EXAM: Study Guide for Structural Organization in Animals
To prepare for the test, study all lecture notes, enhance your notes using the study guide accompanied
by the text book and the laboratory topics concerning human body digestion, cardiovascular,
respiration and senses are included.
What is the basic unit of life?
An organized group of cells having a common structure and function is called ______.
Name the four types of tissues?
Which covers the exposed surfaces of your body (skin) and internal passageways (digestive tract and forms
Which forms barriers for entry and exit in the body?
What effect does smoking have on the lung epithelial cells?
What type of cells are glands made of?
What is the function of a gland?
Name three substances secreted from a gland?
What is the difference in an endocrine grand and an exocrine gland?
What tissue binds other tissues and provides support matrices?
Name two characteristics of connective tissue cells.
Name three types of connective tissue and give an example of each
What is unique about muscle tissue and cells?
What are the two contractile proteins?
What is a muscle fiber?
What are the three types of muscles and how do they differ?
What is the special function of nervous tissue?
Name two types of nerve cells and describe their role?
Draw a neuron? What are the three parts of the neuron?
How does the neuron work in sending electrical impulses?
Define organ and give two examples ?
Define organ systems and name 11-12 organ systems and the function of each?
What organ system protect the body from the external environment.
The storage site of minerals (Ca and PO ) occurs in which organ system?
What benefit is derived from the ribs and the skull?
The skeleton in cooperation with _______ interact in movement.
Muscle contraction generates ___________ and ___________.
Tendons attach _______to bone but ligaments attach _______ to bone.
What is a sarcomere?
What is function of the myosin heads?
What are the three components of in the Nervous System.
Which are the parts of the central nervous system?
What is the PNS and what is its relationship to sensory, affectors and effectors neurons?
Which neurons sense conditions both inside and outside the body then carries information to the CNS? Give
What is an Interneuron and what are they are responsible for?
Which neuron carry signals away from the CNS?
What is the communication between nerve cells due to?
Describe the resting potential and the action potential?
What is a synapse?
What happens to the electrical potential at the synapse?
What is the role of the Neurotransmitters?
Know the following neurotransmitters and the job they do in the cell.
Acetylcholine: epinephrine/ norepinephrine, Serotonin and dopamine
Motor neurons are a part of the CNS or PNS?
Motor neurons are either under voluntary control called ____________ system or under involuntary control
Name, define and distinguish the two divisions of the autonomic system?
What does the Endocrine System consists of and for what purpose?
Name and know the functions of the seven glands discussed in class?
Know the hormones produced by each gland and know what organ system the hormone can affect
What is hypo and hyperthyroidism?
What is diabetes and hypoglycemia?
What is insulin and glucogon?
Approximately in what location of the body is each of seven glands?
What is homeostasis and which gland greatly affects it and why?
What are the gonads and what do they secrete?
What is the function of the Lymphatic system?
What are the two components of the Lymphatic system and what role do they play?
Name the three glands that play a role in immune function. What are leukocytes?
Name the four major types of leukocytes?
Name two important proteins in the immune function and describe the functions?
Describe and distinguish between non-specific and specific immune response.
What is a natural killer cell?
Describe the antibody/ antigen system.
What is a lymph node?
During an infection what happens to the lymph nodes?
What organs comprise the lymphatic system?
From what cells are lymphocytes derived?
Distinguish between the cell mediated and humoral response?
What four cells participate in the cell mediated response?
Evaluate the statement that cells have fingerprints. Why are organ transplants rejected?
What is an Autoimmune diseases name two?
Explain the Allergens/histamine response?
What is the infectious agent of AIDS?
What cells are attacked during AIDS?
What three components are included in the Cardiovascular System?
Where red blood cells are formed?
What is the functions of the Cardiovascular System?
What are the two major components of blood?
Name the three “formed” elements?
What are the components of plasma?
Distinguish between an artery a vein and a capillary?
Is the circulatory system open or closed? Is the lymphatic system open or closed?
How many chambers are in the human heart, which chamber pumps?
What are the two circuits of the heart?
Describe the flow of blood?
What is the largest vessel in the body?
What causes a heart attack?
What is blood pressure?
What is Hemophilia, Anemia and Leukemia?
What is the difference in Cell Respiration and Respiration?
Explain the driving force for gas exchange?
Outline the pathway for gas exchange in the Respiratory system?
What is the major protein that transports oxygen?
Explain how the lining of the lungs protects us?
Outline how food moves through the digestive system.
What enzymes are in the mouth, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
What is the role of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas?
What is the role of bacteria in human digestion?
Where does digestion of carbohydrates, proteins lipids and nucleic acids begin?
What monomer is derived from digesting carbohydrates, proteins lipids and nucleic acids begin?
What is peristalsis? What are villi and microvilli?
Define the following and identify where in the digestive system each occurs, Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption
What causes Heartburn, Ulcers, Liver dysfunction?
Define Herbivores, omnivores and carnivore.
What is an Ectotherm and an Endotherm?
How is Thermoregulation accomplished in Endotherms?
How is Osmoregulation accomplished?
Examine the role of diffusion, perspiration, urination and eating in water uptake and loss.
What is Excretion removing from the body?
Where are nitrogen compounds derived from in the diet?
Which organ system plays a role in osmoregulation and excretion of nitrogen wastes?
What are the four anatomical structures in the urinary system?
Define filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion as they relate to the urinary system.
What is the vascular tissue entering and exiting the urinary system?
What are nephrons and what are its anatomical components?
What is Bowman’s capsule, the proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule?
What is important about the glomerus and what is the role of blood pressure?
Explain the making of Gametes, what is this process called in male and in females?
What type of division is involved?
How often is an oocyte matured into an egg?
How many oocytes are stored in the ovaries?
What is the function of the gonadotropin hormones (FSH, LH) and how are they regulated?
Where are Spermatocytes stored?
Spermatocytes and oocytes are both __________ cells?
Describe the pathway of sperm flow?
How many sperm per ejaculation?
Describe the Female Menstral Cycle.
Describe the Male Cycle.
What is Fertilization and what does it result?
What process does the zygote triggers?
How do we go from a single diploid cell at fertilization to an organism that has a variety of cell, tissue and organ
The hollow ball of small cells is called ______?
When the cavity fills with fluid it is called ______?
What is development and differentiation?
Gene activation is dependent of ________?
What is Gastrulation and what are the three layers that are formed?
What organ systems are formed from each layer?
Draw and label the parts of each organ system.