Body Organization and Anatomical Terminology
Introduction and Body Organization
1. Complete the following statements:
a. Homo sapiens, having both hair and mammary glands, belongs to the class
b. A body organ is a structure consisting of two or more kinds of tissues that
performs a specific function.
c. The cell is the basic structural and functional component of life.
d. The four basic types of tissues are epithelial , connective , muscle ,
and nervous .
e. Animals within the phylum Chordata have a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a
notochord, and pharyngeal pouches during some period of their development.
Planes of Reference and Descriptive Terminology
2. PLANES OF REFERENCE
The human body can be planed (sectioned) by cutting it from various directions.
Describe the planes (sections) used in human anatomical studies.
a. Sagittal plane A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides.
The specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline is the midsagittal
plane, planes offset from the midline are parasagittal.
b. Midsagittal plane A sagittal plane that passes lengthwise through the body,
dividing it equally into right and left halves, also known as the median.
c. Coronal plane A plane that passes lengthwise and divides the body into
anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions also known as the frontal plane.
d. Transverse Plane A plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and
inferior (lower) portions also known as a horizontal or cross-sectional plane.
3. For each set of structures listed below, give the directional term that best describes the
a. the nose to the mouth superior
b. the lungs to the rib cage deep
c. the elbow to the hand proximal
d. the foot to the knee distal
e. the eye to the ear medial
f. the thumb to the little finger (fifth digit) lateral
g. the head to the thorax superior
4. Define anatomical position and explain why a standardized position of the body is
necessary when describing body structures.
In anatomical position, the body is erect, the feet are parallel to one another and
flat on the floor, the eyes are directed forward, the arms are at the sides of the
body with the palms of the hands turned forward and the fingers are pointed
straight down. Directional terms are used to locate the position of structures,
surfaces and regions of the body. The terms are always relative to the specimen
positioned in the anatomical position.
5. In the table below, indicate the name of each body region described.
Description Body Region
a. The region between the thorax and pelvis Abdomen
b. The upper extremity between the shoulder and the
c. The lower extremity between the knee and the ankle leg
d. The armpit Axilla
e. The region between the head and the trunk also known neck
as the cervical region
Body Cavities and Membranes:
6. Complete the following statements:
a. The cranial cavity contains the brain and the vertebral canal contains the
b. The abdominopelvic cavity is separated by the muscular diaphragm from the
c. In the thoracic cavity, the esophagus, thoracic nerves, and pericardial cavity and
heart occupy an area called the mediastinum .
d. The greater omentum is a double-layered peritoneal membrane that extends
from the stomach inferiorly, hanging like an apron over the contents of the
e. Serous membranes secrete a lubricative fluid into body cavities; mucous
membranes secrete a protective or lubricative fluid into certain body openings and
7. Serous membranes compartmentalize and protect body organs. List the serous
membranes within the thoracic cavity, the various compartments (cavities) formed by
the membranes, and the organs contained within these cavities.
Membranes Cavity Organs
Visceral pleura and parietal pleura pleural lungs
Visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium pericardial heart