlarged towards the bottom were filled with rain water. In six of these cisterns at Varsak collecting grooves channelling rain water to the cistern have been defined around the openings of the cisterns. All of the cisterns, carved mostly into cracked and split rocks, were stuccoed. And these cisterns were used during all periods having been stuccoed several times. In the Byzantine Period, one of the basic criteria in choosing a place for a house was a cisterne nearby. The two largest cisterns, being made in the wide natural bowl just in fronth of an under ground tomb, attract the attention. The main reason for choosing this place is that it has the natural structure for collecting the largest amount of water. Beside these, two other cisterns are in the plain area of the Varsak settlement. A cistern located just at the entrance square of Varsak is an Ottoman construction. The one in the north of Varsak is a Byzantine construction. Both of them still stand. Numerous rock chambers opening along the slope of Lyrboton which are behind today's Varsak present very interesting examples from "water supply" point of view. It is possible that some of the chambers were used as dwellings in a previous period. It is understood from the different labour on parts related to water that the function of collecting water was attributed on this unit later on. The bottom of the chambers were deepened and a channel was opened from the door to the outside. As there are some installations like benches and fire place in some of the chambers, there is no doupt that they were used as dwellings in the late period. However, there are some problems in separating the two functions. For instance, holes in the ceilings of most rock chambers serve as a chimney structure in some places and some others have a structure related to the function of "water-gathering". Even today, water is dripping from the natural cavities existing on the ceilings and walls of chambers which were converted into pools by blocking the entrance and from which, when necessary, the water was let out. However, as dwellings can not have leaky ceilings, the possibility of living in chambers which have water dripping down decreases, so that there has been doubt cast on their function as houses. Necropoli: The main necropolis at Varsak, except for the monumental tombs, lies outside the residence area, foremost in the west of the town, a large slightly sloping area which is outside of the natural walls. It has many tombs of various types. There are also several tombs on the high rocks surrounding the town. The tombs at Varsak can be examined in three groups: Aedicula tombs, underground tombs and sarcophagi. Aedicula tomb I: From the choice of place for the tower it is obvious that this area is the most important part of the town. The ruins on the south-eastern side of the tower are evidence of this. The ruins consisting of blocks of lime stone of large dimensions and of quality workmanship were completely scattered by treasure hunters. Two profiled arch blocks and especially a piece from a sarcophagus with garland which can be seen among the ruins, strongly support the idea that the ruins belong to a tomb and can be date to the 130-140 A. D. according to F. Işık. The most important finds from among the tower structure and the tomb are a group of female statues, presumed to date from the 2nd century A. D. When the pieces collected are put together, three women statues, identical of each other, can be completed except the heads. Apart from a few little pieces, all of the antiques are in the Antalya Museum. Aedicula Tomb II: It is situated beyond the rocky edge of the site on the east border of the necropolis which It faces. It has the rocks in the background. The sarcophagus under the arch which faces west is decorated with four simple profiles. It also was destroyed by treasure hunters, its lid wrenched from the tomb. The arched niche made of quality cut stone is complete. The dimensions are as follows: interior width 2.90 m, height of the arc 2.30 m, depth of the niche 1.98 m. The single sarcophagus iunderneath is 0.80 m wide (inside to inside) and 1.88 m long. The sarcophagus which is 0.90 m deep was carved into the natural rock completely under ground level. The lid which consist of cut stone of 0.35 m height and 2.10 m. length fits the opening. Aedicule Tomb HI: This is the third example of aedicula type at Varsak. Acdiculatype tomb are very common and individual tombs as well as those cut into the rock are known, especially at Termessos. This tomb is outside the necropolis and close to the surrounding rocks in the northwest of the town. The sarcophagus is cut into the rock, it measures 1.66 m by 0.64 m. Above, rises an arch made of quality cut stone to a height of 2.78 m with a width of 2.38 m. In contrast to tomb number II, the sarcophagus has only been partially carved out of the rock rising above ground wholly under the arch, its depth 0.86 m. Because of this, the columns of the arch are higher than the others. The rim supporting the lid was carved directly around the main rock. The basin unlike the other is 0.12 m wider towards the bottom. The cover on which there is a kline scene (consisting) of a married couple was dropped in fronth of the grave and heads were broken. According to the frontal inscription written in characters of the 2nd cent. B. C., the owner of the grave is "Dimenis of Lyrboton Kome" and a member of the famous Artemidoros lamily·"'. Same inscription give us more knowladge about the tomb owner: He is a military musician (corniculary). There are a great number examples of the type of aedicula type tombs in the other sites in the area. The best examples, either carved into the rock or built with lime stone are at Termessos". Underground chamber tomb: This tomb is located on the low rocks which are in the north-west opposite the necropolis. The entrance is in the east. The tomb has a dromos, has a flat entrance and single chamber, roughly carved. The room which has an unskilfull plan and workmanship is about 2.40x2.60 m in size. Along the two side walls there are carved into the rock two burial benches 0.60 m wide and 2.10 m long. The cavities are 0.60 m width. An inscribed block lies in front of the grave. A new illegal digging, one in the town, shows some pieces of ceramics from the Late- Hellenistic Time (?). These finds are very important for the date of the settlement, because there are no visible ruins before the Roman Period. The ceramics support the idea that Lyrboton Kome was first established in Hellenistic times as a Baris. Although there are only a few such graves at Lyrboton Kome, there are many underground chamber tombs in the area. For example in the large farm in Düden, on the rocky platform over the waterfall, underground chamber tombs and chamosorions were found. Also in Antalya-Doğugarajı nearly 30 examples, similar to each other, were excavated by the Antalya Museum. The most important and magnificence samples of this tombs opened with all their contexts in Patara by us(38). Sarcophagi: Except for four monumental tombs and two underground chamber tombs, the necropolis is in general full of sarcophagi. More then 70 were found, however, it is understood that the actual number is higher. It was impossible to examine all the tombs carved into the ground, especially those without the lid, because dense overgrowth covered it completely. The sarcophagi fall into two groups: a) Sarcophagi cut into the bedrock: It was observed that there were chamosorions than there are independent sarcophagi. It is seen that technical difference occurred depending on the material used, as rock or stone affected the structure of the sarcophagi in different ways. It was observed that the sarcophagi cut into the rock are of poor quality. Sarcophagi cut into the rock are met with in every region, however, the sarcophagi at Varsak are distinctly different in one important feature which can easily be noticed. The lid is placed on a rim formed by a line of cut stone blocks along the edge of the sarcophagus carved into the main rock. This not only makes the grave higher than ground level, but also provides a base on which the lid can be placed. Another common feature is that the cavities were not carved on top of the rock area, but either next to or at the bottom. In this manner a natural protected place was created for the sarcophagus. In parallel with their unskilled labour, such sarcophagi were observed to be completely plain. Areas on and outside the western rocks have only such graves. Independent Sarcophagi: They were provided with a podium having a few steps. Under the podium there are grave chambers. Sarcophagi and their lids were generally broken. Two sarcophagi attract attention with their decorations. One of the two sarcophagi made of limestone and located in the north of the necropolis has outer dimensions of beyond the aisles is 5.00 m. On both sides of the center nave whose width is accordance with the width of the apse, there were two side naves of 2.50 m width. The three naves were separated from each other by twelve columns in two lines. Out of the twelve columns of 0.38 m diameter, five in the northern line are in their places and still preserved. The center nave rises by 2.00 m above the lateral naves; a narthex is in the southeastern corner a square building, a small chapel, is located. It is possible that it might be a monument which belonged to a Christian priest. The Late Period chapel was built, like its common examples, in one of the naves of the church. Ruins of a Bishop's residence can be seen near the church. Northern Church: It is in the north of the city. Its dimensions are similar to the dimensions of the southern church: 21.00x13.00 m. It is also similar in plan with its three naved basilical structure(41). However, it differs from the Southern Church as there is no apse extending out and there is a visible nartex. The whole building forms a long rectangle; the eastern half of the rectangle which was divided right from the center is the church, the western half is the narthex. On the narrow west side the monumental entrance was left. A passage was provided through 3 doors from narthex to church. Out of the lines of columns separating the naves only one example left standing. There arc several column pieces among the ruins. In the late period, a rectangular part which is 5 m wide and 8 m long was. This church, as mentioned before, attracts the attention becomes olive oil workshops are built all around it. Smaller Church : It is in the west, opposite the Northern Church, in east- west direction. It's dimensions are 13.50x6.40 m. The inner dimensions of the church arc 8.00x5.20 m and its nartex is 5.20x3.50 m. Ruins of columns were found. Düden During the research explorations of Lyrboton Kome some other ruins were also found in the close vicinity. The important one is at the Düden waterfall, known in Antiquity as Kataraktes. According to Antigonos it is mentioned in local language as "Muabis". There are underground tombs, chamosorions and also next to a "Heroon" whose inscribed, large sized linten exists there are large sized trapeta, press-beds and some workshop units, also some rock installations whose functions can not be identified. Although the farm-house has not be found, it is understood that there was an important farm settlement there. Evaluation Lyrboton Kome has the status of a rather large village within Perge territory. It is remarkable that Lyrboton Kome was not connected to Attaleia, although it is much closer than Perge and had a port that it could have used. The ruins seen today date to Roman, Byzantine and Later Periods, however, there should have been a farm with olive oil production in the Pre-Roman Period. It is known that farms, called "Baris", were established during the Hellenistic Age. The inscriptions give information about the family-tree of the locally dominant family, the landlord, and identify the place as Lyrboton of Perge(42). Furthermore we are told that it was an important oil- production center and that the building was a tower. In another inscription on an altar, in the Antalya Museum, "light originating Appollo" is the main deity worshipped in a place called baris(43): Apollo Elaibaris. Although there is no visible temple at Varsak today, we know from the inscriptions that a bequest was made to buy land for a temple to Apollo. "Elaibarios;" means "from an olive town". The inscription, on the tower in which olive groves are mentioned, shows that the owners and overlords of the village and the olive groves were in Roman Times Demetrios Apollonios brothers. This family who later moved to Perge transferred the income obtained from olive oil to Perge and made considerable contributions for the improvement of the town. The production and export of olive oil provided the basic livelyhood at Lyrboton Kome. Like the farms around Side and Aspendos, Lyrboton Kome was an important olive oil production center on the territory of Perge. Olive oil workshops, olive trees and inscriptions of the tower shov us the dimension of oil production in this settlement. There is no other settlement in the region that has as many olive oil presses, as there exist at Lyrboton Kome. The whole settlement was organised as an oil production center. The workshops are arranged together as an integred system having common use of the cisterns. It appears that the olives were collected from the olive groves in the area and processed at Lyrboton Kome. Apart from olive oil being used in oil lamps all throughe ages, especially in Christian Times in the permanently lit holy light in churches, Lyrboton Kome may have seen its most productive phase during the Late Hellenistic and Roman Periods, when the precious olive oil was used in Gymnasia and Baths in great quantity. The cart tracks leading north, still visible today for 200metres, suggest that the oil was transported on carts northward, to the Anatolian plateau, where the Roman legions were stationed in numerous small cities; the road led straight to Antiochia in Pisidia, branching off in Apollonia to Apamea, from where we have an account that the use of olive oil was costly. As olives could not be grown on the Anatolian plateau, the importance of this trade can hardly be over-valued. It made the owners of Lyrboton Kome's oil-presses and oil-mills wealthy influential citizens of Perge. That they were fully aware of the value of their property at Lyrboton Kome is shown in the inscriptions on the tower. Pre-report about the Survey of Varsak carried out in the 3rd step of "Archaeological Inventory of Antalya" was presented in the Meeting of the Surveys Results in Ankara. F. Gülsen, Ş. Aktaş experts in the Research Center of Lycian Civilisations of the Mediterranean University, M. Özhanlı and T. Kahya Research Assistants of the Archaeology Department and students S. Özcan, E. Görür, Ö. F. Akfırat, A. F. ikinci, H. Yılmaz, attended to this study. My thanks go to all my collegues, to the Akdeniz University who supported through providing financial contribution from Research Fund Presidenship, to Prof. Dr. F. Işık on behalf of Archaeology Department and to Prof. Dr. H. Iskan on behalf of Lycian Civilisations Research Center, to O. Örsmen who draw the topographical map of the necropolis and to M. Caemteeni for her proofreading of this text, 1. N. Çevik, I. Kızgut - Ş. Aktaş, "Trebenna ve Çevresi Yüzey Araştırmaları 1997", AST 16. 2, 1999, 401 ff. 2. H. A. Ormerod - E. S. G. Robinson, "Notes and Inscriptions from Pamphylia", BSA 17, 1910/1911,218 ff. 3. J. Keil, "Die Lyrboton Kome in Pamphylien", ÖJh 23, 1926, 90 ff. 4. R. Merkelbach-S. Şahin, EA 11, 1988, 158 ff. 5. S. Şahin, "Studien zu den Inschriften von Perge II: Der Gesandte Apollonios und seine Familie", EA 25, 1995,13 ff. 6. C. Brixe-R. Hodot, L'asie Mineure du Nord au Sud (1988) 43 f. 7. G.E. Bean, Turkey's Southern Shore (1968) 113 ff. 8. A. Akarca, "Antalya Müzesi'nde Varsak'tan Gelme Bir Kerç Vazosu", Belleten 14,31 ff. The place where the crater was found is not Lyrboton Kome but a tomb in a small farm on the slope of Varsak. 9. N. Çevik-F.Gülsen, "Kent Antalya'nın Arkeolojik Envanteri Projesi III: Varsak Yüzey Araştırmaları", AST 15. 2, 1997,365 ff. 10. For the settlements which are established on this kind of topography look, N. Çevik-I.Kızgut-Ş.Aktaş, "1997 Trebenna ve Çevresi Yüzey Araştırmaları", AST 16. 2, 1999, 401 ff. The newly discovered Byzantine settlement Palamut Düzü is one of the best examples for this kind of topography. 11. Look for the using of main rock in Ihe newly discovered settlements arround Antalya, Çevik-Kızgut-Aktaş op. cit. 401 ff. 12. F. Sümer, "Bayındır, Peçenek ve Yüreğirler", Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 11, 2/4, 1953, 34(1; H. Moğol, Antalya Tarihi (1977) 78. The Varsak Yörüks (nomads) who came to Antalya in the I3th-14th century are mentions as "Cemaat-i Yörükan-ı Varsak". For new knowledge see, M. Güçlü, "Varsaklar'ın Yerleşim Bölgeleri: Antalya Yöresinde Varsaklar", Adalya 3, 1998, 195 ff. 13. S. Şahin explains the Varsak word as "it originates from the 'Barsak' which is deformed from the Baris": op. cil. 23 14. Ormerod-Robinson op. cit. 228 if. 15. Keil op.eıt. 91 If. 16. Şahin op. cit. 12 f. 17. Ibid. 159No:152. 18. Ibid. 160 No:153. 19. T. MacCay, "The Major Sanctuaries of Pamphylia and Cillicia", ANRW 18 (1990) 2081. 20. S.Durugönül. Olba Polis mi, Territorium mu?",Lykia 2, 1995,78 fig. 2-4: Some of them as in Kanytella and Olba look like multy-floored apartments which were to serve up to 80 persons. 21. Look for detailed imformation to, L. Haselberger, "Befestigte Turmgehöfte im Hellenismus", m: Wohnungsbau im Altertum (1978) 147. 22. The newly discovered farms and settlements have been evaluating by me with the other archaeological data in the "Surveys of Trebcnna and it's Environment". 23. See note 11. 24. Two other similar tower-farm houses which we discovered in Antalya-Tunektepe Valley in Trebenna Surveys are all the same plan and dimensions and built in the same technique. We found a few lower-farms also m Tlos-Darıözü surveys: N. Çevik- B. Varkıvanç, "Tlos 1998", AST 17. 2, 2000 (in press). 25. S. Durugönül studied the subject in "1995 Yılı İçel ili Yüzey Arattırması: Kuleler ve Yerleşim Yerlerine Olan ilişkileri", AST 14. l, 1996, 253 ff. 26. F. Hild-H. Hellenkcmper, Kilikien und Isaurien, TIB 5 (199(1) 274 fig. 193. 194. 27. Durugönül op. cit. 78. 28. The house-tombs at Anamur necropolis are dating to the 3rd century according to their decorations. But some of them were used by the Christian families: E. Alfoldi- Rosenbaum, The Necropolis of Anemurium (1971) 123. 29. With these kind of tombs some of the Roman traditions of the cult of the dead, as libation and death meal, were reflected in Christianity: Th. Klauser, Die Cathedra im Totenkult der heidnischen und christlischen Antike (1927) 127 ff. 30. For detailed technic and historical information see, A. Diler, "Akdeniz Bölgesi zeytinyağı ve şarap işlikleri", AST 11.2, 1993, 506 f f.: A. Konency, "Lykische Ölpressen", ÖJh 67, 1998, 123 ff.; R. Frankel, Wine and Oil Production in Artiquity in Israel and Other Mediterreanen Countries (1999). 31. Although there is a large number of presses in Lyrboton Kome, there are only a few mills. The reason for this absence is that they were carried to another place during late period use. 32. S. Hadjisavvas, Olive oil processing in Cyprus (1992) 62 fig. 111. 115. 33. N. Çevik, "An open-air dead cult place in Simena: The Lycian open air wars hipping places and their Anatolian aspects". Festschrift tur Baki Öğün (2000 in press) 39 ff. 34. See n. 11. 35 According to the knowledge of Prof. Dr. F. Kolb that he told me at Kelbessos, there is another important sample on the Acropolis of Kyaneai. "A nich carved in the olive-oil workshops on the acropolis". Look for detailed information, Çevik op. cit. 35. And, for similar workshop orgnazation with an altur see, Frankel (n. 31) 44, 76 f. Ph. 27. fig. 5. 36. J. Keil, "Die Lyrboton Kome in Pamphylien", ÖJh 23, 1926, 102 f. fig. 6. 37. K. G. Lanckoronski, Städte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens II (1892) 70 ff. fig. 22, 86. 38. H. Işkan-N. Çevik, "Die Grüfte von Patara". Lykia 2, 1995, 187 ff. 41. Ibid. 103 ff. fig. 8. 42. In RE X11I-2 (1927), the settlement, mentions as "Lyrbos" at the Bazar Gediği Örenlik, north of Attaleia. 43. R. Paribeni-P. Romaneli, Monument! antichi della Reale Accademiadei Lincei 23, 1914, 13 No:l; L. Robert, Noms indigenes 402; S. Şahin, "Studien zu den Inschriften von Perge II: Der Gesandte Apollonios und seine Familie", EA 25,1995,3.