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									What comes to mind when you think of creativity? People being imaginative, inventive, taking risks and challenging convention? Do you think about originality and the value of what people produce? Perhaps you think you can only be creative if you are artistic. A good starting point for defining creativity is 'All our futures: Creativity, culture and education', the National Advisory Committee's report (DfEE, 1999). This report states that we are all, or can be, creative to a lesser or greater degree if we are given the opportunity. The definition of creativity in the report (page 29) is broken down into four characteristics: First, they [the characteristics of creativity] always involve thinking or behaving imaginatively. Second, overall this imaginative activity is purposeful: that is, it is directed to achieving an objective. Third, these processes must generate something original. Fourth, the outcome must be of value in relation to the objective. Debating the characteristics highlighted by this definition can be a helpful starting point for agreeing what your school actually means by creativity. Imagination and purpose Originality Value IMAGINATION AND PURPOSE Imagination is definitely a key part of creativity. But are all imaginative ideas creative? Suppose someone imagined a blue and white striped unicorn. Would this be creative? It may be that no one has conjured up a unicorn like this before. But what is the point of the idea? If someone thinks of an imaginative idea like this and then does not take it any further, are they creative? Creative people are purposeful as well as imaginative. Their imaginative activity is directed at achieving an objective (although this objective may change over time). ORIGINALITY What do we mean by originality? What might we mean by originality when we are talking about pupils' learning? Original in relation to their previous work? Other pupils' work? Work that has gained public recognition? When pupils are writing a poem, choreographing a dance or producing a painting, their work can be unique if it expresses their ideas and feelings. But what about work in subjects like science, history and maths? While it would be wonderful for a pupil to be the first person to discover a new scientific principle, this is highly unlikely. Does this mean that pupils can't be creative in these subjects? Not at all. Skilled teachers can help pupils tackle questions, solve problems and have ideas that are new to them. This makes pupils' ideas original, the result of genuinely creative

behaviour. VALUE Imaginative activity can only be creative if it is of value in relation to its purpose: if it satisfies what pupils set out to achieve. They need to ask questions such as, 'Is it a good…?', 'Does it do the job…?' Pupils will need help to judge the value of what they and others have done: to evaluate critically what they have achieved. Is it, for example, useful? Aesthetically pleasing? A valid solution? Does it work? Some acts might be highly imaginative and original, but harm someone or destroy something. Are we happy with this kind of creativity? Teachers will have a view about what is worthwhile and valuable; pupils may differ. Sharing judgements together can give the teacher insights into what pupils value. back to top

CREATIVITY IMPROVES PUPILS' SELF-ESTEEM, MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT Pupils who are encouraged to think creatively and independently become: more interested in discovering things for themselves more open to new ideas keen to work with others to explore ideas willing to work beyond lesson time when pursuing an idea or vision. As a result, their pace of learning, levels of achievement and self-esteem increase. CREATIVITY PREPARES PUPILS FOR LIFE: AN IMPORTANT AIM OF THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM The National Curriculum Handbook outlines the importance of creativity: By providing rich and varied contexts for pupils to acquire, develop and apply a broad range of knowledge, understanding and skills, the curriculum should enable pupils to think creatively and critically, to solve problems and to make a difference for the better. It should give them the opportunity to become creative, innovative, enterprising and capable of leadership to equip them for their future lives as workers and citizens.

It should enable pupils to respond positively to opportunities, challenges and responsibilities, to manage risk and to cope with change and adversity. The National Curriculum: Handbook for teachers in England (pages 11-12) Creative thinking and behaviour can be promoted in all national curriculum subjects and in religious education. Pupils who are creative will be prepared for a rapidly changing world, where they may have to adapt to several careers in a lifetime. Many employers want people who see connections, have bright ideas, are innovative, communicate and work well with others and are able to solve problems. In other words, they need creative people. CREATIVITY ENRICHES PUPILS' LIVES By promoting creativity, teachers can give all pupils the opportunity to discover and pursue their particular interests and talents. We are all, or can be, creative to some degree. Creative pupils lead richer lives and, in the longer term, make a valuable contribution to society. back to top

When pupils are thinking and behaving creatively in the classroom, you are likely to see them: Questioning and challenging Making connections and seeing relationships Envisaging what might be Exploring ideas, keeping options open Reflecting critically on ideas, actions and outcomes QUESTIONING AND CHALLENGING Creative pupils are curious, question and challenge, and don't always follow rules. They: ask 'why?' 'how?' 'what if?' ask unusual questions respond to ideas, questions, tasks or problems in a surprising way challenge conventions and their own and others' assumptions think independently.

For example In 'The acid test', a science example, Stephen was relentless in asking questions in a lesson on acids and alkalis. Having noticed that the pupils in his class were all using different amounts of acid and alkali in their experiments, he asked, 'If we all used the same amount of acid and alkali, would we get exactly the same colour?' The class tried this and Stephen questioned the result yet again: 'If the amount of acid and alkali was the same, why didn't we get a neutral green colour?' This led to another heated class discussion. back to top MAKING CONNECTIONS AND SEEING RELATIONSHIPS Creative pupils think laterally and make associations between things that are not usually connected. They: recognise the significance of their knowledge and previous experience use analogies and metaphors generalise from information and experience, searching for trends and patterns reinterpret and apply their learning in new contexts communicate their ideas in novel or unexpected ways. For example In 'Tasty maths', pupils realised that their knowledge of mass, area, volume and enlargement would help them solve a problem about the relative size of two sweets. The pupils worked in pairs, reinterpreting their mathematical knowledge and hypothesising and testing different theories about the accuracy of claims in a TV advertisement for the sweets. back to top ENVISAGING WHAT MIGHT BE Creative pupils speculate about possibilities. They: imagine, seeing things in the mind's eye see possibilities, problems and challenges ask 'what if?' visualise alternatives look at and think about things differently and from different points of view. For example In 'The creepy polar bear', a music example, the children kept the image of a cold wind in their mind's eye while experimenting with different sounds that reflected their thoughts and feelings about the cold. They wanted to get the right balance of loud, soft, frequent and spasmodic sounds. Open questioning helped to expand the children's imaginations and encouraged them to think about how they might represent what they had envisaged about Antarctica's atmosphere in music. back to top EXPLORING IDEAS, KEEPING OPTIONS OPEN Creative pupils explore possibilities, keep their options open and learn to cope with the uncertainty that this brings. They:

play with ideas, experiment try alternatives and fresh approaches respond intuitively and trust their intuition anticipate and overcome difficulties, following an idea through keep an open mind, adapting and modifying their ideas to achieve creative results. For example In 'The surfing ballerina', a design and technology example, the visit of a toy maker inspired pupils to come up with exciting and original ideas. The pupils experimented with different ways of producing movement using mechanisms and components, anticipating and overcoming difficulties along the way. Most pupils modified their initial idea as they reflected on and developed their design. In some cases, pupils continued to keep their options open. Some changed their designs during the making of their toys as they discovered new possibilities or better solutions. Poppy's surfer became a vegetable ballerina on a surfboard! back to top REFLECTING CRITICALLY ON IDEAS, ACTIONS AND OUTCOMES Creative pupils are able to evaluate critically what they do. They: review progress ask 'is this a good...?' 'is this what is needed?' invite feedback and incorporate this as needed put forward constructive comments, ideas, explanations and ways of doing things make perceptive observations about originality and value. For example In 'Like hockey, but different', a PE example, pupils were asked to create a game that would help players practise the passing and receiving skills needed to improve their performance in hockey. One group of pupils invented a novel game of 'rounders ball'. However, after playing the game a couple of times, they reviewed what they had done and decided that it didn't provide enough of a challenge. In the light of this, they included some more demanding features, for example they narrowed the distance between the cones that players were expected to negotiate. back to top

This section looks at how teachers, senior managers and governors can promote

and develop pupils' creativity. How can teachers promote creativity? How can teams of teachers promote creativity? How can senior managers and governors promote creativity? HOW CAN TEACHERS PROMOTE CREATIVITY? Teachers can promote pupils' creativity by: planning tasks and activities that give pupils opportunities to be creative teaching in a way that makes the most of pupils' creativity. It is vital to get the pitch of an activity right from the outset. Unrealistically high expectations cause frustration and anxiety, inhibiting creativity. Unrealistically low expectations induce boredom and cause pupils to switch off. So what should you do to promote creativity when planning? Set a clear purpose for pupils' work look for opportunities to promote creative responses in your existing schemes of work and lesson plans set clear learning objectives and build specific creativity objectives into planning; integrate these with subject-specific objectives structure a sequence of lessons, taking pupils through the creative process step by step; don't be too ambitious about what pupils can achieve in one lesson share objectives with pupils; this will help them to sustain their efforts over long periods plan for pupils to share their work with others; this tends to be very motivating Be clear about freedoms and constraints give pupils opportunities to choose ways of working and to shape the process, direction of work or outcome use a range of learning styles, for example practical experimentation and problem solving, role-play and dance, visual materials such as diagrams and cartoons, small group discussion and collaboration give pupils a clear brief limit time, scale or resources; constraints can stimulate new ways of working and improvisation Fire pupils' imagination through other learning and experiences give pupils first-hand experiences through visits and contact with creative people use stimulating starting points such as artefacts, problems, stories with human interest, topical events make activities relevant to pupils' lives build on what pupils find interesting and have already experienced both in and out of school look for opportunities to encourage pupils to apply their prior learning creatively give pupils opportunities to reflect on and share personal experiences and

feelings Give pupils opportunities to work together give pupils opportunities to work with others from their class, year group and different age groups structure collaborative activities; if pupils have free choice, they often choose restrictive, gender-based groups monitor and manage the collaborative process carefully address the needs of individuals in each group Once an activity is underway, teachers can actively foster pupils' creativity in a number of ways. You could try some of the approaches below, or some of the ideas in the examples of pupils' creativity on this website. So what should you do to promote creativity when teaching? Establish criteria for success help pupils to develop criteria that they can use to judge their own success, in particular, the originality and value of their work (this can be as simple as asking, 'What makes a good...?') help pupils to appreciate the different qualities in others' work and to value ways of working that are different from their own Capitalise on unexpected learning opportunities actively pursue pupils' ideas (where these are likely to be productive), without losing sight of your original teaching objective make the most of unexpected events; this can help pupils to overcome their fear of the unknown, develop problem-solving skills and think imaginatively be ready to put aside your lesson plan and 'go with the moment' if you judge this would be more effective for pupils' learning Ask open-ended questions and encourage critical reflection ask questions such as 'What if...?', 'Why is...?' and 'How might you...?' to help pupils see things from different perspectives and come up with new ideas encourage openness to ideas be willing to stand back and not give all the answers but provide helpful prompts, if necessary model flexible and independent thinking and behaviour for pupils Regularly review work in progress regularly stop to review work in progress, discuss the problems pupils are facing and how they can solve them encourage pupils to share ideas with others and to talk about their progress help pupils to give and receive constructive feedback (confidence and communication skills are vital for this) reassure pupils that they can take forward someone else's idea if they think it is more successful than their own (while encouraging them to recognise that it is also acceptable to be different) You might find it helpful to collect evidence of how pupils respond in different

lessons. Capture selected pupils' responses on paper, video or audiotape, or ask a colleague to observe pupils and note what happens during a lesson. What does this tell you about individuals? The class? Your teaching style? The classroom environment? What can you learn from pupils' responses to help you develop their creativity and your skills as a teacher? back to top HOW CAN TEAMS OF TEACHERS PROMOTE CREATIVITY? As a team, department, faculty or school, it is important that you share a common understanding and expectations about creativity. You could begin by talking about some of the examples of pupils' creativity on this website as a team. Make this a starting point for reviewing your own teaching strategies (you could use the above checklists). How could you work together to improve pupils' ability to ask questions? To explore ideas and alternatives? To evaluate ideas and actions? What aspects of pupils' creative thinking and behaviour might best be promoted through your particular subject? Ask each teacher in your team to identify an opportunity for promoting pupils' creativity in a planned lesson or activity and to build a creativity objective into the subject-specific objectives (for example to promote pupils' ability to ask questions or explore ideas). As a team, talk about how you could achieve these creativity objectives. After the lessons, come back together as a team and compare and discuss outcomes. back to top HOW CAN SENIOR MANAGERS AND GOVERNORS PROMOTE CREATIVITY? Senior managers and governors play a vital role in establishing an environment in which creativity can flourish. The following checklist outlines some of the key steps they can take towards promoting pupils' creativity throughout the school. Value creativity as a school build an expectation of creativity into your school's learning and teaching policy make sure that you value the creative process as well as the final product or outcome show and share tangible changes that result from creativity consider involving all the school in an event to experience and celebrate creative learning Encourage professional learning and development develop a shared understanding of what your school means by creative learning lead a staff meeting on how teachers promote pupils' creativity encourage the collaborative redesign of lessons make sure teachers have time to work together to plan learning in more creative ways include creativity in everyone's performance targets

Build partnerships to enrich learning work with higher education and other agencies to get new ideas and access to resources ask your LEA for support; it might be able to put you in contact with other schools focusing on creativity work with external professionals, such as a dance group, to help change the school's ethos Provide opportunities for pupils to work with creative people provide opportunities for pupils to work with artists, musicians, performers, designers and other creative professionals agree and provide key entitlements, such as the opportunity to work with artists, go to a theatre or learn a musical instrument tap into the creativity of staff, parents and the local community Provide a stimulating physical environment make sure that pupils have the space they need to be creative; for example, space for movement in dance and drama, to create on a large scale in art and design make sure that pupils have the resources they need to be creative; for example, high-quality materials, tools, apparatus, equipment give pupils access to film, video and the internet, which can help them to connect their learning to everyday experiences stimulate pupils' curiosity by ensuring they have first-hand experience of natural and made objects, and the natural and built environments involve pupils in creating a stimulating environment. For example, they could help redesign the playground, improve the school's built and natural spaces, develop murals celebrate creative learning in shared spaces, classrooms, outside areas and beyond school Manage time effectively give pupils opportunities to explore, concentrate for extended periods of time, reflect, discuss and review allow some flexibility in timetabling lessons, so that plans can be adjusted quickly give pupils sustained time for some work, for example a whole afternoon instead of two separate lessons in a week from time to time, set up a weekly project across the whole school, with a focus on creative learning allocate time to being more adventurous; for example a day or week every term when you dare staff to be different Celebrate pupils' creativity encourage, recognise and reward pupils' creativity with words of praise and certificates of achievement ask teachers to nominate examples of creative activities and responses and celebrate these at a school or year assembly for parents, for example encourage pupils to value the creativity of their peers

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Copyright QCA

             When is freedom a bad idea? Imitation is natural - Is it naturally good? Does imitation teach skill? What about copywork? Image flooding (showing examples)? How are creative ideas generated? How does it work in the artroom? Are skills a prerequisite to creativity? What is a real art teacher? Is art learned from rules? Homework of the mind? Self assessment as creative teaching? Sharing your best ideas

Teaching Creativity
Text and photography by Marvin Bartel, Ed.D. updated August, 2004 The above illustration is typical of a kindergarten child's uninhibited pre schematic drawing of herself. Most five year olds are totally confident that they can draw, sing, and dance. Tragically, within three or four years this child, if she is typical, will experience a crisis of confidence. She will no longer feel competent or creative. As teachers, we are often partly to blame for the diminished inclination to be creative as children become socialized and more intelligent.
I write this as an art teacher for other art teachers. However, I think teachers in every area need to reflect on what they are doing that tends to foster or hinder the creative critical thinking that is so essential as a survival and success skill in today's world. Creative readers, whatever they teach, will recognize their own lessons and projects in what I describe in this article. In the development of cognition, the ability to imagine is among the most advanced of all human traits. Why would any teacher want to ignore or squelch the imagination.

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Surprisingly, I see the least imaginative work being produced when a teacher gives instructions and says, ―In this lesson you can use any topic you want to.‖ Or, ―In this lesson you can work in

any media you like.‖ Even in the case of students whose work seems quite imaginative and creative, if I know the student, I generally find that the work is merely a rehash of that student's previous success. We are naturally creatures of habit. Our natural way to learn is by imitation. Students imitate their own success and they imitate their peers. When allowed to do what we want to do, we are most likely to revert to whatever we previously found enjoyable and/or successful. This amounts to what I call, “another one of those” artworks. Sad as that is, the worst part is that the creative process is not being learned.
Limitations can be a good thing to motivate creativity. Requirements in an assignment narrow the realm in which one is allowed to operate, making it easier to focus on a problem or an issue. We can find some useful teaching strategies by looking at how artists generate ideas. Many artists use a device called ―changing habits of work‖. An artist may be feeling like everything is becoming redundant and familiar. In order to force a new idea to the surface, an artist might reverse the order of work, change the medium, change the scale, forbid a certain common component in the work, and so on. These are limitations to jog or jump start the creative impulse. In creative teaching, assignment limitations provide a way to change the student's habits of work. When a student isn't allowed to repeat a familiar pathway into the work, additional creative effort is expended to succeed. So long as the difficulty level is reasonable, new learning happens. A new approach is learned. When I have a student who complains about the limitations of an assignment, I explain the learning theory as the rationale for the limitations. If a student persists, I also tell them that I can accept student proposals that violate the limitations if they propose things that are at least as creative and as difficult as the thing I assign. They must also convince me that they are not simply repeating a previous successful pattern.

Student teacher, Paul Kuharic, discusses a composition assignment created by a high school student. Students are restricted to using their own cut paper shapes to develop an original abstract composition. Compositions are to illustrate assigned design concepts discussed prior to the media work. In this photo Mr. Kuharic was student teaching art at Washington High School, South Bend, Indiana, USA


Judith Harris, in The Nurture Assumption,1 reviews lots of evidence taken in tribal societies. She concludes that imitation is our natural way to learn. Village children are given over to the care of slightly older children. By imitating slightly older children, they learn to survive and thrive. Many of us have experienced astounding successes by imitating a very successful example for an assignment or task. There can be lots of natural success when we imitate successful examples. This is why I am not surprised to see the popularity of copy work in art classes. However, when we examine imitation as a learning form for today's world, it may be an instinct that is no longer appropriate in the changing environment we live in today. It is a good way to learn traditional things, but is not a way to foster creativity. Imitation is not a way to learn critical thinking. Imitation and copy work is not a way to foster an innovative spirit in our students. It is urgent in today's world that our students become critical thinkers with strong values. Imitation as a learning style is very limited to accomplish this goal, and when we employ imitation in teaching, we must point out its limitations and we need to supplement it immediately with approaches that require innovation, problem solving, and a critical review process. When we learn by imitation, we tend to become complacent. Not only do our students fall into

―another one of those‖ mentality, we as teachers often fall into ―another one of those‖ projects, lessons, or units of instruction. We may say, ―If copy work works well for Chuck Close, who works from photographs, it should work well for us.‖ Not all repetition and imitation is bad, but repetition and imitation is certainly not creative.

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I find that repetition has its merits for the sake of certain types of skills practice. However, we need to be clear with ourselves when we are promoting skills practice. Skill alone is not fostering creativity. Skills practice is very useful for the production of art, but skill by itself is not good art. By skill practice, I would include such things as learning to do observational drawing or raising a clay cylinder on the potter's wheel. Some art teachers use copywork, obvious imitation, because they think it develops skill.

Copywork issues
Copywork is very common in some high school art classes. I have not met many art teachers that claimed they were teaching creativity when they had students busily copying pictures from magazines, although some claim the students are being creative because they are required to make some sort of modification. Copywork is often rationalized because it appears to be building skill. Furthermore, students are enjoying it. Too often, I see copywork becoming a crutch. Copywork is a form of artistic self poisoning addiction. It develops dependency because the student notices that their other work looks inferior to their copywork. Copywork becomes a "feel good" addiction. The main skill being learned is, how to copy. Very little thinking is required. The part of the brain used for copywork is probably not the same as the part of the brain used to render a drawing from a real object or person. It is one step removed from being a passive spectator. The term "couch potato artist" comes to mind. Would it not be much better to use this class time for actual observation and rendition skill development? Art teachers know how to teach real observation. Those who haven't bothered to learn how to teach observation skills might be called "pseudo" art teachers. Who needs them? It would be cheaper to hire a supply clerk to assign copywork. Copywork is very common as learning method among self-taught artists. Their definition of art is somewhat simplistic. They are seduced by the look of art and do not understand the creative aspects of the process. They are producing within a very limited realm. To them, if it looks like art, it must be art. Untutored artists do not notice their own mistakes. They may feel that there are mistakes, but they cannot identify the mistakes. As a result, their work may be charming, naive, and quaint. It may even look creative by default. When these artists start working with a teacher their artwork often appears to get worse and worse. Many get totally frustrated and turn away from their "art". When they are taught to recognize their mistakes they loose the joy. See footnote5 for some ideas to succeed with self-taught artists. Of course some self-taught artists do not copy. Some are very creative.

Here an advanced high school student comes into the art room to practice the skill of observational drawing skills in lieu of attending a study hall. By having interesting objects on hand, the teacher, Anne Hamilton, does not have to assign copywork. Students can take pride in having learned how to make observations. They develop a personal style. Creativity is facilitated by the observational skill and the continual need to find ways to express what is being observed. Confidence is achieved. The student is learning to may choices that would not be needed if she was copying the work of another artist. Anne Hamilton teaches at Washington High School, South Bend, Indiana, USA

Repeated practice is essential to learn skills. Similarly, review is essential to learn facts like artist names, the look of their style, vocabulary about art, and so on. These are important aspects of learning art, but they are not as useful in today's world as the ability to be critically aware, inspired, innovative, and responsive problem solvers. It may be gratifying and entertaining to reach a virtuoso level of performance, but without critical thinking and creative strategizing, it is a hollow victory.

Image flooding issues
Showing many examples at the beginning of an art lesson is called "image flooding". In theory, image flooding shows many good examples in fairly rapid succession. Typically, the images come from the teacher's collection of previous years' student work, from art books, slide collections, reproductions, the Internet, and so on. Teachers depend on the theory that students do not have time to take in enough information to copy. However, sometimes the examples are posted in the room as reference materials to help focus the students on the assignment. Additionally, many teachers, knowing that art is also supposed to be creative. They tell the students not imitate or copy any of these works. They are careful to explain that they are showing examples to clarify the assignment, but not to be copied. On the surface, this seems like good teaching. These teachers often get excellent evaluations from their students and their students do fairly well in contests. Students like it because they can "see" what is expected and image flooding get decent predictable products. I see several issues with image flooding? Some art teachers have become quite addicted to this seemingly natural way to show the "look" of the expected outcomes. Yet when pressed, they cannot explain any real rationale for the assignment. They cannot define the problems being presented. They are inarticulate. They may even say, "Art is non-verbal." Indeed, as Suzanne Langer contends, ". . . the import of an art symbol cannot be paraphrased in discourse."4 (p 68) This is true enough. However, teaching art is very verbal. Langer is extremely verbal. Yet, teachers who fail to explain verbally what they are attempting to teach still think of themselves as art teachers. I am not saying it is impossible, but fostering creativity is hard to do unless the teacher understands the nature of artistic creativity well enough to be articulate about it. Therefore, teachers that use image flooding as a substitute for the clear articulation of issues and concepts will seldom succeed in fostering creativity. The nature of imitation is too much the opposite of creativity. The second issue I see with image flooding, is the lack of creative integrity that is fostered in the learner. As a student is easier for me to be just creative enough to make the teacher think I am being original. This teaches me to borrow and recombine things in devious ways so nobody will recognize who I am mimicking. In true creativity I would have to bring something into the mix from my own life experience. Image flooding does not require this and does not foster this. Image flooding shows me examples from other lives so I need not bother my own. In the end the art is also less mine and more other's. True creativity happens when intuitive imagination brings forth the previously unknown and unimagined. Clever combinations of imitated ideas might look creative, but are they? As a learner, I am even being deceived about the nature of creativity. The third issue I see with image flooding is that students who might otherwise be naturally creative will find it much harder to access their own rich store of subconscious experiential store of experiences and ideas. We are very suggestive. Once we an see an image or an idea, it starts to cover up our own ideas that were trying to emerge. In this way image flooding actually drowns (suffocated) individual creativity before it has a chance to start. If I refrain from showing exemplars, how do they know what I want? When students are given instruction in idea development I do not have to show them examples from famous artists, I do not have to ask them to reinvent or cleverly disguise things that others have done - to make "another one of those". They can take real life experiences from their own lives. I can encourage them to develop these into art forms. Once students tackle an assignment creatively, they will naturally be curious to see what experts

have done in the past related to the problem they have struggled to solve. When studying a master, they will not only be interested in seeing the end product, but they will be open to learn about the master's creative methods. Do not only study the look of the work, try to figure out why the artist did it that way. Give problems solving points to students who can find historical evidence from research to confirm ideas about the creative methods used. If you want to foster student creativity, teach the art history as a review and reinforcement of the art lesson - not as a how to do the art lesson. We can also teach art history as a discrete body of knowledge without using it as example work for a particular creative problem. While this may not directly practice creativity, it still gives students knowledge about and appreciation for the creativity of other artists. For those interested in integrated learning, students can also be encouraged to begin with art about their own experiences related to a concept. After doing the artwork, they can study similar concepts in science projects, social issues, and so on. When working with kindergarten children in a religious education (Sunday School), I started with a discussion of various ways they work as helpers in their families. Then basing their work on these experiences, they create drawings. This is followed by a story from a religious text that tells about how somebody was a helper in the story. I do not use art to review other subjects because that tries to make art into a mere tool to help remember something else. This would not be in keeping with my understanding of art. Of course other school subjects come into the artwork with integrity when students become knowledgeable and deeply concerned about issues related to other subjects. Some very creative social issue artwork could emerge when students experience things like prejudice, pollution, drug overdoses, drunk driving, and other things they and friends encounter.

I believe we should show the great examples as part of the review process after the students have had a chance to apply their own creativity.

By not showing examples in advance, I as the teacher, am forced to think and articulate ideas and assignment goals better. I have to become a teacher, not merely an audio visual expert and supply clerk. I am obligated to provide preliminary practice sessions. They know what I want if the practice sessions give them methods used by creative people to develop their ideas. I need to explain goals in terms the students can understand. I need to ask questions to verify that they they are thinking and that they understand. For related thoughts, see Planning to Teach Art Lessons. Ultimately, every lesson is less product oriented and more for the purpose of learning the process of artistic creativity.

top of article Creatively productive people use a number of methods that teachers can learn from.
Make lists and sketches Many make lists and sketches of possibilities. As an artist, I often use drawing as a way to ―develop‖ an idea or solve a problem. I believe students can learn to do it also. Students should do focused "playing around" with an idea. Visually creative people use thumbnail sketches as their lists. These lists and sketches are extensive and often include options that are directly the opposite of a conventional solution. Students who can quickly make long lists are fluency gifted. Students who can make lists with items that are unique and unlike those of other students are gifted in flexibility. Sometimes we see who in my class has the most ideas that are not listed by anybody else. Giving them honorable mention points is a way to encourage them. Highly creative individuals keep tinkering with the ideas in their lists and sketches. Fine tuning is encouraged.

When I give an assignment that starts with list making, I have them first work individually. Then I might ask them to form groups of three or four. Generally, I try to use grouping criteria to get as much diversity of skill, interest, and background as possible in each group. Using a group of diverse experts is known as synectics. Students may not be experts, but they are each encouraged to contribute from their unique experiences. I want them each to present their ideas to the group and ask for help adding features, new ideas, and so on. I want them to take each others listed ideas and add them to their own ideas to see if still more or better ideas develop. In today's world, most tasks require complex solutions that only collaborative efforts can achieve. Beginning in elementary grades students can learn to be collaboratively creative learners and teachers of each other. After significant effort to get long lists, fine-tuned ideas, and so on, they are asked to rank all ideas according to several criteria. Criteria depend on the project, but they might sort them from innovative to common, from simple to complex, from beautiful to ugly, from useful to nonfunctional, from durable to temporary, from precious to cheap, and so on. This link describes a class process for getting ideas for artwork using The Conversation Game. Consider opposites Research shows that highly creative people mention more opposites when taking a free association word test.2 This tells us that they have learned not waste time with the conventional solutions. They find successes when they look at things up side down, inside out, and from back to front.3 To understand beauty, it helps to experience ugly. Consider practice Build in lesson time to practice with materials so that beginning mistakes are not mistaken for creative ideas. I think that some comfort and mastery of processes and materials allows for more creative rendition of new ideas. Consider process rather than product Put more emphasis on process rather than product? When we show an end product in order to help explain something, we risk that students will not be challenged to think creatively. Why should students be creative when we are showing answers rather than presenting problems? There are ways to explain problems without showing answers. Many teachers post a color chart in the room to show how colors are made. Then they ask students to mix their own colors. They think this is process learning. To teach process, I would not post a chart that gives answers. I might ask them to do experiments to figure out how to mix a color that will match a color that they select on a spot on a still life object I have placed on a table in the room. I often select things from the garden or produce market that have colors unlike any of the student's paints. Their paints for this would include only primaries and neutrals. Their experiments needs to consider hue, value, intensity, lighting, and color temperature. Just like in math, you could require them to show each step in the solution rather than just the answer. Each step could include a few notes about how it was done. In the end, a small color chip can be attached to the still life to see if it disappears. Unlike math, there are many ways to approach this problem. Even when math is involved in an art project, I like to require that the same answer is derived in at least two ways. In a reverse of this process problem, students could experiment to create the most contrasting color chip to use as the background color. Now the end product becomes much more subjective and individualized. In another vein, color experiments can be compared to look for relationship that evoke certain emotional effects such as anger, love, sweetness, tartness, and so on. In one process centered assignment I ask students to represent the relationships in their own family by using abstractly shaped pieces of painted paper that they paint and cut. When finished, another student unfamiliar with the family being represented has to attempt an interpretation. For the sake of privacy, the class is assured in advance that literal explanations would not be asked for or allowed. Since no families are perfect, a follow-up assignment can be a variation on the first

where an imagined idealized family is composed by the same method. Consider assessment and grading paradigms Openly reward unusual and innovative work. Even when it is crude, I try to acknowledge the innovative part of student work. If I want creativity, I have to be a bit stingy with high grades for derivative work just because it is skillful and has a professional look without any originality. We can develop more games, assignments, and even tests that give points for unique responses while not counting points for answers that somebody else gives? Bonus points could be given for high quality, beauty, expressiveness, usefulness, artistic importance, correctness, truthfulness, and whatever else is deemed important. Just stop giving so much credit for redundant facts that everybody already knows. Consider the tone and nature of responses to student ideas Students often need encouragement and reassurance. They get ideas and begin to doubt their own ideas. Students who ask about a new idea need encouragement. I say to try it - see what happens - even when I think the idea will fail. I might enthusiastically say, ―It would certainly be worth a try. If it doesn't work you will still learn from it and you may even get a better idea.‖ I might offer a story about a similar option or a variation on their idea that can be used for comparison, but generally it is best to get them to follow their own hunches. Consider the familiar - avoid exotic content Use common everyday experiences and issues that students are very familiar as content assignments for art. Familiar content allows for more challenging artistic processes. Exotic or strange content promotes more copywork of "references" because students are forced to use preexisting pictures instead of direct experience and observations. The ideas that grow out of experiences that are substantially more meaningful. They are different for every student? Each student has unique family rituals, customs, heritage, etc. Creativity flourishes when we are intimately acquainted with out content. My most creative work happens when I am open to my immediate surroundings.

photo © 2001, the author

Recently the shadows that fell on my work from overhead hickory trees became astoundingly compelling and beautiful. This work may not have a huge effect on the history of art and the world, but it is original and it represents a truly creative moment. At first, I was stumped. Not until I became open to my immediate familiar surroundings, did I become inspired and creative.

Consider answering questions with questions Many students come the art teacher and ask for suggestions related to their work. How can art teachers avoid becoming the ―know it all‖ that takes ownership of the student's artwork? What are some thinking questions we can ask? How can we reassure them that there are several ways to do it? Art is a search. Art with integrity grows from an honest search. Students will become more creative if they can feel they are the true owners of their work.
Art and science have many commonalities, but the one I often fail to use is probably the most basic and important of all - the scientific method. The scientific method says that questions must be answered experimentally and the results are repeatable. Art students have often asked me to give them a suggestion to improve a work in progress. Many times my ego and my pompous personality have simply prompted me to blurt out an answer. I have given my recommendation without even thinking that this was actually a teachable moment. Had I been thinking scientifically, I might have coached the student to design a small experiment. My students learned dependency. Too often I have been the dependency facilitator.

Yes, the scientific method takes more time in the short run, but if a student learns that they can design experiments to solve their own problems, they have learned not only the scientific method, they have learned one of the important components of artistic thinking and artistic behavior. Ultimately, time is saved because students have learned to figure out how to answer their own questions. They are empowered. Teaching habits are powerful and subtle. Answering questions in the studio class gives me such a feeling of power and is such a hard habit to break. As an artist, I am generally more clever than the student - what an ego trip! During the Dark Ages science was a set of teacher answers. Progress was made when the scientific method began using questions and experiments to check on old answers and discover new answers. In science, nothing is assumed to be true because a teacher says so. Too often my art class was taught using Dark Ages dogmatism. Example Art teachers ask why should we teach students to reinvent the wheel. Good question. Is the wheel more important than the ability to invent the wheel? For educators interested in the formation of the mind, learning how to think always trumps knowing an answer. The color wheel may be important, but it took my caveman mind two decades of teaching to figure out that it is much more important for students to invent the color wheel than for them to copy it. Now I never show a color wheel before students have experimentally learned to manipulate and observe color concepts. Caution Be careful with the transition if you have been a very "giving" teacher that loves to give advice and suggestions. Students will wonder why you are suddenly not as forthcoming with easy answers. Some may resent having to work a bit harder. Your new generosity can be misinterpreted as "selfishness with information". Reassure them that the best way is a way that comes from their own efforts? Help them design experiments so they can find the solutions themselves instead becoming dependent on an expert (the teacher)? Realize that as a teacher, it may feel less powerful not to give a wise answer and magical solution for every compositional question. In the end we know it is most powerful to be able to empower others.

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Many teachers have argued that skills and knowledge are essential prerequisites for the production of art. This belief leads to lots of ―another one of those‖ art assignments with no requirement for innovation. I believe it is much better to include both innovation criteria as well as skill and knowledge criteria. This can sometimes be done concurrently and sometime alternately. It may be helpful if students are told when they are simply working at ―rehearsal‖ and when they are being asked to ―perform‖ creatively. Most four and five year olds are naturally creative, but very immature in their skills development. At this age we all understand that it would be ludicrous for us to insist that they be proficient in skill before they are allowed to be expressive.
So, at what age do children loose their right to be expressive? Unfortunately, it happens without us trying. Typically, many third graders experience a ―crisis of confidence‖. It happens in art if nobody has helped them develop any observational skills. Without instruction, only a small percentage of children are naturally motivated to practice drawing enough to master observational accuracy. Art teachers are of different minds as what is needed when children begin to notice that they have little or no drawing ability. Unfortunately, some teachers say, ―Don't worry, I can't draw either.‖ Instead of teaching the importance of drawing, they devalue it. They give art assignments that look like art, but require no particular ability. They imitate, they copy, they follows step-by-step assembly instructions, and so on. These teachers are actually mere supply clerks. Along the same lines, some art teachers show formulas from books on ―how to draw a

tree, a face, or a human figure‖. These methods do not teaching drawing competency. They teach dependency. Few children complain because they naturally enjoy imitation and they mildly rewarded by pretty products. There is no way for them to know that good art teaching could help them with methods that actually teach them how they could learn to draw anything by helping them practice standard observations methods.

Real art teachers help young children learn that drawing is an observation skill that they can begin to practice when they are very young. Teachers help them begin to make visual comparisons and represent them in their drawings. Teachers use questions to encourage children to observe more carefully. Students are asked to notice contour, size, texture, value gradations, proportions, and every kind of relationship in the thing, person, or animal observed. Teachers encourage the use of touch, smell, taste, and sound when learning about the real world. Teachers avoid copy work, formulas, and drawing tricks. Teachers do not give answers, but they encourage experimentation and exploration to find answers. Teachers provide aides to observation including viewfinders to frame compositions and pencil blinders (a square of tag board with the pencil through it) to to hide the paper and encourage looking at the thing being observed rather than obsessing over the drawing.

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Drawing is but one part of art. But even in drawing, more enlightened art teachers realize that drawing is not a series of learned rules about standard subject matter. Who really cares if a cow from certain angle can be drawn by combining five triangles in a clever way. Much of good drawing is actually the product of seeing and observational ability. It is a mental acuity learned through practice. It is learned by doing observational drawing, by learning to observe proportions by visually measuring from actual people, animals and objects – not by copying pictures. Drawing is learned by noticing tonal changes as lighting changes. Drawing is learned by learning to see the relative size, clarity, and brightness of near and distant objects. Imaginative drawing is learned by making many lists or thumbnail sketches of ideas that grow out of experiences – not by copying another artist's surrealistic images. Expressive drawing, painting, sculpture, and so on grows out of experimentation with materials and processes, and then attending to the results, not by learning any rules of drawing.
In the US, even the National Standards of Art Education do not list observational drawing as an essential ability or standard. Drawing is apparently seen as optional for those who enjoy it. What would happen if writing and reading were considered optional for those who enjoy learning to write and to read? ―That's okay, I can't read either‖ is not commonly heard in the classroom. Too many children shy away from art or find little joy in it because they suffer under the illusion that they are not talented. Often this is because they have never been exposed to a few simple methods used to practice observation drawing and overcome their childish methods of rendition. Some teachers feel that the visual elements and the principlesof design are the basic structure of art. It is thought that if we teach the basic structure, art will happen. That was a modern art idea developed during the 1930's. Hmm? I'm sorry, but art has turned out to be a bit messier than that. I do believe the elements and principles have their place. However, they are too limiting and simplistic. They fail to acknowledge content, symbol, meaning, and untraditional ways of being artistic. Every artwork is different and there is no simple system that covers everything not yet imagined. If there are any final equations, computer programs, verbal pronouncements, or whatever, that give a final definition to art we will have witnessed the final implosion of truth, beauty, and imagination. In the meantime, there is little harm in working at definitions and tentative rules so long as we also agree to live with uncertainty and change. As in life, if there are rules, they are more likely to be things like: pay attention, make comparisons,

look before you leap, and so on. They can guide, but not determine the process, and they certainly do not determine the art product. top of article

As an artist I spend lots of time contemplating next projects - sometimes months or years before doing the project. For me, some sketching is a good way to focus the issues and get this process started. Additionally, much of this brain work seems to be subliminal. My mind can be working on things behind the scenes. Every part of daily experience has potential for an art project. When I actually start working I have a gathered lots of new insights - some recorded and some without knowing it. In organizing the sequence of lessons, are there ways to ritualize advance preparation, discussions, questions, and sketching sessions that promote thinking, looking, more sketching, dreaming, and idea development for lessons that are coming in the future. Are there ways to encourage and reward the keeping track of art ideas that come to mind at unexpected times?

When I leave my studio my hands-on work is interrupted, but my mind keeps working - my homework is starting. When students leave class are their ways to engage
the mind so this habitual homework of the subconscious mind has been assigned? The creative process includes preparation, incubation, insight, elaboration, and evaluation.

Classrooms that include preparation, incubation, and insight might need to juggle two or three projects at once. What are the class rituals and concept questions
that get the wheels turning so that dreams and imaginations are ignited. I have often been tempted to use shortcuts such as showing examples of other art to get quick inspiration and information as a substitute for relevant self-referential thinking. But what are the ways to define artistic challenges in ways that to give the students the courage to develop and express their own ideas? This takes time. It means practice sessions, question session, and list making rituals.This means setting aside time days or weeks in advance of the actual production to get students focused and thinking. It means programming their minds to do the subconscious incubation homework that helps bring insight to the table when the production starts. We know that homework works best when we develop rituals of accountability and when we make a point of rewarding successes. What are the classroom rituals that give credit and honor to the students when they show evidence of subliminal ideas that have been recorded and brought to class and infused in their creative work?

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As a teacher, how often do I teach ―another one of those‖ lessons? Can I justify it because I am still learning how to teach? As a creative teacher, it is my responsibility to review the results of a lesson or a unit. As I assess the results, it is my responsibility to imagine other ways the lesson could have been taught. It may be a year before I teach a similar unit again, will I remember what needs to be changed? A creative teacher needs a good system to record ideas for next year? I am thankful for computers to make this easier.
I have college art students who are required to observe some of the best art teachers in the public schools in our area. They have to journal their observations. Even though they see very impressive methods, their notes and ideas must always include alternative ways of teaching something similar. Also, their journal must include some critical thinking about the pros and cons of ―another way‖ of teaching what they observe. It is fairly easy for apprentice teachers to learn by imitating their model teachers. However, creative teachers go beyond their own teachers. They go beyond their mentors. They do this by virtue of their own critical review of their own

teaching – by carefully reviewing what happens and then searching for alternative things to try. Creative teachers make mistakes, but but they also search for ways to overcome mistakes. Each time they try something, they review the outcomes and try to imagine ways to make improvements. If I am an uncreative teacher, I do not feel that I make mistakes. I may admit to some bad outcomes, but in my uncreative mind students are to blame for the bad outcomes. I say, ―Nobody can teach correctly for every student in a class and certainly I should not be held responsible for an unmotivated or ‗mentally challenged‘ student. Students have to do their part.‖ If I tend to make excuses for what should be changed in my teaching, I will not be a creative teacher.

Considering colleagues and bosses Unfortunately, studies have shown that school administrators often do not rate highly creative teachers as their best teachers. Along with the propensity to be creative, these teachers may be less predictable, and maybe in some cases be less amenable to school policies. Creative people are not only more fluent and flexible. They are also more skeptical and may be less respectful of authority. They may be more impulsive, more brash, more daring, and may be lacking in some social skills. From this, we need to be warned that not everybody will appreciate our creative efforts so much that they will overlook our personality faults. The more creative we are, the more important it is for us to be good communicators and graceful colleagues.

----end of essay--The author invites your comments and questions. Contact the author If you are an art teachers interested in doing some research on creativity, on learning to draw, or on the relationship of art and learning to think, or some other issue, send me a note. Click here for a list of issues of particular interest to the author.

Harris, Judith. The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do. 1998. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Kotulak, Ronald. "Word Test Used to Spot Creative Geniuses." Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1983, page 1. This article describes research by Albert Rothenberg.

Rothenberg, Albert. "Creative Contradictions" Psychology Today, June, 1979. Pages 55-79. This article describes Rothenberg's theory of the way in which creative people can solve problems and produce innovations by seeing the logic of simultaneous opposites.

Langer, Suzzane K. Problems of Art. 1957. Charles Schribner's Sons, New York. ------------5 A few art teachers succeed in with self-taught artists because they understand how fragile many self-taught artists are. These teachers put the first emphasis on learning new observation skills. They use blind contour drawing and humor. They encourage line-making for fun like a music teacher might play noise games as a warm up. These teachers do not worry about pointing out mistakes. When the students begin to notice their own mistakes, the teacher knows how to use questions that help help students learn to see and eventually answer their own questions. When these teachers see bad habits, they know how to raise questions that get the students to notice things. The questions can be phrased in ways that are face saving for the student. A teacher can fein ignorance, by saying, "I can't quite see what you intend here. Do you want me to see it coming forward or going back? What am I missing?" These teachers teach creativity because their student move from being dependent into being independent learners think about what they see - not merely copy. They learned how artists solve visual problems.

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Creativity Killers in the art room

Conversation Game to generate creative ideas for artwork Creativity Links All rights reserved. This page © Marvin Bartel. For permission to make copies or handouts, contact the author

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- What are you doing? If you are an art teacher, parent, or somebody who is practicing some ideas related to creativity, I am curious to learn about your experiences. I am interested in teacher experiences in a number of areas. This could go in many directions. These are a few of the questions that I am curious about, but the list could certainly include lots of other things. These are in no particular order. 1. How to creatively teach technology in art classes? 2. Your experience with methods of teaching students to generate and develop their own ideas for their artwork. 3. Your experiences with curriculum with emphasis on working in depth rather than a smattering of one-shot assignments. 4. What art teachers do that communicates and "sells" their programs to administrators, students, parents, and communities. 5. Your experiences with art history that are both well received and do not directly influence student media work or prevent them from generating their own ideas. 6. Any particularly creative media work assignments. 7. Your experiences with making difficult things easy and easy things more challenging. 8. Your experiences with ways to work with a broad ability spectrum in one class. 9. New experiments and experience with drawing instruction that increase the powers of observation. 10. Experiments and experience with drawing instruction that increase the powers of imagination. 11. Experiments and experience with drawing instruction that increase the powers of memory. 12. Ways to foreshadow upcoming assignments and projects so that students learn to use their

subconscious minds to gain insight even when they are not directly on-task. Hopefully, sharing some ideas could be a way to think through things and help keep the work interesting.
All rights reserved. This page © Marvin Bartel. For permission to make copies or handouts, contact the author

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Teaching Methods
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Scientific Basis for the Art of Teaching | The Role of Planning in Teaching | Curriculum Theory | Technology in Education | Learning Environments and Motivation | Extending Learning Time | Methods for Multicultural Classrooms | Multicultural Curriculum Development | Classroom Management | Teaching Approaches: Presentation | Teaching of Concepts | Directive Instruction | Cooperative Learning | Problem-Based Learning and Instruction | Creativity and Intelligence | Classroom Discussion | Assessment and Evaluation | Learning Strategies | The School as Workplace | The First Year of Teaching | Middle School Education |

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Scientific Basis for the Art of Teaching
Teaching in Historical Perspective The History of Education Site Blackwell History of Education Research Museum Cogito: The Cognitive Paradigm Center for Dewey Studies Effective Teaching Principles for Effective Teaching HVCC's Center for Effective Teaching Home Page NCREL: Pathways to School Improvement Education Hot Links Academic Learning Time Educational Psychology Interactive: Academic Learning Time A Systems Model of the Teaching/Learning Process

Effective Teaching Class Notes Learning to Teach National Center for Research on Teacher Learning Overcoming the Education-Training Divide: The Case of Professional Development Troubleshooting Your Class Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators Constructivist Perspective The Institute for Constructivist Theories of Learning Constructivist Teaching and Learning Models WWW Constructivist Project Design Guide

The Role of Planning in Teaching
Instructional Objectives Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Arts Education Evaluation Effective teaching strategies and the design of instruction Behavioral Objectives Writing Behavioral Objectives Individual Education Planning: Behavioral Objectives Bloom's Taxonomy Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain Critical Thinking Selecting Curriculum Content Arts Education: A Curriculum Guide for Grade Eight Reading Curriculum Guide Contents A Curriculum Guide for the Elementary Level Instructional Design Instructional Model: Academic Learning Units An Overview of How to Design Instruction Lesson Plans Lesson Plan Format Busy Teachers' WebSite: K-12 Crossroads: A K-16 American History Curriculum ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education - Lesson Plans Education World - Lesson Planning & Lesson Plans Educational WWW Resources for K-12 Students and Teachers (by Subject) Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education Lesson Plans Heritage Online: K-12 Lesson Plan Resources Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Scientific Research Lesson Plans Literature & Writing Lesson Plans National Geographic Society's Geography Lesson Plans Net Lessons: Web-based Projects for Your Classroom

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Curriculum Theory
Historical Perspectives New Times Demand New Ways of Learning Current Perspectives The Thinking Curriculum Learner-Centered Classrooms, Problem-Based Learning Educating Teachers for Diversity Why Should Assessment Be Based on a Vision of Learning?

Technology in Education
Utilizing Educational Technologies Ask the Learning Network -AskLN WWW 4 Teachers The Schoolhouse Networking & Other Connectivity Information Center Incorporating Technology into Curriculum Explorer TM Ruralnet Online Course Unit 3: Infusion of Internet/WWW into Lesson Plans New Mexico Technology Integration Resource Pages Novi Meadows Technology Infused Curriculum Curriculum and Technology Links Technology Planning Developing a School Technology Plan Learning Through Technology: A Planning and Implementation Guide Northwest Educational Technology Consortium Understanding Hardware and Software Ask the Learning Network - AskLN Online Collaborative Projects Earth System Science Global Online Adventure Learning Sites Pitsco's Launch to Online Collaborative Projects Creating Learning Communities: Practical Universal Networking for Learning in Schools and Homes Implementation of Global Internet Project Online Learning Activities

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Learning Environments and Motivation
Establishing a Positive Classroom Climate Student Motivation to Learn Positive Classroom Environment and Student Self-discipline Behvior Management and Positive Classroom Environment Effects of Classroom Environment on Motivation Caring and Support Leadership for School Culture Praise in the Classrooms (ERIC Digest) Effects of Teacher Behavior and Expectations on Students Classroom Interactions and Achievement Raising Expectations to Improve Student Learning (NCREL Monograph) Understanding the Keys to Motivation to Learn Teacher Talk- Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement Learner-Centered Classrooms, Problem-Based Learning Strategies for Enhancing Student Motivation AskERIC InfoGuide - Motivating Students Motivating Students Parent Involvement and Student Learning Creating Learning Communities: Practical Universal Networking for Learning in Schools and Homes Parent Information Network Parental Involvement is as Easy as Pie Helping Your Child Series

Extending Learning Time
Extending Learning Time for Disadvantaged Students - Vol. 1 Extending Learning Time for Disadvantaged Students - Vol. 2 Homework Resources Ask Dr. Math BJ Pinchbeck's Homework Helper CNN News Helping Your Child Series Internet Public Library - Our World

Knowledge Adventure Encyclopedia Launch Point: Los Angeles Times On-Line Homework Columns My Virtual Encyclopedia National Geographic Map Machine Newspapers on the Net Purdue On line Writing Lab (Research Papers) Reference Shelf Research Paper Online Research Room (Writing A Research Paper) Study Web The Virtual Newspaper The Virtual Reference Desk A Web of On-Line Dictionaries The World Factbook Yahooligans -- Yahoo's Search Engine for Children Kids Web: A World Wide Web Digital Library for Schoolkids Student Study Skills Studying, Learning and Control: Making School A Success How To Be A Successful Student The CalREN Project, UC Berkeley Critical Thinking Strategies Helping Students Assess Their Thinking Mind Tools - Information Skills - Mind Maps Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought The Center for Critical Thinking - Teacher Resources Critical Thinking Strategies

Methods for Multicultural Classrooms
Student Diversity: Racial Diversity, Cultural Pluralism American Studies Web Page: Race and Ethnicity Race Language Diversity (ESL, LEP, Bilingual Education) Language Use Accommodating Language Diversity in Schools Social Class Diversity Social Class and Emergent Literary Experience Social Class Home Page

Multicultural Curriculum Development
Multicultural Pavilion Multicultural Education: Strategies for Linguistically Diverse Schools Crossing Borders: Multicultural Literature Welcome to the Children's Multicultural Literature Resource Multicultural Curriculum Resources South Asian Children's Books Gender Differences Research on Girls in School Ensuring Equity and Excellence in Mathematics

Improving Girls' Achievement In Science National Association of Women in Education Gender Equity in Math, Science, and Technology Education Equity Online Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America The AWSEM Project Surprising But True Addressing Student Exceptionalities Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Home Page A Teacher's Guide to Exceptional Children  Mainstreaming/Inclusion Friends of Inclusion Resource Page SERI - Special Education Resources on the Internet Inclusion: School as a Caring Community  Learning Disabilities Online: Interactive Guide to Learning Disabilities for Parents, Teachers, and Children  Behavioral Disorders/Emotional Disorders ADHD Information Library Teaching Tips: ADHD Teacher Adaptations for Children with Attention Problems Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders Center for the Study of Autism Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism: Temple Grandin  Visual/Hearing Impaired Blindness Resource Center Teacher Topics: Students with Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities Council on Education of Deaf: Deaf Education Website Deaf-Blind Perspectives  Gifted and Talented National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent The TAG Family Network The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Education Program for Gifted Youth

Classroom Management
Preventive Classroom Management/Rules and Procedures The Metamorphosis of Classroom Management Classroom Management Classroom Discipline Techniques Classroom Management Organization and Management of the Classroom Managing Inappropriate Behavior Positive Discipline Aggression and Cooperation: Helping Young Children Develop

Constructive Strategies Managing Inappropriate Behavior in the Classroom Reward Systems Student Motivation to Learn Bucks for Books Assertive Discipline Conventional Systems of Classroom Discipline Assertive Discipline in Schools Discipline with Dignity Teacher's Workshop - Discipline with Dignity Discipline with Dignity Discipline Profiles Student Self-Management Student-led Conferences Working Toward Student Self-Direction and Personal Efficacy as Educational Goals

Teaching Approaches: Presentation
Diagnosing Prior Knowledge Inquiring Minds: The Long Haul Increasing Comprehension by Activating Prior Knowledge Schema Activation, Construction, and Application Checking for Understanding Tips for Teachers: Checking for Understanding Checking for Understanding Advance Organizers Advance Organizers Subsumption Theory Learning Styles Multiple Intelligences Home Page Learning Styles American Indian/Alaskan Native Learning Styles: Research and Practice Hispanic-American Students and Learning Style Learning Styles Counseling Teaching Styles Constructivist Teaching and Learning Styles Master Teachers  Instructor-Centered Selecting a Delivery Strategy 4kids Staff Vision  Content-Centered Curriculum Reform Movement Content-Centered Language Learning  Student-Centered Providing Hands-On, Minds-On, and Authentic Learning Experiences in Science Learning Areas or Centers

Shifting Instructional Paradigms: Student-Centered Teaching and Learning  Teacher-Student-Content Centered From Theory to Practice: Classroom Application of OutcomeBased Education The Thinking Curriculum Lesson Examples ERIC Virtual Lesson Plans

Teaching of Concepts
Concepts of Higher-Level Thinking The Critical Thinking Community Think Quest Use of Mental Images/Effective Concept Teaching Graphic Organizers Lesson Examples Concept Attainment Model: A Viable Component for Elementary Science Curriculum Social Studies Grade One Lesson Plan Format

Directive Instruction
Behavior Modeling and Demonstration The Behavioral Approach Social Learning Theory Procedures for Effective Direct Instruction Learning Assistance Centre for Direct Instruction Using Direct Instruction to Integrate Reading and Writing Lesson Examples Lesson Plan Formats: Direct Instruction More About Madeline Hunter Lesson Plan

Cooperative Learning
Cooperative Learning Approaches Notes on Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Procedures for Effective Cooperative Learning Getting Students Ready for Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Accommodating diversity and disability with cooperative learning Active and Cooperative Learning Lesson Examples Cooperative Learning in the Secondary School An Example In-class Exercise: "Value Conflicts"

Problem-Based Learning and Instruction
Inquiry-Based Learning Problem-based Learning Web-based Inquiry Resources Challenging, Authentic, Interdisciplinary Tasks Principles of Problem-Based Learning Problem-Based Learning and the Lively Classroom What is Problem-Based Learning? Procedures for Effective Problem-Based Instruction Goals and Objectives of PBL Learner-Centered Classrooms, Problem-Based Learning, and the Construction of Understanding and Meaning by Students Problems: A Key Factor in PBL Eight Tasks of Problem-Based Learning Lesson Examples Smallville Prairie Development Project Supplying Our Water Needs Problem-Based Learning: Nigeria Sprinkler Systems

Creativity and Intelligence
Teaching to Foster Creativity Encouraging Creativity in Early childhood Classrooms Creative Teaching Tips From Around the World Creativity in Young Children Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Multiple Ways of Knowing List of Ideas for Multiple Intelligences Multiple Intelligences Theory and the Arts

Classroom Discussion
Effective Teacher Questioning and Use of Wait-Time Instructional Conversations and Their Classroom Application" (ERIC Digest) Effective Teaching Strategies Using "Think-Time" and "Wait-Time" Skillfully in the Classroom ERIC Digest) Conducting Effective Classroom Discussions Reciprocal Teaching Assessment in a Constructivist Classroom Lesson Examples Effective Teaching Strategies Reach Consensus Scientific Investigation of Natural Phenomena

Assessment and Evaluation
ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation A Long Overview on Alternative Assessment Evaluation Critical Issue: Rethinking Assessment and Its Role in Supporting Education Reform Teacher Grading Evaluating: Grading and Scoring  Rubrics Empowering Students through Negotiable Contracting Assessment Rubrics Sample Assessment Rubrics  Holistic Scoring Holistic Scoring Holistic Scoring Rubric On Holistic Scoring and the Nature of Reading Standardized Testing The Educational Assessment Reassessed: The Usefulness of Standardized and Alternative Measures of Student Achievement Why Should Assessment Be Based on a Vision of Learning Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests Norming and Norm Referenced Test Scores Test Construction and Use Constructing Classroom Achievement Tests (ERIC Digest) Basic Item Analysis for Multiple Choice Tests (ERIC Digest) A Study of Two Guidelines for Writing Multiple Choice Items Writing Multiple Choice Test Items (ERIC/AE Digest) Open-Ended Questions in Reading From Multiple Choice to Multiple Choices Performance Assessment Some Performance Assessment Techniques Creating Meaningful Performance Assessments (ERIC DigestE531) What Does Research Say About Assessment Authentic Assessment The Portfolio and Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Young Children What Does Research Say About Assessment? A Long Overview on Alternative Assessment: Student Portfolios The Portfolio and Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Young Children Performance & Portfolio Assessment for Language Minority Students Assessment Culminating Exhibtions Performances and Exhibitions: The Demonstration of Mastery An Exhibition of Skills: A Cooperative Venture Anatomy of an Exhibit Three Pictures of an Exhibit

Learning Strategies
Overview of Effective Learning and Study Strategies How to Be a Successful Student Improving Learning Achievement Developing Learning Skills in Early Childhood Theoretical Support: Accessing Prior Knowledge Performance & Portfolio Assessment for Language Minority Students Evaluation Critical Issue: Rethinking Assessment and Its Role in Supporting Education Reform Critical Issue: Building on Prior Knowledge Types of Learning Strategies Eloquent Evident: Arts at the Core of Learning Learning Skills Program-Organizing and Integrating Information Critical Issue: Providing Hands-On, Minds-On, and Authentic Learning Experiences in Mathematics How to Be a Successful Student Engaged Learning  Rehearsal Strategies Role Playing  Elaboration Strategies Trainer Notes: Cognitive Mapping Techniques Mindmapping  Organization Strategies Developing Learning Strategies Organizational Strategies  Metacognitive Strategies Metacognition The Metacognitive Process Metacognition Promoting Effective Study Strategies The Ideal Learning Environment A Few Examples of Active Learning Techniques Reasons for Studying

The School as Workplace
School-to-Work Model of Learning National School-to-Work Learning and Information Center Education and Work School-to-Work Transition School-to-Work Study of School-to-Work Initiatives National Center for Research in Vocational Education Center on Education and Work (University of Wisconsin, Madison) School-to-Careers School-to-Work Initiatives Around the Nation How to Structure a Work-based Learning Experience for Your

Student Work-Based Learning Resource Center Council of Great City Schools: School-to-Work Cornell Youth and Work Program California's School-to-Career Net New York State School-to-Work Online The Secretary of Labor's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (1991 SCANS Report Introduction) Summary of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 Schools as Organizations Bringing Schools and Communities Together in Preparation of the 21st Century School-Based Management: Strategies for Success Toward a Sociology of Educational Technology Effective Schools Research Coalition of Essential Schools Publications Critique: Bringing Context into Effect Schools Research: Urban Suburban Differences School Effectiveness Research in Rural Schools Riley Recognizes Effective Schools That Beat the Odds Attributes of Effective Schools Coalition of Essential Schools School Attributes That Foster Success Among All Learners How to Add the Human Dimension for More Effective Schools

The First Year of Teaching
The Beginning Teacher Experience Helpful Hints for Beginning Teachers Letters to Beginning Teachers Beginning Teacher Support Initiatives A Program forRetaining Entry Year Teachers Critical Issue: Providing Professional Development Activities BTSA Beginning Teacher Support & Assessment Helping New Science Teachers With Phone Assistance for Teachers of Science (PATS) About the Praxis Series Online Resources Providing Support to New Teachers You Don't Have to be 2nd Bananas Classroom Management Real Kids, Real Adventures Teacher's Lounge

Arts  Visual Arts Webmuseum Paris Landscape Painting

Smithsonian Photographic Services Edo no Iki Gallery WWW Virtual Library of Museums National Gallery of Art  Performing Arts Classical Composer Biographies Classical Net Home Page Garden State Pops Youth Orchestra Instruments FAQ Dance Directory of Theater Resources The Shenandoah Shakespeare Express English/Language Arts  Reading Read*Write*Now: Table of Contents Content Reading Skills I Hate to Read Gifted Readers and Reading Instruction The Word Detective Focusing on Words American Literary Classics American Literary Tradition Children's Literature Web Guide Children's Authors and Illustrators and Their Books Children's Storybooks Online Classics for Young People Columbia University Project Bartleby -- Literary Classics The CyberLibrary of Children's Stories Escape Your Disaster: Adventure Island Fake Out! The Definition Guessing Game The Global Campfire Helping Your Child Series: Helping Your Child Learn to Read Kids Web Literature Library of Congress, Chiildren's Literature Center Midlink Magazine The Mother Goose Pages The On-line Books Page On-line Children's Stories Reader's Theater Editions Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet Storytelling, Drama, Creative Dramatics and Readers Theater for Children and Young Adults Tales to Tell Theodore Tugboat Vocabulary University Vocabulary Stretchers Wacky Web Tales

 





Welcome to Bear Country: Kody's Beary Scary Story Whimsical Bedtime Stories for Children of All Ages Wordies on the Web Phonics Phonics is Phonics is Phonics Cybernews Education Section Writing Teaching of Writing Skills Writing Lessons An Elementary Grammar Exploring English Purdue Online Writing Lab Activities for Teaching Writing Literature An Introduction to the Study of Literature Children's Literature Web Guide Carol Hurst's Children's Literature Site Young Adult Literature Library The Shakespeare Mystery The Shakespeare Classroom Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet Poetry and Literature Lesson Plans Interpreting Ideas in American Literature Columbia University Project Bartleby Literacy National Institute for Literacy Accelerating Literacy Language and Literacy Program Balanced Literacy Program Content Literacy Information Consortium Staff Development - Balanced Literacy Literacy Bookshelf Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Skills Secondary School Educators Resource Library Classroom Material - Center for Critical Thinking

Foreign Languages Teaching With The Web  Chinese Internet Based Chinese Teaching and Learning On-Line Chinese Tools Resources for Teaching and Learning of Chinese Chinese Character Genealogy  French French Resources on the Web University of Ottawa-Resources for Teachers and Students of

French as a Second Language Creative French Teaching Methods La Fete Colombienne Des Enfants French Educational Site of ETIENNE  German German Corner German Language Links  Latin Latin Culture Salvi  Spanish Latino Resources on the Net Spanish Language Resources for Children History/Social Studies McGraw-Hill Teaching Resources: Social Studies Archaeology Resources for Education Habitat  Ancient Civilizations Ancient Greek Artifacts Exploring Ancient World Cultures NOVA Online Pyramids - The Inside Story The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Museum of Antiquities  Economics Interactive Stock Market Unit Economics and Geography Lessons - Elementary Currency Exchange and the Gang of Fifteen Lemonade Stand Rich and Poor, the Growing Gap  Geography Geography Education - National Geographic Lesson Plans GeoNet Game Geography World An Amazon Adventure  U.S. History The History Net The American Civil War Homepage Colonial Williamsburg Home Page Crossroads - American History Lesson Plans National Council for History Education Regia Anglorum - Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Norman and British Living Ravensgard Medieval Homepage Medieval Sourcebook Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project (Stanford University) Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Biographical Sketch Life Magazine's Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr.

"I Have a Dream"-- Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham Jail" -- Martin Luther King, Jr. Quotations of Martin Luther King, Jr. Robert Kennedy's Speech on King's Death Martin Luther King Exhibit -- National Civil Rights Museum Civil Rights Movement and Martin Luther King Timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement National Civil Rights Museum Black History Month Website The African American Mosaic African American Contributions to Science, Technology and Medicine African American Historical Figures Archive of Articles by and about African Americans (Atlantic Monthly) Directory of African American Sites Universal Black Pages Mathematics Ask Dr. Math The Math Forum Helping Your Child Learn Math State of the Art: Transforming Ideas for Teaching and Learning Mathematics Critical Issue: Implementing Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Standards in Mathematics Teachers Helping Teachers - Math Lesson Plans Ask ERIC Math Lesson Plans Math Lessons & Courses Bram Math Homework Help Math Archives Math Magic  Arithmetic Monster Math Math Forum - Arithmetic Resources Elementary Level Math Resources  Algebra Math Forum - K-12 Algebra Resources  Geometry The Geometry Problem of the Week Math Forum - K-12 Geometry Resources  Calculus Alvirne High School's Advanced Placement Calculus Problem of the Week Math Forum - Calculus  Fractals A Fractals Lesson

 Manipulatives Math Manipulatives  Trigonometry Trigonometric Identities  Dealing with "Math Anxiety" How to Prevent Poor Math Achievement Overcoming Math Anxiety Science The History of the Light Microscope The Exploratorium Science Snackbook  Biology Envirolink Cells Alive! Biology and Life Sciences BioChemNet The WWW Cell Biology Course MathMol / An Introduction to Molecular Modeling  Chemistry Chemistry Internet Chemistry Resources: TEACHING RESOURCES BioChemNet The WWW Virtual Library of Chemistry The Periodic Table of Elements Atom World: Molecular Model Construction Kits  Life Science Biology and Life Sciences  Physical Science  Science Resources: Physical Science  Virtual Laboratory  Physics Physics The WWW Virtual Library: Physics The Physics Factory Physical Education Chapter V: Physical Education Ask Noah about Childhood Fitness P.E. Central  Health Health Lesson Plans Eating Disorders Awareness and Prevention Shape Up America The Real Scoop on Tobacco  Nutrition Kids Food Cyber Club

Dole 5 A Day Home Page Food Zone

Vocational Education
National Center for Research in Vocational Education ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education Office of Adult and Vocational Education Modern Principles of Vocational Education  Business National Business Education Resources Business Education Resource Consortium for California School-to-Work Internet Gateway  Home Economics Education Index - Home Economics Resources Developing Educational Standards - Home Economics Home Economics Links Virtual Nutrition Center Community Service Education Week Articles on Service Learning Service Learning Home Page Computer Instruction An Educator's Guide to the Internet for the Classroom Classroom Connect WWW 4 Teachers K-12: Computer Technology

Global Education
A Global Educator's Guide to the Internet Peace Corps Global Education Resources The American Forum of Global Education Links to Resources

Middle School Education
Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century This We Believe: Developmentally Responsive Middle Level Schools Middle Web: Exploring Middle School Reform The Middle School Information Center A Teachers' Guide: Working with Young Adolescents Center for Adolescent Studies Harvard Education Letter: Middle Grades Reform Phi Delta Kappan: Middle Grades Through the Looking Glass: The Future of Middle School Reform Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century Key Characteristics of Middle Level Schools Middle Schools with Exemplary Practices for LEP Students Muddle in the Middle A Crack in the Middle Listservs for Middle School Educators

National Association of Secondary School Principals California Department of Education: Middle Grades Division National Middle School Association Middle Level Student Activities Association Middle School Partnership Back to Teaching Methods/Subject Area Resources Home Page

Chapter VIl: Independent Learning1
Independent Learning focuses on creation of the opportunities and experiences necessary for students to become capable, self-reliant, self-motivated and life-long learners. What is desired are students who value learning as an empowering activity of great personal and social worth. All of the other C.E.L.s contribute to the goal of developing independent learners.

  


Definition Rationale The Teacher's Role o Learning Environment o Relationship between teacher and student o Teaching and modelling skills Summary

DEFINITION "Independent Learning is that learning in which the learner, in conjunction with relevant others, can make the decisions necessary to meet the learner's own learning needs." (Kesten, 1987, p. 3) In this process, independent learners develop the values, attitudes, knowledge and skills needed to make responsible decisions and take actions dealing with their own learning. Independent learning is fostered by creating the opportunities and experiences which encourage student motivation, curiosity, self-confidence, selfreliance and positive self-concept; it is based on student understanding of their own interests and a valuing of learning for its own sake. Independent learning is part of an ongoing, lifelong process of education that stimulates greater thoughtfulness and reflection and promotes the continuing growth of students' capabilities and powers. More than the rote learning of facts and skills, this approach to learning encourages students to make meaning for themselves, based on their understanding of why and how new knowledge is related to their own experiences, interests and needs. Independent learning is a direction for the process of education, not an absolute standard; this process takes different forms for different students and it varies according to subject matter and students' interests and abilities in the subjects. Independent learning involves the teacher and learner in an interactive process that encourages students' intellectual development and their capacity for independent and reflective judgment.

Independent learning is fostered by a school environment which is sensitive, flexible, democratic and responsive to the needs of students. This encourages a strong sense of purpose and motivation on the part of students. Independent learning makes full use of the resources of the school and the community and fosters the development of independent learners in every grade and in every subject. The development of Independent Learning - from rationale to processes to goals - is outlined in Figures 7.1 and 7.2.

RATIONALE Independent learning addresses the needs of individual learners for independence and active participation in their own learning, both in school and in the larger society. This approach to learning is an important part of core curriculum:

"It is essential for schools to reduce students' dependence on schools

and teachers for their learning and increase students' capability to set and meet their own learning goals." (Core Curriculum Advisory Committee, 1986, p. 13)
Since learning extends beyond the school context, learners require independence as a life skill, to assist them in preparing for new situations and experiences. Independent Learning can assist students in acquiring the knowledge, abilities, skills, values and motivation that enable them to analyze learning situations and develop appropriate strategies for action. Independent learning requires that people take responsibility for their own learning. Individual responsibility stems from the belief that learning can be affected by effort, and this belief is the critical factor which leads to individuals' perseverance in the face of obstacles. Teachers can help students take responsibility for their learning by providing opportunities and strategies for learning independently and by encouraging them to initiate and actively participate in their own learning. Students need to explore issues that have meaning and relevance for them. Individual students bring ' different perspectives and experiences to learning situations, and in the final analysis, it is the learner who achieves learning and creates meaning from any new material or experience. A sense of social responsibility will be fostered by teaching which supports the examination of new knowledge in terms of its relevance and meaning for students in particular and human purposes in general. An important motivating factor in independent learning is the encouragement of students' own interests and their desire to learn. Students will be motivated to learn if the learning activity is meaningful, and if the knowledge is useful and provides a means of achieving a desired goal. Such learning activities provide a stimulus to reflective inquiry and continuing intellectual development. In contrast, learning activities in which the student has no interest lead to increasing dependence on external motivation and extrinsic rewards. This approach to teaching has the effect of diminishing student initiative, rather than encouraging student participation in learning for its own sake. Students will move towards independence in varying degrees, depending on factors such as age, skill level and ability in a particular subject. It is important to establish the conditions for enlarging student learning in all its variety, thereby encouraging the growth and development of all students towards greater responsibility for their own learning. Independent learning cannot be achieved in isolation. Learning is an interactive process among students and between teacher and students. Students engage in learning activities as individuals who are interdependent with other individuals in the classroom and in the wider society. Independent learning has implications for ~ responsible decision making, as individuals are expected to analyze problems, reflect, make decisions and take purposeful actions. To take responsibility for their lives in times of rapid social change, students need to learn on a life-long basis. As most aspects of our daily lives are likely to undergo profound changes, independent learning will enable individuals to respond to the changing demands of work, family and society. For example, changes in work life will require retraining, job change and life-long learning, and technological change will demand the values, attitudes and skills associated with independent learning. As in the case with Critical and Creative Thinking, Independent Learning is an important foundation for maintaining democracy and promoting social justice. Citizens

are called upon to independently assess problems, make rational decisions and take actions - not based on what others decide is best for them, but based on an assessment of their own interests and the interests of others in Society. As guardians of the future, today's youth require the independent learning abilities that will empower them to act in accordance with the principle of social justice and for the survival of our planet. Finally, it is through Independent Learning that all the other Common Essential Learnings become an integrated whole. Independent Learning is a vehicle for consolidating the understandings developed through all of the Common Essential Learnings. In summary, Independent Learning:

— is based on meaningful learning activities; — enables individual learners to take responsibility for their own learning; — is essential for life-long motivation and growth; — prepares students for their role as responsible citizens in a changing society; — is a tool for the achievement of all the Common Essential Learnings.

THE TEACHER'S ROLE Three aspects of the teacher's role in fostering Independent Learning are: the learning environment created by the teacher; the relationship established between teacher and learner; and the teaching and modelling of skills needed for independent learning.

LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Children enter the formal education process as intuitive independent learners. It is important to create a learning environment which furthers this process of independence, and enables students to consciously accept responsibility for and make decisions about their own learning. The teacher plays an important role in providing a supportive environment that encourages students' motivation, self-confidence, curiosity and desire to learn. Independent learning will be fostered by a climate that is sensitive, flexible and responsive to the learners' needs. The atmosphere, environment and structure of the school itself must support independent learning, with teachers, principals and others in the school modelling independent learning behaviors. The process of education creates the context within which students can progress towards greater responsibility for their own learning. Working with teacher-librarians in the library resource center program will also further encourage student inquiry. Resource-based learning will enable students to access resources, and will involve them in a process of active learning in the school and community. Strong library programs can offer students guidance, support and freedom as they increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. In a school system based to a great extent upon competition and grades, it is particularly important to encourage students' intrinsic interest in learning learning for its own sake, not as a means to an end. Independent learning strategies that address the interests and concerns of students, make the curriculum content relevant to students' needs and demonstrate the purpose of learning will contribute to the development of autonomous learners.

Relationship between teacher and student
The relationship between teacher and learner should foster increasing learner responsibility. As students grow in maturity and understanding, they are able to take on greater responsibility for their own learning. As this happens, teachers need to relinquish control of decision making. This transfer of control is best supported by a school environment that is "organized to encourage and support a continued, increasingly mature and comprehensive acceptance of responsibilities for one's own learning" (Kesten, 1987, p. 15). Teachers assist students in mastering the decision making processes as instructors, guides and facilitators. In this role, teachers not only enable students to acquire a solid base of knowledge and experience, but they also help students to discover the personal meaning of this knowledge and experience in terms of their own needs. This process leads to a more meaningful learning experience for students; they are motivated to take greater control over their learning because it is relevant to their needs, both as individuals and as members of society. As teachers encourage students to take greater responsibility for decision making, they must also judge students' readiness for such responsibility. Such judgments are based on the learner's age, maturity, ability and knowledge, and can only be made by teachers who know their students well. As in all Common Essential Learnings, teachers' instructional techniques will be an important basis for implementation of Independent Learning. The attitudes, skills and knowledge of independent learning will be fostered in students, in large part, through the ways in which teachers organize their classrooms and instruct their students. It is important that teachers utilize instructional techniques, strategies and approaches based on collaboration between learner and teacher. This will encourage student participation, both in determining goals and in monitoring the learning process. Also desirable are teaching approaches that foster student self-confidence and empower students to take responsibility for their own learning.

Teaching and modelling skills
An important aspect of the teacher's role is the teaching and modelling of skills needed for independent learning. Consistent with the discussion of the other C.E.L.s, it is important to note that such skills should not be taught in isolation, but rather developed through school subject matter. Five principles, adapted from Herber and Herber (1987), provide an outline of how teachers can incorporate skill teaching and create a learning environment which frees their students to become independent lifelong learners.

1. Modelling and practicing learning skills: Independence in the performance of a task is the logical extension of having learned and practiced a task. Students are taught activities which facilitate the transition to independence through modelling, demonstration and direct instruction of learning skills. These are followed by practice opportunities provided by the teacher, who monitors students' progress towards their goals of independent decision making. As part of this process, it is important to share with students what is being done and why

an activity is useful. The goal is that learners will eventually make their own decisions, connect what they already know with what they are learning, make judgments and inferences, apply new ideas and derive pleasure from learning.
The following example outlines this learning process: Students might undertake a class project on time management in conjunction with doing an assignment. The teacher and students would do the assignment together. As the teacher models the actions involved in time management through thinking aloud, the students are learning ways to manage time during this assignment as well as why this is important. The teacher then models and prompts student action in doing another assignment and attending to the time management needed. This modelling is repeated until the student can do the activity without cues from the teacher, and gradually takes over the actions. As an important part of this process, students are reminded often that there are other solutions to a problem such as time management; they are encouraged to seek the solutions that work best for them. Discussion of students' personal adaptations should follow completion of the assignments. The teacher-librarian has an important role to play in developing independent learning skills, such as narrowing a topic or identifying sources. See pp. 67 of Learning Resource Centers in Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Education, 1988) for a more complete description of the place of the school resource center in teaching learning skills.

2. Transfer of responsibility from teacher to learner: Independence is developed by design, not chance. Four steps involved in the skill aspect of independent learning are: show students how; provide practice; have students structure activities; finally, have them use the activities independently.
The pace of this sequence is dependent upon the age and background of the student, the level of the task to be done and the attitudes of both teacher and student. The transfer of decision making responsibility from teacher to student is a key part of the teacher's role in fostering independent learning; the transfer needs to be accomplished without either over- or under-controlling the process. This shift is enhanced by a teachers' positive attitude to independent learning, as well as a good knowledge of the needs, interests and abilities of individual students. This transfer of control is crucial; it leads to students discovering how their efforts can affect their learning. Students then experience control of the learning task, and from this control they acquire motivation to continue learning.

3. Knowledge and understanding of students: Independence is a relative state. Independent learning is a cyclical process, whereby students learn a skill at one level, then use the skill to learn other skills or content, repeating the cycle many times over. This process is related to the developmental level of the student, the requirements of the material and the effective transition from learning a skill to using the skill to learn.
As part of this independent learning process, it is important that teachers know their students well. Teachers need to observe and reflect upon students' learning processes. This role is a proactive one, since in order to help the students succeed as independent learners, the teacher needs to anticipate difficulties and offer support at crucial intervals.

Teachers need to develop a good understanding of their students' strengths and weaknesses - socially, emotionally, intellectually and physically - their exceptionalities, their health, their cultural backgrounds. Students become motivated when they believe that they have the ability to control their own learning. This motivation is enhanced by learning which builds on students' own interests; basing learning experiences on students' needs and interests helps develop enthusiastic learners. For independent learning to proceed, student choice must become a regular part of the classroom environment, including the structuring of assignments, topics, group processes and timelines.

4. Collaborative instructional techniques: Independent learning is not carried out in isolation; it includes co-operative, small group and whole class learning. Independent learners select from a variety of settings, resources and styles that meet their needs and interests. The teacher's role is to facilitate learning in a variety of ways which are age appropriate, subject appropriate, related to available resources and related to students' needs for a balance between structured experience and independence. Instructional approaches which facilitate independent learning include the following: —divergent thinking —concept mapping —journal writing —learning centers —inquiry process — independent research —student-teacher conferences
Teachers can also vary the setting, topic, assignment, time, depth and group processes. All variety and choices should include provisions for learning study skills, as well as student input into evaluation.

5. Support and encouragement to students: Becoming independent is an ongoing process which takes time, patience and support. To be lifelong learners, students are ever in the process of becoming independent. It is the responsibility of the educator to foster this developmental process of learning.
The teacher's role is to be a patient facilitator, showing students how to learn independently, encouraging them, providing feedback and supporting their efforts. These are all crucial factors in providing a learning environment which fosters independent learning and which motivates students to pursue independent learning skills. SUMMARY In summary, teachers can foster Independent Learning by:

— using a variety of ways to gain understanding of their students' abilities, needs and interests; — making education relevant to students' needs and interests; — teaching and modelling independent learning skills; — providing students with choice in assignments and topics within a range of choices;

— increasing students' responsibility for decision making in the independent learning process; — utilizing collaborative instructional techniques
In this way, teachers can create a supportive classroom environment and motivate students to learn. These approaches are based on teachers' understanding of and support for the goals of Independent Learning. Through this process, students will develop into individuals with self-respect, self-direction and self-determination, and be better able to effectively participate in society and interact reflectively with rapid social change.

1. The work of Cyril Kesten (Independent Learning, Saskatchewan Education, 1987) formed an important foundation in the development of this chapter.

Appendix A

Practical Resources for Teachers o Communication o Numeracy o Critical and Creative Thinking o Technological Literacy o Personal and Social Values and Skills o Independent Learning

PRACTICAL RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS The following resources are suggestions only. It is hoped that the material listed here will be useful in facilitating the incorporation of the C.E.L.s into existing curricula. It should be noted that some of the suggested works (such as those which deal with contemporary issues and values) may not be appropriate in certain situations; activities may need to be selected with some sensitivity to the needs of individual communities. Other works which contain individual activities or strategies are intended to be integrated into lessons which introduce meaningful content, and not to be used as separate ends in themselves. Those works which relate to specific subject areas may also provide strategies which can be applied throughout the Required Areas of Study. The list is not meant to be definitive or prescriptive, but rather to be adapted by classroom teachers. It is anticipated that through individual use, the list will be continually updated as teachers note which works are personally useful or not useful and as they add or delete titles. The resources are listed under the headings of the individual C.E.L.s.

Baskwill, J. and Whitman, P. (1986). Whole Language Source Book. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Scholastic-Tab Publications Ltd.

Buchanan, E. (1980). For the Love of Reading. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Scholastic-Tab Publications Ltd. Buchanan, E., Cochrane, D., Cochrane, O. and Scalena, S. (1984). Reading, Writing and Caring. Winnipeg, Man.: Whole Language Consultants. Chilver, P. and Gould, G. (1982). Learning and Language in the Classroom. Toronto, Ont.: Pergamon Press. Frost, M. (1987). Speech: Principles and Practice. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman and Co. Jaggar, A. and Smith-Burke, M., eds. (1985). Observing the Language Learner. Newark, Delaware: IRA and Urbana, Illinois: NCTE. Koch, C. and Brazil, J. (1978). Strategies for Teaching the Composition Process. Urbana, Illinois: NCTE. Morris, A. and Stewart-Dore, N. (1987). Learning to Learn From Text. North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Addison-Wesley. Novak, J. and Gowin, D. (1984). Learning How to Learn. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Saskatchewan Education (1988). Learning Resource Centers in Saskatchewan: A Guide for Development. Smith, F. (1982). Writing and the Writer. New York, N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Spencer, E. (1983). Writing Matters Across the Curriculum. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Council for Research in Education. Vacca, R. and Vacca, J. (1986). Content Area Reading (second edition). Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.

Arithmetic Teacher. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (NCTM). This journal features a section on teaching ideas for estimation and mental computation (elementary and middle grades). Computational Estimation. Dale Seymour Publishing Company. —available from Spectrum —3 books for Grades 6, 7 and 8 —15 lessons in each Developing Skills in Estimation. Dale Seymour Publishing Company. —activity worksheets —Book A for grades 6-7 —Book B for grades 8-9 GUESS: Guide to Using Estimation Skills and Strategies. Dale Seymour Publishing Company. —teaching cards and practice cards

—200 cards in each box —Box I and Box II for middle grades and up Hope, J., Reys, B. and Reys, R. (1987). Mental Math in the Middle Grades. Dale Seymour Publishing Company. —36 lessons —blackline masters —practice exercises, tests and teaching suggestion —also available: Mental Math in the Primary Grades, Mental Math for Grades 6 - 8 Huff, D. (1954). How to Lie With Statistics. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. —provides many examples to illustrate use and misuse of statistics Math Works. (1985). Agency for Instructional Technology, Box A, Bloomington, Indiana 47402. —a series of twenty-eight 15 minute video programs —emphasizes reasoning and solving skills for 5th graders —also available: Solve It for 6th graders (eighteen 15-minute programs) Schoen, H. and Zweng, M., eds. (1986). Estimation and Mental Computation. 1986 Yearbook. NCTM. —a collection of articles related to teaching estimation and mental calculation Shulte, A. and Smart, J., eds. (1981). Teaching Statistics and Probability: 1981 Yearbook. NCTM. —a collection of articles related to teaching statistics and probability Thinkabout. (1979). Agency for Instructional Television. —available through Educational Resources Distribution Branch and aired on school telecasts —a series of sixty 15-minute video programs —features skills essential for learning (including solving problems) for 5th and 6th graders

Critical and Creative Thinking
Frost, M. (1987). Speech: Principles and Practice. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company. Jacobs, G. (1970). When Children Think. Columbia University, N.Y.: Teachers College Press. Joyce, B. and Weil, M. (1980). Models of Teaching (second edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Marzano, R., Brandt, R., Hughes, C., Jones, B., Presseisen, B., Rankin, S. and Suhor, C. (1988). Dimensions of Thinking: A Framework for Curriculum and Instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Novak, J. and Gowin, D. (1984). Leaming How to Learn. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Paul, R. (1985). Dialectical reasoning. In Costa, A., ed. Developing Minds. Roseville, Cal.: ASCD.

Paul, R., Binker, A. and Charbonneau, M. (1987). Critical Thinking Handbooks: K-3, 46. Rohnert Park, CA: Sonoma State University. Perkins, D. (1984). Creativity by design. Educational Leadership, 42, 18-25. Roukes, N. (1982). Art Synectics. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications, Inc. Sanders, D. and Sanders, A. (1984). Teaching Creativity Through Metaphor. New York, N.Y.: Longman, Inc.

Technological Literacy
Abraham, M. (1982). "Cereal grains as foods: a teaching unit in economic botany". Saskatoon, Sask.: STF Teaching Materials Center. Acid Rain. The Silent Crisis. Public Interest Group, 427 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1X7. Aikenhead, G. (1984). "Scientific Decision Making" (student and teacher manuals). Saskatoon Sask.: University of Saskatchewan. Aikenhead, G. and Fleming, R. (1973). "Science: a way of knowing" (a one-year Grade 10 science program). Saskatoon, Sask.: University of Saskatchewan. French version: "La science: un moyen de connaitre". Andrews, W. (1986). "Investigating terrestrial ecosystems". Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall of Canada Inc. Barman, C., Rusch, J. and Cooney, T. (1981). "Science and societal issues: A guide for science teachers". Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). (1984). "Innovations: The social consequences of science & technology". Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. (Student and teacher books.) ___(1984). Biomedical technology. ___(1984). Computers and privacy. ___(1984). Human reproduction: Social and Technological aspects. ___(1984). Investigating the Human Environment: Land Use. ___(1984). Television. ___(1984). Science, technology, and society. Butterfield, C. (1983). Values and Biology. Portland, Maine: J. Weston Walch. Bybee, R., Peterson, R., Bowyer, J. and Butts, D. (1984). Teaching about Science and Society: Activities for Elementary and Junior High School. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing co. Future of Synthetic Materials: The Petroleum Connection. (1980). Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute. Holman, J. (Project Organizer) (1986). SATIS. (Science and Technology in Society). —interactive units relating science to important social or technological aspects —for information write to:

Office of High School Chemistry American Chemical Society 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20036
Parisi, L. (ed.). (1986). Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology. Boulder, Col.: Social Science Education Consortium. Remy, R. and La Raus, R. (1978). Citizenship Decision-Making: Skill Activities and Materials. Reading: Addison-Wesley. Roberts, D., ed. (1985). Science and Society Teaching Units. Toronto, Ont.: OISE Press. Society, Environment and Energy Development Studies (SEEDS). (1981-83). Energy Literacy Series. Edmonton, Alta.: The SEEDS Foundation. Spellerman, I. and Pritchard, A. (1984). Ecology, Ecosystem Management and Biology Teaching. Paris, France: UNESCO. Water for Tanzania. (1983). Utrecht, Netherlands: State University of Utrecht, PLON.

Personal and Social Values and Skills
Butterfield, C. (1983). Values and Biology. Portland, Maine: J. Weston Walch. Canfield, J. (1976).100 Ways to Enhance Self-Concept in the Classroom. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Hardy, G. and McAninch, R. (1985). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: A Teacher's Manual. Vancouver, B.C. The Public Legal Education Society and the Department of the Secretary of State. Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. (1984). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. (1987). Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills (third edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. (1987). Reaching Out: Interpersonal Effectiveness and SeIf-Actualization (third edition). Englewood Cliffs, M.J.: Prentice-Hall. Kehayan, V. (1983). SeIf-Awareness Growth Experiences Grades 7-12. Rolling Hills Estates, California: Winch and Associates. Kehoe, J. (1984). A Handbook For Enhaneing the Multicultural Climate of the School. University of British Columbia: Western Education Development Group. Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan. (1985). Human Rights: A Teacher's Activity Guide. Saskatoon, Sask.: PLEA. Sawyer and Green. (1984). The NESA Activities Handbook for Native and Multicultural Classrooms. Vancouver, B.C.: Tillacum Library.

Independent Learning
Beswick, N. (1987). Resource Based Learning. London: Heinemann Ed. Books Ltd.

Blackburn, J. and Powell, W. (1976). One at a Time All at Once: The Creative Teacher's Guide to Individualized Instruction Without Anarchy. Agincourt, Ont.: Gage Educational Publishing Co.. Boud, D. (1981). Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. New York, N.Y.: Nichols Pub. Co. Burden, P. (1982). Learning Centers in the Middle School Classroom. paper ED223607, ERIC. Gomez, T. and Simpson, E., eds. (1971). Independent Activities for Learning Centers. New York, N.Y.: Irvington Pubs. Hills, P. (1976). The SeIf-Teaching Process in Higher Education. Melbourne, FL: Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co. The Independent Study Catalog: NUCEA's Guide to Independent Study Through Correspondence Instruction. (1986-88). New York, N.Y.: Peterson Guides Pub. Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. (1975). Leaming Together and Alone: Cooperation, Competition and Individualization.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Kahn, N. (1980). Ways to Experience Literature: Guidebook I, Guidebook II [T. ED252850, ED252851, ERIC. Novak, J. and Gowin, D. (1984). Leaming How to Learn. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. Obriecht, C. (1981). Seminars by and for Children. Paper ED200929, ERIC. Rath, L., Wassermann, S., Jonas, A. and Rothstein, A. (1986). Teaching for Thinking: Theory Strategies and Activities for the Classroom. New York, N.Y.: Teachers College. Rogers, C. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the 80's. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co. Saskatchewan Education (1988). Learning Resource Centers in Saskatchewan. A Guide for Development. Wassermann, S. and Rath, L. (1984-85). Thinking and Learning Levels 3-6. San Diego: Coronado Pr. Wassermann, S. (1978). The Primary Thinking Box. San Diego: Coronado Pr. Waterhouse, P. (1983). Supported SeIf-Study: A Handbook for Teachers. Philadelphia, Penn.: Trans-Atlantic Pubs. Inc. Waterhouse, P. (1983). Supported Self-Study in Secondary Education. Philadelphia, Penn.: Trans-Atlantic Pubs. Inc. Ziegler, N., Larson B. and Byers, J. (1983). Let the Kids Do It: Preschool Through Grade 3. Belmont, California: Pitman Learning, Inc.

Research Proposal- Independence in Learning
Rob Clarke, MA in Education Sion Manning Cohort March 2004 1. What are the aims of your research? What is it you would like to find out?  establish some benchmarks for measuring independence in learning. To  use these benchmarks as platforms to develop independent learning. To  use a reflective process to lift awareness of independence in learning in To a large environment. I would like to find out: 1. What people think about independent learning what they think it is and 2. How they think it can be developed. I would also like to tie this in with data about achievement using a reflective process along the way. 2. How will your research help to improve teaching and learning and how will you evaluate this? This research will improve teaching and learning by:  lifting awareness of what it means to be an independent learner.  giving teachers and students practical strategies for improving independent learning skills.  developing a tool that will enable students, parents and teachers to measure themselves and develop their understandings of independent learning.  giving students tangible ideas for how they can improve. This research will be evaluated by:  online questionnaire for student, teachers and parents an  direct observation of students in lessons as well as in out of lesson situations  video analysis of interviews pre and post  using a control group to measure against 3. What are the expected outcomes or findings of the research? How will the research be helpful to your personal development and impact upon students?  higher levels of student engagement and control over learning  excitement of students, teachers and parents/carers  new ideas for developing independent learning habits, skills and attitudes  student, parent and teachergenerated tools for increasing independent learning skills 4. How are you going to identify the data you are going to collect? How are you going to collect, analyse and evaluate the data? How do they link to your aims and what is known already?

 reviewing the literature relating to notions of developing independent learning and decide on domains for independence in learning  interview a range of colleagues around the world through the use of an online survey  interogate school achievement data in order to establish current academic levels of groups  online surveys for students/parents and teachers to establish current knowledge of each identified domain  direct observation of students in and out of lessons  video interviews pre and post 5. Present a timeline showing a plan for your research... 6. Describe how your Research Mentor/school based mentor will support you in carrying out and building a successful research project... 7. How do you propose to disseminate your research findings locally, regionally, nationally and internationally?  presentations to: staff and students at my school, board of governors, LEA study support coordinators meeting,  emailing research write up to all who responded to initial survey  distribution of resources, tools and main findings through school intranet, personal web site and DfES web site

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