International Workshop on Globalization and Human Resource by sparkunder24

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									   International Workshop on “Globalization and Human Resource
                           Development”
    Co ordinator & Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Labour Institute,
                            Ahmedabad
                   Email: singh.mgli@gmail.com


Inaugural Session started with a brief introduction of Mahatma Gandhi
Labour Institute [MGLI] and FES.

Welcome address was given by Dr. I.S. Singh, Professor and Coordinator of
the Workshop and he also talked about the objective and theme of the
Workshop. He talked about the changes and challenges globalization has
brought about and said that skill development is an ongoing process and
uphill task in the fast changing world. The workshop has been organized to
provide a platform for discussing various issues of HRD in organized and
unorganized sector.

Mr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES spoke about the challenges of
globalization and how workforce can be made more employable. He talked
about issues that concern the market, customer who is sensitive and have
environmental concerns.

Ms. Layla Tigmo Reddy, Director and ILO Representative in India delivered
inaugural address. She talked about ILO and gave its introduction. She said
that objective of ILO is to provide decent work. Decent work agenda of ILO
includes employment, work quantity & quality and social security.

Ms. Mish Vyas, Assistant Professor (Economics), MGLI concluded the
inaugural session by extending the Vote of Thanks.

      In the 1st Technical Session on Human Resource Development in the
      context of globalization, there were six speakers. The session was
      chaired by Dr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES, New Delhi.

      Dr. I.S. Singh, Presented the paper “Human Resource Development in
      the Globalizing World – An Overview of Challenges and
      Opportunities”. Dr. Singh gave an overview of the challenges and
      opportunities faced due to globalization. He defines HRD and says
      that HRD is essentially a business led approach to tap the people’s

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potentiality, so that their strength can be systematically brought in
within the organization’s strategic framework. He further talked about
globalization and HRD and said that the knowledge economy has
come into sharp focus and it is all about how any economy harnesses
and uses new and existing knowledge to improve the productivity in
agriculture, industry, services etc.

He also talked about globalization and higher education. He said that
higher education plays a dual role as a vital component of both, the
national education and R&D system.

He also talked about HRD in the organized sector and said that we
have to see that what is the number and type of human talent available
in the Indian market and how the state and industry can jointly
establish centre of excellence so that the needed talent could be made
available to the industry. He also threw light on Labour Force and
Labour Market in India, changing technology and Trade in education
and finally on Trade Union.

Next Speaker Prof. S.T. Sawant, Advisor, Ambedkar Institute of
Labour Studies spoke on HRD in the context of globalization. He
defined globalization and said that it is a process of transformation of
local or regional phenomenon into global one. It is influenced by
technological development. He said that one needs to note that in the
recent phenomenon of globalization there is increase in international
trade at a much faster rate than the growth in the world economy and
international flow of capital including FDI.

He said that India is rich with labour or human resource which is also
young – energetic with more proportion of its population in the age
group of 15-54 years. He said that structure of economy is shifting
towards knowledge economy that creates, disseminates and uses
knowledge to enhance its growth, development and competitiveness.
Skill Development in the unorganized sector is more challenging. He
said that a state should have a holistic policy for promoting and
matching competencies and its implementation on top priority.

The next speaker Dr. V.P. Bhardwaj, Former Director, School of
Social Sciences, Gujarat University spoke on “Some Issues of India’s
HRD related Policies in the context of Globalization”.

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He said that the global recession gives a pessimistic picture. He
opined that HRD is a national concern because of limited mobility.
We have moved from controlled economy to free economy. We have
to find out strategy for HRD. Human Development deals with the
social concern and improving the underprivileged section. Question of
HRD must focus on vocational education and primary education.

In the organized sector, we have to focus on HRD – developing skill
based on the market demand. It is a very complex task. It needs
participation of private, public, Government and the community.

Next Speaker Mr. H. Mahadevan, Deputy General Secretary, AITUC,
New Delhi spoke on “Human Development in the context of
Globalization”.

He said that we are worried about new neo-liberal globalization.
There is a growth but there is jobless growth. There is a trickle down
theory of globalization which has not helped. True development is
something beyond and for more fundamental. He said that true
development is total development of human spirit in a climate of
freedom and spontaneity. He also said that true development is
replacement of the culture of intolerance, mindless hatred, cruelty and
violence by a culture of self abnegation, love, kindness, compassion
and commiseration.

The next speaker is Dr. Radhika Gupta, Lecturer, Chimanbhai Patel
Institute of Management, Ahmedabad spoke on “HRD in Context of
Globalization”.

She said that Globalisaiton is an attitude of mind. She asked what has
changed because of globalization. There is change from agriculture
economy to knowledge economy.

She said that strategic HR practices in globalization are Internal
Career opportunity, Formal training system, appraisal measures, profit
sharing, etc. She concluded by saying that the liberalization and
globalization process, which has come over the Indian economy in the
last seventeen years, has given birth to fair number of fly-by-night
small enterprises which hope to gain legitimacy and foster rapid

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growth by setting up a Human Resource Department. The country has
moved towards a free market economy. Old rules of the game have
been discarded and new rules have been made. It is important to
embrace change with open arms.

Last speaker in the session was Mr. M.A. Baria, Sr. VP (HR),
Kalpataru Power, Gandhinagar. He spoke on Human Resource
Management and Globalisation. He also spoke about positive aspects
of globalization. Globalisation is about open economy and were to
compete, restriction were opened up and taken out. It enforces merger
between culture and encourages growth. It is free flow of technology,
finance, etc. He said that the benefits of globalization are talent
influx, technical competence, financial inflow and cross cultural
amalgamation. However, there is a risk of brain-drain, legal
complications, job insecurity and uncertain international markets.

The 2nd Technical Session on Sources of Talent, Recruitment,
Training and Retraining of Existing Employees/Managers, was
chaired by Dr. D.M. Pestonjee, Former Professor of OB, IIM,
Ahmedabad.

The first speaker in this session, Dr. Upinder Dhar, Director, Nirma
Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, spoke on
“Achieving World Class Excellence Through Creativity and
Innovation”.

Looking at the demographic structure we have some advantages. He
added that if we can convert the large working people into skilled
people it will be advantageous to the entire world. World recognizes
us as giants in IT sector.

The workplace environment is changing and nature of employment
also changes. The challenge for HR is to attract and retain competent
people. Our focus has to be world class not just domestic. What needs
to be done and what are the experiences? The survival of the fittest
applies today. Despite Third World infrastructure and uneven turf
many Indian corporates have achieved world class excellence.




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He said that creative thinking involves the ability to find solution to
problems by changing one’s perspective when conventional approach
fails to provide the appropriate answers.

The world class excellence can be achieved only by promoting the
culture of creativity and innovation.

The second speaker, Mr. Suryanarayan, Vice President (Training),
Zydus Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Ahmedabad, spoke on “Role of
Training in Human Resource Development and Meeting the
Organisational Objectives”. The presentation was in three parts:
-     Zydus Training Philosophy
-     The Challenges
-     Training the employee to thrive challenges.

It is not enough to create a few top performers but more performers
who can deliver, he opined. He said that 40% of graduates are
employable, remaining 60% had to be trained for employability.

Human Resources are the greatest assets. The challenges we have in
pharmaceutical industry are job and market commoditization and shift
towards service industry. There is a serious attrition problem. The
challenges are how to increase productivity as well. Training and
development are critically important because it provides bridges
between potential and actual human resources.

The third speaker, Mr. Saurabh Dixit, President (HR), Adani Group,
Ahmedabad, spoke on “Talent Management”. He said that the role of
HR has become more of business function than an administrative
function.

The focus is on performance management. How can we make our
recruiting process more efficient? Talent management begins with
business plan, then workforce planning, recruiting, performance
management, etc. Talent management requires integration and
communication between existing HR, Training and Development
functions.

Talent management is about the few not the many. It is important to
develop key people as leaders and role models for others to follow.

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Managing talent in diversified business organization is a complex
process.
The Third Technical Session was on Performance Management and
HRD, chaired by Dr. Pramod Verma, Former Professor (P&IR), IIM,
Ahmedabad.

The first speaker of this session, Dr. Devraj Adhikari, Professor of
Management, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, spoke on “Performance
Management and Human Resource Development in Government”.
According to him, performance management is a process that links
people and jobs to the strategy and objectives of the organization. He
focused on the issues of how organizations can cope with the ever
increasing challenges by rethinking about their human resource
management. The issues include the concept of performance
management and HRD, developments in HRM concepts and practices,
the new role for HR professionals for performance management,
performance management and issues in Nepalese organizations, the
new trend of HR in Nepalese organizations, HRD needs for
performance management and the new HRD structure for
performance management.

With the detailed analysis of these issues, the paper tries to show how
performance is linked to both behavioural process and outcomes of
the organization and thus how performance management is a critical
tool to achieve competitive advantage.

He concluded by saying that Nepalese organizations are largely
suffering from performance management challenges such as, poor
employee relations, lack of proper employee development initiatives
and declining efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Like many
developed countries of the West, there have been changes in the HR
context and thus Nepalese HR professionals have faced new
challenges.

The second speaker in this session was Mr. Biju Varkkey, Professor
(P&IR), IIM, Ahmedabad. His topic was “Some Reflections about
Performance Management and HRD in Government”.

Managing performance of government is important and good
governance facilitates all of us. It is delivered by very complex

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systems. The current issues in PMS (Performance Management
System) are:

- lack of performance planning in government where clear goals are
  not set;
- the incumbent not able to find the connect between activity and the
  larger purpose,
- many parts of government clearly lacks build up on the three
  dimensions – knowledge, skills and abilities;
- the system has converted more as a control mechanism to make
  employees fall in line. Unfortunately, this approach hurts the
  better performers who find that there is no equity in dispensing the
  results, though the results have limited applications only.

He spoke about the impact             of   Sixth   Pay   Commission
Recommendations for PMS:

- The Government came up with a new system which has been
  introduced for All India Services.
- At certain levels of government (pay bands) where contribution of
  individuals can make a difference, a select group of top performers
  can be rewarded by a higher increment rate. Accepting this
  recommendation itself signals marked shift from the traditional
  way of looking at everyone with same glass to recognizing the top
  performers. He concluded by talking about HRD through PMS
  and move to good governance.

- Governments both at state and central levels and public sector
  bodies have set up training centres to build capacities.

- No link between training and the existing performance appraisal
  exercise in government.

- To be more effective and develop accountability of the anchors,
  particularly supervisors and subordinates, it is necessary that HRD
  is focused on.

Next presentation was by Mr. A.P. Singh, VP (HR), Reliance
Petrochemicals, Vadodara, on “Performance Management”. He said
that mere possession of natural resources does not guarantee

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economic success. Success comes by guts and perseverance.
Knowledge components in the organizations are over emphasized.
What is important is to convert knowledge into meaningful actions. It
is also important to have the correct attitude and current habits. These
are the differentiating factors. This makes evaluation of performance
management difficult.

Performance management linkage with money is important. What is
more important is other factors as well. It is seen that challenges in
the job, dignity and growth potential are the factors which overtake
money.     Process is more important than the content of the
performance management.

He concluded by saying that the key success factor is that we need to
attract foreign capital and second is the aggressiveness at the market
place. Of course, the quality has to be world class.

The second day of the Workshop started with the Fourth Technical
Session on “Human Resource Development and Gender”. The session
was chaired by Dr. B.B. Patel, Former Professor of Economics at
MGLI. There were three speakers in this session.

The first paper in this session was by Dr. Snigdha Singh, Delhi
University, Delhi, on “Viewing HRD and Gender : A Historical
Perspective”.

This paper focused on gender and she opined that we find that the
perception on human resource development is not the same when we
consider the prescriptive texts and inscriptional evidence. She
examined the similarities/differences between three faiths, she looks
at the question of salvation for men and women, and she tried to
bring out the differences between the prescriptive and inscriptional
evidence.

She said that the gender identity is related to social, cultural and
religious ideas. The study of gender is a study about challenges to
social, economic and religious structures. What seems to be important
is that the concepts and models of gender are not static and must be
understood in reference to their particular economic, social and
historical contexts. She tried to analyze the space attributed to men

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and women in the three religious faiths, i.e. Buddhism, Jainism and
Brahmanism.

The second paper was by Dr. Santosh Dhar, Professor of OB/HRM,
Nirma Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, on
“Challenging Demographics at Workplace : Competence vs. Gender”.

She said that traditionally female are supposed to be doing certain
kinds of jobs like which involves caring. But times are changing.
Today women are better educated, are doing high level professional
jobs. However, women have not more than 5% of corporate jobs.

In a survey in 2005, it is found that the female employees are
perceived in lower order jobs by managers. It is important to know
that how many jobs provide maternity leave, crèches for children etc.

She said that women managers believe that they have refashioned
themselves to meet standards of the masculine ideal and relinquish
their female experience. At the same time women senior managers
lack sufficient precedence, make promotion scarce. The position is
more glaring in gender gap.

Women have to prove that they are not inferior to male. The
increasing participation of women will usher the acceptance slowly
and gradually. Opportunities for women are improving, but something
more is to be done.

It is said that many organizations are not very conducive to women,
but in this case women can help women and maintain better relation
with the power heads. Training and education can make women to be
more assertive, increase their self esteem, improve their focus, cope
with stress more effectively, improve management skills, understand
issues surrounding team work and team building and understand their
organization. What needs to be done is to empower women.

The third speaker was Dr. Rekha Shenoy, Bombay University,
Mumbai, on “Human Resource Development and Gender”. In her
paper she introduced HRD and said that it is a process which helps
employees in a planned way. The paper deals with the issue of HRD
especially focusing on the gender bias. In the first half of the paper

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she gave an insight about the challenges faced due to rapidly changing
globalized world and the concept of gender and inequality. In the
second half of this paper she focused on women and their
development. Then she talked about women in the corporate sector
and the challenges women face there.

She concluded by saying that development is not gender neutral,
women generally get trapped in the interface between production for
needs of human beings in general and reproduction of new human
beings. Both men and women may become victims of development
because their skills may be replaced by newer ones but it is women
who suffer from the adverse impact of development. This happens
due to lesser mobility of women and due to family obligations. They
have less learning and training opportunities and they sometimes face
discrimination in recruitment too. It is important for planners to
recognize women’s dual roles in the family as well as workplace.

The fifth Technical Session was on Trade Union and Workers’
Education. The session was chaired by Dr. Jerome Joseph, Professor
(P&IR), IIM, Ahmedabad.

The first paper was presented by Mr. Amar Barot, General Secretary,
NLO, Ahmedabad. He said that human resources are not getting
proper platform to perform. The employers are using the skill of the
workers for good production and this is the motive of the company.

The workers should get sufficient wages and remuneration.
Otherwise, the workers will be a dissatisfied lot. The industry will
have to take care of social clause and ILO standards. Workers are
discouraged by new amendment of fixed term employment and it is
not doing justice to the society. He asked as to what is the future of
young generation if they don’t have job security. Also the protective
and social security legislation will not be applicable, he opined.

The second paper in the session has been presented by Mr. R.A.
Mittal, National Secretary, Hind Mazdoor Sabha, New Delhi. He
spoke on “Workers’ Education”.

Workers’ education in India means education given to workers by
trade unions themselves or by Central Board of Workers’ Education

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or Institutes like MGLI. They are trained in various legal and
economic aspects. Workers, supervisors and executives need some
education. Training and retraining includes lot of practical aspects.
This has become more important because of globalization and market
demands. Now HRD also include the workers. The workers are now
considered as resources whereas earlier they were treated as a
commodity. The global financial recession is going to create serious
situation and cause poverty and unemployment. The solutions can be
sought through creation of jobs and enhance employability. The trade
unions have to ensure protection of existing jobs and also prepare the
workers to accept the challenges and convert challenges into
opportunities. Trade unions should act as agents of change, help
workers cope with the situation.

The third speaker was Dr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES,
New Delhi, on “Developing Human Resources for Trade Unions”.

He said that the trade union as a representative body of workers has
been instrumental in securing various legislations and policies aimed
at protecting and promoting interest of the working class. But the
activities of Trade Unions have concentrated amongst workers in the
organized sector. The liberalization policies brought about changes of
fundamental nature causing industrial relation scenario in India.

Some of the main issues confronting the Indian Trade Union
movement are multiplicity of unions, narrow membership base, top
bottom leadership, ineffective implementation of policies and laws,
adversarial approach, politicization, ad hoc union management,
financial dependence, etc.

The institutions have to be sensitive to the changes occurring around
them and effectively cope with the changes. The globalization has
adversely affected the employees as jobs are becoming scarce and
shifting from formal to informal and unionized to non-unionized.
There is small and medium enterprises mushrooming and most of
these workers are contract or casual workers. They are largely
unprotected and deprived of many benefits. The changing labour
market scenario have placed unions in a challenging situation. Also
finding resources for organising education and training programmes
has been difficult task for Trade Unions.

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There is an important need for Trade Unions to cater to its members
and retain its relevance in the current scenario.

The sixth and last Technical Session was on “Legal Aspects of
Human Resource Development”. The session was chaired by Mr.
VRS Cowlagi, Former ACS, Govt. of Gujarat.

The first speaker, Dr. S.C. Srivastava, Secretary General, National
Labour Law Association, New Delhi, and Former Dean, Faculty of
Law, Kurukshetra University, and University of Calabar (Nigeria),
spoke on “HRD : Labour Law and Emerging Judicial Trends”.

He said that labour-management relations are dynamic socio-
economic process. Both employer and employee constantly strive to
maximize their preferred values by applying resources to institutions.
In order to meet this situation, labour laws seeks to evolve a rational
synthesis between conflicting claims of the employers and employees.
Labour laws seek to regulate the relations between an employer or a
class of employees and their workmen. In India, there are about 43
Central Labour Laws concerning different aspects of labour such as,
industrial relations, wages, working conditions, social security, labour
welfare, etc. Besides, there are about 91 State Labour Laws enacted
and enforced by State Governments in their respective domain.
Labour law suffers from lack of uniformity in definition in different
Acts. There is also need to simplify and rationalize labour laws.
Most of the laws are quite old.

Another major issue is that most of the labour legislation do not cover
the unorganized section which is as wide as 93.4%. It is important
that labour law and labour policy should focus more broadly on the
entire labour force.

The second paper in the session was by Dr. K.C. Raval, Faculty,
School of Law, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, on “Legal Aspects of
Development/Human Resource Development : Myth and Reality in
Indian Environment”.

He focused on some of the development which took place in relation
to employer and employee and policy level change that took place at

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     the time judiciary also actively engage in changing environment. The
     primary concerns are that globalization should benefit all countries
     and should raise the welfare of all people through out the world. It
     should raise the economic growth in the poor countries and reduce
     world poverty and enhance social securities. He listed down the
     elements of labour laws and explains the concept of social security.
     He also gave history of social security legislation. He talked about
     functions of ILO and linkages between ILO and WTO.

     Globalization is both a challenge and opportunity in the field of HRD.
     It is a challenge because every organization will require to focus on
     efficiency and competitive edge to survive and grow in the global
     competition. In the era of fast changing technology the human
     resources will require not only up-gradation but also diversification,
     new parameters of acquiring and using knowledge both at the level of
     the organization as well as at national level.

     This will call for radical changes in strategy and approach to how
     education and skill formation institutions catch up with the change as
     also how the industry – the users search and retain and create a talent
     pool.

     It will call for a collective effort of stakeholders – government,
     educational institutions, employers, trade unions, and the society at
     large.   These challenges are more complex because of the
     predominance of unorganized sector.

                        RECOMMENDATIONS

1.      There is a need for the state and industry to jointly establish centre
        of excellence so that needed talent could be made available to the
        industry.
2.      The state should have a holistic policy for promoting and matching
        competencies and its implementation on top priority.
3.      The challenge before HR is to attract and retain competent people
        which should comprise career planning, training as an essential
        component, separate from routine administrative requirements.
4.      The trade unions need to cater to its members’ need and retain its
        relevance in the current scenario. Trade unions should act as
        change agent and help workers to cope the situation.

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5.   Labour Laws need to be simplified and rationalized.
6.   There is a need to convert knowledge into meaningful actions at all
     levels of HR like, food and nutrition, universal primary education,
     and healthcare etc.




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