Organization and Resources by klutzfu54

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									                 Chapter 1




Organization and Resources
                                                     Organization and Resources17




                                                              Introduction


The statistics shown in this Chapter concern the organization of the central
headquarters (Farnesina) and the overall network abroad (Embassies,
Permanent Missions, Consulates, Special Diplomatic Representations and
Italian Cultural Institutes), as well as the Ministry’s human and financial
resources.

Organization. According to the reform of 2000 the structure of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs consists now of 13 Directorates General, 4 Services and other
articulations dedicated to specific tasks, as seen in the following chart:




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Organization and Resources


There have been no significant variations in the network abroad, as compared
with the previous year: the number of Embassies (120), Consulates (116) and
Italian Cultural Institutes (89) has remained the same (Fig. 1.1).

 Figure 1.1 – Network of Missions abroad (2004)

                                                  Italian Cultural
               Special
             Diplomatic                              Institutes
           Representations                              (89)
                 (2)




        Consulates
          (116)



                                                          Embassies
                             Permanent
                                                            (120)
                              Missions
                                (11)




As regards the territorial distribution of the Embassies (Fig. 1.2) it can be seen
that 44 (36% of total) are located in Europe, while the remaining 76 (63%) are
distributed almost uniformly among the other four geographical areas (17% in
the Americas, 15% in the Mediterranean and Middle East, 18% in Sub-Saharan
Africa and 14% in Asia and Oceania).

 Figure 1.2 – Embassies by geographical area (2004)

            Europe                                     the Americas
           44 (36%)                                      21 (17%)




                                                           Mediterranean
                                                            and Middle
                                                                East
                 Asia and                                    18 (15%)
                  Oceania                Sub-Saharan
                 17 (14%)                   Africa
                                          20 (18%)




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                                                        Organization and Resources


By comparison, the territorial distribution of the Consulates is different
(Fig. 1.3): 60 of them (52% of the total) are located in Europe, 32 (28%) in
the Americas, 12 (10%) in Asia and Oceania area, 8 (7%) in Mediterranean
and Middle East and, finally, 4 (3%) in Sub-Saharan Africa.

 Figure 1.3 – Consulates by geographical area (2004)

          Europe
         60 (52%)
                                                            the Americas
                                                              32 (28%)




                                                     Mediterranean
                                                    and Middle East
                                                        8 (7%)
                     Asia and    Sub-Saharan
                      Oceania       Africa
                     12 (10%)      4 (3%)




As regards the Italian Cultural Institutes (Fig. 1.4) it can be seen that 49
(55%) are located in Europe, 19 (21%) in the Americas, 9 in Mediterranean
and Middle East (10%), 3 in Sub-Saharan Africa (3%) and 9 in Asia and
Oceania (10%).

 Figure 1.4 – Italian Cultural Institutes by geographical area (2004)

             Europe
            49 (55%)

                                                            the Americas
                                                              19 (21%)




                                                          Mediterranean
                    Asia and                             and Middle East
                    Oceania         Sub-Saharan             9 (10%)
                    9 (10%)         Africa 3 (3%)




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Organization and Resources




Human resources. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs avails itself of the services
of 8 425 persons, 5 208 of whom are permanent staff, 2 500 non-permanent
staff, and 717 employees from other Administrations. There are 3 048 persons
working in the central headquarter and 5 377 abroad.

Personnel abroad (Fig. 1.5), working in Embassies, Consulates and Permanent
Missions, included locally engaged staff, are located 47% in Europe, 22% in
the Americas, 11% in Asia and Oceania, 11% in Mediterranean and Middle East
and 9% in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Figure 1.5 – Total staff abroad by geographical area (2004)


              Europe                                                              the Americas
           2 542 (47%)                                                            1 177 (22%)




                                                                                   Mediterranean
                                                                                  and Middle East
                                                                                    581 (11%)
                         Asia and                               Sub-Saharan
                         Oceania                                   Africa
                        606 (11%)                                477 (9%)



Figure 1.6 – Total staff abroad (2004)

            1.076


         894




                              541
                                    472
                                                     422               417
                                                                                        380
                        287
                  285

                                      109                                         176
                                               113
                                          49               46     47                          50
                                                                             13

               Europe         the Americas      Mediterranean      Sub-Saharan          Asia and
                                                  and M.E.            Africa            Oceania

                   Consulates                                   Embassies
                   Italian Cultural Institutes                  Permanent Missions



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                                                                                                                                                                                        Organization and Resources




Financial resources. The budget allotted to the MFA in 2005 (2 149 million
Euro) shows a decrease (- 2.4% on 2004) after the increasing trend registered
in the late 90’s.

Figure 1.7 – MFA Budget (1985-2005)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2203
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2149
          million Euro                                                                                                                                                                                                              2130




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1840


                                                                                                                                                                                                                1693

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1587
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1528                              1513            1.561
                                                                                                                                                   1371                             1478
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1391
                                                                                                                                            1326                          1379
                                               1282                                                                            1278
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1252
                                                                                                                                                            1315
    1161                                                                                       1214
                                  1153                                                                                                                                                            1130
                                                                    1162              1143
                                                                                                                                                         1063                           1082
                                                                                                                 1065                                              1047      1040

                                                        998                                                                                 967
                980
                                                                                                                               842
                                                                                                                 815
                                               778                                                  774
                                                                                      705
                                  667                                    674
                     638
                                                            614
        539
 1985

              1986

                           1987

                                        1988

                                                     1989

                                                                  1990

                                                                               1991

                                                                                             1992

                                                                                                          1993

                                                                                                                        1994

                                                                                                                                     1995

                                                                                                                                                  1996

                                                                                                                                                            1997

                                                                                                                                                                      1998

                                                                                                                                                                                 1999

                                                                                                                                                                                           2000

                                                                                                                                                                                                         2001

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2002

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2004

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2005
                                                                          MFA Budget                                                  MFA Budget (without ODA)




Figure 1.8 – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Budget: percentage of the
             National Budget (1985-2005)


          0,58

                                   0,48
                                                0,45
                      0,42
                                                            0,38                                                                                                                                                                             0,34
                                                                     0,35                                                                                                                                                  0,32
                                                                                                0,31                                                                                                             0,30
                       0,28                                               0,32
                                                                                                                      0,33                           0,29                   0,28 0,29                                                               0,33
                                                0,27                                                              0,27 0,29                              0,26                                                   0,28
 0,27 0,28                                                                                                                                                                0,26
                                                             0,23
                                                                                            0,22                          0,23 0,23 0,24 0,24
                                                              0,20 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,21 0,21      0,21 0,19 0,21 0,21 0,21
   1985

               1986

                            1987

                                         1988

                                                      1989

                                                                   1990

                                                                                1991

                                                                                             1992

                                                                                                          1993

                                                                                                                        1994

                                                                                                                                      1995

                                                                                                                                                   1996

                                                                                                                                                            1997

                                                                                                                                                                      1998

                                                                                                                                                                                 1999

                                                                                                                                                                                           2000

                                                                                                                                                                                                     2001

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2002

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2004

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2005




                                                                                              included ODA                                               without ODA




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                                                                          Organization and Resources




                                                                                   Organization


Table 1.1 – Network of Missions abroad by type

Type                                                  2001         2002         2003        2004
Embassies (1)                                           120           120         120          120
Permanent Missions to International
                                                          11            11          11          11
Organizations
Special Diplomatic Representations 2)                        3            3           3           2
Consulates                                              114           116         116          116
          of which:
          General Consulates (I class)                     8             8           9           10
          General Consulates                              61            63          62           61
          Consulates (I class)                             8             8           8            8
          Consulates                                      24            24          24           24
          Vice Consulates                                  3             3           3            3
          Consular Agencies                               10            10          10           10
Italian Cultural Institutes (3)                           89            89          89          89
Total                                                   337          339          339         338
Source: DGPE
(1) There are three Embassies not yet operational (Mogadiscio, Reykjavik, Nouakchott).
(2) Special Diplomatic Representation for Taiwan (Taipei) and for Somalia (Nairobi).
(3) There are also four italian cultural institutes not yet operational (Shangai, Hong Kong, Mumbai e
    Baghdad).



Table 1.2 – Embassies by geographical area

Geographical Area                                   2001          2002         2003         2004
Europe                                                  44           44             44          44
The Americas                                            21           21             21          21
Mediterranean and Middle East                           18           18             18          18
Sub-Saharan Africa                                      20           20             20          20
Asia and Oceania                                        17           17             17          17

Total                                                120           120            120         120
Source: DGPE




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Organization and Resources




Table 1.3 – Consulates by geographical area

Geographical Area               2001      2002     2003        2004
Europe                             59       60        60         60

The Americas                       32       32        32         32

Mediterranean and Middle East       8         8        8          8
Sub-Saharan Africa                  3         4        4          4
Asia and Oceania                   12       12        12         12
TOTAL                             114      116      116        116
Source: DGPE



Table 1.4 – Italian Cultural Institutes by geographical area

Geographical Area               2001      2002     2003        2004
Europe                             49         49     49         49
The Americas                       19         19     19         19
Mediterranean and Middle East      10         10     10         10
Sub-Saharan Africa                  3          3      3          3
Asia and Oceania                    8          8      8          8
TOTAL                              89       89       89         89
Source: DGPC




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                                                                                           Organization and Resources




                                                                                           Human resources



Table 1.5 – MFA human resources (2004)


                                                     Staff from other                External
                           Permanent Staff                                                                       TOTAL
                                                        Ministries                  resources

HQ                              2 442                                   405                 201                  3 048
Abroad                          2 766                                   312                2 299                 5 377
TOTAL                           5 208                                   717            2 500                     8 425
Source: DGPE
-- Data included Personnel on leave, detached and in position of command.
-- Excluded: Staff in service in schools and universities abroad; staff on contract as per Decree no. 18/67;
   ENIT contract staff; Italian Cultural Institute consultants and contract staff and per Law 401/90.




Table 1.6 – Permanent staff by classification
                                    Administrative
                                    Officers & CPA




                                                                                                                 (base 1990
                                                                              Area (CPA)
                                                            Employees




                                                                              Promotion
               Diplomats




                                                                               Cultural




                                                                                                                   =100)
                                                                                                                    Index
                                                                                                   Total


1990            838                       26            4     210                -                 5       074       100.0
1991            863                       32            4     104                -                 4       999        98.5
1992            879                       32            4     040              126                 5       077       100.1
1993            897                       32            4     014              140                 5       083       100.2
1994            901                       28            3     915              133                 4       977        98.1
1995            901                       29            3     858              134                 4       922        97.0
1996            909                       26            3     735              135                 4       805        94.7
1997            904                       24            3     716              131                 4       775        94.1
1998            913                       27            3     734              132                 4       806        94.7
1999            934                       27            3     733              128                 4       822        95.0
2000            960                       40            3     656              130                 4       786        94.3
2001            988                       50            3     902              189                 5       129       101.1
2002          1 007                       56            4     012              181                 5       256       103.6
2003          1 024                       55            4     013              208                 5       300       104.5
2004          1 014                       51            3     942              201                 5       208       102.6
Source: DGPE
-- Data included Personnel on leave, detached and in position of command.
-- The functional areas also include the following figures for Inspectors (a disappearing role): 8 (1990),
   6 (1991), 6 (1992), 4 (1993), 3 (1994), 3 (1995), 3 (1996), 2 (1997), 2 (1999), 1 (2000).
-- The Cultural Promotion Area (CPA) was instituted with Law no. 401/1990.


                                                                                                                          25
Organization and Resources



Table 1.7 – Total staff abroad by classification (2004)




                                             Administrative
                                             Officers & CPA



                                                                        Employees
                     Diplomats




                                                                                                                                                      Detached
                                                                                                                                         Experts




                                                                                                                                                                             Total
                                                                                                                  Local staff
                                                                                                    CPA
Embassies             368                         6                   1 033                               -     1 109                    86          165                    2 767
Consulates            118                         8                     867                               -       743                     4           31                    1 771
Permanent
                          77                       -                    143                               -                    58        50               8                   336
Missions
Italian
Cultural                         -                9                                 -               137               340                17                -                  503
Institutes
TOTAL                563                      23                      2 043                         137         2 250               157              204                    5 377
Source:DGPE
-- Experts: personnel within the scope of Law no. 49/87, of article 168 of DPR 18 and article 14 and 16
   of Law no. 401/90




Table     1.8    –      Embassies: total staff abroad                                                                               by        classification                           and
                        geographical area (2004)
                                                     Officers & CPA
                                                     Administrative




                                                                                        Employees




                                                                                                                 Local staff
                                 Diplomats




                                                                                                                                                                 Detached
                                                                                                                                           Experts




                                                                                                                                                                                     Total
Geographical
area



Europe                           149                          4                         450                     390                  18                     65                 1 076
The Americas                        64                        1                         163                     198                  18                     28                       472
Mediterranean
                                    58                        -                         156                     163                  16                     29                       422
and Middle East
Sub-Saharan
                                    45                        -                         128                     194                  23                     27                       417
Africa
Asia and
                                    52                        1                         136                     164                  11                     16                       380
Oceania
TOTAL                        368                              6              1 033                            1 109                  86               165                      2 767
Source: DGPE




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                                                                                                                              Organization and Resources



Table 1.9 – Consulates: total staff abroad by classification and
            geographical area (2004)




                                             Administrative
                                             Officers & CPA



                                                                          Employees




                                                                                                      Local staff
                     Diplomats




                                                                                                                                                     Detached
                                                                                                                                Experts




                                                                                                                                                                        Total
Geographical
area



Europe                54                            6                     450                       374                         -                    10                 894
The Americas          37                            1                     263                       231                         2                     7                 541
Mediterranean
                           8                         -                      54                       43                         2                     6                 113
and Middle East
Sub-Saharan
                           4                         -                      19                       20                          -                    4                   47
Africa
Asia and
                      15                            1                       81                       75                          -                    4                 176
Oceania
TOTAL              118                             8                      867                       743                         3                    31         1 771
 Source: DGPE




Table 1.10 – Permanent Missions: total staff abroad by classification
             (2004)
                                                              Employees




                                                                                      Local staff
                                 Diplomats




                                                                                                                                          Detached
                                                                                                                    Experts




                                                                                                                                                                Total
Permanent
Missions to


Council of Europe
                                       3                         7                             4                       2                                           16
(Strasbourg)                                                                                                                                     -
Conference of
Disarmament                            3                         5                             1                        -                        -                      9
(Geneva)
NATO (Bruxelles)                    6                         15                          5                            2                        -                  28
OECD (Paris)                        5                          9                          2                            4                        -                  20
UN (New York)                      14                         18                         12                            2                        3                  49
FAO-IFAD (Rome)                     3                         10                          -                            -                                           13
International
Organizations                          9                      15                               6                       2                        1                  33
(Geneva)
International                                                                                                                                   1
                                       4                         7                             6                       2                                           20
Organizations (Vienna)
OSCE (Vienna)                      4                        7                            2                           -                         -                 13
EU (Brussels)                     23                       44                           18                          34                         3                122
UNESCO (Paris)                     3                        6                            2                           2                         -                 13
TOTAL                             77                      143                           58                          50                         8                336
 Source: DGPE


                                                                                                                                                                                27
Organization and Resources




Table 1.11 – Italian Cultural Institutes: total staff                                 by classification
             and geographical area (2004)

                          Directors                                  Experts
Geographical                                                                             Local
                            (art.14       Directors         CPA       (art.16                        Total
area                                                                                     staff
                          L.401/90)                                 L. 401/90)
Europe                             5            3            78              1              198      285
The Americas                       2            3            27              2               75      109
Mediterranean and
                                   -            1            15              3               27         46
Middle East
Sub-Saharan Africa                 -            -             4               -               9         13
Asia and Oceania                   1            2            13              3               31         50
TOTAL                             8             9           137              9              340      503
Source: DGPE



Table 1.12 – Diplomatic Service: personnel requirement and current staff

Rank                                        Requirement                              Current staff
Ambassador                                        22                                       24
Minister Plenipotentiary                        208                                        21
First Counsellor                                232                                       246
Counsellor                                      270                                       177
First Secretary                                 387                                       346
TOTAL                                         1 119                                     1 014
Source: DGPE
-- The current staff posts were established by Legislative Decree No. 85 (of 27 March 2000)



Table 1.13 – Recruitment of diplomats by rank and gender
             (2002-2004)

                                          2002                     2003                      2004
Rank
                                                    Total




                                                                             Total




                                                                                                     Total




                                    M       F                M      F                   M     F

Ambassador                           22       -    22         19   -    19              24   -    24
Minister Plenipotentiary (a)        211       9   220        213  10   223             208  13   221
First Counsellor                    224      22   246        223  24   247             223  23   246
Counsellor                          172      24   196        169  22   191             154  23   177
First Secretary (b)                 223      59   282        232  69   301             252  77   329
Secretary (c )                       30      11    41         32  11    43              14   3    17
TOTAL                               882     125 1.007        888 136 1.024             875 139 1.014
Source: DGPE
(a) Up until 25.4.2000 rank subdivided into I and II Class.
(b) Up until 25.4.2000 rank subdivided into First Secretary and Secretary.
(c) Post instituted on 26.4.2000 and which replaces Diplomatic Volunteers.
28
                                                                             Organization and Resources




Table 1.14 – Recruitment of diplomats (2002-2004)

                                       2002                       2003                      2004
                                M       F        Total      M      F     Total        M       F Total
Applications                   702     607       1 309     507    457     964         504    469 973
Candidates at the end
                                   -         -         -   366    294     660         342    265   607
of pre-testing
Candidates at the end
of the written                 319     195        514      203    147     350         150     71   221
examination
Candidates admitted to
                                 37     13           50     39     13        52        26     4        30
the oral examination
Recruited                        30     11           41     31     10        41        20     3        23
Source: DGPE
-- Only valid applications were considered




Table     1.15      –    Recruitment of                diplomats        by     university      degree
                         (2001-2004)

                                                                       Admitted
                                                 2001            2002         2003           2004
Political Science                                19               20           16               6
International and diplomatic
                                                   -               -              4                7
Sciences
Law                                               24              14           16                  5
Economics                                          6               5            5                  3
Humanities                                         2               2            -                  -
Foreign degree (recognized in
                                                   1               -              -                2
Italy)
TOTAL                                            52               41           41              23
Source: DGPE
-- 2004 data referred only to competition winners.




                                                                                                        29
                                                            Organization and Resources


                                                           Financial resources


Table    1.16     –   Italian National      Budget   and   Ministry    of   Foreign
                       Affairs Budget
                                                                      Million Euro
                               Italian State     MFA Budget
Fiscal Year                                                             % rate
                                   Budget      without ODA (*)
1985                               201 716            539                 0.27
1986                               231 776            638                 0.28
1988                               284 399            777                 0.27
1989                               264 216            614                 0.23
1990                               334 617            674                 0.20
1991                               356 074            705                 0.20
1992                               388 762            774                 0.20
1993                               401 419            815                 0.20
1994                               393 031            842                 0.21
1995                               457 937            967                 0.21
1996                               473 257          1 062                 0.22
1997                               496 314          1 046                 0.21
1998                               537 090          1 040                 0.19
1999                               526 393          1 082                 0.21
2000                               534 301          1 129                 0.21
2001                               609 218          1 252                 0.21
2002                               609 225          1 391                 0.23
2003                               669 985          1 512                 0.23
2004                               654 486          1 586                 0.24
2005                              645 360           1 561                 0.24
Source: DGAA
(*) ODA = Official Development Assistance




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