Fishmeal and fish oil production and its role in sustainable aquaculture Dr Andrew Jackson, Technical Director International Fishmeal & Fish Oil Organisation Andrew Jackson gave two presentations at the Seafood Summit – the first refuting five myths or mistaken assertions about fishmeal and fish oil and the second focused mainly on IFFO’s Responsible Supply Code. Refuting the myths: No 1: Fishmeal is NOT getting scarce World Fishmeal Production by country 1998-2007 ,000 tonnes 8,000 7,000 6,000 OTHERS SOUTH AFRICA 5,000 ICELAND DENMARK NORWAY 4,000 JAPAN CHINA 3,000 U.S.A. THAILAND 2,000 CHILE PERU 1,000 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Trends in production Long-term trend is relatively constant production, with periodic El Niños Tightening supplies in recent years are due to a combination of: • Precautionary quota setting • Increased use for human consumption e.g. over 50% Chilean Jack mackerel go for freezing/canning • Climate changes and fishery changes • Poor fisheries management in some countries Hopefully the precautionary quota setting will allow increased quotas in the future with a return to Maximum Sustainable Yields, for example in the EU. Refuting the myths: No 2: The production of fishmeal is NOT at the cost of human food Fishmeal v Human Food • Nearly 25% of fishmeal comes from fisheries by-products – and this is growing every year • In most cases wherever possible the fish will be sold for human food – as it pays more money (for example - jack mackerel, herring, blue whiting etc) • There are major efforts being made with Peruvian Anchovy to use it for human food both within Peru and for exports • Fish oil, the best source of healthy EPA & DHA, is increasingly being used for direct human consumption Refuting the myths: No 3: Aquaculture CAN grow even if fishmeal supplies are limited +28% Growth in fishmeal usage is limited by: • Price elasticity of demand for the different segments – carp most elastic, eels least elastic • Market forces, technology and nutritional knowledge have driven substitution • But the growth of aquaculture has not been limited by the availability of fishmeal China the world’s largest fishmeal user consumed less fishmeal in ‘07 than it had for a decade Changing fishmeal usage in China FAO & IFFO Data Growth in Chinese Aquaculture is not dependent on fishmeal China: Fed Aquaculture Production, Feed & Fishmeal use 18,000,000 1,000,000 16,000,000 900,000 800,000 14,000,000 700,000 12,000,000 600,000 10,000,000 tonnes AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION 500,000 FEED 8,000,000 FISHMEAL TONS 400,000 6,000,000 300,000 4,000,000 200,000 2,000,000 100,000 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Refuting the myths: No 4: Fishmeal is NOT getting so expensive it is limiting aquaculture growth Dr Jackson first showed the relative prices of fishmeal and soy meal from 1998 to 2008. Then he showed that the average ratio of fishmeal: soymeal prices over the last 10 years was 3:1. Recently fishmeal has been less than three times the price of soy. In short, fishmeal is not expensive. - Average over 11 years Summary: Fishmeal & the growth of aquaculture • The availability & price of fishmeal has not been a limiting factor in aquaculture growth to date • Fishmeal supplies are likely to remain tight but stable into the future except in el Niño years • Improved processing technology will make better vegetable proteins available • This combined with improving nutritional knowledge will allow lower dietary inclusion levels as feed volumes grow • Fishmeal will increasingly become a strategic ingredient in specialist diets such as starter, brood stock and finisher diets Refuting the myths: No 5: Fishmeal’s conversion efficiency has been drastically UNDER calculated Eco-conversion in aquaculture • Many different numbers are used on how many kilos of wild fish it takes to produce a kilo of farmed fish • Salmon in particular have come under scrutiny with quoted ratios as high as 10:1 • Tacon and Metian (2008), See reference 1, most recently gave a figure of 4.9:1 Dr Jackson explained that he had studied Tacon and Metian’s calculation, looking first at: Table of Eco-efficiency & Fish-In-Fish-Out (FIFO) Ratios Focusing on 2006, the most recent year for which Tacon and Metian have actual values, Jackson noted that the FIFO for all major fed species at the bottom of the column was not a weighted average of the FIFOs for the species listed in the column above. There had to be an anomaly in the calculation. Using Tacon and Metian’s method and his assumptions for 2006, Jackson calculated the FIFO for salmon in 2006 (below). His FIFO of 5.0:1 was virtually the same as that calculated by Tacon and Metian, at 4.9. . SALMON Wt of pelagic fish at start kg 1000 Wt of Fishmeal kg 225 Wt of fish oil kg 50 How much salmon do I produce? Fish oil in the diet % 20 Fishmeal in the diet % 30 Requirement of oil kg 50 Requirement of fishmeal kg 75 Amount of feed that can be produced kg 250 FCR 1.25 Salmon Produced kg 200 FIFO 5.0 Fishmeal left over kg 150 Assumptions from Tacon & Metian highlighted But Jackson also noted that there would be 150kg of fishmeal ‘left over’ from the calculation. This cannot be ignored. In commercial production – no fishmeal is thrown away. Similarly, the Tacon calculation for shrimp and carp feed, which have more fishmeal and less oil, would show ‘left over’ oil. Jackson illustrated his point further by calculating not just how much salmon could be produced from 1000kg of pelagic fish, but how much salmon, shrimp and carp from the same 1000kg of pelagic fish (next page). S ALM O N PLUS W t o f p e la g i c f i s h a t s t a rt k g 1 0 00 W t o f F is h m e a l k g 2 25 W t o f fi s h o i l k g 50 H o w m u c h s a lm o n d o I p r o d u c e ? F is h o il in t h e d ie t % 20 F is h m e a l in t h e d ie t % 30 R e q u ire m e n t o f o il k g 35 R e q u i r e m e n t o f f is h m e a l k g 53 A m ou n t o f fe ed th at c a n b e p ro d u c e d k g 1 75 FCR 1.2 5 S a lm o n P r o d u c e d k g 1 40 S H R IM P P LUS H o w m u c h s h r im p d o I p r o d u c e ? F is h o il in t h e d ie t % 2 F is h m e al in th e d ie t % 20 R e q u i re m e n t o f o i l k g 15 R e q u i r e m e n t o f f is h m e a l k g 150 A m o u n t o f f e ed t h a t c a n b e p r o d u c e d k g 750 FCR 1 .7 S h r im p P r o d u c e d k g 441 C A RP H ow m u ch c arp d o I p rod u ce ? Fish oil in t he die t % 0 Fish m eal in th e die t % 5 R e q ui re m e nt o f o i l k g 0 R e q ui re m e nt o f f is h m e al k g 23 A m ou n t of fe ed th at c a n b e pro d uc e d k g 450 FCR 1 .8 C arp Pro d uc e d k g 2 50 The answer was 831kg of salmon shrimp and carp with no fishmeal or fish oil left over, which is a FIFO of 1000/831, or 1.2. Clearly a new formula was required for calculating FIFOs which did not dismiss left over meal or oil. FIFO ratio = Level of fishmeal in diet + Level of fish oil in diet X FCR Yield of fishmeal from wild fish + yield of fish oil from wild fish Using this formula we can calculate for salmon the following Salmon FIFO ratio = 30 + 20 X 1.25 = 2.27 22.5 + 5.0 Going back to the worked example for salmon, shrimp and carp, the new formula produces FIFOs of: Salmon Shrimp Carp FIFO calculated using form ula 2.27 1.36 0.33 Total of farmed production kg 140 441 250 Amount of wild fish used kg (Production x FIFO) 318 600 82 Total amount of wild fish used kg 1000 Jackson had been using Tacon and Metian’s assumptions but the efficiency of fishmeal production has been increased here from a yield of 22.5% to the up-to-date commercial average of 24%. Applying the new formula globally we get the following: Summary of FIFO Ratios as calculated by IFFO Yield of FM Yield of FO Wild Fish FM in Diet FIFO Species FO in Diet % from wild from wild used ,000 % Ratio fish % fish % t Salmon 30 20 24 5 2.2 3157 Trout 30 15 24 5 1.9 1226 Eel 55 5 24 5 2.9 784 Marine Fish 32 8 24 5 1.9 2858 Shrimp 20 2 24 5 1.2 3754 FW Crustaceans 15 1.5 24 5 0.5 586 Tilapia 6 0.5 24 5 0.3 718 Catfish 10 1.7 24 5 0.4 777 Milkfish 3 1 24 5 0.1 65 Carp 5 0 24 5 0.1 1460 Misc FW Carn. Fish 40 5 24 5 0.5 386 Total of Fed farmed fish & shellfish 0.66 15770 Pigs 0.25 0 24 5 0.03 4748 Poultry 0.3 0 24 5 0.02 1577 Total 0.09 22096 So it takes 90kg of fish to produce 1000kg of produce And by-products should be included in the calculation Dr Jackson then focused on a second error in the Tacon and Metian method of calculating FIFO ratios. It had not taken into account that 22% of the raw material for fishmeal and fish oil comes from fisheries by-products. Making this correction produced the following FIFOs. Table showing the calculated FIFO for Aquaculture, Pigs and Poultry World Use of % Coming Use of whole Production Fish from fishery by- wild fish FIFO ,000 t ,000 t products ,000 t /FIPO Aquaculture 23851 15770 22 12301 0.52 Pigs 141222 4748 22 3703 0.03 Poultry 76245 1577 22 1230 0.02 Total 241318 22096 22 17235 0.07 Salmon 1465 3157 22 2462 1.68 FIFO = Fish In: Fish Out ratio. FIFO = Fish In: Product Out (product is fish, pork and chicken) Dr Jackson’s conclusions on eco-conversion as measured by Fish In: Fish Out ratios were: • The ratio for farmed salmon is not 10:1, not 5:1 but 1.7:1 and falling • The ratio for all fed aquaculture is 0.5:1 and falling • The ratio for all animal production using fishmeal is 0.07 and falling For every 1 tonne of whole fish caught 14 tonnes of livestock are produced References 1.
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