COAL 1NC by hcj

VIEWS: 419 PAGES: 73

									UMKC SDI 2008 LouGie Lab

Coal Disadvantage

Coal Disadvantage

***Coal Proper***........................................................................................................................ 3
Coal 1nc .........................................................................................................................................................................4

***Uniqueness*** ......................................................................................................................... 5
2nc Uniqueness Bopper .................................................................................................................................................6 Coal Prices High ............................................................................................................................................................7 US Coal Industry Strong ................................................................................................................................................8 Coal Demand Rising ......................................................................................................................................................9 Now Key Time for US Coal ........................................................................................................................................ 10 A2: Renewables Now/Coming .................................................................................................................................... 11 A2: Emissions .............................................................................................................................................................. 12 A2: High Production Prices Now/Coming .................................................................................................................. 13

***Links*** ................................................................................................................................. 14
2nc Link ....................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Generic Renewables .................................................................................................................................................... 16 Generic Alternative Energy ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Solar Power ................................................................................................................................................................. 18 Wind ............................................................................................................................................................................ 19 Nuclear Power ............................................................................................................................................................. 20 RPS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21 Carbon Tax .................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Emissions Trading ....................................................................................................................................................... 23

***Impacts*** ............................................................................................................................. 24
Economy: Coal Key............................................................................................................................................... 25-26 Railroads Module ........................................................................................................................................................ 27 Hegemony Module ...................................................................................................................................................... 28 Coal Mining Good: Jobs .............................................................................................................................................. 29

***Clean Coal***........................................................................................................................ 30
Clean Coal 1nc ............................................................................................................................................................ 31

***Uniqueness*** ....................................................................................................................... 32
Clean Coal Coming ..................................................................................................................................................... 33 A2: Clean Coal Not Possible ....................................................................................................................................... 34 Coal Industry Expanding ............................................................................................................................................. 35

***Links*** ................................................................................................................................. 36
Renewables Destroy Coal ............................................................................................................................................ 37 RPS Links .................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Nuclear Power ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

***Impacts*** ............................................................................................................................. 40
2nc Transition .............................................................................................................................................................. 41 Clean Coal Solves Warming ........................................................................................................................................ 42

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***Affirmative Answers*** ....................................................................................................... 43
Alternative Energy Not Hurt Economy ....................................................................................................................... 44 Coal Industry Collapsing ............................................................................................................................................. 45 Transition From Coal Now .................................................................................................................................... 46-47 Coal Bad Warming ...................................................................................................................................................... 48 Coal Bad: Environment ............................................................................................................................................... 49 Coal Bad: Mining- Generic ......................................................................................................................................... 50 Coal Bad: Mining- Underground ................................................................................................................................. 51 Coal Bad: Mining- Mountain Top ............................................................................................................................... 52 No Clean Coal: Politics ............................................................................................................................................... 53 No Clean Coal: Technology ........................................................................................................................................ 54 Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Module ......................................................................................................................... 55-56 Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Pollution............................................................................................................................. 57 Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Pollution Bad ..................................................................................................................... 58 Clean Coal Bad: Pollution Module .............................................................................................................................. 59 Clean Coal Bad: Causes Pollution ............................................................................................................................... 60 Clean Coal Bad: Freshwater Contamination Bad ........................................................................................................ 61 Clean Coal Bad: Energy Costs Module ....................................................................................................................... 62 Clean Coal Bad: Increase Energy Cost ........................................................................................................................ 63 Clean Coal Bad: Warming Turn .................................................................................................................................. 64 Clean Coal Bad: Mining .............................................................................................................................................. 65

***Peak Coal*** ......................................................................................................................... 66
Peak Coal- Yes ...................................................................................................................................................... 67-69 Peak Coal- Yes- US ..................................................................................................................................................... 70 Peak Coal- Yes- US ..................................................................................................................................................... 71 Peak Coal- Yes- Best Evidence ................................................................................................................................... 72 Peak Coal- No .............................................................................................................................................................. 73

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***Coal Proper***

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Coal 1nc
Coal prices are guaranteed to rise over the next few decades Garry White editor of financial newsletters, 6/4/2008 ,Coal Price Guaranteed to Soar
[http://www.contrarianprofits.com/articles/coal-price-guaranteed-to-soar/2828 Demand for coal is through the roof. And I believe the price of a ton of the stuff is almost guaranteed to rise in the years ahead. Currently, two-thirds of the world‘s coal is used to generate electricity. The rest goes into steel and concrete production. The
US Department of Energy says China and India will account for 70% of the increase in world coal consumption over the next two decades. And consider China‘s plans for the next five years… they‘re planning to build the equivalent of ten New York Cities, said a Canadian chief executive and financier at the mining conference I attended yesterday! This will need unimaginable amounts of coal for steel production, concrete production and energy generation. China used to be the largest coal producer in the world, but it is now a net importer. As the communist Republic continues to develop, it will have to import more and more coal. There are no realistic alternatives. And that will continue to boost the coal price. It‘s great news for one brilliant investment. More on that in a moment.

Alternative energy development will lead to transition away from coal Chris Pearson 7/1/2008; Alternative Energy Today; ―Alternative Energies Drive to Meet, Then Beat Coal‖;
http://alt-energystocks.com/blog/2008/07/01/alternative-energies-drive-to-meet-then-beat-coal/ accessed 07/24/08 With the renewed focus on alternative energies, which always means renewed investments toward advancing the technologies, the per kWh costs of generating alternative energies will soon match, then fall below the equivalent cost of coal. When this occurs, alternative energy will rightly assume the role of preferred provider and the transition of an industry dependent upon coal to the more environmentally friendly energy sources will begin in earnest. At $.05-$.08 per
kWh, geothermal energy had already equaled and now surpasses the cost effectiveness of coal and, as drilling and harnessing technologies continue to improve, we expect to see geothermal generation plants sprouting up more and more, first in Nevada then where ever the heat is within our reach. Other alternative energies are not far behind. According to a 2008 Sandia National Laboratory presentation the cost of producing electricity via concentrated solar power (CSP), the science of using parabolic mirrors to concentrate the heat of the sun onto a generating tower, could fall to between $.08and $.10 per kWh when the capacity exceeds 3,000 megawatts. While photovoltaic generation on a commercial scale would still cost between $.15 and $.22 per kWh in a prime location like Phoenix, Arizona, it is estimated that by 2015 PV generated electricity should achieve ―grid parity‖ and no longer require financial incentives or subsidies. In places like Hawaii and Italy, PV electricity is already cheaper than conventional electricity. Wind power has already proven its cost effectiveness and has achieved significant use in Europe. Since the power source, wind, is free, the cost of generating electricity by wind, solar and geothermal is computed considering the cost of constructing the generating unit over its effective lifetime. By any measure, wind turbines produce the cheapest but least reliable power source and it is only the concerns of environmentalists supported by rich politicians like Ted Kennedy who don‘t want their view from their Cape Cod or Florida ocean front mansions altered by a few wind turbines many miles offshore that keep wind from taking its rightful place as a prime supplier to America‘s electric grid.

Coal is key to the US economy Steven Mufson and Blaine Harden March 20 2008 Washington Post, Coal Can't Fill World's Burning
Appetite With Supplies Short, Price Rise Surpasses Oil and U.S. Exporters Profit, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2008/03/19/AR2008031903859.html?hpid=topnews&sid=ST2008032000989 In the United States, the boom in coal exports and prices has helped lower the trade deficit, which declined last year for the
first time since 2001. The value of coal exports, which account for 2.5 percent of all U.S. exports, grew by 19 percent last year, to $4.1 billion, the National Mining Association said. An even bigger increase is expected this year. That means that, in a small way, higher revenues for U.S. coal exports indirectly helped the U.S. economy cover the cost of iPods from China, flat-screen TVs from Japan and machinery from Germany. The still-gaping trade deficit of the world's largest industrial power at the dawn of the 21st century was slightly eased by a fuel from the era and pages of Charles Dickens.

Economic collapse causes global war Walter Russel Mead (fellow a Council on Foreign Relations) Summer 1992 New perspectives quarterly
But what if it can't? What if the global economy stagnates - or even shrinks? In that case, we will face a new period of international conflict: South against North, rich against poor. Russia, China, India - these countries with their billions of people and their nuclear weapons will pose a much greater danger to world order than Germany and Japan did in the

'30s.

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***Uniqueness***

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2nc Uniqueness Bopper
Now is the crucial time – The global coal boom will last, but continued commitment by the governmentt is key to industry success – top industry experts agree Bruce Nichols 6/27/2008 ―Current US coal boom likely to last: experts‖,
http://www.businessspectator.com.au/bs.nsf/Article/UPDATE-1-Current-US-coal-boom-likely-to-last---expFYRWM?OpenDocument NEW YORK -- Unlike previous US coal booms, the current one is likely to last because of persistent world demand and output problems in other producing countries, an industry analyst has said. Jim Griffin, managing director of Rothschild Inc, told the 2008 McCloskey Coal USA conference that some factors in today's coal market resemble the boom-bust cycle of the 1980s, such as strong Asian demand and a weak dollar. But now is different , he said, citing the difficulty of expanding coal production amid regulatory, labour and financing challenges . He also cited the breadth of world economic growth that is driving persistent coal demand. "I do not believe this cycle will end like the last," Mr Griffin said. Mr Griffin was one of several speakers who foresee a bright future for the coal industry into the indefinite future.
Gerard McCloskey of The McCloskey Group, a conference sponsor, predicted world demand for seaborne coal will grow to 800 million tonnes a year by 2017 from 650 million tonnes currently. Mr McCloskey said the anticipated growth in coal consumption comes against a background of supply challenges that may see export coal coming from new places such as Tanzania and Alaska. Jeff Watkins, president of Hill & Associates, a leading coal industry consultant, predicted that in the boom environment, US coal exports will top 90 million short tons (81 million tonnes) in 2009. Steve Leer, chairman and CEO of Arch Coal Inc, a major US producer, went further, predicting US exports will reach 100 million tonnes by 2010 . Hill & Associates' current projection of exports in 2008 is between 84 million and 88 million tons (75 to 79 million tonnes), said Hill Vice President John Hanou. That is up from previous industry estimates of about 80 million tons. Current world coal production is about 6 billion tonnes. Current US production is about 1.1 billion short tons (990 million tonnes). Despite soaring demand, the industry faces a hostile political environment because of the perception that coal worsens global warming. The point was illustrated by remarks from a Greenpeace spokesman at the conference. "For us, coal isn't the answer. Coal is a part of the problem," Carroll Muffett of the environmental action group said. Kenneth Nemeth, executive director of the Southern States Energy Board, a coalition of 16 states and two US territories, argued that coal is a key answer and that it can be done cleanly. But he said coherent government energy policy is needed to develop it. "We have secure, real alternatives to what we're doing now, and we're not doing anything about it," Mr Nemeth said. Fred Palmer, government relations vice president for Peabody Energy, agreed policy has not been coherent and blasted US withdrawal from FutureGen, a government-industry plan to build a "clean coal" power plant. He said development of the carbon capture and sequestration technology associated with the project is needed to provide adequate electric power while minimising damage to the environment. He said industry remains committed to FutureGen, and he predicted it will continue after a new US president and Congress take office in 2009.

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Coal Prices High
Analyst are predicting up to a 130% increase for coal prices. The Associated Press June 2 2008 ―Analyst predicts coal price jump‖,
www.courier journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article%3FAID%3D/20080602/BUSINESS/80602006+%22coal+price%22&hl=en&ct=cl nk&cd=30&gl=us A Friedman, Billings, Ramsey analyst significantly raised his coal price predictions and upgraded a major miner to "Outperform," suggesting that demand will far outpace supply through 2010. Analyst David Khani raised his price forecast for metallurgical coal, which is used in steel production, by 90 percent for 2009 to $130 per ton. For 2010, he raised his expectation by 130 percent to $250 per ton. For steam coal, used in boilers to produce electricity, Khani raised his predictions by about 25 percent in 2009 and 2010

Coal prices are guaranteed to rise over the next few decades Garry White (editor of financial newsletters) Jun 4 2008 ―Coal Price Guaranteed to Soar‖,
http://www.contrarianprofits.com/articles/coal-price-guaranteed-to-soar/2828. Demand for coal is through the roof. And I believe the price of a ton of the stuff is almost guaranteed to rise in the years ahead. Currently, two-thirds of the world‘s coal is used to generate electricity. The rest goes into steel and concrete production. The US Department of Energy says China and India will account for 70% of the increase in world coal consumption over the next two decades. And consider China‘s plans for the next five years… they‘re planning to build the equivalent of ten New York Cities, said a Canadian chief executive and financier at the mining conference I attended yesterday! This will need unimaginable amounts of coal for steel production, concrete production and energy generation. China used to be the largest coal producer in the world, but it is now a net importer. As the communist Republic continues to develop, it will have to import more and more coal. There are no realistic alternatives. And that will continue to boost the coal price. It‘s great news for one brilliant investment. More on that in a moment.

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US Coal Industry Strong
Coal industry strong - locked and loaded The U.S. Coal Review May 12 2008, ―Some 60% of James River‘s anticipated ‘09 CAPP yield still to be
priced The U.S. Coal Review‖
Some 60% of James River‘s anticipated ‘09 CAPP yield still to be priced James River Coal is locked and loaded. Results will be in shortly. James River posted a 78 cents/share loss in the first quarter, which compared to a 46 cents/share deficit in the comparable 2007 quarter. But folks are just grazing right now at the salad bar. The main course is still to come – and dessert could be aw fully rich. "The first quarter of 2008 will be remembered as a watershed period for the coal industry,‖ Peter T. Socha, chairman and CEO of James River, said. ―For the first time, it became clear to the general public that large developing economies around the world have a voracious and growing appetite for all commodities, including coal. It also became clear that the coal industry in the United States will play a much greater role in meeting the world's demand for coal.‖ As has been clear for a while, James River has a substantial open position from which it ought to be able to take advantage of record coal prices. A swap of some short-term pain for significant long-term gain appears sensible. ―For our company, (Q1) was a mixed quarter,‖ Socha said. ―Our mine operations struggled against bad weather, new regulations, and commodity related cost inflation. On a very positive note, we have now substantially completed two major milestones in our efforts to adjust the mine portfolio to the new regulatory and cost environment.‖ James River completed the connection between Mine 81 and Mine 74 and is finishing reversing all belt drives. The connection will allow the company to belt the coal directly into its preparation plant and eliminate a 23-mile truck haul during a period of very high diesel prices, Socha noted. James River is also finishing all mining operations at one of its deepest, highest cost mines, BL-4. The new replacement mine began operations in late April." But the bigger news probably is on the price front. James River is ―completing our shipments on many CAPP contracts that began during the past several years with much lower prices and replacing them with new contracts with prices between $80 and $90 per ton,‖ Socha said. ―Our shareholders will see the benefit of these new contracts going forward." The strategy has been in place in Richmond for a while. ―We have been able to capitalize on the stronger coal markets by patiently adding to our contract position for 2009 and 2010,‖ Socha said. ―The utility steam coal placed under contract during the current period had an average Btu of 12,500 and average sulfur of 1.4-1.5%. All of our recent contracts and contract discussions for CAPP have included steam coal prices above $80 per ton and industrial stoker coal prices above $100 per ton. ―We are also seeing a noticeable change in the market for our Indiana coal.

Both prices and inquiries from utilities in other coal-burning regions have increased during the past several months. ―Our current contract strategy for CAPP coal is to use our remaining open tonnage in 2008 as part of a package for customer
requirements for longer-term contracts. We would like to have a total of approximately 4-5 million tons of expected 2009 production and 2-3 million tons of expected 2010 production under contract by late July." Approximately 60 percent of James River‘s expected 2009 CAPP production remains open to new market pricing, which certainly leaves no room for regret.

Coal industry strong- dominate alternative to oil Andrew Dolbeck (Editor of the Weekly Corporate Growth Report) April 28 2008 ―Valuation of the Mining
Industry‖, New York Times The Coal Sector About 25 percent of the world's known coal reserves are located in the United States. Historically, the domestic coal industry has been susceptible to economic changes. As budget concerned consumers carefully monitor their power consumption, the demand for coal-generated power declines. The current weakening of the US economy is likely to decrease demand. In addition, the industry is faced is increasing production and freight expenses. Electricity producers consume about 90 percent of the coal produced in the United States, and coal accounts for more than half the power consumed in the US. Mild weather in many parts of the country has left domestic power generation facilities with unexpectedly high inventory levels of coal, limiting the demand for new coal. But as long as coal remains an abundant, low-cost alternative to oil, it will continue to be the dominant fuel source for electrical power generation.

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Coal Demand Rising
Coal demand is on the rise- - Investor choice over renewable and nuclear Richard R. Hall (Energy lawyer) and John S. Kirkham (Environmental Lawyers) June 4 2007 ―Coal: Like It
or Not, It‘s Here to Stay‖ http://www.stoel.com/showarticle.aspx?Show=2484 Thirty years ago, coal was viewed as the fuel of the past. Nuclear power, natural gas, and renewable energy sources were going to take us away from coal and place our reliance on cleaner alternatives. However, despite these predictions, the use of coal for generating electricity has nearly tripled in the last 30 years, and the demand for and consumption of coal is projected to increase for the foreseeable future. Coal has enabled America‘s electric utilities to keep up with ever increasing demand, and coal is now being used in record amounts. Last year, coalfired plants contributed 50% of the electricity produced in the United States, and it is anticipated that coal will maintain this percentage through 2025. But while coal-fired plants contribute half of the electricity produced in the United States, they also contribute four-fifths of the carbon emissions associated with electrical generation.

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Now Key Time for US Coal
The US coal industry is experiencing a global boom – but proceeding with caution is crucial Andrew Dolbeck (Editor of the Weekly Corporate Growth Report) April 28 2008 ―Valuation of the Mining
Industry‖, New York Times
The Mining industry covers establishments primarily engaged in the extraction of minerals, coals, and ores from the earth. The mining industry provides ores and raw metals to mills and metal fabricators. Over the past few years, commodity prices have been trending upwards. The global boom in commodities includes a number of metals. Historically, the domestic coal industry has been susceptible to economic changes. The current weakening of the US economy is likely to decrease demand. Like the metals sector, the coal

industry is seeing increased demand from international markets. While international markets clearly provide an opportunity for expansion, coal producers need to proceed carefully. Domestic demand for metals is likely to fall, as the economy weakens and production continues to decline in the automotive and home construction sectors. The future also looks bright for the coal sector. FULL TEXT: The Mining industry covers establishments primarily engaged in the extraction of minerals,
coals, and ores from the earth. Industry operations include quarrying, digging, and related support operations such as milling, crushing, washing, and screening. The mining industry also covers the exploration for and development of mineral properties and services performed in the development and operation of mineral properties. The Metals Sector The mining industry provides ores and raw metals to mills and metal fabricators. The pricing for metals varies with demand, which is determined by a broad range of industrial' and economic factors. Over the past few years, commodity prices have been trending upwards. The global boom in commodities includes a number of metals. Over the last five years, the price of zinc has doubled and the price of copper has tripled. An economic downturn in the United States could bring a downward trend in overall commodity prices, but rising consumption in China, India, and other developing countries should continue to generate demand. International markets offer a possible means of expansion. According to a European Commission report, many metallic minerals are either not geologically available within the European Union or are being extracted in relatively small volumes compared with global production, including copper, iron ore, nickel, and zinc. Europe isn't the only market, either. China's economic and industrial expansion is creating demand for copper, aluminum, and zinc. The metals sector has suffered from decreased demand from the North American housing construction and automotive industries. These industries provide significant demand for a number of metals, particularly aluminum and cooper. Disruptions in the production output of copper, due to labor disputes and natural disasters, have limited the supply relative to demand. As a result, copper prices are holding up well, despite the downturn in the automotive and construction sectors, which account for roughly half of US copper consumption

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A2: Renewables Now/Coming
The Coal Industry shows no sign of slowing down Coal demand is on the rise- - Investor choice over renewable and nuclear Richard R. Hall (Energy lawyer) and John S. Kirkham (Environmental Lawyers) June 4 2007 ―Coal: Like It
or Not, It‘s Here to Stay‖ http://www.stoel.com/showarticle.aspx?Show=2484 Despite environmental concerns and the development of alternative energy sources, the coal industry (and coal consumption) is on the rise, with no signs of slowing in the next few decades. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicates that U.S. coal production in 2005 increased 1.9% to 1133.3 million short tons. This is the second straight year of increased production after significant declines from 2001-2003. This trend is expected to continue. The EIA predicts that U.S. coal production will continue to increase by an average of 1.1% each year until 2015, when total production will equal 1272 million short tons. Coal production growth should be even stronger between 2015 and 2030, averaging 2% per year, as electricity demand continues to increase. This demand will likely be met with new or expanded coal-fired power plants.

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A2: Emissions
Threats of emissions caps aren’t enough to hurt the coal industry. The Economist. November 15 2007 Still going strong
http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10145492 But poor and fast-growing places are not the only ones with a hunger for coal. In America, more coal-fired generation is being built than at any time in the past seven years, despite the threat of emissions caps , according to the Department of Energy.
In Europe, several power companies are building new coal-fired plants, even though every tonne of carbon dioxide that they emit will require an expensive permit. For example, RWE, a German utility, plans to spend €6.2 billion ($9.1 billion) on three new coal-fired plants by 2012. One of them is already under construction. All this has helped to push the price of coal steadily upwards in the past few years. Nonetheless, it has risen less quickly than that of oil or natural gas. Coal is now by far the cheapest of the common fuels for power stations relative to the amount of heat it generates when burnt (see chart). At the very least that is encouraging utilities to run their existing coal-fired plants flat out. But it is also prompting some to convert oil-fired plants to run on coal instead. Enel, Italy's former electricity monopoly, has already performed one such refurbishment, and has two more under way, at a cost of €3.8 billion. Leonardo Arrighi, who supervises the firm's investments in generation, says it would like to build ―more and more‖ coal-fired plants. In theory, the carbon price (in Europe) and the threat of one (in America) should dent this enthusiasm for coal. But in practice many utilities are betting that the disparity in fuel prices will outweigh the cost of extra permits to pollute. At the moment such permits cost pennies in Europe, because governments handed out too many of them. Although there should be more of a shortage starting next year, the futures price would have to rise from the current €22 per tonne of carbon to over €30 per tonne to prompt a significant switch away from coal over the next two years, according to Henrik Hasselknippe of Point Carbon, a consultancy.

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A2: High Production Prices Now/Coming
The new costs are irrelevant – the industries balancing of capitol spending and cash flows solve Business Wire February 7 2008 ―Fitch: Higher Cost Headwinds for U.S. Coal Industry in 2008‖,
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_Feb_7/ai_n24252443?tag=content;col1 NEW YORK -- Higher operating and materials costs will constrain earnings growth for U.S. coal producers in 2008 despite an improved pricing environment, according to Fitch Ratings. Fitch expects only modest growth in coal production following a 1% contraction in 2007. Coal producers are experiencing elevated prices of consumables such as fuel, explosives and steel, in addition to high labor costs. Maintenance and capital costs continue to be on the rise, and can be amplified when mining in new or challenging regions. A further uncertainty is the current regulatory environment regarding carbon
emissions, which has stalled plans for many new coal plant builds. These new coal plants would cap domestic demand in the intermediate term.

Despite the high cost environment, Fitch believes that coal producers will, for the most part, continue to balance capital spending with free cash flows and maintain healthy capital structures. Growth in export demand may underpin higher pricing and should help companies manage production volumes efficiently to lower unit costs.

Our evidence subsumes your warrants – new costs and high prices will not effect the industry – they will take the necessary steps Business Wire June 4 2008 ―Fitch: Muted Supply Response to Strong International Coal Demand for U.S. Coal
Industry‖, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_June_4/ai_n25476070?tag=content;col1 NEW YORK -- U.S. coal producers are benefiting from tight global markets for both steam and metallurgical coal which is diverting imports from the United States and providing export opportunities for domestic producers, according to a Fitch Ratings report. The supply response to improving price conditions should be measured, given high operating and materials costs. Fitch expects only modest growth in U.S. coal production following a 1% contraction in 2007. Constraints to building new mines include high capital costs, the need for sales contracts covering a high portion of the new tonnage for a period of time, and a lengthy permitting process . While some producers are announcing new
projects, these have more than two years lead-time and may only replace declining production at existing mines. 'High consumables prices and labor costs will constrain earnings growth over the next few months,' said Monica Bonar, Director, Fitch Ratings. 'Mining in new or

challenging regions can amplify already high maintenance and capital costs.' Capital raising for the industry has been fairly active of late both for expansion capital and to improve weak capital structures . Fitch expects major coal producers will continue to balance capital spending with free cash flows. Fitch notes that companies with weaker capital structures are selling common stock or converting debt to common stock and taking other steps to shore up liquidity.

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***Links***

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2nc Link
US coal industry is growing now, increase renewable expansion or emission regulations and it will collapse the coal industry, which is key to US electricity supply Kirby Davis March 12 2008 Journal Record
Alliance Resource Partners will invest $600 million over the next three to four years to bring three new coal mines online, bringing its inventory to 11. That move reflects anticipated long-term growth for both U.S. and world demand for coal, driven by increased electrical generation needs, President and Chief Executive Joseph W. Craft III told a sold-out University of Tulsa Friends of Finance audience Tuesday. But investments such as Alliance plans come with increasing risk, as scientists and politicians debate potential carbon emission regulations, said Craft. The head of the nation's fourth largest coal production operation warned that those environmental steps, if taken without regard for existing technological capabilities and increased research, could have drastic impact on U.S. and world economic growth by reducing usage of the key component to cheap power. "The cost of electricity is driven by a large part on the percent of coal used to generate it ," said Craft, defending his industry's performance and interests while linking future gross domestic product growth to a continued abundance of inexpensive electricity. "Coal remains the low-cost alternative." Craft said electrical power generation by coal-fueled plants rose 50
percent last year to 3.9 billion kilowatts per hour. Federal government projections estimate that will grow to 4.9 billion kilowatts by 2030, with improved sulfur removal technologies allowing the coal-fired market share to hit 57 percent. Coal usage is projected to rise 48 percent over that period, he said, comprising the majority of power generation. Renewable sources would increase 60 percent, he said, while nuclear power generation would climb 19 percent and petroleum sources 9 percent. Natural gas projections call for a 24-percent drop due to insufficient production and forced imports of liquid natural gas. But Craft warned carbon emission regulations could skew those projections. Craft did not urge regulators to turn away from alternative power sources. He said he embraced increase usage of renewable, nuclear, natural gas and other electrical power generators. "The question's going to be, 'How are we going to generate that electricity?'" he said, with the answer helping determine not just future U.S. economic performance but its place in a competitive world environment. Renewable sources, he said, can not be developed in a scale necessary to replace the electricity generated by coal-fired plants. The sources also remain plagued by intermittent availability and continued storage problems. Craft said the nation now has 104 nuclear power plants, the last ones built in the 1980s. Only five are now under construction for an industry that needs to build 40 just to maintain its market share. As for natural gas, Craft said the inability for domestic production to meet rising demand has not only driven natural gas prices higher but forced importation of LNG. As a result, Craft said states paying the highest electrical rates are those that draw the smallest percent of their power from coal-fired plants. While natural gas prices rose, Craft said coal prices remained relatively stable until recent times, when rising international demand spurred a spike not just in the U.S., but with export leader Australia and other sources. But he suggested that could aid the U.S., since it retains an abundance of coal despite a century of mining. Even with rising consumption, Craft presented data suggesting the U.S. retains more than a 200-year coal supply, comprising 95 percent of the nation's energy reserves. Only the current low value of the U.S. dollar cast a shadow on rising coal exports, which he said have tripled since 2005. Craft warned that the environmental debate has slowed more than the construction of nuclear power plants. He said utilities have not moved fast enough to refurbish or replace many coal-fired plants built in the 1980s. Across the nation, Craft said utilities have 28 coal-fired electrical plants under construction, six starting construction and 13 permitted. Those 47 plants promise to generate 42.39 megawatts. Another 67 plants are in the early planning stages, promising 65.56 megawatts capacity. That compares to plant construction promising 96 gigawatts underway in China. With electrical capacity playing a key role in GDP growth and standards of living, Craft worried that U.S. electrical capacity may soon not be able to keep pace with peak usage demands. He urged leaders to increase spending on research to solve these environmental and electrical generation issues while providing another technology for the U.S. to export. "I hope we just think it through so that if we do have a cost, we do have a benefit," Craft said of new environmental regulations. "We should try not to create one crisis by trying to solve another crisis. "I'm going to do my best to try to educate them," he said of politicians. "Whether they listen or not is not my decision, because more often than not all they want is more money."

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Generic Renewables
Sun Wind and water reduce our dependency on coal. Eric McLamb 2008 The Union of Concerned Scientists, ―Fossils Fuels vs. Renewable Energy
Resources:Energy's Future Today‖ http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:sDC7iU5crh4J:www.ecology.com/features/fossilvsrenewable/fossilvsrenewa ble.html+increase+in+solar+power+will+decrease+our+dependence+on+coal&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us. 7/24/08$ The oil, coal and natural gas companies know these are serious problems. But until our renewable energy sources become more viable as major energy providers, the only the alternative for our global population is for these companies to continue tapping into the fossil fuel reserves to meet our energy needs. And, you can pretty much count on these companies
being there providing energy from renewable sources when the fossil fuels are depleted. Many oil companies, for example, are involved in the development of more reliable renewable energy technologies. For example, British Petroleum Company, today known as BP, has become one of the world's leading providers of solar energy through its BP Solar division, a business that they are planning on eclipsing their oil production business in the near future. Sun, wind and water are perfect energy sources...depending on where you are. They are non-polluting, renewable and efficient. They are simple: all you need is sunlight, running water and/or wind. Not only do the use of renewable energy sources help reduce global carbon dioxide emissions, but they also add some much-needed flexibility to the energy resource

mix by decreasing our dependence on limited reserves of fossil fuels.

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Generic Alternative Energy
Alternative energy shifts the focus away from coal, deteriorating the industry; Florida proves. Peter Montague September 20 2007, ―The Coal Industry is in deep trouble,‖ Rachel's Democracy & Health
News (Annapolis) As recently as 2004, the coal industry seemed invincible. But since then the threat of global warming has produced a scientific consensus, which has begun to produce a political consensus. 'Ban coal' is becoming a popular slogan.
U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nevada) has announced he opposes the construction of any new coal plants: "There's not a coalfired plant in America that's clean. They're all dirty," Reid told reporters recently. "Unless we do something quickly about global warming, we're in trouble," he said. Some states have begun to force utilities to consider renewable energy sources . For example, in June the bi-partisan Florida Public Service Commission rejected a proposal from Florida Power and Light to build a coal-fired electric plant. Florida's Republican governor Charlie Crist said approvingly that the Public Service Commission's decision "sent a very powerful message" and that Florida "should look to solar and wind and nuclear as alternatives to the way we've generated power in the Sunshine State."In January the California Public Utilities Commission voted 4-0 to prohibit the state's three big electric companies from entering into long-term contracts with sources that emit more carbon dioxide than a modern natural gas plant. This means no coal.

Coal industry is threatened by alternative energy sources Sally Kohn August 24 2007 ―Blood Coal, Not ‗Clean Coal‖ PC
http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/08/24/3371/
Coal isn‘t about electricity. Native American reservations in North and South Dakota alone have enough wind capacity to meet one-third of America‘s energy needs. Wind, solar and other technologies we have today are viable alternative sources of electricity,

and conservation efforts could dramatically reduce our electricity demand in the first place. But to the coal industry, alternative energy is the real disaster. So the coal industry will do anything it can to procure coal as quickly and cheaply as possible, slapping a fresh coat of green paint on top to try and distract us from the harm caused to mine workers,
Appalachian children and air that all of us need to breathe

Alternative energy sources trade off with the coal industry – this leads to industry collapse Mark Clayton (Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor) March 4 2008 ―U.S. coal power boom suddenly
wanes‖, http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0304/p01s07-usec.html
The federal Energy Information Administration forecasts a need for only 4,000 megawatts of additional capacity by the same date. Bruce Nilles, who organizes grass-roots opposition to coal power plants for the Sierra Club, an environmental group, says power-demand projections are soft. "There's not going to be a big need for more coal ," he says. "There are plenty of alternatives coming." In fast-growing areas of the country like Texas, regulators worry that demand will outstrip power supplies. The big Texas utility TXU last year canceled eight of 11 coal-fired power plants it had on the drawing boards. Yet Texas now leads the nation in wind-power generation and is aggressively building more. The state also holds potential to lead the nation in sequestering carbon emissions from power plants in old oil fields and saline aquifers. Tenaska Inc., a power company based in Omaha, Neb., announced last month it was planning the nation's first new conventional coal-fired power plant to capture 90 percent of its carbon-dioxide emissions. It aims to sell the CO2 to oil companies, who would pump it underground to boost oil production. Mr. Sergel's organization has warned Texas it could have reliability problems if it doesn't build more power soon. Others in the coal-power industry

are adamant, too. "If they don't start building coal plants, it's going to be an economic prosperity problem for the country," says Richard Storm, CEO of Storm Technologies, an Albemarle, N.C., company that specializes in optimizing coal-fired power plants. "We need coal. Coal is a national treasure."

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Solar Power
Solar Power Decreases coal consumption Stewart Somerville 2008 ―The United States gets 49% of its electricity from coal‖APS.
http://www.utsolar.org/documents/Somerville%20Solar%20Paper.pdf
If a resource‘s consumption increases exponentially it is not important how much is left. It will be consumed much faster than one can imagine. On the other hand, if annual consumption is decreased exponentially it will last forever. To replace an increase of 5% of oil and coal consumption growth, we need to increase renewable energy by 245% a year. This is just to offset the growth. This is not possible. We need to increase the efficiency of the energy we use. If we could decrease the use of oil by 10% per year and increased renewable energy by 10%we would effectively reduce our dependence on oil. An acceptable growth rate for renewable energy needs to be increased to 25% per year. Production of renewable energy would double every 3 years. In 1983, we used 3quadrillionBTUs less energy than in 1973 due to our more efficient use of energy. That is a big change. What if we built smaller houses and made them net zero energy? Could we effect an even larger savings? Solar can provide energy at the daytime peak. It is the peak demand that is really the problem for power plants. If we could offset the peak, our power plants would have more capacity for normal demand. Solar costs are fixed once installed but conventional power costs are going upand will never come back down. The cheap oil is gone. By building net zero energy homes and electric cars, we could easily decrease our oil and coal consumption by 5% or more. By also increasing our renewable energy production by 25%, we would decrease oil and coal consumption by another 7.35%. In a short time, we could be free of our dependency on oil and coal.

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Wind
Wind energy disrupts the coal market by competing with potential coal mines The Bismarck Tribune July 24 2008 Coal vs. wind: It's about land, Jul 24, 2008 - 14:05:13 CDT Earth and sky
-- there is energy to be had from both http://www.bismarktribune.com/articles/2008/07/24/news/opinion/editorials/doc4888876dd5c6a842921341.txt Coal mines always have been big business. Wind farms are getting to be. And when heavy-hitting companies such as North American Coal Corp., Minnesota Power and Florida Power and Light are eyeing an area of real estate, you bet it's consequential. The real estate isn't paltry; it's a lot of acreage in Oliver and Morton counties. Minnesota Power and FPL want to build separate wind farms. But the coal company says, "Wait a minute, we may want to mine where you guys are talking about putting up wind turbines. That won't work." The companies should negotiate and not leave it to the Public
Service Commission to be King Solomon. Complicating matters is that the electric utility is a member of a corporate family that includes a coal mining outfit that could offer a site for a wind farm, reclaimed land where the coal is gone. That's what the CEO of the parent company, Allete, assumed. It sounds as if there have been a good many people doing a bunch of assuming rather than communicating.

Expansion of wind energy will trade off with coal investment UPI Energy, July 25 2007 ―Wind offsets carbon dioxide‖
According to a new release by Washington-based Worldwatch, global wind power is offsetting tons of carbon dioxide. In 2006 the 15,200 megawatts of newly installed wind turbine capacity is expected to generate enough clean energy to offset nearly 43 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. According to the Worldwatch Institute, that is the equivalent of 23 U.S. coal plants, 7,200 megawatts of coal-fired energy or 8 million cars. "Wind power is on track to soon play a major role in reducing fossil fuel dependence and slowing the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere," said Janet Sawin, Worldwatch senior researcher. "Already the 43 million tons of carbon dioxide displaced by the new wind plants installed last year equaled more than 5 percent of the year's growth in global emissions. If the wind market quadruples over the next nine years -- a highly plausible scenario -- wind power could be reducing global emissions growth by 20 percent in 2015," Sawin said. Investment in wind power has jumped to $22 billion in 2006, and though it still only accounts for around 1 percent of U.S. electricity generation, more capacity was added in wind in 2006 than in the coal and nuclear industries combined. Growth hasn't only been in the United States; efforts are being undertaken all over the world. "China and the Unites States will compete for leadership of the global wind industry in the years ahead," Sawin said. "Although the U.S. industry got a 2-year head start, the Chinese are gaining ground rapidly. Whichever nation wins, it is encouraging to see the world's top two coal burners fighting for the top spot in wind energy."

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Nuclear Power
Nuclear power kills the coal industry. Watthead June 2 2007 ―Carbon Backlash: Coal Companies Pitted Against Major U.S. Corporations Pushing for
Climate Regulations‖ Murray, whose private company produces about 30 million tons of coal per year, has formed the Coal-based Stakeholders Chief Executive Officers Group, comprising CEOs of railroads, some coal companies and utilities. It opposes so-called "cap and trade" regulations, arguing that caps on emissions will devastate the U.S. coal industry which fuels about 50 percent of the country's electricity
generation. Murray said he sent Caterpillar CEO Jim Owens a letter a few months ago telling him he would no longer do business with him - a decision he said will result in the loss of millions of dollars in business to Caterpillar. He also pointed out power company Exelon Corp's (EXC) John Rowe, as "one of the biggest enemies of coal for decades because he's got nuclear. " Chicago-based Exelon, which is not a member of USCAP, said in a statement that Rowe is "a leading proponent of moderate and thoughtful climate change legislation that preserves all technological alternatives." He co-chairs the National Commission on Energy Policy, which has advocated for a variety of technologies to address climate change, including clean coal and carbon sequestration. "And certainly John is an advocate for nuclear power."

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RPS
RPS would cause a dramatic shift away from coal Foster Electric Report September 19 2007 ―EIA finds that federal 25% rps would cause dramatic shift away
from coal generation,‖ Meeting twin 25% national renewable portfolio standards for electricity and transportation fuels by 2025 would require nearly a 13-fold increase from 2005 levels in non-hydropower renewable generation, and cause a "dramatic shift" away from coal and natural gas generation, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said in a report released Sept. 11. "This analysis suggests that, to comply with the twin 25-by-25 mandates, it will be necessary for electricity and motor fuel producers to dramatically increase their use of technologies that play a relatively small role in today's energy markets," the
report said. For instance, EIA said the 13-fold increase in renewable electricity generation from 2005 levels would be accompanied by more than a 12-fold increase in the amount of ethanol and biodiesel needed.

RPS would remove the need for coal. Jim Madden (president of Chesapeake Renewable Energy) January 17 2007 ―Support for RPS Legislation Is a
Stand for Clean Energy‖, http://www.chesapeakeclimate.org/news/news_detail.cfm?id=247 Virginia has an important choice to make, but it's a no-brainer. The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) bill sponsored by Sen. Mary Margaret Whipple would require that all retail electric utilities in Virginia obtain 12 percent of their electricity from renewable sources -- such as wind, solar, and biomass -- by 2020. It would also require these utilities to enact energy efficiency programs to save an additional 5 percent of electric usage by 2020. These limits are attainable and implementing them
is unlikely to increase our electric rates. If the General Assembly passes this bill, Virginia would join 23 other states in taking a stand in support of clean energy. Every megawatt-hour of clean energy produced removes the need to generate a megawatt-hour of electricity from other sources, such as coal and natural gas.

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Carbon Tax
Capping Carbon emissions destroys the coal industry Steve James and Timothy Gardner June 27 2007 ―Congress wants U.S. coal industry destroyed: exec.‖
Reuters. http://www.patchworkfilms.com/shockingfacts.htm A senior coal company executive on Wednesday lambasted U.S. lawmakers for proposing caps on emissions blamed for global warming, saying the Democrats were out to destroy America's coal industry. Robert Murray,
chairman, president and chief executive of Murray Energy Corp., also blasted the federal government's mine safety agency for "outrageous" new fines that he warned could put some miners out of business. Murray, who said he was giving testimony to the Senate's Environment and Public Works Committee on Thursday, warned that proposed restrictions on carbon emissions would severely hurt the coal industry, which supplies the fuel for approximately 50 percent of America's electricity generation. Congress is considering several bills that aim to fight global warming by putting tough limits on greenhouse gases. Supporters say the bills would provide incentives for companies to invest in technology to cut emissions. "This climate change issue is a human issue," Murray said, paraphrasing what he said he would tell the Senate committee chaired by Sen. Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California. ―The present course of action

that is proposed will result in little environmental benefit, but will destroy the lives of America's working families."Murray said some studies estimated that reducing coal use would lead to the loss of 3 million to 4 million jobs in the United States.

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Emissions Trading
Regulating carbon emissions massively hurts the coal industry, its community, and the workers. Jonathan Rivoli January 20 2008 Bismarck Tribune ―The Growing Concern Over CO2‖
You can't see it or smell it as it rises from smokestacks into the clear blue sky above the prairie. But to an increasing number of policymakers around the world, carbon dioxide emissions have become a very tangible concern. CO2 emissions from cars and coal power plants like the ones in North Dakota are considered by many scientists to be a chief cause of global warming. The science is complicated, and will be covered in much greater depth later in this series, but the basics are this: as more CO2 is emitted it causes a thickening of the atmosphere that traps the sun's heat. Now that the problem is becoming more widely understood, the question becomes how to stop it. The most obvious solution - regulating CO2 emissions - is gaining traction from Brussels, Belgium, to St. Paul, Minn. But both

environmental groups and the coal industry agree that such regulation will hurt the coal business and its customers. For western North Dakota - where coal mining and power plant jobs are a way of life for some and an indirect economic boon for all - the decisions made over the next few years could have a major impact.

The coal industry is a major part of the economy; cutting emissions hurts local coal businesses and workers. Jonathan Rivoli January 20 2008 Bismarck Tribune ―The Growing Concern Over CO2‖
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the state gets 93 percent of its electricity from coal - a ratio that, despite much-hyped alternative energy projects over the last few years, remains unchanged from 1990. In addition to producing most of its own power, North Dakota uses its coal to send power to neighboring states like Minnesota. The production of all this coal-generated electricity energizes the region's economy. In Oliver and Mercer counties, the heart of coal country, the industry accounts for nearly 41 percent of all employment and 66 percent of wages earned , according to data compiled from Job Service North Dakota and local economic development officials. It pumps more than $43 million in wages alone into those counties' economies. Indeed, coal is the lifeblood of places like Washburn and Underwood, where the nearby Coal Creek Station Power Plant and Falkirk mine are at the center of life. For people like Hank Rasmusson, an Underwood resident who has owned a small gas station near the center of town since the 1960s, decisions made half a continent or half a world away could have a big effect on life. "It could have a tremendous impact, " Rasmusson said. "I could lock up, that's what could happen." Rasmusson, 66, said many of his customers at R and S Oil Co. work at the nearby mines and power plants. A contraction in the coal industry means many of them might not stick around Underwood to shop at his store, he said.

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***Impacts***

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Economy: Coal Key
Strong US coal industry is key to the economy – it provides a ripple effect for he rest of the economy – top experts agree CARE (Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy) 2003, ―Study Shows Economic Impact of Coal Based
Electricity‖, http://www.careenergy.com/news/articleview.asp?iArticle=43 Using abundant U.S. coal reserves to generate electricity creates economic empowerment for millions of American businesses and working families. That is the finding of a new study by a team of economists working at Pennsylvania State University.
The study, Projected Economic Impacts of U.S. Coal Production and Utilization, examined the impact of coal-generated electricity on state economies in the continental United States. The study found that coal-based electricity, including the production of coal from the ground, creates substantial benefits to the overall U.S. economy. Today, coal provides the fuel for over half of

the power consumed in the United States, and the economists concluded that in 2010 coal production and electricity generation would be responsible for: $163 to $659 billion in increased economic output ; $40 to $224 billion in increased household earnings; and 800,000 to 6.4 million additional American jobs. Most of these economic benefits derive from the extraordinary interdependence of the U.S. economy. Because all businesses rely on
electricity to produce and sell goods and services, the economic power of the electric utility industry extends far beyond the generation and sale of electricity. Coal-based electricity produces powerful ripple effects that benefit the American economy as a whole. The study was conducted by Dr. Adam Rose and Bo Yang, economists at Penn State University. Dr. Rose is a professor and head of the Department of Energy Environmental, and Mineral Economics, and Yang is a graduate research assistant in the same department. Rose and Yang used certain economic assumptions to present their findings. In the first instance, the study assumes varying levels of "linkage" (maximum versus minimum) between the coal-based electricity industry and other sectors of the economy. The linkage variable

measures the degree to which coal-based electricity produces ripple effects that benefit other industries and sectors. These data are then refined by taking into account the economic effects of using a higher-cost fuel (in this case, natural gas) as a substitute for low-cost coal. By factoring in these substitution costs, the study shows how coal's economic advantages are even greater when considering the costs of using a more expensive alternative fuel . The
year 2010 was selected for modeling because regulatory programs aimed at displacing coal would need to be implemented over time. Because reliance on coal as a fuel source for generating electricity varies from region to region, the economic benefits are not evenly spread across the nation. The economic advantages for coal-producing states are evident. More surprising, however, are the economic benefits realized by states that do not produce coal, but use it as a primary fuel for electricity generation . The study concludes that coal-based electricity will result in substantial economic benefits for large and small states alike. For example, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Texas and Pennsylvania each stand to gain from $21 billion to $32 billion in increased economic output. Smaller states also share in the advantages, with New Hampshire, Connecticut, Oregon and South Dakota each projected to gain from $560 million to $720 million in expanded output. "This new analysis proves what we have known for a long time," said Stephen L. Miller, President and CEO of the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED). "Electricity from coal provides economic empowerment to local communities, small businesses, and working families ". According to Miller, the study provides an additional level of details relative to the ongoing national energy policy debate. "Despite electricity from coal's low cost and improving environmental performance, some special interest groups still believe we should abandon this abundant domestic energy resource. The Rose/Yang study provides additional empirical proof that coal-based electricity is an essential element of a balanced energy portfolio that increases energy security and provides economic empowerment for American families ," said Miller. Dr. William A. Schaffer, professor and former chairman of the Department of Economics at Georgia Institute of Technology and one of the preeminent experts in state and regional input-output modeling, peer-reviewed the Rose/Yang study. According to Schaffer, the demand-driven multipliers used in the PSU study are well-tested in the literature and provide a solid estimate of the impact of coal on incomes in the rest of the economy. In his final peer review, Dr. Schaffer said, "[T]he study represents an impressive and massive combination of data, analytic

techniques, and modeling to address a large and significant problem. The authors are to be congratulated on their boldness in arriving at what seems to be a most reasonable impact statement. "

Coal powers the US Economy Rob Cameron August 29 2006 ―Coal keeps US economy burning.‖ BBC News.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5295922.stm The United States is the world's most powerful economy, but much of that power is derived from rather old-fashioned sources. Coal helps power the US economy. More than half of the country's electricity is produced by burning coal, and as demand for energy increases, so does the pressure on those who supply But the people of America should be thankful to Wyoming, because its colossal treasure trove of natural resources is helping - literally - to power the US economy. But most of all, Wyoming
has coal. Huge, thick, multi-layered seams of coal lie just a few metres below the surface.

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Economy: Coal Key
Coal industry key to the economy. Richard R. Hall (J.D. University of Chicago Law School) and John S. Kirkham (J.D., University of Utah College of Law) june 4 2007 http://www.stoel.com/showarticle.aspx?Show=2484
In addition to the benefits provided as a source of energy, the coal industry is an important component in both Utah‘s and the national economy. Based on the National Mining Association statistics, the average number of miners working daily in this country is approximately 123,000. The Utah Geological Survey estimates that coal industry in Utah employed approximately 2,000 people in 2006. Employment totals could increase by another 200 to 300 people in 2007 and 2008 as demand for higher production continues and proposed coal operations commence production. Revenues from coal produced in Utah increased substantially in recent years, reaching an estimated $474.9 million in 2005 , 23.0% higher than in 2004. Increases in production and prices are expected in 2006, pushing the estimated revenue up an additional 26.2% to $599.5 million, the highest amount ever recorded in nominal dollars.

Coal is fueling the economy. PR Newswire October 18 2005 PR Newswire
"Peabody's 2005 performance continues on its record pace," said Peabody President and Chief Executive Officer Elect Gregory H. Boyce. "Coal fundamentals are excellent, and coal is fueling the world's largest and fastest growing economies. Global coal use will set another record in 2005, coal-fueled generating plants are being built around the world, metallurgical

coal remains in high demand, and projects are being developed to convert coal into natural gas and transportation fuels." U.S. electricity generation increased an extraordinary 8.2 percent in the third quarter over the prior year, led by a 26 percent increase in cooling degree days and continued economic growth. As Peabody anticipated, inventories of coal at electric utilities have been driven to record low levels of approximately 95 million tons , which is approximately 30 million tons below average levels.
Nuclear generating units continue to run near full capacity, while soaring natural gas prices render gas generation extremely expensive. [Peabody] believes that the U.S. coal supply- demand balance is likely to remain extremely tight for the foreseeable future as customers meet electricity demand growth and replenish stockpiles.

Coal plays a huge role throughout the economy. Adam Z. Rose, Ph.D. and Dan Wei, July 2006, (The Center for Energy and Economic Development, Inc., The
Economic Impacts of Coal Utilization and Displacement in the Continental United States, 2015, http://www.ceednet.org/docs/PennState2006UpdateFinal072506.pdf, accessed 7/24/08 ZS) Regional results of the basic ―Coal Existence‖ scenarios are summarized in Table S1 below. Assigning equal weight to each of the two energy price scenarios, we estimate that U.S. coal-fueled electric generation in 2015 will contribute: $1.05 trillion (2005 $) in gross economic output; $362 billion in annual household incomes, and 6.8 million jobs. We also estimated the prospective net economic impacts of the ―displacement‖ of coal-fueled electricity generation at assumed levels of 66% and 33% from a projected 2015 base. These levels of displacement are consistent with some of the potential impacts of major environmental policy initiatives in climate change or other areas. In these cases, we again calculated backward linkage and price differential effects to determine potential negative impacts on each state‘s economy. Additionally, we calculated potential positive economic benefits due to the operation of replacement electricity generation of various types. In all states, the net effect of displacing coal-based electricity was negative for the ―high-price‖ scenarios, and in nearly all states, the net effect was negative for the ―low-price‖ scenarios.

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Railroads Module

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Hegemony Module
Coal use is key to hegemony- key to coal to liquid transitions James Hannah March 19 2006 ―Military's push to turn coal into fuel picking up speed‖,
http://www.ultracleanfuels.com/articles/pr_031906.htm DAYTON, Ohio - The Pentagon is trying to persuade investors and the energy industry to embrace an 80-year-old technology to turn coal into liquid fuel to power planes, tanks and other battlefield vehicles . Officials have been crisscrossing the country, meeting with energy companies and state government officials to sell them on the idea. At the same time, military researchers have been testing fuel produced by the process to make sure it is suitable for military vehicles , especially
older ones. Michael Aimone, an assistant Air Force deputy chief of staff, was in North Dakota last week to discuss a search for sites for a plant to turn coal into fuel for jets and trucks. He said a study to explore the idea of a plant to make 30,000 barrels of fuel a day from coal is focusing on North Dakota and Ohio, though other states will be considered as well. The military is worried that political pressure or terrorist acts could cut the flow of oil from the Middle East or hurricanes or terrorists could destroy U.S. refineries. "We know what the technical challenges are, but we don't see any show-stoppers," said William Harrison, senior adviser for the Pentagon's Assured Fuels Initiative. "There is still a level of uncertainty, but it looks like the technology is mature enough." There are roadblocks . Building coalto-fuel plants is expensive - possibly up to $5 billion. Investors worry that their money could go up in smoke if the global price of oil drops, budding government subsidies dry up, or tougher environmental rules are put into place, said Kevin Book, a Virginia-based senior analyst for Friedman, Billings, Ramsey & Co. Inc. But then there is coal - lots of it. The Middle East has about 685 billion barrels of oil compared with 22 billion barrels in the United States. However, there is enough coal in the United States to produce 964 billion barrels of fuel, according to the Pentagon. Montana, with enough coal to produce 240 billion barrels of fuel, leads the pack, followed by Illinois, Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Ohio. "We have probably 250 years' worth of coal," said Mike Carey, president of the Ohio Coal Association. "It would have a tremendous impact on the coal industry." The industry is already on the rise. Demand for U.S. coal is expected to be a record 1.2 billion tons this year, up from 1.18 billion in 2005, according to the National Mining Association. Production is forecast to be 1.16 billion tons, a 3.2 percent increase over 2005. Coal is used mainly to generate electricity and in steel-making. Although experts say the coal-to-fuel process works, it is being done in just a few small demonstration projects. The Pentagon began looking at coal in 2001 when Congress earmarked $13 million to investigate the Fischer-Tropsch process in which coal is gasified and then liquefied into fuel. The technology was developed by Germany in the 1920s and used by South Africa beginning in the 1950s. The military accounts for about 4 percent of U.S. fuel consumption. The process promises to produce a cleaner fuel that gives off more energy per pound

and be less subject to freezing. It would reduce transportation costs and ease logistical headaches by enabling the military to use one fuel for all its planes and vehicles instead of the more than half dozen different fuels now used.
"See how beautifully clean that fuel is," Harrison said, pointing to a dancing flame inside a large glass tube at a Wright-Patterson Air Force Base lab. The flame turned from orange to blue as the soot was reduced when the fire began to burn fuel similar to what would be produced from coal. Harrison, chief of the Air Force's fuels lab at the base, has been trying to light a fire in the private sector. He has spoken to state and industry officials in Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Montana and North Dakota. Some energy companies are eager to have the military for a customer. Houston-based DKRW Energy hopes to begin producing coal-based diesel fuel in 2010. The company needs to complete the permitting process and obtain financing for a $1 billion plant that would produce 11,000 barrels of fuel a day in Medicine Bow, Wyo. Syntroleum, based in Tulsa, Okla., converts natural gas into liquid fuels and is currently involved in several coal-to-fuel projects. President Jack Holmes said increasing demand for oil should keep the price high and coal-based fuel attractive. "We think that now's the time," Holmes said. "If we can get these first few plants built and running and get the acceptability in the government and industry, there's a big market to do this." Others point out that similar talk in previous years evaporated when Mideast producers cut the price of oil. Dick Bajura, director of the National Research Center for Coal and Energy at West Virginia University advised supporters of the coal-to-fuel idea to make sure "the people in OPEC land aren't going to pull the rug out from underneath you." Crude oil is selling for more than $60 a barrel. In December, the U.S. Department of Energy scrapped its predictions that oil prices would drop to around $30 a barrel by 2025, saying that costs will persist near or above $50 a barrel for years. As the military evaluates the fuel made from coal, the Energy Department has funded efforts to refine the process. In January, the department awarded a $100 million grant for the construction of what may end up being the nation's first commercial coal-to-fuel plant, in eastern Pennsylvania. Private financing is still being secured for the $612 million plant, which could be up and running by 2009. The risk to Mideast oil supplies was underscored in February when suicide bombers in explosives-packed cars attacked the world's largest oil processing facility. The attack was the first on an oil facility in Saudi Arabia and sent world oil prices soaring. Syntroleum's Holmes said that even though a commercial plant would be expensive to build, it could operate for 30 years or more. "We're not just trying to build a company, we're trying to build an industry," he said. "The acceptance of a new idea is always difficult. Everybody wants to be the first person to build the second plant."

Hegemony prevents global nuclear exchange Zalmay Khalilzad (Senior Analyst at RAND) Spring 1995 Washington Quarterly
Under the third option, the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. On balance, this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself, but because a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. First, the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -- democracy, free markets, and the rule of law. Second, such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems, such as nuclear proliferation, threats of regional hegemony by renegade states, and low-level conflicts. Finally, U.S. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival, enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers, including a global nuclear exchange. U.S. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system

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Coal Mining Good: Jobs
Coal mining is good and creates jobs and stability David McDermott, Bruce Ackerman and William Hassler 1997 ―Coal mining in the U.S. West: price and
employment trends‖. Monthly Labor Review. http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1997/08/art2exc.htm Coal produced in the Western1 States has increased in price relative to coal from other regions of the Nation. At the same time, employment in coal mining has been virtually unchanged in the Western States , while it has declined in
most other parts of the country. Appalachia is still the country‘s largest coal producer and employer, but a clear westward shift of coal mining is underway. Much of both the increased price for western coal and the stability of employment in western coal

mining results from the low sulfur content of the area‘s coal, which has increased its desirability, environmentally speaking. Legislative initiatives, including the New Source Performance Standards of 19712 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,3 created incentives for electric utilities to burn low-sulfur coal. The Nation‘s largest source of such coal is in the West: the Powder River Basin of Wyoming.4 While other factors (relative freight costs, labor costs, production costs, regional variation in demand for electricity, competing energy sources) undoubtedly contribute to both the increase in prices received by western coal mines and the stability of mining employment in some Western States, much of the impact can be attributed to the demand for coal with low sulfur content

Coal mining creates jobs that people depend on. Joshua Hoffman (writer and miner) October 31 2007 ‖College graduates heading to careers in ... the coal mines‖.
The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1031/p01s05-usgn.html For decades, coal mining was a risky career path, less because of the physical dangers and more so because of fleeting job security. While college students previously avoided mining as a course of study, now, thanks to the coal boom and the
industry's growing need for college-educated engineers, mining has become a career that more young people are going to college to pursue, rather than to escape. "Throughout the '80s and the biggest part of the '90s, we steered our youth away from mining because we were in a period of austerity," says Chris Hamilton, vice president of the West Virginia Coal Association. Now, many West Virginians are no longer discouraging their children from a career in the mining sector. Though Adam Patterson's family has mined coal in the mountain state for seven generations, when he started school at West Virginia University (WVU) he was uncertain if he'd continue in their footsteps. "But when I got here and saw the opportunities that were available, it became apparent that it was something I really wanted to do," says Mr. Patterson, now a junior majoring in mining engineering. The number of mining jobs in West Virginia, the second-largest coal producer in

the United States, jumped 38 percent between 2003 and 2006. And because of looming retirements, demand for new workers looks strong for years to come.

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***Clean Coal***

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Clean Coal 1nc
Clean coal technology is being accelerated coal industry Peter Montague (director Environmental Research Foundation) March 6 2008 Peter Rachel's Democracy &
Health News You may have heard that "coal is dead." But this is not the case; in its struggle for survival, the coal industry has an ace in the hole. In July of this year, the industrialized nations of the world are going to announce their united support for "clean coal." Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the U.S. are about to sanction burying today's global
warming problem in the ground, passing it along to our children to manage essentially forever.

Renewables will crush the coal industry Margaret Kriz (National Journal staff correspondent) March 1 2008 Margaret, National Journal
Utilities planning for the future are facing some cold, hard realities. Most energy experts see no easy way to provide reliable, cheap, clean electricity. Environmentalists are pushing companies to focus primarily on energy efficiency and renewable-energy technologies. "Energy efficiency could end growth in the electric sector," predicted Nilles of the Sierra Club. "And if you phase in large-scale renewables, we could retire a whole fleet of coal plants." He noted, for example, that Minnesota plans to get 25 percent of its electricity from renewable sources of energy by 2025. Federal research, he argues, could lower the cost of wind, solar, and wave power, and other renewable-power sources.

Clean coal key to check warming Ken Berlin (served as Deputy Administer of the EPA) and Robert M. Sussman (Board of Directors of the Environmental Law Institute) May 31 2007 ―Global Warming and the Future of Coal Carbon Capture and
Storage‖, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report.html If the United States is successful in maintaining the viability of coal as a cost-competitive power source while addressing climate concerns, our leadership position would enable U.S. industries to capture critical export opportunities to the very nations facing the largest challenges from global warming. Once our domestic marketplace adopts CCS systems as power industry standards, the opportunities to export this best-of-breed technology will grow exponentially. This will be critical to combating the massive rise of coal-derived greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. Boosting exports while also helping China, India, and other developing nations reduce emissions and sustain economic growth would be a win-win-win for our economy, their economies, and the global climate.

Warming risk extinction ECES (Earth crash earth spirit) 2002 ‖documenting the collapse of a dying planet‖,
http://eces.org/ec/globalwarming/oceans.shtml#090301, 8/11/03 Global warming risk assessment is complex, unlike risk assessment associated with the ozone depletion problem. Ozone depletion is represented by one main variable: chlorine and bromine from halocarbons. The higher these chemical concentrations, the lower the ozone concentrations. It is a proven process, and the thinning ozone layer can be measured. Measurements in recent years, in fact, have shown that atmospheric scientists have consistently underestimated the pace
and extent of ozone depletion. What if the scientific community's underestimation of ozone depletion proves to apply to global warming as well? Bad as the broad-consensus, best-estimate IPCC prognosis is, what might the worst-case analysis of global warming be? The main worry is that a coalescing pattern of positive feedbacks might be awakened and continue unchecked by negative feedbacks. Some of nature's

carbon reservoirs are so huge that they could become involved, in principle, in a runaway greenhouse effect. The world would simply go on warming, placing a viable future for human and animal life on the planet at risk.

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***Uniqueness***

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Clean Coal Coming
Clean Coal is Coming Associates Press 7/23 July 23, 2008, Coal and gas could power Maryland energy complex, CNN Money,
http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/apwire/d1da6057fb3c6b79240ff285199db1e1.htm
The state's top economic development official expressed support for using western Maryland's untapped coal and natural gas reserves to generate electricity and serve an energy technology research park in Garrett County. "Using clean coal technology to generate

energy to address our obvious energy shortage in the region would be something that we should look at investing in and helping to inspire over time," State Business and Economic Development Secretary David Edgerley said Tuesday. Edgerley
joined about 40 other state, county and energy industry officials at a meeting to discuss the Casselman Basin Clean Coal Project, an ambitious, multifaceted concept promoted by the Maryland Coal Association and state Sen. George Edwards, R-Garrett. The first step would be a

coal-burning power plant a few miles south of Grantsville that would consume coal produced by the region's mines. The suppliers would include a prospective new underground mine in the Casselman Basin, the state's largest single remaining coal
reserve underlying an area five miles wide that stretches 18 miles from Deep Creek Lake north to the state line. Proponents say some of the plant's carbon dioxide emissions could be injected into shale deposits 7,000 to 9,000 feet deep to both sequester the greenhouse gas and help produce natural gas that is believed to be trapped in the shale. Consultant Jerry Duckett, a retired fuel engineer from Terra Alta, W.Va., said

another plant could be built at the site to convert coal into liquid fuels, including diesel and gasoline. The coal-toliquid plant and the CO2 sequestration project would require government funding, meeting participants said. Local official
expressed hope for federal funding. Steven M. Carpenter of the coal-industry consulting firm Marshall Miller & Associates in Bluefield, Va., distributed a document estimating it would cost $100,000 for a basic study of carbon sequestration and $20 million for a demonstration project. Utility and power-generation representatives were skeptical about the feasibility of building a new power plant in western Maryland given the economics of the electricity market. There is scant capacity for sending more electricity on existing transmission lines into the BaltimoreWashington area, where rates are relatively high, so power from any new generation would likely be sent to areas where rates are lower and less attractive to suppliers, said O. Ray Bourland, senior legislative counsel with Pepco Holdings Inc. ―The key hurdle is economics," Bourland said. Both Pepco and Allegheny Energy are involved in efforts to build new transmission lines in the region. Edwards said the Casselman Basin project should be viewed as part of the solution to high energy prices and constricted supplies

Clean coal is coming- Court Approval Proves PR Newswire 7/18 July 18, 2008 / PRNewswire via COMTEX/ PRNewswire-USNewswire/
[http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/appeal-court-rules-seminoles-clean/story.aspx?guid=%7BCEC55655BD7E-4882-BCEA-DBBB119BDEFB%7D&dist=hppr] This week Florida's 5th District Court of Appeal again ruled in favor of Seminole Electric Cooperative and its planned clean coal project. The Court's July 16 order denies the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) Motion for Rehearing of the Court's June 13 decision that directs the state to issue the project's needed site certification. The project will add a 750 megawatt class, high efficiency generating unit at the Seminole Generating Station in Putnam County, Florida. The station's two
existing generation units are already in the process of significant environmental upgrades that will enable Unit 3 to be put into service with no net increase in the station's regulated emissions. Timothy Woodbury, Seminole's CEO, said: " We are pleased with the Court's

decision because Floridians need clean coal technologies to keep our energy reliable and affordable, and Unit 3 will help us accomplish those goals."

Half a billion dollars were just given to clean coal research Olga Galacho, Writer for Hearld Sun, 7/22/2008, A paler shade of green, Hearld Sun,
http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24056726-664,00.html Senator Wong explained to the gathered corporate big guns that the Government intended sending them a "price signal" to overturn what
she called the "perverse incentive" they have to pollute for free. One audience member asked the minister why there were no incentives for industry to use zero-emission solar power. "There are many big factories with big roofs across which solar panels could be installed to provide a huge amount of electricity," he said. The minister replied that "there are a whole range of worthy initiatives" that could "fundamentally change the perverse incentive" in our economy to pollute for free. She believed carbon trading would find the most cost-efficient measures to reduce greenhouse gases. Another measure included giving away $500 million to so-called "clean coal" research, whether

that be finding ways to burn coal without producing as much pollution or capturing emissions and burying them, known as carbon capture and storage. "We obviously need an answer on coal, which is why we have the half-abillion dollar clean coal fund," she said. One observer commented later that in the US some policy makers already had an answer. On
the same day that Senator Wong delivered her green paper, Fortune-500 company NRG Energy announced it had axed plans to build a clean coal plant. "We recognize that the funding was not there," said NRG chief David Crane.

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A2: Clean Coal Not Possible
Clean coal is viable- Australia’s CCS proves. Next Energy News 4/3/08, ―Australia to Open First Carbon Capture and Storage Plant,‖
http://www.nextenergynews.com/news1/next-energy-news4.3.08a.html The opening of Australia's first carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration plant in Victoria has been hailed as a major step toward making "clean coal" viable. The Otway Basin Project in south-west Victoria will see up to 100,000 tons of
carbon dioxide captured from natural gas injected 2km underground in a depleted gas reservoir. During the two-year trial, CO2 will be compressed and transported to the basin near Nirranda, about 30km east of Warrnambool. The project is part of research to learn

if

emissions can be successfully trapped in geological formations, as a way of curbing the greenhouse gases produced by fossil fuels. "The success of this program will confirm the CCS technology as a viable option to reduce the carbon footprint of coal," federal Resources and Energy Minister Martin Ferguson said at the opening of the plant.

Clean coal technology is only 4 years away. Next Energy News 3/14/08, ―New Technology Removes CO2 and Mercury from Coal Plants,‖
http://www.nextenergynews.com/news1/next-energy-news3.14a.html Basin Electric Power Cooperative and Powerspan have announced the selection of Powerspan's carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology for a commercial demonstration at Basin Electric's coal-based electrical generation facility, the Antelope Valley Station located near Beulah, North Dakota. Approximately one million tons of CO2 will be captured annually from the 120 megawatt slipstream project, making this demonstration among the largest in the world. The captured CO2
will be fed into an existing CO2 compression and pipeline system owned by Basin Electric's wholly owned subsidiary, Dakota Gasification Company. Today's announcement is the result of the first competitive solicitation process for a CO2 capture demonstration at a coal-based power plant in the U.S. Six companies responded to the request for proposal issued by Basin Electric in June 2007. Powerspan's CO2 capture process was selected as the most promising low cost option for commercial deployment and for its ability to best integrate with Basin Electric's operations. The project is scheduled to move forward in 2009, subject to successful completion of engineering studies and obtaining of necessary permits and government incentives for early demonstrations of CO2 capture and sequestration. The facility is expected to be operational in 2012 .

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Coal Industry Expanding
Coal industry continues to expand – increasing number of plants and new technology PR Newswire 7/7/2008 ―ACCCE Applauds Texas Public Utility Commission‘s Approval of Arkansas Clean
Coal Plant‖
The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE) issued the following statement in support of the Texas Public Utility Commission's approval of Southwestern Electric Power Co.'s (SWEPCO) proposed John W. Turk Jr. ultra-supercritical coal plant in Hempstead County, Arkansas. "The Texas Public Utility Commission took a strong step forward in preserving access to secure, reliable and affordable electricity for citizens of Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana," said Joe Lucas, vice president of communications for ACCCE. "With energy costs skyrocketing, the ability to use more affordable fuel sources such as coal to generate electricity will go a long way in keeping prices stable and the economy humming. "The

proposed Turk plant will be the first coal plant in the country to utilize advanced ultra-supercritical generation technology, which produces more electricity using less coal and helps reduce emissions," continued Lucas. "As new clean coal projects continue to be approved and built, the coal-based utility sector moves even closer to the shared goal of electricity generation with near-zero emissions, including carbon capture and storage."

Coal industry continues to expand Matthew Knight April 28 2008 ―Fueling the Future‖, CNN,
http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/science/04/01/Energy.intro/index.html?iref=newssearch
Gas and oil face uncertain futures in term of long-term supply. And their negative impact on global warming is practically beyond doubt. Coal, of course, is no better for the climate. But with plentiful supplies, coal-fired power stations are being built apace. Hundreds

of them are going up in China and India and the United States. Combined, these three nations own half of the world's coal reserves. The recent skyrocketing of oil prices is also compounding the problem, leading many manufacturers to buy coal to provide the raw materials for hundreds of products, including plastics and fertilizers.

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***Links***

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Renewables Destroy Coal
Renewable energy destroys the coal industry Sally Kohn (Director of the Movement Vision Lab at the Center for Community Change) August 24 2007
―Blood Coal, Not Clean Coal‖, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sally-kohn/blood-coal-not-clean-co_b_61696.html
Coal isn't about electricity. Native American reservations in North and South Dakota alone have enough wind capacity to meet one-third of America's energy needs. Wind, solar and other technologies we have today are viable alternative sources of electricity,

and conservation efforts could dramatically reduce our electricity demand in the first place. But to the coal industry, alternative energy is the real disaster. So the coal industry will do anything it can to procure coal as quickly and cheaply as
possible, slapping a fresh coat of green paint on top to try and distract us from the harm caused to mine workers, Appalachian children and air that all of us need to breathe.

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RPS Links
RPS displaces the expansion of the coal industry UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists) February 2005 ―Increasing the Texas Renewable Energy Standard:
Economic and Employment Benefits‖, http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/clean_energy_policies/increase-thetexas-renewable-energy-standard.html
Currently, Texas relies heavily on fossil fuels and nuclear power for most of its electricity. This reliance on fossil fuels—particularly natural gas and coal—for electricity generation will increase if Texas continues on its current path. Increasing the existing state RPS would stimulate additional renewable energy development and help diversify the electricity mix. Under the 20 percent proposal, Texas would increase its total homegrown renewable power to more than 17,800 MW by 20253 —producing enough electricity to meet the needs of 4.9 million average-sized homes.4 Texas‘ strong wind resources would power the majority of this development, with bioenergy and solar resources also making significant contributions to the mix. For much of the 20-year forecast period, renewable energy primarily displaces natural gas generation. In the later years, renewable energy also helps to displace new coal generation.

RPS leads to decreased reliance on coal Bruce Josten (executive Vice Priesident of Government Affairs at Chamber of Commerce) June 15 2007
http://energycommerce.house.gov/Climate_Change/RSP%20feedback/US%20Chamber%2006%2015%2007.pdf
On a different note, the Chamber does not promote the adoption of a mandatory greenhouse gas reduction policy, whether it be cap-and-trade, carbon tax or another similar method. As detailed in the Chamber‘s March 19, 2007, letter to you regarding climate change, any global climate solution should be international and economy-wide in scope, and should preserve competitiveness and promote conservation and efficiency, and must promote technology research, development and demonstration. With that in mind, however, implementation of an economy-wide greenhouse gas reduction policy would certainly negate the usefulness of a federally-mandated RPS. The greenhouse gas reduction policy would act as an incentive to develop renewable fuels; due to carbon-constrictions, states and localities would have no choice. The Energy

Information Administration (EIA) confirmed that the increased use of renewables as mandated by an RPS would lead to correspondingly lower coal and natural gas generation;1 virtually the same result would occur if a greenhouse gas
reduction regulatory scheme were in place. However, such an approach would be unadvisable, as the drawbacks of a mandatory greenhouse gas reduction policy seriously outweigh any potential benefits.

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Nuclear Power
Plan boosts nuke power, making clean coal not cost-competitive WNA July 2004 "Clean Coal' Technologies", World Nuclear Association,
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf83.htm The most promising "clean coal" technology involves using the coal to make hydrogen from water, then burying the resultant carbon dioxide by-product and burning the hydrogen. The greatest challenge is bringing the cost of this down sufficiently for "clean coal" to compete with nuclear power on the basis of near-zero emissions for baseload power.

Clean coal and nuke power are replacements for each other NRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission ) May 1996 ―Alternatives to License Renewal",
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1437/v1/part08.html The United States has abundant low-cost coal reserves, and the price of coal for electric generation is likely to increase at a relatively slow rate. Even with recent environmental legislation, new coal capacity is expected to be an affordable technology for reliable, near-term development and for potential use as a replacement technology for retired nuclear power plants. Another potential alternative to license renewal would be to continue to generate electricity from nonnuclear plants beyond the original date at which they were scheduled to shut down permanently. This alternative would have the effect mainly of substituting coal, gas, oil, or hydropower plants for nuclear facilities. In recent years electric
utilities have given considerable attention to the issue of repowering non-nuclear generating facilities. Repowering is the primary process by which utilities extend the life of their generating plants. It is comparable to refurbishing a nuclear plant. Since the average age of all types of fossil units is over 30 years, utilities have been exploring repowering older fossil units as a way of avoiding even larger capital outlays for new plants (Bretz 1994). As of March 1994, about 30 units with a total capacity of 3000 MW(e) had been proposed for repowering. Assuming

regulatory environmental compliance and a successful application of lessons learned from federal clean coal technology demonstrations, DOE estimates that up to 248 GW(e) of generating capacity could be repowered or retrofitted with clean coal technologies by the year 2010 (DOE/EIS-0146). In 1991 DOE estimated that 2500 coal-fired plants
were 30 years old or older (making them candidates for repowering) and that this total would rise to 3500 to 3700 in 1998. From a utility's perspective, not only might repowering be cost-effective; but also environmental goals, particularly improved air quality, could be easier to accomplish since improved, less polluting technologies would be installed during repowering.

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***Impacts***

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2nc Transition
Quick transition from coal will sink the US economy- -clean coal allows smooth transition Tribune Business News April 23 2008 ―Advocate: Coal not perfect, but vital‖
Apr. 23--Coal industry advocate Joe Lucas likens the country's dependence on coal-fired power to a big liner crossing the ocean. Some people may think they can change the liner's direction instantaneously. But try to make a quick U-turn, and the ship is more likely to capsize. A better approach is to slow down, make a calculated turn and then accelerate, he said Tuesday. Continuing the analogy, Lucas said that rather than junking coal-fired power plants as the primary source of U.S.

electricity in favor of renewable-energy sources, it is wiser to invest more money steadily into clean coal technologies. Innovations to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions then can be deployed across the industry, in conjunction with the
development of other power sources, to stem global warming without strangling the economy and hurting ordinary people by increasing the cost of electricity. "There's no perfect energy resource. Coal's not, but neither are the other sources," Lucas, vice president of communications for the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, said on Earth Day to The Salt Lake Tribune editorial board . "There should always be a search for continuous environmental improvement, and we think you can do it with coal," he added. "We're not supportive of coal at the expense of other fuels. We think you should keep all on the table, including coal, because it is the bedrock of our electrical supply."

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Clean Coal Solves Warming
Clean coal technology is being accelerated to cut emissions and boost the economy Keith Johnson May 28 2008 ―Clean Coal: Hype or Hard Slog?‖,
http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2008/05/28/clean-coal-hype-or-hard-slog/?mod=googlenews_wsj More and more companies are starting to dabble with ―clean-coal‖ technology. Whether that‘ll make a difference for the economy or the environment remains an open question. General Electric and oil-field services firm Schlumberger announced Wednesday a deal to work together to develop clean-coal technology. The two would match GE‘s experience with a new
generation of power plants that can capture carbon dioxide, and Schlumberger‘s experience with pumping the stuff underground to goose reluctant oil wells. After the U.S. government pulled the plug on its big clean-coal demonstration project earlier this year, private industry is trying to fill the gap to make clean coal a viable power solution. As we‘ve noted before, that‘s crucial to curbing emissions and keeping the economy functioning—even though many environmentalists see clean coal as an expensive oxymoron.

Clean coal is the key energy initiative for climate change Tim Butler (manager of an environmental news service) 2006 ―Clean coal could fight climate change‖,
http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0313-coal.html Cleaner, more efficient use of coal could play a key role in addressing climate change, especially with the growing importance of coal as an energy source as world crude oil supplies are diminished in the future . Coal presently supplies about two-thirds of China's energy and one-third of the energy demand in the United States but, due to its
abundance, is forecast to become an increasingly important relative to petroleum around mid-century. Currently, coal is used mostly for electricity generation, but is less thermally efficient than natural gas-fired power stations. Scientists say that identifying and

deploying effective ways of harnessing coal at acceptable environmental and economic cost is an urgent priority for the global energy industry.

Clean coal is the most viable way to curb emissions. Jerzy Buzek (Polish prime minister) June 24 2008 ―Clean Coal Technology: A way to Offset Global Warming‖,
http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/17996 The package calls for a radical reduction in CO2 emissions, by as much as 20 percent by 2020 . This is a very ambitious goal that can only be achieved if clean coal technologies are developed. The largest amounts of CO2 are released by coal-fired power plants, so the key issue is to work on zero-emission systems capable of generating power while completely eliminating CO2 emissions. Europe and the whole world can only be saved from climate change by developing better, more efficient and cheaper emission-reducing technologies. Stricter CO2 limits alone will not solve the problem, as they could also restrict the competitiveness of European industry, whereas the impact on the global situation would be negligible anyway. It's much better to earmark more funds for innovative technologies. The EU already has such a project, known as the
Flagship Program, under which 12 completely zero-emission coal-based power generation systems will be built in Europe by 2015. Poland has to do everything in its power to develop such systems. In fact, the way I see it, at least two of the 12 systems should be built in Poland.

Developing new technologies is the only way to comply with EU requirements for reducing CO2 emissions without hampering the development of our energy sector, which has no other option but coal. Energy from renewable
sources will always account for a marginal percentage of all energy generated in Poland. We have to do all we can for Poland to embrace the EU's Flagship Program for producing clean energy from coal. This is the future of our economy.

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***Affirmative Answers***

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Alternative Energy Not Hurt Economy
New innovation in energy will spur innovation in the market not kill the economyempirically proven. William B. Bonvillian (Director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center in D.C. Issues in Science and Technology) 2004 ―Meeting the new challenge to U.S economic competitiveness‖
and related innovation accounts for more than half of historical U.S. economic growth, which makes this a far more significant factor than capital and labor supply, which are the dominant factors in traditional economic analysis . These economic growth theorists see a pattern shared by important breakthrough technologies such as railroads, steamships, electricity, telecommunications, aerospace, and computing. The new technology ignites a chain reaction of related innovation that leads to a surge in productivity improvements throughout the economy and thus to overall economic growth . The most
recent example is the productivity boom that occurred in the mid-1990s following the IT revolution that spread through the manufacturing and service sectors. A school of economic theory that has developed during the past two decades argues that technological

Alternative energy will spark specialization- helps the economy Marketing Science 2007. ―Does Marketing Cause bad unemployment?‖
Experiments rarely refute conventional wisdom. However, as knowledge increases and technology advances, previously infeasible (and possible unimaginable) options suddenly become both feasible and economical. When millions of

individuals and organizations each experiment with innovation, then a 1% success rate continuously produces tens of thousands of small and large innovations. Innovation, in turn, spawns greater divisions of labor, specialization and, consequently, growth in the net number of occupations. As knowledge increases, so does specialization . Specialization brings more opportunities to develop unique skills that produce more valued output with the same input. There are more opportunities to develop differentiated human capital with new, scarce (at least, at first), and valued skills. The consequence
is growth in the net number of occupations and higher average real wages. Of course, the primary danger that potentially undermines this progress is the political and other coercive actions of entrenched incumbents. We now have new occupations in Internet services,

financial services, wireless telephone services, gaming services, and so on. Innovation and knowledge growth leads to specialization

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Coal Industry Collapsing
The US coal industry is on the decline – It will continue to be cut back in the status quo Mark Clayton March 4 2008 ―U.S. coal power boom suddenly wanes‖,
http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0304/p01s07-usec.html Concerns about global warming and rising building costs are blocking construction of new coal-fired power plants in the United States and pushing utilities to turn to natural gas and renewable power instead. Utilities canceled or put on hold at least 45 coal plants in development last year, according to a new analysis by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Pittsburgh. These moves – a sharp reversal from a year ago, when the industry had more than 150 such plants in development – signal the waning of a major US expansion into coal. Natural-gas and renewable power projects have leapt ahead of coal in the development pipeline , according to Global Energy Decisions, a
Boulder, Colo., energy information supplier. Gas and renewables each show more than 70,000 megawatts under development compared with about 66,000 megawatts in the coal-power pipeline. This year could diminish coal's future prospects even more. Wall Street

investment banks last month said they will now evaluate the cost of carbon emissions before approving power plants, raising the bar much higher for new coal projects, analysts say. "What you're seeing is a de facto moratorium on coal
power right now," says Robert Linden, a senior oil and gas analyst at Pace Global in New York. "You turn off the money spigot, you've turned off those plants." Aside from the 28 or so coal-fired power plants already under construction, prospects remain tenuous for the half-dozen plants "near construction" and another 80 plants not nearly as far along, says Steve Piper, managing director of power forecasting at Platts, the energy information division of McGraw-Hill. "Expansions [of existing plants] still have a good chance. But others will come under increased pressure for deferral or outright cancellation ."

Coal industry collapsing – environmental standards, public opinion and lack of financing Salon.com May 15 2008 ―Celebrate clean coal, come on!‖
http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/05/15/coal_marketing/
These messages and other variations on the coal-is-great theme are flooding the nation courtesy of the coal industry, coal-fueled utilities, railroads and related industries. The pro-coal marketing campaign -- known by its tag line "Clean Coal" -- has kicked into high gear as prospects for new plants have turned bleak. Wall Street is tightening financing, leading to what one analyst told the Christian Science Monitor is a "de facto moratorium on coal power." The expected election of a more

environmentally friendly president may lead to the first federal limits on carbon dioxide emissions. Even red states like Kansas are now battling the construction of coal-fired plants. Last year, 59 new plants were either canceled or halted across the nation. When it comes to the threat of global warming, "the coal industry are the last people to get it," says Daniel J.
Weiss, senior fellow and director of climate strategy at the Center for American Progress, a nonprofit, progressive think tank. "That's why they're fighting so hard. They're on a death spiral right now."

Coal industry is dying – lack of government funding and regulatory confusion New York Times May 30 2008 ―Mounting Costs Slow the Push for Clean Coal‖
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/business/30coal.html President Bush is for it, and indeed has spent years talking up the virtues of ―clean coal.‖ All three candidates to succeed him
favor the approach. So do many other members of Congress. Coal companies are for it. Many environmentalists favor it. Utility executives are practically begging for the technology. But it has become clear in recent months that the nation‘s effort to develop the technique is lagging badly. In January, the government canceled its support for what was supposed to be a showcase project, a plant at a carefully chosen site in Illinois where there was coal, access to the power grid, and soil underfoot that backers said could hold the carbon dioxide for eons. Perhaps worse, in the last few months, utility projects in Florida, West Virginia, Ohio, Minnesota and Washington State that would have made it easier to capture carbon dioxide have all been canceled or thrown into

regulatory limbo.

Coal industry is struggling – construction costs New York Times May 30 2008 ―Mounting Costs Slow the Push for Clean Coal‖
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/business/30coal.html ―Coal‘s had a tough year,‖ said John Lavelle, head of a business at General Electric that makes equipment for processing coal into a form from which carbon can be captured. Many of these projects were derailed by the shortterm pressure of rising construction costs. But scientists say the result, unless the situation can be turned around, will be a long-term disaster.

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Transition From Coal Now
Power Producers Move Away from Coal CBS News Febuary 6 2008 ―Power producers moving away from coal‖
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20080206/ai_n21228618 Stymied in their plans to build new coal-burning power plants, American utilities are turning to natural gas to meet expected growth in demand, risking a new spiral in the price of that fuel. Utility executives say they have little choice. With opposition to coal plants rising across the country, they see plants fired by natural gas as the only kind that can be constructed quickly and can supply reliable power day and night. Now, with many coal plants being
canceled and demand for electricity rising by 2 percent or so a year, the prospect is that utilities will be forced to build and use a new generation of gas- fired plants regardless of the operating cost -- and consumers will bear the burden of higher electric rates. "Coal has been removed in many places as an option," said Art Holland, a vice president of Pace Global Energy Services, a consulting firm in Washington that advises utilities. New nuclear plants are on the drawing board but will take at least a decade. Sun and wind power, though growing, remain a small part of the nation's electricity mix, and they provide only intermittent power.

A Transition Away from Coal Joe Follick July 4 2007 ―Crist: Florida moving away from coal power‖
http://www.gainesville.com/article/20070704/LOCAL/707040342/-1/news.%20BACK
Gov. Charlie Crist backed up the symbolism of next week's meeting on global climate change in Miami with a stern rebuke Tuesday to the future of coal-powered energy plants in the state. Less than a month after the state's Public Service Commission turned down an application for a coal plant in Glades County, Crist celebrated a group's decision Tuesday to halt plans for a coal plant in Taylor County, southeast of Tallahassee. "It's not looking good,'' Crist said when asked about the future of coal plants in the state. "We're moving in a different direction.'' The shift away from coal into the unrealized promises of wind and solar power, as well as an emphasis on ethanol and more nuclear power, has quickly become one of Crist's clearest goals as governor.

Coal plants hype waning Mark Clayton March 4 2008 ―US Coal Power Boom Suddenly Wanes‖; Christian Science Monitor;
http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0304/p01s07-usec.html Concerns about global warming and rising building costs are blocking construction of new coal-fired power plants in the United States and pushing utilities to turn to natural gas and renewable power instead. Utilities canceled or put on hold at least 45 coal plants in development last year, according to a new analysis by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Pittsburgh. These moves – a sharp reversal from a year ago, when the industry had more than 150 such plants in development – signal the waning of a major US expansion into coal. Natural-gas and renewable power projects have leapt ahead of coal in the development pipeline, according to Global Energy
Decisions, a Boulder, Colo., energy information supplier. Gas and renewables each show more than 70,000 megawatts under development compared with about 66,000 megawatts in the coal-power pipeline. This year could diminish coal's future prospects even more.

Wall Street investment banks last month said they will now evaluate the cost of carbon emissions before approving power plants, raising the bar much higher for new coal projects, analysts say. "What you're seeing is a de facto moratorium on coal power right now," says Robert Linden, a senior oil and gas analyst at Pace Global in New York. " You turn off the money spigot, you've turned off those plants."

Coal plants face opposition and are being cancelled CAP (Center for American Progress) September 6 2007 ―Coal Industry Future Uncertain Without Carbon
Capture‖; http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/09/coal.html The growing drive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions responsible for global warming has dramatically increased the uncertainty about the future of the U.S. coal industry. Although coal currently powers half of all electricity, proposals to build new coal-fired power plants have met great resistance largely due to their contribution to global warming. As The
Washington Post noted in a headline earlier this week, ―Coal Rush Reverses, Power Firms Follow; Plans for New Plants Stalled by Growing Opposition.‖ But coal can continue to power a significant portion of our electricity in a carbon-constrained world if power plants employ new technology that would capture and sequester this pollution. Carbon capture and sequestration technology must be deployed as soon as possible to slow the growth of global warming pollution while also sustaining the coal industry. In the absence of CCS, proposals for new coal-fired electric plants currently face great opposition, which has resulted in the cancellation of many projects. This opposition

manifests itself in the following ways: Rising public opposition and lawsuits in regard to new plants with uncontrolled CO2 emissions, State opposition, such as new legislation in California that makes it impossible for California utilities to sign new contracts with out-of-state coal plants without CCS, and energy policies in Florida that foreclose coal plant construction, and Investor reluctance to finance or build new coal plants without CCS, as seen in the cancellation of eight of the 11 proposed new coal plants as part of the acquisition of TXU.

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Transition From Coal Now
Coal plants construction has slowed Steven Mufson September 4 2007 Washington Post; ―Coal Rush Reverses, Power Firms Follow‖;
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/03/AR2007090301119.html A year after the nation appeared to be in the middle of a coal rush, widening alarm about greenhouse gas emissions has slowed the efforts of electric companies to build coal-fired power plants from hills of eastern Montana to southern
Florida. Recently, proponents of coal-fired power plants acquired a new foe: Senate Majority Leader Harry M. Reid. In late July, Reid (DNev.) sent a letter to the chief executives of four power companies in which he vowed to "use every means at my disposal" to stop their plans to build three coal-fired plants in Nevada. Last month, after a speech in Reno, Reid said he was opposed to new coalfired plants anywhere. "There's not a coal-fired plant in America that's clean. They're all dirty," Reid told reporters after speaking at a conference on renewable energy. He said that the United States should turn to wind, solar and geothermal power in an effort to slow climate change. "Unless we do something quickly about global warming, we're in trouble," he said. Reid's opposition to coal plants is the

latest in a series of new obstacles for power companies seeking to use the fuel to generate electricity. A combination of rising construction costs, state mandates for the use of renewable energy and lawsuits by environmental organizations have forced many utilities to drop or postpone coal projects this summer.

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Coal Bad Warming
Coal causes emissions, deforestation and destruction. Jeff Biggers (editor to The Bloomsbury Review) March 2 2008 ―Clean Coal? Don‘t try to shovel that‖
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/29/AR2008022903390.html More than 104,000 miners in America have died in coal mines since 1900. Twice as many have died from black lung disease. Dangerous pollutants, including mercury, filter into our air and water. The injuries and deaths caused by overburdened coal trucks are innumerable. Yet even on the heels of a recent report revealing that in the last six years the Mine
Safety and Health Administration decided not to assess fines for more than 4,000 violations, Bush administration officials have called for cutting mine-safety funds by 6.5 percent. Have they already forgotten the coal miners who were entombed underground in Utah last summer?

Above ground, millions of acres across 36 states have been dynamited, torn and churned into bits by strip mining in the last 150 years. More than 60 percent of all coal mined in the United States today, in fact, comes from strip mines. In the "United States of Coal," Appalachia has become the poster child for strip mining's worst depravations, which come in the form of mountaintop removal. An estimated 750,000 to 1 million acres of hardwood forests, a thousand miles of waterways and more than 470 mountains and their surrounding communities -- an area the size of Delaware -have been erased from the southeastern mountain range in the last two decades. Thousands of tons of explosives -the equivalent of several Hiroshima atomic bombs -- are set off in Appalachian communities every year.

Coal industry causes massive emissions Richard R. Hall (J.D. University of Chicago Law School) and John S. Kirkham (J.D., University of Utah College of Law) June 24 2007 http://www.stoel.com/showarticle.aspx?Show=2484
While coal supplies are abundant and production cost low, many still view coal as an unwelcome guest . The major disadvantages of coal come from the adverse environmental impacts that accompany the mining, transportation and combustion of coal. Coal faces significant environmental challenges in mining, air pollution, and emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). Indeed, coal-fired plants contribute almost one-third of all the carbon emissions the United States generates – roughly as much produced by every car and truck on the road. Clearly, no future effort against global climate change will succeed without reducing coal-related emissions. However, reducing these emissions could significantly impact the
competitiveness of existing and new coal-fired plants, significantly increasing energy costs.

Coal burning is empirically proven to have caused global warming. Richard A. Lovett August 9 2007 ―U.S. Coal-Burning Boom Drastically Warmed Arctic‖,
[http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070809-coal-arctic.html Soot emissions from U.S. coal burning may have significantly contributed to pre-1950 global warming in the Arctic, a new study suggests. Soot, emitted naturally into the atmosphere by forest fires, is also a pollutant from human activities such as burning
fossil fuels. Winds carried soot from the United States and possibly other countries to the Arctic, where it fell on the snow. The darkened snow then absorbed more solar energy, warming the Arctic climate. Because the sunlight is not reflected back into the atmosphere, the Arctic climate warmed. (Related: "'Brown Clouds' Contribute to Himalaya Glacier Melt" [August 1, 2007].) At its worst, U.S. soot pollution was eight times more powerful in warming the Arctic springtime than the soot from forest fires, said study lead author Joseph McConnell, a snow hydrologist at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada. In 1900 the soot's effect on warming was about as strong as the effect of all of the carbon dioxide that the Industrial Age dumped into the atmosphere up until that time, McConnell said. "This is much bigger than anybody would ever have expected," he said.

Coal Combustion Pollutes the Environment Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, LexisNexis.
In their recent "Nutshell" book on energy law, Joseph Tomain and Richard Cudahy concisely summarize the primary types of air pollution caused by coal combustion: [*30] Coal combustion generates four main sources of pollution: sulfur oxide, nitrogen

oxide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter; all of which spoil land, water, and air. Sulfur oxide, which increases with the sulfur content of the coal, causes human health problems, crop damage, and acid rain. Nitrogen oxide contributes to the same problems and causes smog. Tons of particulate matter are emitted from coal burning facilities daily and cause property damage and health hazards. Finally, carbon dioxide causes what is known as the greenhouse effect, which is an increase in the temperature of the earth's surface. n148

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Coal Bad: Environment
Coal industry will destroy the environment – causes warming, land and water ecosystem destruction, and makes habitats inhabitable Martha Keating June 2001 Cradle to Grave: TheEnvironmental Impacts from Coal, Clean Air Task Force,
The electric power industry is the largest toxic polluter in the country, and coal,

which is used to generate over half of the electricity produced in the U.S., is the dirtiest of all fuels.1From mining to coal cleaning, from transportation to electricity generation to disposal, coal releases numerous toxic pollut-ants into our air, our waters and onto our lands.2Nation-ally, the cumulative impact of all of these effects is magnified by the enormous quantities of coal burned each year – nearly 900 million tons. Promoting more coal use without also providing additional environmental safe-guards will only increase this toxic abuse of our health and ecosystems. The trace elements contained in coal (and others formed during
combustion) are a large group of diverse pollutants with a number of health and environmentaleffects.3They are a public health concern because at sufficient exposure levels they adversely affect human health. Some are known to cause cancer, others impair reproduc-tion and the normal development of children, and still others damage the nervous and immunesystems. Many are also respira-tory irritants that can worsen respiratory conditions such asasthma. They are an environmen-tal concern because they damage ecosystems. Power plants

also emit large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2), the ―greenhouse gas‖ largely responsible for climate change.
The health and environmental effects caused by power plant emissions may vary over time and space, from short-term episodes of coal dust blown from a passing train to the long-term global dispersion of mercury, to climate change. Because of different factors like geology, demographics and climate, impacts will also vary from place to place. For example, effects from coalmining may be the biggest concern in the coal-field regions of the country, while inhalation exposure may be the foremost risk in an urban setting and, in less populated rural America, visibility impair-ment and haze may be of special concern. Coal mining harms land, surface waters, ground water and even

our air.4Impacts to the land from mining cause drastic changes in the local area. Damage to plants, animals and humans occurs from the destruction and removal of habitat and environ-mental contamination. Surface mining completely removes land from its normal uses. Property and scenic values are degraded as agricultural crops, forests, rangeland
and deserts are replaced by pits, quarries and tailing piles. Restoring or reclaiming a surface mine by replacing vegetation and restoring the landscape to its original contours helps minimize any permanent disruption. However, hundreds of thousands of acres of surface mines have not been reclaimed, and reclamation of steep terrain, such as found in Appalachia, is difficult.5Finally, despite reclama-tion efforts,

ecosystems may be destroyed and replaced by a totally different habitat. Mining impacts both surface waters and ground water. In under-ground mining, waste materials are piled at the surface creating runoff that both pollutes and alters the flow of local streams. As rain percolates through these piles, soluble components are dissolved in the runoff and cause the elevation of total dissolved solids (TDS) in local water bodies. The presence of TDS in a stream usually
indicates that sulfates, calcium, carbonates and bicarbon-ates are present. While not a direct threat to human health, these pollutants make water undrinkable by altering its taste and can also degrade water to the point where it can‘t be used for industry or agriculture.6Acid mine drainage is a particularly severe by product of

The acidity of the run off is problematic by itself, but it also dissolves metals like manganese, zinc and nickel, which then become part of the runoff. The resulting acidity and presence of metals in the runoff are directly toxic to aquatic life and render the water unfit for use.8 Some metals bioaccumulate in the aquatic food chain. Addition-ally, bottom-dwelling organ-isms can be smothered byiron that settles out of the water. Also of concern is the impact mining has
mining especially where coal seams have abundant quantities of pyrite. When pyrite is exposed to water and air, it forms sulfuric acid and iron.

on ground-water, including contaminationand physical dislocation of aquifers.These are typically localized effects. Acid mine drainage that seeps intogroundwater is a common cause of contamination.9Physical disruption of aquifers can occur from blastingwhich can

cause the groundwater to seep to a lower level or even connect two aquifers (leading to contamination of both).
When a mine is located below the water table,water seeps into the mine and has to be pumped out. Thiscan lower the water table and even dry up nearby wells.The process of mining, followed by reclamation, changes the permeability of overlying soil, alters the rate ofgroundwater discharge and increases flooding potential.10Underground mines not only impact groundwaterhydrology, they are prone to subsidence.11Subsidence occurs when the ground above the mine sinks becausethe roof of the mine either shifts or collapses. Subsidence can alter ground slopes to such an extent that roads, water and gas lines and buildings are damaged. Naturaldrainage patterns, river flows and aquifers can also be altered. The extent and severity of the subsidence depends on numerous factors including how thick the overlying soil and rock layers are and the mining method. These problems can be addressed by preventive methods such as leaving enough coal in

Deliberately collapsing the mine after the coal is extracted causes subsidence to occur sooner, but more evenly. For existing mines, one ―correc-tive‖ measure that has been used is backfilling the minewith either
place to provide structuralsupport to the mine roof.

mine wastes or combustion wastes. While this approach may seem to solve both subsidence and waste disposal problems, it is actually expensive and dangerous and releases contaminants to the groundwater.12 Inaddition, these wastes often lack the structural strength to support the mine roof. Mine wastes are generated in huge quantities – on the order of tens of millions of tons per year.13Thesewastes include the solid waste from the mine, called ―gob,‖refuse from coal washing and coal preparation, and thesludge from treating acid mine drainage. There are anumber of environmental impacts from this waste generation. First, the land

where these wastes are dumped is no longer useable for other purposes. Second,the piles are flammable and susceptible to spontaneous combustion. Third, they are prone to erosion which is amajor concern because the runoff and seepage from these piles is highly acidic.

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Coal Bad: Mining- Generic
The Ecological Impacts of Every Stage of the Use of Coal Are Disastrous Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, LexisNexis.
Virtually all of the coal mined in the United States is used as boiler fuel to generate electricity, n122 and although few users of that electricity realize it, half of the nation's electric energy is provided by coal. n123 In his recent book, Big Coal, Jeff Goodell points out that

in the United States, the mining and combustion of coal typically occur in such remote locations that most Americans have no idea "what our relationship with this black rock actually costs us." n124 This is particularly true with regard to public understanding of ecological systems that are being destroyed in remote places or through chains of causation that only experts understand. Coal is ecologically destructive through (1) mining, (2) air pollution, (3) greenhouse gas emissions, and (4) water pollution; and (5) while so-called "clean-coal" technology is a long-range
hope, it is not likely to be common in the next decade.

Coal mining extremely harmful to the environment and people Brianna Munroe (Journalist for the Mount Holyoke News) March 3 2006 ―Talk Reveals Harms of Coal Mining.‖
Mount Holyoke News. main concern about the use of this harmful fossil fuel is the ever-growing issue of global warming. She went so far as to say that the "survival of our civilization is at stake." The abundance of carbon dioxide released in the air as a result of burning coal is drastically affecting the strength of our atmosphere, and she would really like to see more effort being put forth to try to control this. Robin Webb is a former coal miner from Kentucky. She grew up in a mining town. Mining was, and still is, in
Although Freese clearly stated that coal was incredibly influential in shaping our world and led to the "oil age," her her blood. Webb worked in the mines from the time she turned eighteen until she graduated from law school, where she earned the respect of her male coworkers. At the time female miners were not received well, but she was able to escape this. Webb is currently committed to getting money to communities affected by coal mining, and is also a strong believer in the importance of finding alternative fuels. Hillary Hosta is a veteran environmental activist from West Virginia. She first became interested in the effects of coal during her time working with the Greenpeace organization in the Southern Appalachian Forest. This is where she first learned of mountain top-removal coal mining. In this form of mining the tops of mountains are lined with dynamite, and the top, as the name suggests, is removed. In doing this important forest life is destroyed. In the biologically rich Appalachian Forest over 150 different species of trees were "clean cut" from the area. Over 1200 mountains and streams have been hurt or completely destroyed. The waste created by the blasts can create a "sludge," which consists of many harmful chemicals such as mercury and arsenic. A dam is built to hold the sludge in one general area this area is known as a "sludge pond." There are over 100 "ponds" in West Virginia alone. This is not the only affect of the mountain top removal process. It can also cause a change in the winds over a valley, which allows the coal dust to blow over the communities residing there. A woman from one of these areas that Hosta spoke with told her that she goes out to wipe her porch down on a weekly basis, and every time her cloth turns black from all of the dust collecting on her home. This is harmful dust, and can cause

all kinds of health risks such as cancer, as well as shorten life spans significantly. Their homes become prisons, as they do not want to spend time outside in the toxic air surrounding them. These facts were used to support Hosta's belief that
"mine safety issues go far beyond the mines."

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Coal Bad: Mining- Underground
Underground Mining Pollutes Streams Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, LexisNexis. Underground mining typically brings to the surface large volumes of minerals, only some of which constitutes usable coal. n127 The residue is known as "gob" or "culm" and residue piles from both existing and abandoned underground mines are common sights in older mining areas. n128 The rain penetrates the piles and leaches out the soluble material, creating sulfuric and other acids, which are supposed to be stored in impoundments on the mine site but often flow directly into local watersheds or potable aquifers, particularly if the mine has been abandoned. n129 This kind of acid mine drainage pollutes streams throughout older mining regions, often turning them bright orange, rendering the water non-potable and uninhabitable by wildlife, and changing the ecological processes on the riparian landscape far beyond the mine site. n130

Underground Mining Destroys Landscapes Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, LexisNexis. [*27] Underground mining also destroys landscapes through subsidence. If a mine shaft is not properly supported, its roof will collapse, which typically causes the surface of the earth over the mine to subside. In older mines, such subsidence regularly happened only after a mineshaft was abandoned, but many newer mines use a system called "longwall" mining, which makes no attempt to support the roof over the area where coal is removed, resulting in intentional subsidence. Both intentional and unintentional subsidence can change drainage patterns on the surface in ways that may destroy existing ecosystems. n131

Surface Mining Directly Damages Landscapes Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, LexisNexis.
In the Southern Appalachians, surface mining is taking place in a forested landscape of rolling hills and mountains with relatively moist conditions. n141 The current mining method is known as "mountaintop mining," and involves blasting and scraping off the tops of mountains to obtain access to the coal underneath. In an earlier era, this coal would have been accessed by underground shafts, but today's massive machinery and cheap explosives makes it more economical to remove the mountaintop and use surface mining equipment to take out the coal. n142 The rubble that was once the top of the

mountain is simply dumped into a valley adjacent to the mountain, creating what is euphemistically called "valley fill." The result is the destruction [*29] not only of the ecological characteristics of the mountain itself but also of the adjacent valley. n143 Although this destruction has been widely criticized, it continues to be supported by both federal and state
regulating agencies. n144

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Coal Bad: Mining- Mountain Top
Mountain top removal of coal mining wrecks the environment Vernon Haltom (Co-director of Coal River Mountain Watch) and Melinda Tuhus 2007 ―Mountain Top
Removal Coal Mining Destroys Environment and Communities.‖ Yonders Farm. http://yondersfarm.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=62&Itemid=46
While recent media headlines focused weeks of attention on the six coal miners tragically trapped in a collapsed mine in Utah, another coalrelated story has been unfolding for years in Appalachia that has generated very little media coverage: The physical destruction of mountains to mine the coal underneath. The practice of mountain-top removal blasts the tops off mountains and dumps the soil, rock and waste in valleys below. So far 1,000 miles of West Virginia streams have been buried. The process contaminates the water, fouls the air, and threatens the continued existence of many rural communities. A coalition of groups opposing the practice points to a federal study showing that between 1992 and 2002, 380,000 acres of mountaintops were destroyed. Yet less than five percent

of these flattened areas have seen any economic development, which was one of the benefits coal companies maintained would result from destruction of the mountains. VERNON HALTOM: We call mountaintop removal ecoterrorism because of the vast scope and scale and methods that they use are far more than any kind of a nuisance. What this does is put people's lives in jeopardy, and we're not talking about just the miners. We know that surface mining is at least as hazardous as underground mining, which is generally not publicized. But the communities in the vicinity of these vast, vast mines are in danger. You think of, what do terrorists do? Well, they tend to blow things up and terrorize and frighten people. Well, in West Virginia alone, the coal industry uses the explosive equivalent of 27 Hiroshima-style bombs in a year. That is far more than a nuisance. And what this does, by removing the mountain, you subject communities to increased
flooding, which can be deadly; you remove their water supplies in some cases, either poisoning it or removing it altogether, and these are things that average citizens are being subjected to every day here by mountain-top removal. The coal industry is promoting mt-top removal as a safer way of mining. Every time there's an underground accident, the industry says, this is why we need to do mountaintop removal, and the average citizen thinks, well, okay, I'd rather be on the surface than go down in a hole. But if properly regulated and enforced, underground mining can be at least as safe as surface mining.

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No Clean Coal: Politics
No clean coal – Bush pulled the plug on the program Lester R. Brown, founder of the Earth Policy Institute, dubbed ―one of the world's most influential thinkers‖ by the
Washington Post and the recipient of 23 honorary degrees, a MacArthur Fellowship, the 1987 UN Environment Prize, the 1989 World Wide Fund for Nature Gold Medal, and the 1994 Blue Planet Prize, the Presidential Medal of Italy, the Borgström Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. ―U.S. Moving Toward Ban on New Coal-Fired Power Plants,‖ Earth Policy Institute 2/14/08 http://www.earthpolicy.org/Updates/2008/Update70.htm
Utilities have argued that carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal plant smokestacks could be captured and stored underground, thus helping keep hope for the industry alive. But on January 30, 2008, the Bush administration announced that it was pulling the plug on a

joint project with 13 utilities and coal companies to build a demonstration coal-fired power plant in Illinois with underground carbon sequestration because of massive cost overruns. The original cost of $950 million when the project was announced in 2003 had climbed beyond $1.5 billion by early 2008, with further rises in prospect. The cancellation effectively moves the date for any coal plants with carbon sequestration so far into the future that this technology has little immediate relevance. Some utilities are being refused licenses for coal plants because they have not examined alternative methods of satisfying demand, such as increasing the efficiency of electricity use. For example, insulating buildings greatly reduces
energy needs for heating and cooling. Shifting to more-efficient light bulbs would save enough electricity to close 80 U.S. coal power plants.

There are only two IGCC clean coal plants and there are no plans for more David Eggert. ―New coal-fired power plants generate opposition,‖ The Associated Press April 14, 20 08
http://blog.mlive.com/tricities/2008/04/new_coalfired_power_plants_opp.html Citing climate change, the state Department of Environmental Quality has asked companies proposing new plants to consider a new type of coal use: integrated gasification combined cycle technology, or IGCC. Such plants are considered cleaner because they produce electricity by burning gas made from coal and have the potential to trap greenhouse gases and store them underground. But only two of the plants exist in the U.S., leading Consumers Energy to conclude building one near Bay City would be too expensive and unreliable. A 700-megawatt IGCC plant is in the works in Alma, though Florida-based M&M Energy LLC hasn't yet sought air permits from the state.

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No Clean Coal: Technology
Clean coal technology is stall far from development Fred Bosselman (Professor of Law Emeritus, Chicago-Kent College of Law) 2007 ―The new power generation:
environmental law and electricity innovation: colloquium article: the ecological advantages of nuclear power‖, New York University Environmental Law Journal, lexis Large-Scale Use of "Clean-Coal" Technology Is Decades Away Scientists and engineers believe that it is technologically
possible to create a process for burning coal which creates no conventional air pollution and stores all of the potential carbon emissions in the earth's underground layers. 186 In 2003, such a proposal was part of the President's State of the Union speech, 187 and the coal industry has been talking about this idea without rushing to adopt it. 188 Whether the needed carbon storage and sequestration will ever come about, however, is another question. The [*37] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has released an extensive study of the potential methods of carbon capture and storage. 189 They concluded that capturing carbon dioxide before it is released as power-plant emissions is possible but expensive with current technology. 190 Once captured, existing technologies can be used to inject the gas into underground layers, such as existing or depleted petroleum reservoirs. 191 But the risk of sudden escape of the injected

gas needs to be evaluated; the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere can asphyxiate all oxygen-dependent organisms enveloped by the cloud of carbon dioxide. 192 In summary, coal mining and combustion adversely affects the natural environment in many ways, and the chances of seeing widespread use of technological innovations that will reduce these impacts within the next decade are negligible.

Clean Coal is a myth and will still cause pollution – Real “clean” technology is still decades away. GPACE (Great Plains Alliance for Clean Energy) 7/10/08 ―Our Energy Economy,‖
http://www.gpace.org/?q=our-energy-economy Coal is not a clean energy source, whether considering pollutants such as mercury, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, or ozone (which cause illness and premature death, especially among children) or the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Advances have been made in the industry to develop and implement scrubbers that remove some of the mercury and other pollutants from coal-fired emissions, but these processes simply remove those pollutants from airborne emissions and capture them in sludges or slurries that are then stored at the plants and/or dumped into rivers or groundwater . As for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, there is currently no existing technology that can remove carbon dioxide from coal-fired emissions and effectively ―sequester‖ it. Most credible experts agree that so-called ―clean coal‖ technologies are at least ten to twenty years off, if in fact ever feasible at all. Additionally, carbon capture and sequestration technology for
pulverized coal plants uses three times as much water as the coal plant alone – which already uses vast amounts of water.

Clean coal is a long way off. Alternative energy is more viable. Roger Vanderlely (senior Chemistry teacher) 7/8/2008, ―Clean Coal and Business As Usual‖, NM,
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/clean-coal-and-business-as-usual.html The problem with clean coal is that the technology is not yet a commercially proven solution . In a move likely to be
mirrored around the world, the Australian government recently ditched its support for solar energy in favor of pursuing the development of clean coal technology. For any other form of energy supply still in development such backing from government would be seen as ludicrous. This approach is dangerous. Solar and wind are proven energy generating technologies that are ready to be implemented

NOW. Commercial production of these technologies could easily be ramped up to meet new energy demands and replace existing power stations. Ignoring these in favor of a method that does not yet exist and that may not even work is foolhardy. If climate change is not addressed the economic losses alone are beyond imagination. They will make the amount of
money saved by continuing with coal instead of solar power look like a drop in the ocean. Once the environmental damage is done, the cost of fixing the problem will be vastly more than preventing it in the first place. Add to this the fact that coal is still a finite resource

and the foolishness of proceeding with clean coal becomes even clearer.

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Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Module
Clean coal dramatically increases Mercury pollution. Stephen Bernow May 2001 ―COAL: America‘s Past America‘s Future? President Bush‘s Plan and the Risk of
Global Warming‖ http://www.tellus.org/energy/publications/E01-073-1.pdf The mercury is rising. Coal plants are the single leading source of all mercury pollution in the US, accounting for a third of all airborne mercury releases. Mercury has already contaminated over 50,000 lakes and streams in the US. Coal plant mercury emissions are expected to increase 33% by 2010 , and yet they are the only major mercury sources that are unregulated. Ironically, a proposed ―clean coal‖ plant (fluidized bed) proposed in Kentucky could actually emit up to 1.8 tons of mercury per year, twice as much as any other coal plant currently in operation.

Mercury destroys ecosystems, and contaminates food supplies Clear The Air April 2002 ―Mercury, Your Health and the Environment‖,
http://www.cleartheair.org/proactive/newsroom/release.vtml?id=17321 Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant that can cause serious adverse health effects. Depending on the dose, the effects range from subtle losses of sensory or cognitive ability, delays in developmental milestones (e.g. walking, talking), to birth defects, tremors and even death. Once released into the environment mercury is easily transported through the air, sometimes for thousands of miles, where even a relatively small amount can contaminate an entire ecosystem. Although there are numerous sources of mercury pollution, the largest source is the electric power industry. Power plants are responsible for 34 percent of the total mercury emitted by all known sources. More than 99 percent of that mercury comes from coal-fired plants. According to EPA, mercury from coal-fired power plants is the most hazardous air pollutant emitted by utilities. Coal-fired power plants emitted 46
tons of mercury in 1990, and this amount is expected to climb 33 percent by 2010. Power Plants: The Only Unregulated Source of Mercury Air Pollution In stark contrast to coal burning power plants, the other major sources of mercury pollution have been made subject to mercury emission reductions. Recently issued EPA regulations for municipal and medical waste incinerators will require that mercury air pollution be reduced by 90 percent and 94 percent respectively by 2002. Similarly, as a result of pollution prevention efforts and restrictions on mercury in paints and pesticides, domestic industrial demand for mercury decreased by more than 75 percent from 1988 to 1996. In contrast, the electric power industry has done nothing to help solve the mercury pollution problem. Instead, their lobbyists have aggressively sought special loopholes from Congress. The coal and utility industries got Congress to exclude mercury emissions from regulation under the 1990 Clean Air Act - an exemption that applied to no other industry. This lethal loophole creates a powerful economic incentive for the electric industry to operate its dirty old coal plants at the expense of our health and the environment. Mercury Puts Our Health at Risk Americans are being warned that eating the fish from our rivers, lakes and oceans can be harmful to our health. Mercury contamination is responsible for 60 percent of state fish consumption advisories. Over forty states advise their citizens to reduce their consumption of fish from contaminated waterways. Ten states have issued statewide mercury warnings. Between 1993 and 1998 alone, advisories due to mercury pollution rose by 115 percent (from 899 to 1,931). Infants and children are the most at risk from mercury contamination. Nearly all the mercury that accumulates in fish tissue is the organic form called methyl mercury. Dietary methyl mercury is almost completely absorbed into the blood and distributed to all tissues including the brain. It also readily passes through the placenta to the fetus and fetal brain. From there it can cause serious neurological and developmental damage, including subtle losses of sensory or cognitive ability, delays in developmental milestones such as walking and talking, and birth defects. Mercury Severely Damages Our Environment Mercury exposure harms wildlife, with fish-eating birds and mammals receiving the highest exposures. Documented adverse effects in birds and mammals include reduced reproductive success, impaired growth and development, behavioral abnormalities, and death. Mercury contamination has also tarnished the second most popular sport in the US - recreational fishing. Throughout significant regions of the country fishermen can no longer consume their "catch" because of mercury contamination. It is estimated that nearly 49 million Americans participate in recreational fishing, adding $69 billion annually to the economy. To ensure the safety of our food supply and the health of millions of Americans who eat fish, we must reduce current releases of mercury from coal-fired power plants. Because mercury persists in the environment and bioaccumulates in the food chain, the sooner we begin to reduce mercury emissions, the better. Legislation in Congress has been introduced that would finally close the 30-year old loophole that lets power plants off the hook and that would set a reasonable and achievable cap on mercury emissions. Only when dirty old power plants are made to comply with modern pollution control standards can we all begin to breathe easier.

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Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Module
Toxins accumulate as they work their way through the food chain. This culminates in extinction Rachel's Hazardous Waste News March 20 1991 ―Real hope for the great lakes: local groups form 'zero
discharge alliance'‖, Environmental Research Foundation, http://www.ejnet.org/rachel/rhwn225.htm Bioaccumulative toxins are dangerous because amounts that seem harmless are multiplied as they pass through the food chain; often the result is environmental destruction. The adverse consequences of bioaccumulative toxins may become understood only after it is too late. For example, human breast milk is now contaminated with hundreds of persistent,
bioaccumulative toxins (see RHWN #193), but the effects of these poisons upon breast-fed infants is not known except in rare cases. Such dousing of infant children with persistent, bioaccumulative toxins is a massive experiment; the full results may become known in the future, but one thing is known beyond any doubt today: it cannot help the human species to expose it from birth onward to a constant bath of industrial toxins. (People who are tempted to think that the human species might be improved by random meddling with our genetic structure should remind themselves that a human is something like a TV set [though of course much more complex] and the hope of improving a human by randomly introducing poisons into its diet at an early age is like splashing hot solder into a TV set's electronic circuits hoping to improve the picture.) It is important to note that many of the most toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals are formed by the use of the element chlorine. DDT, PCBs, dioxins, CFCs, and many pesticides are chlorine compounds. Most people know of chlorine because it disinfects their drinking water, kills germs in the local swimming pool, or bleaches their clothes in the washing machine. Unfortunately, when it is used by industry, chlorine produces a broad spectrum of toxins that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate. In a very real sense, chlorine lies at the heart of the toxics problem, world-wide. For two decades, government has tried to control toxic pollutants one at a time, by establishing the exact amount that could be safely released into the environment, issuing "permits" giving industry permission to discharge toxics into air and water, then trying to police the polluters to force compliance with the permitted limits. The entire effort was foolish from the start: there are over 40,000 chemicals in use today and 1000 to 2000 new ones enter commercial channels each year. Meanwhile during its 20-year effort, government has managed to establish "safe" limits for fewer than 100 chemicals. Meanwhile, government has gone ahead and issued permits that ignored most chemicals entirely (because there was no basis for saying how much was safe). Finally, government never showed any real interest (or ability) in enforcing these silly per-mits. A classic house of cards. This wrong-headed effort at pollution control (instead of pollution prevention) has led to massive damage to wildlife throughout the Great Lakes (see RHWN #146) and, worldwide, a dangerous accumulation of toxics in creatures that eat at the top of the food chain, like large birds, large fish, bears, and humans. It is now crystal clear that the old way has been a complete failure, which, if it is continued, can only lead to the extinction of humans.

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Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Pollution
Clean coal tech uses low-grade coal, which increases mercury pollution. Hoosier Environmental Council, February 2001, ―Clean Coal Technology‖,
http://www.hecweb.org/Programs%20and%20Initatives/CCW/wastenewsmstr1.htm
Steel and other industries are increasing their use of the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) process to power their factories. Now power companies want to use this process to make electricity. They claim it is a "clean coal" technology that reduces pollution and cleans the environment. Does it? No. FBC plants do produce smaller amounts of some air pollutants than conventional coal-fired power plants, but they also produce more mercury and increase the pollution of water and land. FBC plants can burn low-grade coal and waste coal ("gob"), the material that is left after preparing and cleaning coal before it is burned in a conventional power plant boiler. Because huge gob piles still blight the Appalachian and Midwestern coal fields and are a major source of acid drainage into rivers and lakes, "clean coal" advocates work to convince communities that FBC plants help clean up the environment while producing electricity. They neglect to mention that waste coal contains much higher levels of mercury than cleaned coal . More mercury emitted Air pollution from conventional power plants is already the largest man-made source of mercury, one of the most toxic substances for humans and wildlife. One teaspoon of mercury can poison a 20-acre lake. EPA decided last year to set mercury emission limits under the Clean Air Act for power plants by December 2004. In September 2000, EPA researchers found that waste coal contained nearly 8 times more mercury than the ordinary coal burned in power plants. This means fluidized bed combustion plants spew out even more mercury than conventional plants.

Clean coal fails to remove mercury pollution from emissions. Greenpeace, January 2005, ――Clean Coal‖ Technology‖,
http://www.greenpeace.org.nz/pdfs/CleanCoalBriefing.pdf Mercury is a particular problem. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), mercury and its compounds are highly toxic and pose a ‗global environmental threat to humans and wildlife .‘2 Coal-fired power and heat production are the largest single source of atmospheric mercury emissions.3 There are no commercially available technologies to prevent mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants.4 ―Clean coal‖ is the industry‘s attempt to ―clean up‖ its dirty image – the
industry‘s greenwash buzzword. It is not a new type of coal. ―Clean coal‖ technology (CCT) refers to technologies intended to reduce pollution. But no coal-fired power plants are truly ‗clean‘. Despite over 10 years of research, and $5.2 billion of investment in the US alone5, scientists are still unable to completely remove harmful emissions from coal-fired power plants. Clean coal technologies are expensive and do nothing to mitigate the environmental effects of coal mining , or the devastating effects of global warming. Furthermore, clean coal research risks diverting investment away from renewable energy, which is available to reduce greenhouse gas emissions now.

Clean coal tech actually emits more than conventional coal. Stephen Bernow May 2001 ―COAL: America‘s Past America‘s Future? President Bush‘s Plan and the Risk of
Global Warming‖ http://www.tellus.org/energy/publications/E01-073-1.pdf FBC does appear to be making some inroads. For example, the 440 MW Red Hills Power Project enters service this year is using
FBC technology to burn lignite coal mined near the plant, as part of a so-called Eco-Industrial Park. Coal wastes will be recycled into bricks and wallboard. Because of its inherent fuel flexibility, FBC is also the proposed technology for a Kentucky plant, which would burn coal wastes. Ironically, this ―clean coal‖ plant could actually emit up to 1.8 tons of mercury per year, twice as much as any other coal plant currently in operation.18

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Clean Coal Bad: Mercury Pollution Bad
Mercury can spread for hundreds of miles, and even tiny amounts can cause death. No tech exists to control mercury pollution. Greenpeace Southeast Asia, No Date, ―The Myth of ‗Clean Coal‘‖,
http://www.greenpeacesoutheastasia.org/en/rpt/prm_ce_cleancoalmyth.pdf
Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury pollution in the US, responsible for 33% of the total mercury emissions from all known manmade sources nationwide. 2 Mercury emissions from coal plants in the US reach over 43 tons each year.3 According to the US National Wildlife Federation (NWF), a single 100-MW coal-fired power plant emits approximately 25 pounds of mercury a year.4 According to the US Center for Clean Air Policy, 50% of the mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants can travel up to 600 miles from the power plant.5 According to the US Department of Energy, ―[C]oal presents an environmental challenge … [T]here is no commercially available technology that uniformly controls mercury emissions to the limits anticipated from all of the nation's coal-fired boilers. New technology will have to be developed.‖ An American congressman has this to add: ―There is nothing new being developed in the clean coal technology program except for new ways to squander taxpayers money.‖6 According to NWF, as little as 1/70th of a teaspoon of mercury a year can contaminate a 10.12-hectare lake to the point where fish are no longer safe to eat.7 Contamination of methyl mercury, the more lethal form that mercury takes when it is absorbed by fish or comes into contact with sediment, in food sources as low as one part per million has been shown to cause death in some animals.8 CO2 represents the major portion of greenhouse gases. Over the last 30 years, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased by 30%, Nine of the ten warmest years in recorded history have occurred in the last decade. Last year was the second warmest year while 1998 is considered the hottest year of all.9

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Clean Coal Bad: Pollution Module
Clean coal pollutants are dumped into water destroying biodiversity Hoosier Environmental Council February 2001 ―Clean Coal Technology‖,
http://www.hecweb.org/Programs%20and%20Initatives/CCW/wastenewsmstr1.htm The sulfur, nitrogen and particulates remain in the waste created from burning the coal. In fact, because plants using FBC produce less air emissions, they produce much more solid waste than today‘s conventional coal-fired power plants. The wastes will likely be dumped in sites with little environmental protection, possibly right into ground water in strip mines or quarries. An EPA report to Congress in 1999 said mines are the most common dump sites for the 10 million tons of wastes that fluidized bed combustion plants produce annually. Coal power plant wastes are toxic to living organisms and contain concentrated levels of heavy metals and other pollutants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, molybdenum, boron, and sulfates. Power plant wastes have caused death, deformities and reproductive problems in plants, wildlife and livestock.

Biodiversity is key to preventing extinction Richard Margoluis, Biodiversity Support Program, 19 96,
http://www.bsponline.org/publications/showhtml.php3?10 Biodiversity not only provides direct benefits like food, medicine, and energy; it also affords us a "life support system." Biodiversity is required for the recycling of essential elements, such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. It is also responsible for
mitigating pollution, protecting watersheds, and combating soil erosion. Because biodiversity acts as a buffer against excessive variations in weather and climate, it protects us from catastrophic events beyond human control. The importance of biodiversity to a healthy

environment has become increasingly clear. We have learned that the future well-being of all humanity depends on our stewardship of the Earth. When we overexploit living resources, we threaten our own survival.

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Clean Coal Bad: Causes Pollution
Waste released from clean coal plants is worse Hoosier Environmental Council, February 2001, ―Clean Coal Technology‖,
http://www.hecweb.org/Programs%20and%20Initatives/CCW/wastenewsmstr1.htm The wastes are highly caustic. Because the FBC process uses lime, the wastes can have a pH as high as 13. A pH this high means the waste is as caustic than lye and kills living organisms. The wastes contain even higher concentrations of cancer-causing compounds than other power plant wastes. Fluidized bed combustion uses much lower temperatures and less oxygen than traditional burning processes. As a result, some of the really nasty organic compounds in coal are not readily broken down or they reform because of the incomplete burning. The compounds include anthracene, chrysene, fluorene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene; some of these compounds are well-known carcinogens. Dumping
permits do not required the companies to test the wastes for these compounds or to monitor the ground water for them. The wastes are highly reactive. FBC wastes contain a higher concentration of sodium than other power plant wastes. Although the sodium itself is not much of a danger, the higher concentrations of sodium make the wastes more chemically reactive with other substances. This can result in more pollutants being leached out of the wastes and into ground and surface water .

Even the best-performing clean coal plants release huge amounts of pollutants. Greenpeace January 2005 ―Clean Coal‖ Technology‖,
http://www.greenpeace.org.nz/pdfs/CleanCoalBriefing.pdf Clean Coal‖ Still Pollutes The industry prides itself on the efficiency of some of its pollution controls. However when you look at the actual quantities of pollutants emitted the figures are not so impressive. For example, the World Coal Institute uses the Lethabo Power Station in South Africa as an example of a successful emissions control programme. The plant‘s ESPs remove 99.8% of the fly ash. Nevertheless the plant still emits around 60,000 tons of particulates into the atmosphere every year . Futuregen – what
kind of future? The industry rhetoric sounds very enticing – working towards a zero-emission coal-fired future. The $1 billion dollar Futuregen project in the USA is based on experimental IGCC technology. Intended to create the world's first ‗zero-emissions‘ fossil fuel plant, the project will take 10 years to complete. It will be even longer before the technology is commercially available.40 In reality however, there can be no such thing as a zero-emission plant. After being collected by pollution control devices to prevent emissions to the air, pollutants are merely shifted to another waste stream as solid or liquid wastes.41 Either that, or waste products, which are contaminated with heavy metals, are sold on for construction use. This results in these dangerous contaminants being released

into the environment.

Coal washing results in acidic runoff, which destroys entire ecosystems. Greenpeace January 2005 ―Clean Coal‖ Technology‖,
http://www.greenpeace.org.nz/pdfs/CleanCoalBriefing.pdf Coal washing results in the formation of large quantities of slurry. This is placed in waste piles. Rain drains through the piles, picking up pollutants which end up in rivers and streams. This runoff is acidic and contains heavy metals.26 In October 2000, a dam at an impoundment in Kentucky burst, releasing 250 million gallons of slurry into rivers and streams in Kentucky and West Virginia. More than 75 miles of the river was choked by the slurry, which killed all fish and river life. The spill affected the drinking water of 4,500 people.27 Runoff from the waste piles also increases total dissolved solids
(TDS) in waterways which lowers water quality.

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Clean Coal Bad: Freshwater Contamination Bad
Contamination of our freshwater destroys any possibility for life on Earth. Robert B. Jackson and Stephen R. Carpenter Spring 2001 ―Water in a Changing World‖, Issues in Ecology,
Ecological Society of America, http://www.biology.duke.edu/jackson/issues9.pdf Life on earth depends on the continuous flow of materials through the air, water, soil, and food webs of the biosphere. The movement of water through the hydrological cycle comprises the largest of these flows, delivering an estimated 110,000 cubic
kilometers (km3) of water to the land each year as snow and rainfall. Solar energy drives the hydrological cycle, vaporizing water from the surface of oceans, lakes, and rivers as well as from soils and plants (evapotranspiration). Water vapor rises into the atmosphere where it cools, condenses, and eventually rains down anew. This renewable freshwater supply sustains life on the land, in estuaries, and in the freshwater ecosystems of the earth. Renewable fresh water provides many services essential to human health and well being, including water for drinking, industrial production, and irrigation, and the production of fish, waterfowl, and shellfish. Fresh water also provides many benefits while it remains in its channels (nonextractive or instream benefits), including flood control, transportation, recreation, waste processing, hydroelectric power, and habitat for aquatic plants and animals. Some benefits, such as irrigation and hydroelectric power, can be achieved only by damming, diverting, or creating other major changes to natural water flows. Such changes often diminish or preclude other instream benefits of fresh water, such as providing habitat for aquatic life or maintaining suitable water quality for human use.

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Clean Coal Bad: Energy Costs Module
Clean coal causes energy prices to rise Stephen Bernow May 2001 ―COAL: America‘s Past America‘s Future? President Bush‘s Plan and the Risk of
Global Warming‖ http://www.tellus.org/energy/publications/E01-073-1.pdf Expectations for ―clean coal‖ often rest on such wishful hyperbole. It may be possible to eventually produce electricity from coal with low emissions and limited impacts across its fuel cycle. The technologies to increase combustion efficiency, to
remove most pollutants, to mine in a low-impact fashion, and to recycle or reuse the waste products of the coal fuel chain, are either identified or within reach in the coming decade or two. Of course, these could impose quite substantial additional costs on coal use. Carbon dioxide is more difficult to control than other pollutants. To burn coal with near zero carbon emissions will require a combination of high efficiency and carbon capture technologies. Even if the high cost of such technologies were not an issue, doubts remain about the impacts and security of most options for CO2 storage, to ensure it is permanently kept out of the atmosphere. This raises three big questions. How much will coal-based electricity cost once all these factors are taken into account? How long will it take to get to low impact coal, and how much irreversible damage will occur before we get there (i.e. climate impacts from the billions of tons of carbon dioxide emitted in the meanwhile, tons of mercury and other toxic pollutants released, streams and habitats destroyed, etc.)? How does this path compare to one that invests instead in available zero or low carbon alternatives?

Electricity is the backbone to the U.S. economy and stable electricity prices are to generate sufficient amounts of electricity NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) 2004 ―Nuclear Energy and the Nations Future Prosperity‖,
http://www.nei.org/documents/Vision2020_Booklet.pdf
More than half of the academy‘s top 20 achievements depend on electricity. What is more striking, however, is how the diffuse items on the list interact, in combination with electricity, to power the nation‘s economic progress. One prominent example is the

country‘s technology-reliant digital economy. Such an economy could not operate, let alone prosper, without reliable electricity to power computers (ranked eighth), electronics (ranked ninth) and the Internet (ranked thirteenth) that are so basic to our economic success. In other words, electricity is an economic multiplier—a gateway technology that fosters economic growth and additional technological progress. The strong historical correlation between electricity demand and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is powerful evidence that electricity plays an essential role in economic growth (see Fig.5 ). As the nation‘s GDP rises,electricity demand follows with near lockstep precision. Stated differently, increased availability of electricity spurred wider and more diverse applications of that electricity. This in turn spawned increasing economic growth as the nation developed new ways to derive increased economic value from electricity and to improve the overall standard of living. While these supply and demand variables remain in balance, electricity prices remain stable and economic growth continues. Moreover,the wider application of electrotechnologies results in greater productivity gains and the
more efficient use of this valuable commodity. This can be seen in the measure of electricity intensity—the ratio of kilowatthours per unit of GDP. As electricity demand increases over time,electricity intensity has fallen since 1974 (see Fig.6 ).

Economic declines leads to global war and nuclear use Walter Russell Mead (Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations) Summer 1992 New Perspectives Quarterly
What if the global economy stagnates - or even shrinks? In that case, we will face a new period of international conflict : South against North, rich against poor. Russia, China, India - these countries with their billions of people and their nuclear weapons will pose a much greater danger to world order than Germany and Japan did in the '30s.

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Clean Coal Bad: Increase Energy Cost
Gasification plants necessitate huge federal subsidies to offset costs. E,Jan-Feb 2002 v13 i1 p24
One way to reduce a power plant's CO2 emissions is to make it more efficient, which means getting more energy out of less fuel. So far, the best hope for improving coal's efficiency is a process called gasification, in which coal is converted to a gas. A gasification plant
is about 40 percent efficient, compared to the 33 to 36 percent efficiency of a conventional steam-driven coal plant. Small efficiency increases can produce big results: A 500-megawatt plant will generate 180 million fewer pounds per year of CO2 if its efficiency is increased just one percentage point. Gasification plants cost between $1.2 million and $1.6 million per megawatt of capacity to build, compared to $550,000 for a natural gas plant and $1 million for a conventional coal plant . Consequently, the only gasification plants in the U.S. have been built with financial help from the DOE .

Clean coal incurs huge costs in plant construction and waste disposal. And it doesn’t work. CNNMoney October 19 2004
But critics say that newer "clean coal" technology, for all its promised benefits, is expensive. And some say that the technology, despite its positive-sounding name, will create expensive environmental headaches. The need for power "With nuclear and hydro resources pretty much tapped out, it comes down to a debate between coal and gas," said Mark Morey, director of the Cambridge Energy Resource Association's North America power group. According to the EIA, coal is plentiful and cheap, with domestic supplies projected to last two centuries or more. About half the nation's electricity is already generated by coal-fired plants, so there's an infrastructure for coal in place. And with electricity demand expected to grow sharply in coming decades, proponents say clean coal is the way to go. "Clean coal technology is the future," said Ohio Coal Association President Mike Carey. Some big companies are betting heavily on the technology. General Electric (Research) and Bechtel are jointly developing a model for coal gasification plants, which convert coal into a gas. The plants are considered the most vaunted of the clean coal technologies by the EIA and coal industry leaders. An expensive proposal Clean coal plants aren't cheap to build, and costs to dispose of their waste are steep . Bechtel said the initial cost to build a coal gasification plant is 25 percent more than a medium-sized conventional coal-fired power plant. A conventional plant costs about $780 million to build, according to Bechtel, so a comparable coal-gas plant would cost about $975 million. "There are a lot of parallels between coal and nuclear energy," said Cambridge Energy's Morey. "The plants are really expensive to build and there's an issue about disposing of large amounts of [carbon dioxide] waste that could get really costly." While there has never been a law regulating carbon dioxide emissions in the U.S., many scientists, utility analysts, environmentalists and business executives admit that CO2 emissions are the chief cause of global warming. "In ways we've looked at pollution in the past, coal has cleaned up. But the bigger problem we face now is carbon dioxide, which clean coal plants still emit," said Dave Hamilton, the Sierra Club's director of Global Warming and Energy Programs. "Businesses know carbon dioxide will be regulated in the future and would rather make it part of the cost to build a new plant now rather than wait and have to add technology," said Morey. "These plants are 40- to 50-year investments." "Many ways of taking care of carbon dioxide are being studied, particularly carbon sequestration," said Carey. Trapping and holding CO2 is the most popular method of dealing with emissions from coal-gas plants; and it's part of President Bush's FutureGen initiative to create the world's first zero-emissions fossil fuel plant. But trapping carbon is expensive. For an average traditional coal-fired plant, which produces some 750 million tons of carbon a year, the annual cost of trapping CO2 is about $31 million a year, said Stephan Singer, head of European Climate and Energy policy with WWF International, which works closely with the EU on climate change and energy. Analysts and environmentalists also say there's little evidence to show this process will ever work. "If it all leaks, then you're right back where you started, plus you've wasted all that money," said Hamilton.

Clean coal is billions of dollars and several years away. Once it’s up and running, daily operating costs are through the roof. Greenpeace January 2005 ―Clean Coal‖ Technology‖,
http://www.greenpeace.org.nz/pdfs/CleanCoalBriefing.pdf Many of the ‗clean coal‘ technologies that industry is currently touting are still in the development stage and will take hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars and many more years before they are commercially available. ―Clean coal‖ technologies are also extremely expensive in terms of day to day running costs. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates the capital costs of a typical IGCC plant (an experimental lowemission coal power station) to be US$1,383/kW, $2,088/kW with carbon sequestration. This compares with US$1,015/kW for a typical wind farm.7

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Clean Coal Bad: Warming Turn
Clean coal technology increases CO2 emissions because they take energy to run Salon.com October 5 2004
But the irony is that some of the

technologies now used to make coal burn cleaner can increase CO2 emissions, since the new technologies also require energy to run. "When you have a scrubber on a plant, it decreases efficiencies. It's like putting a muffler on your car. If you're adding scrubbers, they use energy to run them, and you have to burn more coal to get the same amount of power. So, there would be more carbon for unit of juice coming out of the plant," says Davies, of Greenpeace. Even coal gasification doesn't entirely escape the problem of CO2 emissions and global warming. "We need to get to close to zero total CO2 emissions, and you're not going to do that with efficiency ," says Keith.

Clean coal will increase emissions Natural Resources Defense Council, 5/8/01, Environmental Media Services,
http://www.ems.org/energy_policy/clean_coal.html The unfortunate truth is that there is no such thing as "clean coa l." Proposed "clean coal" plants will still emit substantial levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, smog-forming nitrogen oxide, lung- damaging particulates and cause mercury contamination of water and land. "Clean coal" refers to a variety of technologies that in theory are supposed to allow coal to be
burned while producing little pollution. None has fulfilled that promise, however. Use of new technologies has helped reduce smokestack emissions, but Clean Coal Technology (CCT) power plants are still very dirty, much dirtier than natural gas fired plants. For example, levels of nitrogen oxide at the Fort Lonesome, Fla., "clean coal" plant are seven times higher than at a natural gas- fired facility. Unlike Fort Lonesome, natural gas plants also emit no sulfur dioxide. No other source of pollution causes as many adverse health impacts as coal-burning power plants. Coal is America's dirtiest energy source and also our largest, generating 52 percent of the nation's electricity. Coalburning power plants are the single biggest source of industrial air pollution. Increasing dependence on any type of coal technology is not a true move towards a cleaner energy policy, as coal produces pollution when it is mined, transported, burned and when the waste from burning is disposed. Clearly, the term clean coal is a misnomer. General Accounting Office (GAO) audits of the Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) have said, "emerging clean coal technologies will probably not contribute significantly to the reduction of acid rain causing emissions during the next 15 years." The Energy Department's own evaluations of some of its projects showed that new "clean coal" technologies were 40 percent less effective in removing sulfur dioxide emissions than conventional smokestack "scrubbers." A History of Waste and Mismanagement Since its beginning in 1985, DOE's "clean coal" research and development program has received more than $2.3 billion in federal funds through two separate programs. The coal industry also receives hundreds of millions of dollars through a separate DOE coal research and development program. As of March 2000, one-fifth (10) of the total projects funded had been either withdrawn or terminated. Numerous attempts to build "clean coal" plants have failed because of high construction and design costs, environmental worries, technology problems, risky business plans and wobbly investor confidence .

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Clean Coal Bad: Mining
Clean coal requires mining, which devastates ecosystems. World Wildlife Fund, 2004, ―Coal-Focused Strategy in Bush Energy Plan Would Increase Global Warming‖,
http://www.ecoworld.org/Home/articles2.cfm?TID=295 The experts argue that coal will not be truly clean in the foreseeable future and that efforts to produce so-called "clean coal" are
misguided as a centrepiece of national energy policy because there are much cheaper ways to make clean electricity. In the meantime, however, the Administration's plan to promote coal and relax clean air standards could increase the output of existing "dirty coal" plants, and raise CO2 emissions from the electricity sector by 40 to 60% over present day levels by the year 2020. "This kind of impact will have a devastating effect on global warming and the threat it poses to both people and wildlife," said Jennifer Morgan, director of World Wildlife Fund's Climate Change Campaign. "Because, 20 years from now, more than 90% of coal-fired electricity could still come from today's existing plants, 'clean coal' is, and for the foreseeable future will remain, an oxymoron." Coal plants are the electricity sector's principal source of pollution, accounting for more than three-quarters of the industry's emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, the main cause of global warming. Most of the 500-plus coal plants in operation in the US today are "grandfathered" into clean air regulations, meaning they are largely exempt from the regulations, and thus, have continued to operate at emission levels 10 times that of plants meeting current standards. The Bush energy plan would make it possible for some "mothballed" plants, no longer in use because they cannot meet clean air standards, to be placed back in operation. The United States has indicated that it does not intend to pursue the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement that would set limits for carbon pollution and other emissions that contribute to global warming. "When President Bush backed away from the protocol, he promised to come up with a plan to reduce carbon emissions in the United States," said Morgan. "An energy policy based on fossil fuels such as coal and oil is certainly not the way to go to achieve this goal. This administration needs to take global warming seriously, and get back on track with the Kyoto protocol," said Morgan. "If we accept, as President Bush stated in his campaign, that global warming is real and requires urgent action, then we must start facing the fact that the coal age may soon be over," Morgan added. "As an energy source for the future, coal is as dated as leaded gasoline." A coal-focused energy strategy would continue and worsen the following problems: · Good money after bad. Instead of subsidies for polluting fuels like coal, we should use tax dollars to promote promising clean technologies. Bush has proposed $2 billion in new coal subsidies on top of the $2 billion already squandered on the Clean Coal Technologies program. · Going against the flow. Total US coal consumption has grown 17% since 1990, in stark contrast to the rest of the world, where coal use has dropped 16%. Over this same period, China removed its long-standing coal subsidies and many OECD countries such as the UK and Germany shifted away from coal to cleaner burning and less expensive gas. · Still the culprit. Coal plants are the electricity industry's principal source of pollution. They account for 92% of that sector's sulphur oxide emissions, 85% of its nitrogen oxide emissions, 76% of its carbon dioxide emissions, and 99% of its mercury emissions. · The mercury is rising. Coal plants are the single leading source of all mercury pollution in the US, accounting for a third of all airborne mercury releases. Coal plant mercury emissions are expected to increase 33% by 2010, and yet they are the only major mercury sources that are unregulated. · It's not just the air. Coal is increasingly extracted from surface mines and mountaintop mining. Coal mining also results in 95% of acidic mine drainage in the US which harms aquatic life in 12,000 miles of American rivers. ·

Clean coal requires coal mining, and creates environmental damage. UCS, 11/1/04, Union of Concerned Scientists, ―Common Sense Solution #2: Modernize America‘s Electricity
System‖, http://www.ucsusa.org/global_environment/global_warming/page.cfm?pageID=796 "Clean coal" technologies allow coal to burn with less pollution, and have the potential to reduce heat-trapping emissions if combined with carbon capture and storage technology. However, there are still technological and financial hurdles to overcome for these technologies to be viable, and there would still be significant upstream environmental damage from the mining and transportation of coal resources. In the meantime, new power plant proposals continue to rely mostly on conventional dirty coal
technology. The fact is, coal-burning power plants remain the single biggest source of industrial air pollution. We have better options.

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***Peak Coal***

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Peak Coal- Yes
US coal production has already peaked – the most recent studies conclude that remaining reserves are of LOW QUALITY and impossible to mine. Global coal reserves face a similar fate, and will peak within 15 years Richard Heinberg (Faculty member of New College of California and a Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute) May 21 2007 ―Peak coal: sooner than you think,‖ Energy Bulletin, http://www.energybulletin.net/node/29919
Coal provides over a quarter of the world's primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. Two thirds of global steel production depends on coal. Global consumption of coal is growing faster than that of oil or natural gas - a reverse of the situation in earlier decades. From 2000 to 2005, coal extraction expanded at an average of 4.8 per cent per year compared to 1.6 per cent per year for oil: although world natural gas consumption had been racing ahead in past years, in 2005 it actually fell slightly. Looking to the future, many analysts who are concerned about emerging supply constraints for oil and gas foresee a compensating shift to lower-quality fuels. Coal can be converted to a gaseous or liquid fuel, and coal gasification and coal-to-liquids plants are being constructed at record rates. This expanded use of coal is worrisome to advocates of policies to protect the global climate, some of whom place great hopes in new (mostly untested) technologies to capture and sequester carbon from coal gasification. With or without such technologies, there will almost certainly be more coal in our near future. According to the widely accepted view, at current production levels proven coal reserves will last 155 years (this according to the World Coal Institute). The US Department of Energy (USDoE) projects annual global coal consumption to grow 2.5 per cent a year through 2030, by which time world consumption will be nearly double that of today. A startling report: less than we thought! However, future scenarios for global coal consumption are cast into doubt by two recent European studies on world coal supplies. The first, Coal: Resources and Future Production (PDF 630KB), published on April 5 by the Energy Watch Group, which reports to the German Parliament, found that global coal production could peak in as few

as 15 years. This astonishing conclusion was based on a careful analysis of recent reserves revisions for several nations. The report's authors (Werner Zittel and Jörg Schindler) note that, with regard to global coal reserves, "the data quality is very unreliable", especially for China, South Asia, and the Former Soviet Union countries. Some nations (such as Vietnam) have not updated their proved reserves for decades, in
some instances not since the 1960s. China's last update was in 1992; since then, 20 per cent of its reserves have been consumed, though this is not revealed in official figures. However,

since 1986 all nations with significant coal resources (except India and Australia) that have made the effort to update their reserves estimates have reported substantial downward revisions. Some countries - including Botswana, Germany, and the UK - have downgraded their reserves by more than 90 per cent . Poland's reserves are now 50 per cent smaller than was the case 20 years ago. These downgrades cannot be explained by volumes produced during this period. The best explanation, say the EWG report's authors, is that nations now have better data from more thorough surveys . If that is the case, then future downward revisions are likely from countries that still rely on decades-old reserves estimates. Altogether, the
world's reserves of coal have dwindled from 10 trillion tons of hard coal equivalent to 4.2 trillion tons in 2005 - a 60 per cent downward revision in 25 years. China (the world's primary consumer) and the US (the nation with the largest reserves) are keys to the future of coal. China reports 55 years of coal reserves at current consumption rates. Subtracting quantities consumed since 1992, the last year reserves figures were updated, this declines to 40 to 45 years. However, the calculation assumes constant rates of usage, which is unrealistic since consumption is increasing rapidly. Already China has shifted from being a minor coal exporter to being a net coal importer. Moreover, we must factor in the peaking phenomenon common to the extraction of all non-renewable resources (the peak of production typically occurs long before the resource is exhausted). The EWG report's authors, taking these factors into account, state: "it is likely that China will experience peak production within the next 5-15 years, followed by a steep decline." Only if China's reported coal reserves are in reality much larger than reported will Chinese coal production rates not peak "very soon" and fall rapidly. The United States is the world's second-largest producer, surpassing the two next important producer states (India and Australia) by

The US has already passed its peak of production for high-quality coal (from the Appalachian Mountains and the Illinois basin) and has seen production of bituminous coal decline since 1990. However, growing extraction of sub-bituminous coal in Wyoming has more than compensated for this. Taking reserves into account, the EWG concludes that growth in total volumes can continue for 10 to 15 years. However, in terms of energy content US coal production peaked in 1998 at 598 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe); by 2005 this had fallen to 576 Mtoe. Confirmation: a second study The EWG study so contradicts widespread assumptions about future coal supplies that most energy analysts would probably prefer to ignore it. However, an even more recent study , The Future of Coal, by B. Kavalov and S. D. Peteves of the Institute for Energy (IFE), prepared for European Commission Joint Research Centre and not yet published, reaches similar conclusions. Unlike the EWG team, Kavalov and Peteves do not attempt to forecast a peak in production. Future supply is discussed in terms of the familiar but often misleading reserves to-production (R/P) ratio. Nevertheless, the IFG's conclusions broadly confirm the EWG report. The three primary take-away conclusions from the newer study are as follows: "world proven reserves (i.e. the reserves that are economically recoverable at current economic and operating conditions) of coal are decreasing fast "; "the bulk of coal production and exports is getting concentrated within a few countries and market players, which creates the risk of market imperfections"; and "coal production costs are steadily rising all over the world, due to the need to develop new fields, increasingly difficult geological conditions and additional infrastructure costs associated with the exploitation of new fields". Early in the paper the authors ask, "Will coal be a fuel of the future?" Their disturbing conclusion, many pages later, is that " coal might not be so abundant, widely available and reliable as an energy source in the future". Along the way, they state "the world could run out of economically recoverable (at current economic and operating conditions) reserves of coal much earlier than widely anticipated". The authors also highlight problems noted in the EWG study having to do with differing grades of coal and the likelihood of supply problems arising first
nearly a factor of three. Its reserves are so large that America has been called "the Saudi Arabia of coal". with the highest-grade ores. All of this translates to higher coal prices in coming years. The conclusion is repeated throughout the IFE report: "[I]t is true that historically coal has been cheaper than oil and gas on an energy content basis. This may change, however ... The regional and country overview in the preceding chapter has revealed that coal recovery in most countries will incur higher production costs in future. Since international coal prices are still linked to production costs ... an increase in the global price levels of coal can be expected ..." As prices for coal rise, "the relative gap between coal prices and oil and gas prices will most likely narrow", with the result that "the future world oil, gas and coal markets will most likely become increasingly inter-related and the energy market will tend to develop into a global market of hydrocarbons".

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Peak Coal- Yes
Coal production will peak within twenty years. Coal numbers are more inflated than oil reserves Ryan McGreal February 26 2007 Raise the Hammer; ―The Oil Depletion Protocol: An Interview with Richard
Heinberg‖; http://www.raisethehammer.org/index.asp?id=526
Ryan McGreal, Raise the Hammer: Coal is cheap and abundant. Other than the fact that it would increase CO2 production, can countries resist ramping up coal-to-liquids programs to replace declines in conventional oil? Richard Heinberg: Actually, future global coal production is routinely overestimated. That, at least, is the conclusion of an as yet unpublished study by the Energy Watch

Group of Germany. That team has found that in the countries where coal reserves are well reported, the size of resources has been downgraded dramatically in recent years. There are other countries that have not changed reserves reports for decades, and it appears that those numbers are probably even more inflated than oil reserves numbers for OPEC. The study concludes that global coal production will peak in 10 to 20 years. I'm tracking a Dutch study-inprogress where the researchers are using different criteria, and their preliminary results confirm the German study. All of this has enormous implications for the climate debate (which is mostly about coal) as well as discussions about substituting coal-to-liquids for diminishing oil. Ultimately we are facing not just a liquid fuels crisis, but a general energy crisis . Oil, coal, and natural gas together supply over 85

percent of the world's energy. All will peak in production within the next 20 years. The world had better start thinking about how to get along with less energy.

Peak coal will happen within then next fifteen years Richard Heinberg (Faculty member of New College of California and a Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute) May 21 2007 ―Peak coal: sooner than you think,‖ Energy Bulletin, http://www.energybulletin.net/node/29919
However, future scenarios for global coal consumption are cast into doubt by two recent European studies on world coal supplies. The first, Coal: Resources and Future Production (PDF 630KB), published on April 5 by the Energy Watch Group, which reports to the German Parliament, found that global coal production could peak in as few as 15 years. This astonishing conclusion was based on a careful analysis of recent reserves revisions for several nations. The report‘s authors (Werner Zittel and Jörg Schindler) note that, with regard to global coal reserves, ―the data quality is very unreliable‖, especially for China, South Asia, and the Former Soviet Union countries. Some nations (such as Vietnam) have not updated their

proved reserves for decades, in some instances not since the 1960s. China‘s last update was in 1992; since then, 20 per cent of its reserves have been consumed, though this is not revealed in official figures. However, since 1986 all
nations with significant coal resources (except India and Australia) that have made the effort to update their reserves estimates have reported substantial downward revisions. Some countries - including Botswana, Germany, and the UK - have downgraded their

reserves by more than 90 per cent. Poland‘s reserves are now 50 per cent smaller than was the case 20 years ago.
These downgrades cannot be explained by volumes produced during this period. The best explanation, say the EWG report‘s authors, is that nations now have better data from more thorough surveys. If that is the case, then future downward revisions are likely from countries that still rely on decades-old reserves estimates. Altogether, the world‘s reserves of coal have dwindled from 10 trillion tons of hard

coal equivalent to 4.2 trillion tons in 2005 - a 60 per cent downward revision in 25 years

Coal will not last another 250 years Richard Heinberg (Faculty member of New College of California and a Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute) June 2008 Global Public Media, ―Richard Heinberg's MuseLetter: Coal in the United States‖
http://globalpublicmedia.com/museletter_194_coal_in_the_united_states It is not possible to confirm that there is a sufficient supply of coal for the next 250 years, as is often asserted. A combination of increased rates of production with more detailed reserve analyses that take into account location, quality, recoverability, and transportation issues may substantially reduce the estimated number of years supply. This increasing uncertainty associated with the longer-term projections arises because significant information is incomplete or unreliable. The data that are publicly available for such projections are outdated, fragmentary, or inaccurate. These doubts about current reserves figures were based upon recent Coal Recoverability Studies undertaken in Kentucky,
Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Wyoming—in effect, spot checks to determine whether reserves figures were indeed reliable within restricted areas where coal recoverability could be determined with some accuracy as the result of mining experience. A total of 65 areas in 22 coal fields have been analyzed, and these studies suggest that 8 to 89 percent of the identified resources in these coal fields are recoverable and 5 to 25 percent of identified resources may be classified as reserves. Because they are based on site-specific criteria, these studies provide considerably improved estimates compared to the ERR [Estimated Recoverable Reserves]. One such study, of the Matewan quadrangle of eastern Kentucky, concluded: "a strong argument can be made that traditional coal producing regions may soon be

experiencing resource depletion problems far greater and much sooner than previously thought."

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Peak Coal- Yes
Coal will peak soon Richard Heinberg (Faculty member of New College of California and a Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute) June 2008 Global Public Media, ―Richard Heinberg's MuseLetter: Coal in the United States‖
http://globalpublicmedia.com/museletter_194_coal_in_the_united_states Considering the insights of the regional analysis it is very likely that bituminous coal production in the US has already peaked, and that total (volumetric) coal production will peak between 2020 and 2030. The possible growth to arrive
at peak measured in energy terms will be lower, only about 20% above today‘s level. . . . [T]he 250 billion ton figure [the current official estimate of recoverable reserves] should not be the basis for energy planning. The various EWG scenarios suggest that if Montana and Illinois can resolve their production blockages, or the nation becomes so desperate for energy supplies that environmental concerns are simply swept away, then the peak will come somewhat later, while the decline will be longer, slower, and probably far dirtier.

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Peak Coal- Yes- US
US reserves of HIGH QUALITY coal have ALREADY peaked – remaining reserves of mostly of low-quality bituminous and lignite coal Energy Watch Group, an group of independent scientists and experts who investigate sustainable concepts for
global energy supply, initiated by the German member of parliament Hans-Josef Fell. ―Coal: Resources And Future Production,‖ background paper prepared, March 20 07 The country with the largest reported coal reserves is the United States of America. But as already discussed above, also these reserves have been revised downward for several times in the past. Nevertheless, the present R/P-ratio allows the continuation of
present production rates for more than 200 years. First it has to be noted that the current proved reserve figures as stated in the BP statistics – which correspond to the WEC definition of proved recoverable reserve – are identical with the estimated recoverable reserve according to EIA. The EIA definition seems to be somewhat weaker than the BP and WEC definitions. Here we observe that the same values have misteriously changed from estimated to proved. Our understanding is that only the EIA definition of ―recoverable reserves at producing mines‖ can be regarded as ―proved reserves‖, whereas the EIA category ―estimated recoverable reserves‖ in analogy to the definitions used for mineral oil would not be regarded as ―proved reserves‖ but as ―proved + probable reserves‖. A more detailed analysis reveals that in the US A the era of high quality coal is nearing its end and the efforts to produce the coal are steadily increasing. The following figure A-4 shows coal production rates since 1950, distinguishing between anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite. Anthracite production has been steadily declining since 1950 , from 5.5 million tons in 1950 to 1.5 million tons in 2005. Bituminous coal production has also been declining since about 1990. But total coal production has still been rising by about 20 million tons per year since 1960. This increase seems to have flattened out somewhat since 1998 but is still rising reaching its maximum in 2005. Since 1970 lower quality subbituminous and low qualitiy lignite have been contributing with rising volumes. The growing share of lower quality coal is the reason why total coal production in terms of energy content peaked in 1998 at 598.4 Mtoe and has since declined to 576.2 Mtoe in 2005 in spite of the continuous rise in produced volumes (BP 2006). overall data quality might be rather poor, general trends are obvious for the USA (probably with highest data quality), Brazil and Poland. Australia is the only investigated country where the coal quality is still increasing. The slight decline of German coal quality, interrupted by an increase during the 1990ies, is a result of the German reunification in 1990 when coal production in the eastern states was restructured and inefficient coal mines were closed.

The observed steady decline of coal quality is due to the steadily rising share of lower quality coal shifting from anthracite and bituminous to subbituminous and to lignite. The declining coal quality is not only due to a steady shift towards subbituminous and lignite. Also within each class, the quality declines. Another aspect is the productivity
of the US coal industry in terms of produced tons per miner. Until the year 2000, productivity steadily increased for all types of coal produced covering surface and subsurface mining. But since then productivity has declined by about 10% (see the figure below). The decline in productivity can only be explained by the necessity of rising efforts in production. This might be due to deeper digging and/or to a higher level of waste production. Are these already indications for the era of "easy coal" drawing to a close? The rising effort for coal mining has also been reflected in rising coal prices since about the year 2000 but the price rice certainly has also other causes. These price rises are summarised in the following table.

US production of high-quality coal peaked 5 years ago Energy Watch Group, independent scientists and experts who investigate sustainable concepts for global
energy supply, initiated by the German member of parliament Hans-Josef Fell.. ―Coal: Resources And Future Production,‖ background paper prepared, March 20 07 The USA, being the second largest producer, have already passed peak production of high quality coal in 1990 in the Appalachian and the Illinois basin. Production of subbituminous coal in Wyoming more than compensated for this decline in terms of volume and – according to its stated reserves – this trend can continue for another 10 to 15 years. However, due to the lower energy content of subbituminous coal, US coal production in terms of energy has already peaked 5 years ago – it is unclear whether this trend can be reversed. Also specific productivity per miner is declining since about 2000. About 60 percent of US reserves are located in the three states of Illinois, Wyoming and Montana. Illinois and Montana show no signs of expanding their production which since two decades remains at low levels or even declines. There are a number of possible reasons for this: low quality coal, political opposition because of competing land use and environmental issues, overestimated coal reserves because of poor geological data or a weaker definition of ―proven‖.

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Peak Coal- Yes- US
Their “200 year” timeframe is a pathetic trope – most of those reserves are useless because they’re low quality and un-mineable Richard Heinberg, Senior Fellow at the Post Carbon Institute, former Core Faculty member of New College of California. ―Richard Heinberg's Museletter #179: Burning the Furniture,‖ 3/33/2007
http://globalpublicmedia.com/richard_heinbergs_museletter_179_burning_the_furniture
The United States is the world‘s second-largest producer, surpassing the two next important producer states (India and Australia) by nearly a factor of three. Its reserves are so large that America has sometimes been called ―the Saudi Arabia of coal.‖ The U.S. has already passed its peak of production for high-quality coal (from the Appalachian mountains and the Illinois basin) and has seen production of bituminous coal decline since 1990 . However, growing extraction of sub-bituminous coal in Wyoming has more than compensated for this. Taking reserves into account, the authors of the report conclude that growth in total

volumes can continue for 10 to 15 years. However, in terms of energy content U.S. coal production peaked in 1998 at 598 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe); by 2005 this had fallen to 576 Mtoe. This forecast for a near-term peak in U.S. coal extraction flies in the face of frequently repeated statements that the nation has 200 years‘ worth of coal reserves at current levels of consumption. The report notes: ―all of these reserves will probably not be converted into production volumes, as most of them are of low quality with high sulfur content or other restrictions.‖ It also points out that ―the productivity of mines in terms of produced tons per miner steadily increased until 2000, but declines since then.‖ The report‘s key findings regarding future U.S. coal production are summed up in the following paragraph: Three
federal states (Montana, Illinois, Wyoming) own more than 70% of US coal reserves. Over the last 20 years two of these three states (Montana and Illinois) have been producing at remarkably low levels in relation to their reported reserves. Moreover, the production in Montana has remained constant for the last 10 years and the production in Illinois has steadily declined by 50% since 1986. This casts severe doubts on the reliability of their reported reserves. Even if these reported recoverable reserves do exist, some other reasons prevented their extraction and it is therefore very uncertain whether these reserves will ever be converted into produced volumes. Considering the insights of the regional analysis it is very likely that bituminous coal production in the US already has peaked, and that total coal production will peak between 2020 and 2030.

US running out of high quality coal Richard Heinberg (Faculty member of New College of California and a Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute) June 2008 Global Public Media, ―Richard Heinberg's MuseLetter: Coal in the United States‖
http://globalpublicmedia.com/museletter_194_coal_in_the_united_states Three states (Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and West Virginia) produce 52 percent of the higher-quality coal in the US. All three of these states seem to be in decline or plateau. Since the Northeast was the area of the nation earliest settled and was
long a primary center for industrial manufacture, it is not surprising that the coal of this region was exploited preferentially. Today,

Pennsylvania‘s anthracite is almost gone. Mining companies there are now exploiting seams as thin as 28 inches. West Virginia, the second largest coal-producing state (after Wyoming), where much coal is surface mined in an environmentally ruinous practice known as mountaintop removal, is nearing its maximum production rate and will see declines commence within the next few years, according to a recent USGS report.

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Peak Coal- Yes- Best Evidence
Their numbers are wrong – US reserves are OVER estimated because they’re based upon biased USGS surveys Dave Rutledge, Chair for the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at Caltech. ―The Coal Question and Climate Change,‖ The Oil Drum, 6/25 2007 http://www.theoildrum.com/node/2697
Why are coal reserves high? In his book Hubbert‘s Peak, Ken Deffeyes says this about the US Geological Survey, ― When USGS workers tried to estimate resources, they acted, well, like bureaucrats. Whenever a judgment call was made about choosing a statistical method, the USGS almost invariably tended to pick the one that gave the higher estimate. ‖ My theory relates to my sister-in-law, Nancy Yee. Nancy appraises apartments for a bank. If her estimates are too high, the bank loses money,

and she loses her job. My suspicion is that no one in a geological survey ever lost her job for being optimistic about coal reserves.

Don’t buy any evidence written before 2008 – world coal reserves are being re-estimated David Strahan, award-winning investigative journalist. ―The great coal hole,‖ The Last Oil Shock/New Scientist 1/17 2008 http://www.energybulletin.net/node/39236
Mine below the surface, however, and the numbers are not so reassuring. Over

the past 20 years, official reserves have fallen by more than 170 billion tonnes, even though we have consumed nothing like that much. What‘s more, by a measure known as the reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – the number of years the reserves would last at the current rate of consumption – coal has declined even more dramatically. In February 2007, the European Commission‘s Institute for Energy reported that the R/P
ratio had dropped by more than a third between 2000 and 2005, from 277 years to just 155. If this rate of decline were to continue, the institute warns, ―the world could run out of economically recoverable …reserves of coal much earlier than widely anticipated‖. In 2006, according to figures from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, the R/P fell again, to 144 years. So why are estimates of coal reserves falling so fast – and why now? One reason is clear: consumption is soaring, particularly in the developing world. Global coal consumption rose 35 per cent between 2000 and 2006. In 2006, China alone added 102 gigawatts of coal-fired generating capacity, enough to produce three times as much electricity as California consumed that year. China is by far the world‘s largest producer of coal, but such is its appetite for the fuel that in 2007 it became a net importer. According to the International Energy Agency, coal consumption is likely to grow ever faster in both China and India. Another less noticed reason is that in recent years many countries have revised their official coal reserves downwards, in

some cases massively, and often by far more than had been mined since the previous assessment. For instance, the UK and Germany have cut their reserves by more than 90 per cent and Poland by 50 per cent. Declared global reserves of high-quality ―hard coal‖ have fallen by 25 per cent since 1990, from almost 640 billion tonnes to less than 480 billion – again more than could be accounted for by consumption.

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Peak Coal- No
The DOE concludes that we have 200 years of coal reserves Cathy Booth Thomas. ―Is Coal Golden?‖ Time Oct. 02, 2006
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1541270,00.html?iid=chix-sphere
Over the next 25 years, the Department of Energy predicts the use of coal will provide an increasing portion of our power--up to nearly 60%, from 52%. Convened by the Secretary of Energy, the National Coal Council (McCall is a member) has laid out an aggressive energy plan using coal over the next two decades. Coal production is expected to soar from 1.1 billion tons a year to 1.8 billion--mostly from the West, especially Wyoming's Powder River Basin. New transmission lines, like the $6 billion Frontier Line, will carry electricity from the coalfields of Wyoming to consumers in California. Peabody Energy, the nation's largest coal company, with 2005 sales of $4.6 billion, up 28%, and earnings of $423 million, up 140%, is in acquisition mode worldwide. The Bush Administration has put down its own $2 billion bet, largely by pursuing FutureGen, a next-generation coal- fired plant promising near zero pollution emissions--all in the hope of making the nation less oil dependent. The U.S. is, after all, the Saudi Arabia of coal. We have more than 200 years of coal reserves at our current burn rate. There are 440 coal-fired plants across the nation, with proposals to build 153 more in 42 states over the next decade, at a cost of $137 billion, to provide electricity to 93 million homes and support our energy-guzzling lifestyles.

Their arguments about bias are wrong – coal reserves are well known and accurately surveyed Dave Rutledge, Chair for the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at Caltech. ―The Coal Question and Climate Change,‖ The Oil Drum, 6/25 2007 http://www.theoildrum.com/node/2697
Oil reserves are rightly viewed skeptically at The Oil Drum, in large part because of fraud by the OPEC countries. Coal reserves are compiled by the national geological surveys, and unlike oil reserves, they are honest. However, recently Dr. Werner Zittel and Jorg Schindler and their Energy Watch Group have written an important paper ―Coal: Resources and Future Production‖ that shows that there are major problems with the reliability of coal reserves, and indicates that the reserves may be too high. Coal is different from oil,

and much of the intuition that we may have developed about oil from nights pondering TOD posts is wrong for coal. Finding oil is hard, and we have not found it all yet. In contrast, people knew where the coal was a century ago. Once oil is found, it is likely to be produced quickly, so much so that discovery history is routinely used to predict future production. On the other hand, there are large coal fields that are almost undeveloped. As an example, Montana has larger coal reserves than Europe, Africa, or South America, but it is producing less than 0.1% of that coal each year. Our estimate of future coal production depends a lot on whether we think that the people of Montana will get into serious coal production. Finally, in contrast to the situation for oil, the world market for coal is only partially developed. Most coal is consumed in
the country it is produced in, and there are large differences in prices, even in the same country. For this reason, we will analyze production on a regional basis. I will apply the techniques to coal that are routinely used here for oil, and consider the consequences for future climate change. People who are interested in more details can get the spreadsheets with the raw data at my web site, with lots of additional figures and source links.

The US has a 300 year supply of coal ACF (American Coal Foundation) 2007
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:DnsasfCvfakJ:www.teachcoal.org/aboutcoal/articles/coalconvert.html+the+u nited+states+has+300+years+of+coal&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=us Natural gas and oil are also used to make electricity. How does coal compare to these other fossil fuels? In terms of supply, coal has a clear advantage. The United States has nearly 300 billion tons of recoverable coal. That is enough to last about 300 years if we continue to use coal at the same rate as we use it today. In addition, coal is a versatile fuel. It can be used as a solid fuel or it can be converted to a gas to replace expensive imported fuels

The US has a lot of recoverable coal ACF (American Coal Foundation) 2007 http://www.teachcoal.org/aboutcoal/articles/faqs.html#howmuch
Coal supplies in the United States are far more plentiful than domestic oil or natural gas; they account for 95 percent of the country's fossil fuel reserves and more than 60 percent of the world's fuel reserves. The United States has about 275 billion tons of recoverable coal, which could last us more than 250 years if we continue using coal at the same rate as we use it today. In addition, the United States has more than 25 percent of the world's estimated coal reserves. To meet energy and metallurgical needs, the United States mines over a billion tons a year of coal. The rest of the world mines another 4 billion tons per year.

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