International Workshop on “Globalization and Human Resource Development” Co ordinator & Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmedabad Email: email@example.com
Inaugural Session started with a brief introduction of Mahatma Gandhi Labour Institute [MGLI] and FES. Welcome address was given by Dr. I.S. Singh, Professor and Coordinator of the Workshop and he also talked about the objective and theme of the Workshop. He talked about the changes and challenges globalization has brought about and said that skill development is an ongoing process and uphill task in the fast changing world. The workshop has been organized to provide a platform for discussing various issues of HRD in organized and unorganized sector. Mr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES spoke about the challenges of globalization and how workforce can be made more employable. He talked about issues that concern the market, customer who is sensitive and have environmental concerns. Ms. Layla Tigmo Reddy, Director and ILO Representative in India delivered inaugural address. She talked about ILO and gave its introduction. She said that objective of ILO is to provide decent work. Decent work agenda of ILO includes employment, work quantity & quality and social security. Ms. Mish Vyas, Assistant Professor (Economics), MGLI concluded the inaugural session by extending the Vote of Thanks. In the 1st Technical Session on Human Resource Development in the context of globalization, there were six speakers. The session was chaired by Dr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES, New Delhi. Dr. I.S. Singh, Presented the paper “Human Resource Development in the Globalizing World – An Overview of Challenges and Opportunities”. Dr. Singh gave an overview of the challenges and opportunities faced due to globalization. He defines HRD and says that HRD is essentially a business led approach to tap the people’s
potentiality, so that their strength can be systematically brought in within the organization’s strategic framework. He further talked about globalization and HRD and said that the knowledge economy has come into sharp focus and it is all about how any economy harnesses and uses new and existing knowledge to improve the productivity in agriculture, industry, services etc. He also talked about globalization and higher education. He said that higher education plays a dual role as a vital component of both, the national education and R&D system. He also talked about HRD in the organized sector and said that we have to see that what is the number and type of human talent available in the Indian market and how the state and industry can jointly establish centre of excellence so that the needed talent could be made available to the industry. He also threw light on Labour Force and Labour Market in India, changing technology and Trade in education and finally on Trade Union. Next Speaker Prof. S.T. Sawant, Advisor, Ambedkar Institute of Labour Studies spoke on HRD in the context of globalization. He defined globalization and said that it is a process of transformation of local or regional phenomenon into global one. It is influenced by technological development. He said that one needs to note that in the recent phenomenon of globalization there is increase in international trade at a much faster rate than the growth in the world economy and international flow of capital including FDI. He said that India is rich with labour or human resource which is also young – energetic with more proportion of its population in the age group of 15-54 years. He said that structure of economy is shifting towards knowledge economy that creates, disseminates and uses knowledge to enhance its growth, development and competitiveness. Skill Development in the unorganized sector is more challenging. He said that a state should have a holistic policy for promoting and matching competencies and its implementation on top priority. The next speaker Dr. V.P. Bhardwaj, Former Director, School of Social Sciences, Gujarat University spoke on “Some Issues of India’s HRD related Policies in the context of Globalization”.
He said that the global recession gives a pessimistic picture. He opined that HRD is a national concern because of limited mobility. We have moved from controlled economy to free economy. We have to find out strategy for HRD. Human Development deals with the social concern and improving the underprivileged section. Question of HRD must focus on vocational education and primary education. In the organized sector, we have to focus on HRD – developing skill based on the market demand. It is a very complex task. It needs participation of private, public, Government and the community. Next Speaker Mr. H. Mahadevan, Deputy General Secretary, AITUC, New Delhi spoke on “Human Development in the context of Globalization”. He said that we are worried about new neo-liberal globalization. There is a growth but there is jobless growth. There is a trickle down theory of globalization which has not helped. True development is something beyond and for more fundamental. He said that true development is total development of human spirit in a climate of freedom and spontaneity. He also said that true development is replacement of the culture of intolerance, mindless hatred, cruelty and violence by a culture of self abnegation, love, kindness, compassion and commiseration. The next speaker is Dr. Radhika Gupta, Lecturer, Chimanbhai Patel Institute of Management, Ahmedabad spoke on “HRD in Context of Globalization”. She said that Globalisaiton is an attitude of mind. She asked what has changed because of globalization. There is change from agriculture economy to knowledge economy. She said that strategic HR practices in globalization are Internal Career opportunity, Formal training system, appraisal measures, profit sharing, etc. She concluded by saying that the liberalization and globalization process, which has come over the Indian economy in the last seventeen years, has given birth to fair number of fly-by-night small enterprises which hope to gain legitimacy and foster rapid
growth by setting up a Human Resource Department. The country has moved towards a free market economy. Old rules of the game have been discarded and new rules have been made. It is important to embrace change with open arms. Last speaker in the session was Mr. M.A. Baria, Sr. VP (HR), Kalpataru Power, Gandhinagar. He spoke on Human Resource Management and Globalisation. He also spoke about positive aspects of globalization. Globalisation is about open economy and were to compete, restriction were opened up and taken out. It enforces merger between culture and encourages growth. It is free flow of technology, finance, etc. He said that the benefits of globalization are talent influx, technical competence, financial inflow and cross cultural amalgamation. However, there is a risk of brain-drain, legal complications, job insecurity and uncertain international markets. The 2nd Technical Session on Sources of Talent, Recruitment, Training and Retraining of Existing Employees/Managers, was chaired by Dr. D.M. Pestonjee, Former Professor of OB, IIM, Ahmedabad. The first speaker in this session, Dr. Upinder Dhar, Director, Nirma Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, spoke on “Achieving World Class Excellence Through Creativity and Innovation”. Looking at the demographic structure we have some advantages. He added that if we can convert the large working people into skilled people it will be advantageous to the entire world. World recognizes us as giants in IT sector. The workplace environment is changing and nature of employment also changes. The challenge for HR is to attract and retain competent people. Our focus has to be world class not just domestic. What needs to be done and what are the experiences? The survival of the fittest applies today. Despite Third World infrastructure and uneven turf many Indian corporates have achieved world class excellence.
He said that creative thinking involves the ability to find solution to problems by changing one’s perspective when conventional approach fails to provide the appropriate answers. The world class excellence can be achieved only by promoting the culture of creativity and innovation. The second speaker, Mr. Suryanarayan, Vice President (Training), Zydus Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Ahmedabad, spoke on “Role of Training in Human Resource Development and Meeting the Organisational Objectives”. The presentation was in three parts: Zydus Training Philosophy The Challenges Training the employee to thrive challenges. It is not enough to create a few top performers but more performers who can deliver, he opined. He said that 40% of graduates are employable, remaining 60% had to be trained for employability. Human Resources are the greatest assets. The challenges we have in pharmaceutical industry are job and market commoditization and shift towards service industry. There is a serious attrition problem. The challenges are how to increase productivity as well. Training and development are critically important because it provides bridges between potential and actual human resources. The third speaker, Mr. Saurabh Dixit, President (HR), Adani Group, Ahmedabad, spoke on “Talent Management”. He said that the role of HR has become more of business function than an administrative function. The focus is on performance management. How can we make our recruiting process more efficient? Talent management begins with business plan, then workforce planning, recruiting, performance management, etc. Talent management requires integration and communication between existing HR, Training and Development functions. Talent management is about the few not the many. It is important to develop key people as leaders and role models for others to follow.
Managing talent in diversified business organization is a complex process. The Third Technical Session was on Performance Management and HRD, chaired by Dr. Pramod Verma, Former Professor (P&IR), IIM, Ahmedabad. The first speaker of this session, Dr. Devraj Adhikari, Professor of Management, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, spoke on “Performance Management and Human Resource Development in Government”. According to him, performance management is a process that links people and jobs to the strategy and objectives of the organization. He focused on the issues of how organizations can cope with the ever increasing challenges by rethinking about their human resource management. The issues include the concept of performance management and HRD, developments in HRM concepts and practices, the new role for HR professionals for performance management, performance management and issues in Nepalese organizations, the new trend of HR in Nepalese organizations, HRD needs for performance management and the new HRD structure for performance management. With the detailed analysis of these issues, the paper tries to show how performance is linked to both behavioural process and outcomes of the organization and thus how performance management is a critical tool to achieve competitive advantage. He concluded by saying that Nepalese organizations are largely suffering from performance management challenges such as, poor employee relations, lack of proper employee development initiatives and declining efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Like many developed countries of the West, there have been changes in the HR context and thus Nepalese HR professionals have faced new challenges. The second speaker in this session was Mr. Biju Varkkey, Professor (P&IR), IIM, Ahmedabad. His topic was “Some Reflections about Performance Management and HRD in Government”. Managing performance of government is important and good governance facilitates all of us. It is delivered by very complex
systems. The current issues in PMS (Performance Management System) are: - lack of performance planning in government where clear goals are not set; - the incumbent not able to find the connect between activity and the larger purpose, - many parts of government clearly lacks build up on the three dimensions – knowledge, skills and abilities; - the system has converted more as a control mechanism to make employees fall in line. Unfortunately, this approach hurts the better performers who find that there is no equity in dispensing the results, though the results have limited applications only. He spoke about the impact Recommendations for PMS: of Sixth Pay Commission
- The Government came up with a new system which has been introduced for All India Services. - At certain levels of government (pay bands) where contribution of individuals can make a difference, a select group of top performers can be rewarded by a higher increment rate. Accepting this recommendation itself signals marked shift from the traditional way of looking at everyone with same glass to recognizing the top performers. He concluded by talking about HRD through PMS and move to good governance. - Governments both at state and central levels and public sector bodies have set up training centres to build capacities. - No link between training and the existing performance appraisal exercise in government. - To be more effective and develop accountability of the anchors, particularly supervisors and subordinates, it is necessary that HRD is focused on. Next presentation was by Mr. A.P. Singh, VP (HR), Reliance Petrochemicals, Vadodara, on “Performance Management”. He said that mere possession of natural resources does not guarantee
economic success. Success comes by guts and perseverance. Knowledge components in the organizations are over emphasized. What is important is to convert knowledge into meaningful actions. It is also important to have the correct attitude and current habits. These are the differentiating factors. This makes evaluation of performance management difficult. Performance management linkage with money is important. What is more important is other factors as well. It is seen that challenges in the job, dignity and growth potential are the factors which overtake money. Process is more important than the content of the performance management. He concluded by saying that the key success factor is that we need to attract foreign capital and second is the aggressiveness at the market place. Of course, the quality has to be world class. The second day of the Workshop started with the Fourth Technical Session on “Human Resource Development and Gender”. The session was chaired by Dr. B.B. Patel, Former Professor of Economics at MGLI. There were three speakers in this session. The first paper in this session was by Dr. Snigdha Singh, Delhi University, Delhi, on “Viewing HRD and Gender : A Historical Perspective”. This paper focused on gender and she opined that we find that the perception on human resource development is not the same when we consider the prescriptive texts and inscriptional evidence. She examined the similarities/differences between three faiths, she looks at the question of salvation for men and women, and she tried to bring out the differences between the prescriptive and inscriptional evidence. She said that the gender identity is related to social, cultural and religious ideas. The study of gender is a study about challenges to social, economic and religious structures. What seems to be important is that the concepts and models of gender are not static and must be understood in reference to their particular economic, social and historical contexts. She tried to analyze the space attributed to men
and women in the three religious faiths, i.e. Buddhism, Jainism and Brahmanism. The second paper was by Dr. Santosh Dhar, Professor of OB/HRM, Nirma Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, on “Challenging Demographics at Workplace : Competence vs. Gender”. She said that traditionally female are supposed to be doing certain kinds of jobs like which involves caring. But times are changing. Today women are better educated, are doing high level professional jobs. However, women have not more than 5% of corporate jobs. In a survey in 2005, it is found that the female employees are perceived in lower order jobs by managers. It is important to know that how many jobs provide maternity leave, crèches for children etc. She said that women managers believe that they have refashioned themselves to meet standards of the masculine ideal and relinquish their female experience. At the same time women senior managers lack sufficient precedence, make promotion scarce. The position is more glaring in gender gap. Women have to prove that they are not inferior to male. The increasing participation of women will usher the acceptance slowly and gradually. Opportunities for women are improving, but something more is to be done. It is said that many organizations are not very conducive to women, but in this case women can help women and maintain better relation with the power heads. Training and education can make women to be more assertive, increase their self esteem, improve their focus, cope with stress more effectively, improve management skills, understand issues surrounding team work and team building and understand their organization. What needs to be done is to empower women. The third speaker was Dr. Rekha Shenoy, Bombay University, Mumbai, on “Human Resource Development and Gender”. In her paper she introduced HRD and said that it is a process which helps employees in a planned way. The paper deals with the issue of HRD especially focusing on the gender bias. In the first half of the paper
she gave an insight about the challenges faced due to rapidly changing globalized world and the concept of gender and inequality. In the second half of this paper she focused on women and their development. Then she talked about women in the corporate sector and the challenges women face there. She concluded by saying that development is not gender neutral, women generally get trapped in the interface between production for needs of human beings in general and reproduction of new human beings. Both men and women may become victims of development because their skills may be replaced by newer ones but it is women who suffer from the adverse impact of development. This happens due to lesser mobility of women and due to family obligations. They have less learning and training opportunities and they sometimes face discrimination in recruitment too. It is important for planners to recognize women’s dual roles in the family as well as workplace. The fifth Technical Session was on Trade Union and Workers’ Education. The session was chaired by Dr. Jerome Joseph, Professor (P&IR), IIM, Ahmedabad. The first paper was presented by Mr. Amar Barot, General Secretary, NLO, Ahmedabad. He said that human resources are not getting proper platform to perform. The employers are using the skill of the workers for good production and this is the motive of the company. The workers should get sufficient wages and remuneration. Otherwise, the workers will be a dissatisfied lot. The industry will have to take care of social clause and ILO standards. Workers are discouraged by new amendment of fixed term employment and it is not doing justice to the society. He asked as to what is the future of young generation if they don’t have job security. Also the protective and social security legislation will not be applicable, he opined. The second paper in the session has been presented by Mr. R.A. Mittal, National Secretary, Hind Mazdoor Sabha, New Delhi. He spoke on “Workers’ Education”. Workers’ education in India means education given to workers by trade unions themselves or by Central Board of Workers’ Education
or Institutes like MGLI. They are trained in various legal and economic aspects. Workers, supervisors and executives need some education. Training and retraining includes lot of practical aspects. This has become more important because of globalization and market demands. Now HRD also include the workers. The workers are now considered as resources whereas earlier they were treated as a commodity. The global financial recession is going to create serious situation and cause poverty and unemployment. The solutions can be sought through creation of jobs and enhance employability. The trade unions have to ensure protection of existing jobs and also prepare the workers to accept the challenges and convert challenges into opportunities. Trade unions should act as agents of change, help workers cope with the situation. The third speaker was Dr. Pravin Sinha, Sr. Project Advisor, FES, New Delhi, on “Developing Human Resources for Trade Unions”. He said that the trade union as a representative body of workers has been instrumental in securing various legislations and policies aimed at protecting and promoting interest of the working class. But the activities of Trade Unions have concentrated amongst workers in the organized sector. The liberalization policies brought about changes of fundamental nature causing industrial relation scenario in India. Some of the main issues confronting the Indian Trade Union movement are multiplicity of unions, narrow membership base, top bottom leadership, ineffective implementation of policies and laws, adversarial approach, politicization, ad hoc union management, financial dependence, etc. The institutions have to be sensitive to the changes occurring around them and effectively cope with the changes. The globalization has adversely affected the employees as jobs are becoming scarce and shifting from formal to informal and unionized to non-unionized. There is small and medium enterprises mushrooming and most of these workers are contract or casual workers. They are largely unprotected and deprived of many benefits. The changing labour market scenario have placed unions in a challenging situation. Also finding resources for organising education and training programmes has been difficult task for Trade Unions.
There is an important need for Trade Unions to cater to its members and retain its relevance in the current scenario. The sixth and last Technical Session was on “Legal Aspects of Human Resource Development”. The session was chaired by Mr. VRS Cowlagi, Former ACS, Govt. of Gujarat. The first speaker, Dr. S.C. Srivastava, Secretary General, National Labour Law Association, New Delhi, and Former Dean, Faculty of Law, Kurukshetra University, and University of Calabar (Nigeria), spoke on “HRD : Labour Law and Emerging Judicial Trends”. He said that labour-management relations are dynamic socioeconomic process. Both employer and employee constantly strive to maximize their preferred values by applying resources to institutions. In order to meet this situation, labour laws seeks to evolve a rational synthesis between conflicting claims of the employers and employees. Labour laws seek to regulate the relations between an employer or a class of employees and their workmen. In India, there are about 43 Central Labour Laws concerning different aspects of labour such as, industrial relations, wages, working conditions, social security, labour welfare, etc. Besides, there are about 91 State Labour Laws enacted and enforced by State Governments in their respective domain. Labour law suffers from lack of uniformity in definition in different Acts. There is also need to simplify and rationalize labour laws. Most of the laws are quite old. Another major issue is that most of the labour legislation do not cover the unorganized section which is as wide as 93.4%. It is important that labour law and labour policy should focus more broadly on the entire labour force. The second paper in the session was by Dr. K.C. Raval, Faculty, School of Law, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, on “Legal Aspects of Development/Human Resource Development : Myth and Reality in Indian Environment”. He focused on some of the development which took place in relation to employer and employee and policy level change that took place at
the time judiciary also actively engage in changing environment. The primary concerns are that globalization should benefit all countries and should raise the welfare of all people through out the world. It should raise the economic growth in the poor countries and reduce world poverty and enhance social securities. He listed down the elements of labour laws and explains the concept of social security. He also gave history of social security legislation. He talked about functions of ILO and linkages between ILO and WTO. Globalization is both a challenge and opportunity in the field of HRD. It is a challenge because every organization will require to focus on efficiency and competitive edge to survive and grow in the global competition. In the era of fast changing technology the human resources will require not only up-gradation but also diversification, new parameters of acquiring and using knowledge both at the level of the organization as well as at national level. This will call for radical changes in strategy and approach to how education and skill formation institutions catch up with the change as also how the industry – the users search and retain and create a talent pool. It will call for a collective effort of stakeholders – government, educational institutions, employers, trade unions, and the society at large. These challenges are more complex because of the predominance of unorganized sector. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. There is a need for the state and industry to jointly establish centre of excellence so that needed talent could be made available to the industry. The state should have a holistic policy for promoting and matching competencies and its implementation on top priority. The challenge before HR is to attract and retain competent people which should comprise career planning, training as an essential component, separate from routine administrative requirements. The trade unions need to cater to its members’ need and retain its relevance in the current scenario. Trade unions should act as change agent and help workers to cope the situation.
Labour Laws need to be simplified and rationalized. There is a need to convert knowledge into meaningful actions at all levels of HR like, food and nutrition, universal primary education, and healthcare etc.