ORGANIZATION- by klutzfu54



                    PROBLEM  DEFINITION AN
                        GOAL IDENTIFICATIO

must be determined by the in-
stallation decisionmakers, with
the assistance of technical ex-
perts.     Technical      experts
should provide direction for the
decisionmakers           through
rational analysis of installation
needs and policies. With this
information,     decisionmakers
can effectively     select goals
and a planning program that
will insure an end product that
is both workable and desirable.

      EFFECTIVE THOROUGHFARE PLANNING requires concerfed efforf among policymakers                       and the
      technical and administrative   staffs of the installation under study. Each step of the planning process
      must be based on a simple framework in which the installation’s        decisionmakers   can clearly under-
      stand not only the traffic problems, but also the solution to those problems. Committee members
      usually should be selected to represent the installation’s     diverse disciplines and viewpoints. For ex.
      ample, an individual representing each of the groups shown below would be desirable.

                                                                          ,       fl        /Facilities       Engineer

                                      Union   Representative

                                                                              ’        I   Installation     Citizen


         DECISIONMAKERS        MUST                                TECHNICAL                STAFF MUST

            W     Identify Traffic Problems                               n       Conduct Traffic Studies

            n     Establish  Goals    to      Reduce   :                  W       Estimate Future Travel
                                                                          n        Develop Alternate Plans
            n     Select Thoroughfare      Plan
                                                                          n        Implement              Plan
             n    Gain Support for Plan

PLANNING     is to clearly identify all traffic
problems of the installation being studied.

The term “traffic problem” is defined as any
situation that impairs the sate and efficient
flow of traffic
                                                   FOR EVERY TRAFFIC   PROBLEM,   THERE   IS
In identifying traffic problems. relativity must   A POSITIVE GOAL
be considered; that is, traffic problems vary
among different areas of the country. For ex-
ample, a 5.minute delay in New York City is
considered     as negligible,  while the same
delay in Timbuktu         would be extremely
frustrating to motorists. Therefore, it must be
remembered that traffic problems are relative
to the installation   being studied.

                  TRAFFIC PROBLEM                       GOAL
                                                         CONGESTION         -   Motorists     dislike traffic
                                                         congestion primarily because of wasted time
                                                         and the resulting increased operating costs.
                                                          Excessive operating costs can be measured
                                                          with a fair degree of precision. For example,
                                                          on a l-mile free-flowing roadway of 30 miles-
                                                          per-hour speed, three stops of 3Oseconds
                                                          duration each will result in an increase of ap-
                                                          proximately 90 percent in total running cost
                                                          of the car. Measuring           the value of a
                                                          motorist’s    time     is far more          difficult.
                                                           However, evidence       shows that, given a
                                                          choice,    motorists     will   forfeit    operating
 CONGESTIOfil     wastes   time    and    increases     1 economytosavr,                                           1
 operating costs.


      ,DEQUATE     CAPACITY       saves    time   and
      educes operating cost.


                                                                                          4000       6000
                                                                                          CAPACITY   (VPH)

                               educe user cos

                                                                      ORGANIZATION       -

                                                                          BUILDING IN

INACCESSIBILITY       -   Most peo-
ple like to have the freedom to get
where they want to go, when they
want to go. High productivity     is
closely related to proximity      in
time. Without access, land can-
not be developed and people can-
not move to jobs,          schools,
hospital yi

                                            TO IMPROVE MOBl\~~w,
                                            OFPOPULATION     ~.‘I .%.’

                                                     ON MASTER PLAN

                                            Distance between point A and
        Reduce travel distance

         Increase productivity         of   Changes in access caused
         land and people                    by land development
                                                          _ .. ._.

                                                    INEFFICIENT         INVESTMENT         - Another
                                                    universally condemned action is waste
                                                    of public funds. The case of building
                                                    unusable        traffic    facilities     or mis-
                                                    appropriating public funds is quite rare.
                                                    However, the more frequent and impor-
                                                    tant waste is that of false economy in
                                                    traffic facilities. For example, decisions
                                                    on expenditure are generally based on
                                                    their budget appeal, not on their ade-
                                                    quacy,      such        as    patchwork          im-
                                                    provements. The question of whether
      Where width of street, size of house, or
                                                    improvements may solve any particular
      size of lot is squeezed to a so-called “ef-
                                                    problem        is usually         overlooked       or
      ficient   minimum”     - this is false
                                                    avoided; example,            a street-widening
      economy.                                      may prove inadequate the day it is com-
                                                    pleted     and require           immediate        im-
                                                    provements.         Another       type of false
                                                    economy results from so-called “effi-
                                                    cient” planning, which creates waste.
                                                    For example, in housing areas where
                                                    the width of a street or the size of a
                                                    house or the lot it occupies has been
                                                    reduced       to a so-called             “efficient
                                                    minimum”         - this is false economy.
                                                    EFFICIENT PLANNING IS MORE THAN
                                                    AN OBSESSION TO SAVE; IT IS A
                                                    METHODTO IMPROVE.

                                                                       ILIC FUNDS AND
                                                                PROTECT     LIFE STYLE
             A   modern      residential   street               PATTERNS.
             design        preserves          the

                         OBJECTIVE                         INDICATOR

             Decide expenditures based on           Existing and desirable life-
             adequacy, NOT budget appeal            style patterns


ACCIDENTS        - Accidents are
the most significant of all traf-
fic problems.       In 1983 alone,
approximately        52,000 motor
vehicle accidents occurred on
military     installations,      and
resulted in an estimated cost
of $117 million to DOD and its
personnel. Recent surveys of
military installations      revealed
that the yearly accident rate
 ranged from 1 to over 95 per
 1,000 people. This wide range
 indicates    that the accident                           ACCIDENT COST TO DOD
 rate of an installation can be                           FATALITY - $190.000 per accident
 reduced through better traffic                           PERSONAL INJURY - $7,200 per accident
 facilities.                                              PROPERTY DAMAGE - $1.020 per accident

                                   GOAL:        TO PROVIDE SAFE
                                                TRAVEL ROAD

                                                    FOUR-LANE            The reduction  of accidents  on a four-
                                                     DIVIDED            lane divided highway    is 29% over the
                                                                        undivided highway

                                                                     accidents       Per
                        million vehicle miles                million vehicle miles

    I         Reduce accidents and
              fatalities                             I
                                                          Number of accidents and
                                                          fatalities                              I
      PROBLEM:         1.

                                                   SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IM.
                                                   PACT -          Ugliness,   air pollution,
                                                   strain,      discbmfort,      noise,    and
                                                   nuisance are a11 components of the
                                                   increasingly         social     nature    of
                                                   transportation      problems. All of these
                                                   problems are difficult         to measure.
                                                    Furthermore,        problems     such    as
                                                    ugliness are visual images that vary
                                                    markedly among people, and hence it
                                                    is difficult to obtain a consensus. The
                                                    best way to consider these problems
                                                    is in final plan selection.

          Noise   Pollution.


                                         Built-h Noise
                                         Protection  and Abatement

        BARRI                  DEPRE&

                            BE AWARE OF CONFLICTS BETWEEN GOALS

                           Simply having an agreed set of goals and objec-
                           tives is not enough because of the conflicts
                           between goals. For example, the least expen-
                           sive, initially, is to do nothing; whereas, the
                          safest could very likely be the most expensive.
                           Basically, goals should be listed and then
                          screened to eliminate all but the most relevant.
                          The goals selected should then be related to
                          each other, so that losses toward one goal
                          could be offset by gains toward another. Finally,
                          these goals should be related to minimizing the
                          total transportation costs.


A POliCY on Design       of Urban    HighwaYsandArterialSlreefs,                      American     Association      of state Highway       and Transpor.
    tation Officials,   Washington.        DC, 1973. pp, 91.tg6.

Crawford, George        L., and Clyde E. Sweet,         “Citizen’s        Participation          in Planning   Transportation;’         7raffic ~nginee,
   ing, May 1973.

CreiQhton.     ROQer L., Urban      Transportation     Planning,       University        of fllinois Press, Chicago,        ,976.

Gordon, Michael E., and T. Darcy Sullivan,                     ” Public     OPtniOn       Surveys:        An Adjunct     to Highway        Planning       and
   Design.” Tralfic Engineering, August 1975.

ITE Technical Council Committee               6y.t. “ Levefs Of Service               Provided     by Urban Transportation           Systems,”       Traffic
   Engineering, January 1976.

Mitchell,    Richard H., “Citizen     Participation    In Transportation              Decision     Making.”      ~rafric Engtneerjng,      August     ,975.

Pignataro, Louts      J.. Traffic Engineering.        Theory     and      Practice.      Prentice-Hall,      Inc., Engtewood        Cliffs, NBW ~~~~~~~
   1973, pp. 43-53.

Witheford, David K.. “Urban Transponation     Planning,” ~~2%7SPOrtatiOn and Tre-Ifi. Engineering                                        Handbook.        ed.
   John E. Baenwld. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1976, pp. 502.656.


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