Laboratory Report Body Organization and Anatomical Terminology

Document Sample
Laboratory Report Body Organization and Anatomical Terminology Powered By Docstoc
					Laboratory Report


Body Organization and Anatomical Terminology


Introduction and Body Organization

1.   Complete the following statements:

     a.    Homo sapiens, having both hair and mammary glands, belongs to the class
             Mammalia .

     b.    A body organ is a structure consisting of two or more kinds of tissues that
           performs a specific function.

     c.    The      cell   is the basic structural and functional component of life.

     d.    The four basic types of tissues are       epithelial ,    connective ,      muscle ,

            and nervous .

     e.    Animals within the phylum Chordata have a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a
           notochord, and pharyngeal pouches during some period of their development.


Planes of Reference and Descriptive Terminology

2.   PLANES OF REFERENCE

     The human body can be planed (sectioned) by cutting it from various directions.
     Describe the planes (sections) used in human anatomical studies.

     a. Sagittal plane A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides.
        The specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline is the midsagittal
        plane, planes offset from the midline are parasagittal.

     b. Midsagittal plane A sagittal plane that passes lengthwise through the body,
        dividing it equally into right and left halves, also known as the median.

     c. Coronal plane A plane that passes lengthwise and divides the body into
        anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions also known as the frontal plane.

     d. Transverse Plane A plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and
         inferior (lower) portions also known as a horizontal or cross-sectional plane.
3.    For each set of structures listed below, give the directional term that best describes the
      relationship.

      a.     the nose to the mouth                                    superior
      b.     the lungs to the rib cage                                deep
      c.     the elbow to the hand                                    proximal

      d.     the foot to the knee                                     distal

      e.     the eye to the ear                                       medial
      f.     the thumb to the little finger (fifth digit)             lateral

      g.     the head to the thorax                                   superior


4.    Define anatomical position and explain why a standardized position of the body is
      necessary when describing body structures.

       In anatomical position, the body is erect, the feet are parallel to one another and
      flat on the floor, the eyes are directed forward, the arms are at the sides of the
      body with the palms of the hands turned forward and the fingers are pointed
      straight down. Directional terms are used to locate the position of structures,
      surfaces and regions of the body. The terms are always relative to the specimen
      positioned in the anatomical position.


Body Regions:

5.    In the table below, indicate the name of each body region described.

     Description                                                      Body Region
     a. The region between the thorax and pelvis                                Abdomen
     b. The upper extremity between the shoulder and the
                                                                                brachium
         forearm
     c. The lower extremity between the knee and the ankle                        leg
     d. The armpit                                                               Axilla
     e. The region between the head and the trunk also known                      neck
        as the cervical region
Body Cavities and Membranes:

6.   Complete the following statements:

     a. The cranial       cavity contains the brain and the vertebral     canal contains the
        spinal cord.
     b. The abdominopelvic cavity is separated by the muscular diaphragm from the
        thoracic cavity.
     c. In the thoracic cavity, the esophagus, thoracic nerves, and pericardial cavity and
        heart occupy an area called the mediastinum .
     d. The greater omentum is a double-layered peritoneal membrane that extends
        from the stomach inferiorly, hanging like an apron over the contents of the
        abdominal cavity.
     e.     Serous membranes secrete a lubricative fluid into body cavities; mucous
          membranes secrete a protective or lubricative fluid into certain body openings and
          lumina.


7.   Serous membranes compartmentalize and protect body organs. List the serous
     membranes within the thoracic cavity, the various compartments (cavities) formed by
     the membranes, and the organs contained within these cavities.

                   Membranes                                Cavity            Organs

     Visceral pleura and parietal pleura                    pleural           lungs

     Visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium          pericardial       heart