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					CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING
by Alan Blanchard, Ph.D. What is Contextual Teaching and Learning? A conception that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers (U.S.Department of Education and the National Schoolto-Work Office).

How Do People Learn? There are multiple theories on how and why learning occurs. No one theory is adequate to explain the complexity of the human brain and mind. It is important to examine various theories about cognition in order to detect common traits that can, as much as possible, be generalized. Primary Learning Theories l Developmental Theory l Learning Styles l Neuroscience l Behaviorism l Constructivism l Brain-Based Learning l Observational Learning l Problem-Based Learning Persistent Themes in Cognitive Research Emphasize hands-on problem solving l Organize around real world experiences l Allow for various learning modalities l Encourage learning outside of classroom l Respect student experiences in the learning process l Encourage collaborative learning l Encourage problem-solving l Traditional Instruction Contextual Relies on rote memory CTL : Relies on spatial memory Typically focused on single subject CTL : Typically integrates multiple subjects
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Value of information is determined by teacher CTL : Value of information is based on individual need Fills student with deposits of information until needed CTL : Relates information with prior knowledge Assessment of learning is only for formal academic occasions such as exams CTL : Authentic assessment through practical application or solving of realistic problem

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Contextuall Teachiing and Learniing Concepts Contextua Teach ng and Learn ng Concepts
Learning-in-context is so obvious a notion that the average person might tend to dismiss its importance. Contextual learning is learning that occurs in close relationship with actual experience. People have used such terms as experiential learning, real-world education, active learning, and learner-centered instruction to mean similar ideas. Learning Theory Characteristics Cognitive research, in expanding our understanding of how people learn, continues to demonstrate that schools, as traditionally organized, violate all that we understand about how people learn and apply what they learn to new situations. What Can We Surmise From Research? Cognitive research shows the need for schools to reorganized how material is presented in order to make the learning environment more effective. Contextual Learning Is Not A New Concept (nah lo …. !) The application of contextual learning to American classrooms was first proposed by John Dewey, who advocated a curriculum and teaching methodology tied to the child's experiences and interests, and who deplored the separation of education into mind and body, and of school programs into academic and occupational tracks. Contextual Teaching and Learning Strategies: Emphasize problem-solving l Recognize the need for teaching and learning to occur in a variety of contexts such as home, community, and work sites l Teach students to monitor and direct their own learning so they become selfregulated learners l Anchor teaching in students’ diverse life-contexts l Encourage students to learn from each other and together l Employ authentic assessment (U.S. Department of Education and the National School-toWork Office) l
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What is contextual teaching and learning?
Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) helps us relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires. Contextual teaching and learning strategies: Problem-based. CTL can begin with a simulated or real problem. Students use critical thinking skills and a systemic approach to inquiry to address the problem or issue. Students may also draw upon multiple content areas to solve these problems. Worthwhile problems that are relevant to students’ families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities hold greater personal meaning for students. Using multiple contexts. Theories of situated cognition suggest that knowledge can not be separated from the physical and social context in which it develops. How and where a person acquires and creates knowledge is therefore very important. CTL experiences are enriched when students learn skills in multiple contexts (i.e. school, community, workplace, family). Drawing upon student diversity. On the whole, our student population is becoming more diverse, and with increased diversity comes differences in values, social mores, and perspectives. These differences can be the impetus for learning and can add complexity to the CTL experience. Team collaboration and group learning activities respect students’ diverse histories, broaden perspectives, and build inter-personal skills. Supporting self-regulated learning. Ultimately, students must become lifelong learners. Lifelong learners are able to seek out, analyze, and use information with little to no supervision. To do so, students must become more aware how they process information, employ problem-solving strategies, and use background knowledge. CTL experiences should allow for trial and error; provide time and structure for reflection; and provide adequate support to assist students to move from dependent to independent learning. Using interdependent learning groups. Students will be influenced by and will contribute to the knowledge and beliefs of others. Learning groups, or learning communities, are established in workplaces and schools in an effort to share knowledge, focus on goals, and allow all to teach and learn from each other. When learning communities are established in schools, educators act as coaches, facilitators, and mentors. Employing authentic assessment. CTL is intended to build knowledge and skills in meaningful ways by engaging students in real life, or "authentic" contexts. Assessment of learning should align with the methods and purposes of instruction. Authentic assessments show (among other things) that learning has occurred; are blended into the teaching/learning process; and provide students with opportunities and direction for improvement. Authentic assessment is used to monitor student progress and inform teaching practices.

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Many of these strategies are used in classrooms today. Activities such as team teaching, cooperative learning, integrated learning, work-based learning, service learning, problembased learning, and others support CTL and are already occurring in many classrooms and schools. Many educators routinely use these activities to encourage inquiry, creative problem solving, and use of higher order thinking skills. These educators see these teaching/learning processes as methods to help all students meet state and local standards. For CTL to be effective, all strategies must be present in the teaching/learning experience. Implementation of CTL may not require drastic changes in practice for all educators. It may require enhancement of practice in one characteristic and not another. Continual use and reflection on CTL processes broadens and deepens educators’ knowledge and ability to facilitate learning. Similarly, implementation of CTL has ramifications ( PERCABANGAN !) for the school organization. According to some CTL advocates: "This approach differs from other ways to think about teaching and learning. Here, we are not attempting to raise achievement scores by teaching basic skills. Furthermore, a quiet, orderly classroom is not to be expected. Principals, school boards, parents, and other members of the community must support this approach… to increase its probability of success" (Carr, M., et al., 1999, p.2). For CTL to be successful for all students, a school must value and support the approach. Newmann and Wehlage (1997) describe a system of support for authentic learning that has been adapted to describe supports for CTL.

In Newmann and Wehlage’s circles of support, the ultimate goal is to support high quality student learning (SATU). To do so, everyone in the school must agree on a definition of what students should learn and what strategies support learning (DUA). Next, teaching and learning strategies, (whether in the classroom, school, or community) require considerable support from the school organization(TIGA). Finally, (BERARTI ADA LIMA BU,). TeachNET has been designed to engage educators with a range of expertise in the use of CTL practices. TeachNET activities generate discussions and actions that help educators improve their abilities to facilitate CTL in their classrooms. Each educator will draw upon his/her expertise RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 4

when considering means of enhancing CTL practices and making them work in their classrooms, schools, and communities. Because TeachNET participants, their schools, and communities are diverse, we have outlined an action planning process in which educators will identify, implement, reflect upon, and improve supports for CTL in their classrooms, schools, and communities.

Exemplary Practices
C-1: The Juggling Act: Preparing Teachers While Trying to Support Secondary Student Achievement History
The Graduate School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University, is committed to collaborative teacher training endeavors supported by partnership activities. The Urban Initiative is a Professional Development School Partnership established as the result of continuing work, over several years of commitment, to the Washington, D.C. Public Schools. Working in cooperation with Cardozo High School’s Ninth Grade Learning Community, the project offers a dual certification teacher preparation program in secondary and special education and urban school reform/change efforts. The mission of the partnership was to bring together partners who would support the university and the school in its joint work to: (1) prepare teachers for urban schools; and (2) address the difficult issue of raising student achievement. At the time of the partnership agreement, the school leadership was in flux – an appointed Board of Trustees, which had usurped the power of the elected school board, had put General Becton in charge of the schools. Subsequently, a superintendent was chosen by the Board to assume what was undeniably a school system in crisis. Two major partners joined the Urban Initiative: The World Bank Group, increasingly involved in the city, chose the GWU/Cardozo Urban Initiative as one major domestic endeavor; and AT&T gave substantial support and funding to the project, most particularly the areas of literacy and technology. The Urban Initiative collaborates with Cardozo general and special education teachers who are responsible to the Explorers Ninth Grade Learning Community to prepare teachers for dual certification in transition special education and a secondary content area. In addition all Urban Initiative teacher interns teach Literacy, a special ninth grade course which focuses on increasing the literacy and technology competencies of entering ninth graders.

Project Components
Pre-service Education/Dual Certification Literacy Focus Technology Integration Curriculum Development/Inclusion In-service Professional Development Student Advisory Groups A quality pre-service preparation program for George Washington University graduate students, supported by the faculty and Urban Initiative staff onsite at Cardozo, is the hub around which six major program components are structured. The curriculum for pre-service teachers and for Cardozo students supports a focus on literacy and technology integration. Curriculum development emphasizes interdisciplinary units that are standards-based and demonstrate inclusive practice. The in-service professional development component for Cardozo teachers, La Escuela de los Profesores/Teachers' School, responds to research that identifies onsite and teacher-generated staff development as the key to productive professional development. Ninth grade students participate in weekly Advisory Groups with teacher advisors and have work-based field trips four times yearly, both of which enhance positive connections to school, teachers, and peers and prepare them to make career decisions.

Guiding Our Practice
The Urban Initiative has been chosen as one of five national case study sites of the USDOE Contextual Teaching and Learning Project (CT&L). As such, the CTL characteristics are a part of the program and serve as guides for thinking about improving the pre-service teacher preparation.
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Archived Information
Selection and Admission Process
“We’re looking for a few good men and women” A key to the zero attrition rate in three years of the Urban Initiative and its precursor, D.C. Spirit, is careful selection of students. Two factors seem to indicate that students are ready to face the challenge of becoming teachers in urban schools: (1) prior employment experience so that they truly understand the world of work and have made a conscious choice to become teachers; and (2) a commitment to social justice, in the form of prior advocacy or work with young people. The Haberman interview protocol assists the faculty and project staff as well as the applicants in making thoughtful decisions about the probability of successful completion of the program as well as a commitment to teaching as a career. The admissions process is personal because teaching is personal. Prospective students meet with faculty advisors and spend a day at Cardozo observing classes and talking to current interns. They write a statement of purpose and prepare an onsite writing sample, as well as participate in group discussion, sharing their reasons for wanting to become a teacher. We want the prospective interns and the faculty and staff to jointly participate in making the best decision about which clinical placement in The George Washington University Teacher Education Program best fits the career goals, experiences, and strengths of the graduate student.

Pre-Service Preparation: A Project Cornerstone
"If you can do it here, you can do it anywhere" Exemplary practice demonstrates that teachers who are prepared in the complex context of an urban school for a full year, with the support of cooperating teachers, university faculty and onsite staff, and a strong cohort stand a better chance of remaining in urban schools. The pre-service program is a rigorous 42-hour Masters program that certifies teachers in a Secondary Education content area with a Special Education endorsement and offers teacher interns the opportunity for a full year internship at Cardozo. While in the school context, each intern has a full day – they co-teach a literacy class; plan with staff, teachers and teammates; teach a content or special education class; and spend one class period of the four period day in seminars and reflection sessions with fellow interns in their cohort. Teacher interns have multiple opportunities for problem solving in a supportive and collaborative environment with George Washington University project staff and faculty, cooperating teachers, and Cardozo faculty. Teacher interns participate in the full life of the school: attending meetings and staff development; curriculum planning and implementation; teaching and assessing; co-facilitating Advisory Groups and homerooms; maintaining contact with parents; tutoring; extending their technology skills; and immersing themselves in the life of the school and the students. The Urban Initiative Partnership offers the graduate students the opportunity to mesh theory with practice in the reality of the urban school setting, while receiving daily guidance and support. Thus they are better prepared to become teacher-leaders in the dynamic environment of urban education.

Literacy and Technology Focus
Designing a secondary school professional development school partnership devoted to the needs of students at risk for school failure due to significant literacy deficiencies is an ambitious undertaking. Yet that focus upon students at risk is the heart of the attempt to change the life course for students in urban schools. At the center of the Urban Initiative work are strategic reading, writing, and communication, which are fully supported by access to technology and the development of technological skill. The diagnostic and prescriptive reading process that is consistent with best practice assists all interns in becoming teachers of reading and writing. Interns are taught to use technology as a vehicle for instruction, and for preparing students for their transition to work and citizenship.

The Real Deal
The interns, Urban Initiative staff, and university faculty collaborate with Cardozo teachers to attack the multiple issues presented by students who are placed at risk for school failure because of poverty and inadequate preparation experiences. However intractable the dilemma may be, we are problem solving daily around important issues, thereby offering a model for teacher interns as they assume their roles as
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teachers. The work of the Urban Initiative confronts the ―messy‖ issues of urban education head-on. This work is hard, it is daily, and it is sometimes overwhelming. Despite the dilemmas, the teacher interns who participate in this intensive and extensive program are eager to take on the mantle of advocates and change agents and are fully prepared to do so.

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Relationship to Institutional Work
The Urban Initiative Partnership Project is a member of The George Washington University's regional partnership, The Capital Educators, an affiliate of the Holmes Partnership and Project UNITE. The Capital Educators meet quarterly, engaging in activities concerning Professional Development School Partnerships and related public education reform agendas. The George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development and the Cardozo High School administration and teachers are dedicated to the Urban Initiative Partnership and its related workscope, and commitments.

Key Partnership Representatives
Reginald Ballard, Principal, Cardozo High School Joan Brown, Coordinator, 9th Grade Learning Community, English Teacher, Cardozo High School Maxine Freund, Professor and Director of Special Projects, The George Washington University Nataki Reynolds, Technology Coordinator, The Urban Initiative, also Holmes Scholar Juliana Taymans, Professor and Principal Investigator, USDOE grant Lynda Tredway, Project Director, The Urban Initiative For more information, please contact: Maxine B. Freund George Washington University 2134 G. Street NW Washington, DC 20052 Phone: 202-994-3365 E-mail: mfreund@gwis2circ.gwu.edu
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Exemplary Practices
C-2: Contextual Teaching and Learning in Pre-service Teacher Education: Two Programs Program One - University of Georgia: History
The College of Education at UGA was one of several institutions awarded a U.S. Department of Education contract in 1998 to develop a model of excellence for contextual teaching and learning in pre-service education or professional development. The overall goal of the UGA project is to develop and implement a pre-service teacher education model that: is based in a theoretical framework of contextual teaching and learning permits preservice teacher education students to move through core courses in professional education and content areas which integrate contextual teaching and learning concepts into their instruction utilizes a broad range of contexts (schools, community, work places) both to inform teaching and learning and to provide places for them to occur beyond the classroom allows pre-service teacher education students to experience contextual teaching and learning and authentic assessment in diverse settings, and provides opportunities for pre-service students to reflect upon and integrate their experiential learning into contextual curriculum and pedagogy that can be used in their teaching. To create initial direction for the project, a conceptual framework was created from a detailed review of literature and the thinking, reflection, and collaboration of project faculty. The framework builds considerably on the work previously completed at Ohio State University (in collaboration with Bowling Green State University). The theoretical underpinnings of the UGA framework rest on (a) the situated cognition literature, (b) constructivism, and (c) multiple intelligence theory. UGA's project on contextual teaching and learning in preservice teacher education has focused on four types of activities: Conceptual Framework: Theorizing, reviewing the literature, developing, and defining the concept and providing examples of CTL for project faculty Professional Development: Faculty in the project participate in business internships, seminars with business people and educators, and on-site interviews to (a) enrich faculty understanding of CTL, (b) help them integrate more context -based teaching strategies into their existing courses, and (c) help them develop new components of the program model

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Program Design: Design and implement CTL concepts and strategies into core and content courses for a cohort or community of learners Evaluation: Ongoing examination of processes and results of efforts to accomplish project goals, including research and dissemination activities. In preparation for actual curriculum, course, and instructional reform, one of the most significant professional development activities for project faculty consisted of their immersion in work-based learning. Five local area businesses, in collaboration with the local Chamber of Commerce, provided tours, speakers, on-site observations, time to interview with workers and managers, and internships to project faculty in May and throughout the summer. The purposes of these activities were to help University faculty: (a) understand how to prepare future teachers to make classroom teaching and learning more relevant to the world of work; (b) learn about current, practical applications of content area disciplines in workplaces and what is expected of workers in modern technical and professional work settings; and (c) begin to identify experiences that can be designed for pre-service students in teacher education programs to help them learn about work contexts and applications to teaching/learning in various subjects. To date, project faculty and advisory groups have primarily: (a) agreed upon the initial conceptual framework for contextual teaching and teaming to guide our work; (b) taught a pilot CTL section of the sophomore core educational psychology course; (c) organized several faculty professional development activities (see above); (d) developed (now teaching) a pilot CTL section of the core sophomore/junior
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foundations of education course; (c) planned 3 seminars for students on sources of discipline knowledge, academic community learning, and work-based learning; (f) finalized the design for the model; and (g) collected and analyzed much formative data. The specific components of the redesigned teacher education program model at UGA include: Pre-professional Courses: Educational Psychology (Learning and Development) and Educational Foundations are existing, required courses for teacher education and other majors are being revised to include contextual teaching and learning principles. Community Work Experiences: Service Learning is an existing course involving service projects in various community agencies, programs, or settings. A new course to be developed by project faculty will introduce other structures field experience opportunities (internships in business, industry, or professional work settings) for teacher education students. Seminars: A new series of seminars is being developed to reflect upon how field experiences connect education and the world outside of schools. They will include: Disciplinary Knowledge; Basic Principles and Ways of Knowing Workplace and Community Experiences: Connecting Academic Learning to Out-ofClassroom Contexts; and Contextual Teaching and Learning in Schools. Disciplinary Courses: Required courses in methods of teaching and subject matter disciplines will be revised to incorporate contextual teaching and learning examples and concepts so that students can experience and apply these strategies in school settings.

Mission
The University of Georgia in Athens is a vibrant campus of 30,300 students, qualifying as both the oldest state-chartered land-grant college in the nation and consistently as a nationally recognized Research I institution. It is often referred to as the flagship in Georgia's system of 34 state-sponsored public higher education institutions. Thirteen schools and colleges, with auxiliary divisions, carry on the University's programs of teaching, research, and service. The College of Education is the University's second largest college (the College of Arts and Sciences is first) and probably one of the largest colleges of education in the nation. The College has been in existence in some form since 1908. Today, there are about 225 tenured or tenure-earning faculty, another 150 academic professionals and credentialed support staff, over 400 graduate assistants, nearly 5,000 majors (about 3,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students) and another 500 working for certification only. There are 18 undergraduate majors offered in the college and over 90 graduate programs. The College is by far the largest K-12 teacher preparation program in the state, with about 750 BS Ed degrees awarded last year. The College is consistently ranked by U.S. News and World Report as one of the best colleges of education in the country. The College is decentralized into 4 schools: Leadership and Lifelong Learning; Teacher Education; Health and Human Performance; and Professional Studies. 20 departments are dispersed throughout the schools.

Key Partnership Representatives
Two schools, The School of Leadership and Lifelong Learning and the School of Teacher Education, are assuming major leadership for this project. Faculty and students from the Departments of Mathematics

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Education, Science Education, Social Science Education, Language Education, Middle Schools Education, Social Foundations of Education, and Occupational Studies are principally involved. In addition, the School of Professional Studies is contributing faculty to Educational Psychology and Measurement, Instructional Technology, and Counseling and Human Services. The College of Arts and Science has several contributing departments. Community partners include the Athens Area Chamber of Commerce and its affiliated businesses and industries and six local school systems. An Advisory Committee for the project includes members from several local businesses as well as 12 academic and occupational teachers from area middle and high schools. For more information on this model pre-service teacher education program, contact: Dr. Richard L. Lynch, Director School of Leadership and Lifelong Learning The University of Georgia 129 River's Crossing; 850 College Station Road Athens, GA 30602-4812 Phone: 706-542-3891 E-mail: rlynch@coe.uga.edu Dr. Michael J. Padilla, Director School of Teacher Education The University of Georgia 316 Aderhold Hall Athens, GA 30602 Phone: 706-542-4047 E-mail: mpadilla@coe.uga.edu Dr. Dorothy Harnish, Coordinator Occupational Research Group The University of Georgia 129 River's Crossing; 850 College Road Athens, GA 30602-4812 Phone: 706-542-4690 E-mail: harnish@coe.uga.edu
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Program Two - University of Washington: History
The Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C-STARS) is one of seven institutions awarded U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) contracts in 1998 for the purpose of preparing teachers to use contextual teaching and learning strategies. These awards were generated through a joint initiative of USDOE’s Office of Vocational and Adult Education and the National School-to-Work Office. These contracts address three components of teacher education and awards were made to the University of Georgia, Ohio State University and the University of Washington focusing on pre-service teacher education; to Bowling Green State University, Johns Hopkins University and the University of WisconsinMadison focusing on in-service teacher education, and to Recruiting New Teachers/Council of Great City Schools focusing on teacher recruitment. The Washington State Consortium is currently facilitating a year-long Contextual Education Academy designed to increase opportunities for pre-service teacher education students to collaborate with K-12 teachers recognized for their exemplary CTL teaching knowledge and skills in planning, delivering, and evaluating CTL learning activities for K-12 students in classrooms, and particularly in local community and employment settings. K-12 teachers and education professors from Washington’s diverse colleges, universities, and school districts are collaborating with a variety of local community-based organizations and employers to produce exemplars of CTL strategies and activities that work well both at the K-12 and the pre-service teacher education levels. Beginning the summer of 2000, the Consortium plans to initiate a series of regional variations of this academy approach throughout the state and involve several hundred additional K-12 teachers and professors who agree to collaborate in demonstrating a variety of alternative learning environments and PDS-type approaches for enhancing attention to CTL in pre-service education programs. The Consortium is referencing much of the work reported in Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Students Success In and Beyond School (ERIC, Information Series, 1998) which presents a series of USDOE commissioned papers by Hilda Borko, Linda Darling

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Hammond, Kenneth R. Howey, Richard Lynch, Susan Joan Sears, et.al.; and also PDS literature by Bock, Gehrke, Clift, Butler, et.al. reported in the Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, Second Edition (Sikula, 1996). An Adaptation Professional Development School Model for CTL Professional development schools (PDSs) have been recommended by some educators as having good potential in partial response to current calls for educational reform and the professionalization of teaching. When pre-service teacher education students in traditional teacher education programs are placed in K-12 schools for fieldwork or student teaching, relationships between universities and schools are generally topdown and directed exclusively by the universities. These arrangements tend to provide very limited opportunities for balanced collaboration among K-12 teachers and university faculty. In contrast, when universities and schools enter into an agreement to create professional development schools, the expectations and roles for university and school personnel are significantly more complex, evenly distributed and intertwined than in the traditional relationships. This new ―professional‖ culture relies on more peer-like relationships between professors and teachers and transforms both institutions and the personnel within each. The term professional development school was originated by the Holmes Group (1986) in the writing of Tomorrow’s Teachers in which teacher educators created a vision about developing schools that: Would provide superior opportunities for teachers and administrators to influence the development of their profession and for university faculty to increase the professional relevance of their work through (1) mutual deliberation on problems with student learning, and their possible solutions; (2) shared teaching in the university and schools; (3) collaborative research on the problems of educational practice; and (4) cooperative supervision of prospective teachers and administrators (p. 56). The Holmes Group (1990) further elaborated the concept of professional development schools in Tomorrow’s Schools by explaining that PDSs would focus on providing professional development for both novice and experienced professionals as well as developing research about teaching. Their vision for PDSs was influenced in part by the medical profession’s teaching hospitals which place those in training with those who are providing medical services in real contexts augmented by interaction with medical researchers.
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Definitions Used and Guidelines Being Applied The application of contextual learning to the American classroom has its origins in the experiential learning traditions of John Dewey who in 1916 advocated a curriculum and teaching methodology tied to the child’s experiences and interests. Our consortium’s operational definitions for contextual teaching and learning are rooted in Dewey’s progressivism and in research findings which show that students learn best when what they are learning is connected to what they already know and when they are actively engaged in their own learning. In the course of conducting a literature review it became clear that CTL is an integration of many ―good teaching practices‖ and several education reform approaches intended to enhance the relevance and functional utility of education for all students. The following working definitions are currently being used by the Consortium; however, we anticipate modifications as the project evolves : Contextual Teaching is teaching that enables K-12 students to reinforce, expand and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety of in-school and out-of-school settings in order to solve simulated or real-world problems . Contextual Learning occurs when students apply and experience what is being taught referencing real problems associated with their roles and responsibilities as family members, citizens, students, and workers. Contextual Teaching and Learning emphasizes higher level thinking, knowledge transfer across academic disciplines, and collecting, analyzing and synthesizing information and data from multiple sources and viewpoints. The following Guidelines are used by the Consortium to identify and describe quality contextual teaching and learning, both at the pre-service teacher education and the K-12 levels: Active Engagement Are learners actively participating in learning activities in an interactive manner? Engagement in Real World Experiences Are learners actively engaging in experiences that compel them to either simulate or emulate how adults use the content of what is learned across natural, real-life situations? Engagement in Meaningful Learning Are learners actively engaged in real-world experiences that motivate them to connect a sense of

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personal relevance, value, and meaning with the content of what is learned? Engagement in Authentic Assessment Are learners actively engaged in multiple assessments that provide the opportunity to demonstrate performance of the content of learning according to real-world conditions and standards? CTL Activities and Strategies Being Demonstrated The Consortium's dual emphasis on pre-service teacher education and K-12 education brings into focus several teaching strategies that place the student in meaningful contexts that connect the students with the content of what they are learning. This holds true for both the K-12 student and the pre-service teacher education student. The most prevalent strategies typically referred to in the literature on contextual teaching and learning that our Academy professors and K-12 teachers have selected to demonstrate are different combinations of the following: Authentic Instruction Authentic instruction is instruction that allows students to learn in meaningful contexts. It fosters thinking and problem-solving skills that are important in real life settings. Inquiry-Based Learning Inquiry-based learning entails teaching strategies patterned after the methods of science and provides opportunities for meaningful learning.
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Problem-Based Learning Problem-based learning is an instructional approach that uses real-world problems as a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and to acquire knowledge of the essential concepts of a course. Service Learning Service learning is an instructional method that combines community service with a structured schoolbased opportunity for reflection about that service, emphasizing the connection between service experiences and academic learning. Work-Based Learning Work-based learning is an instructional approach in which students use the context of the workplace to learn content of school-based courses and how that content is used in the workplace. EVALUATION External evaluators from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) are currently contacting all Academy professors and K-12 practitioners to arrange for a series of site visitations designed to generate information in order to document case studies and assess the extent to which CTL practices and related procedures outlined in the action plans of these professors and K-12 practitioners have been and/or are currently being implemented. More specifically these site visitations will: 1. Document the extent to which the Academy fellows have carried out their Action Plans and the factors that have supported or limited their activities. 2. Assess the impact(s) of the Action Plans, (a) on their teacher education activities, (b) on school education throughout their respective institutions, and (c) on their pre-service teacher education students. 3. Assess the extent to which the Project has contributed to improving the quality of teacher preparation and staff development in Washington State. 4. Identify exemplars of best practices in CTL and the extent to which they reflect the Project's guidelines for quality CTL. 5. Document any initial impact(s) of the Project on enhancing attention to CTL in Washington's teacher training programs. 6. Utilize results of Case Studies to (a) provide a contextual base for development of survey instruments and other evaluation tools for use with K-12 teachers, Professors, and pre-service teacher education students, and (b) interpret and validate other data and information collected through the evaluation process. For more information on this PDS-type model for pre-service teacher preparation for CTL contact: Dr. Albert Smith, Principle Investigator Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students (C-STARS) University of Washington 4725 30th Avenue NE Seattle, WA 98105-4021 Phone: (206) 543-3815; Fax: (206) 685-4722; Email: alsmith@u.washington.edu

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Dr. Tom Owens, External Evaluator Assistant Director, Education and Work Program Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory 101 SW Main, Suite 500, Portland, OR 97204-3297 Phone: (503) 275-9596; Fax: (503) 275-0443 Email: owenst@nwrel.org
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Exemplary Practices
C-3: Contextual Teaching and Learning: Five Profiles History
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education and the National School to Work Office have funded a series of three inter-related projects to develop a model teacher education program based on the principals of Contextual Teaching and Learning. The first project, a partnership between The Ohio State University College of Education and Bowling Green State University was designed to develop a definition of CT&L. The definition was derived from a review of the literature, a set of commissioned papers, and the proceedings of a design conference. The following is the definition that developed: Contextual teaching and learning is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers; and engage in the hard work that learning requires. Contextual teaching and learning strategies: emphasize problem-solving; recognize the need for teaching and learning to occur in a variety of contexts such as home, community, and work sites; teach students to monitor and direct their own learning so they become self-regulated learners; anchor teaching in students diverse life-contexts; encourage students to learn from each other and together; and employ authentic assessment. The definition, along with the compendium of papers, and the Design Conference Proceedings were used to develop a Framework for Contextual Teaching and Learning in Preservice Education. The team then requested nominations of teacher education programs that best exemplified the components of CT&L. From more than 80 nominations, five sites were selected for the study. They were: Colorado State University George Washington University University of Louisville University of New Mexico Western Oregon University In addition to selecting sites that had exemplary programs, the Team also tried to identify sites that would provide a comparison of different types of institutions as well as a geographic balance. The sites represent two Research I institutions (University of New Mexico and Colorado State University); two Research II institutions (U of L and GWU); and one regional, comprehensive university (WOU). Three of the institutions are located in urban areas (UNM, U of L and GWU), while the other two (WOU and CSU) are located in small towns. One is a private institution (GWU), while the other four are public institutions. All are accredited by the National Association for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The purpose of these profiles was to provide a description of teacher education programs that have included the attributes of Contextual Teaching and Learning across all program components of teacher preparation. The second project, a partnership between The Ohio State University College of Education and The Holmes Partnership/Project UNITE was charged with developing a model CT&L teacher education program. In addition to using the profiles to inform the model, a cross-profile analysis of the five sites was completed. A teacher education program inventory was piloted among five additional sites who are part of Project UNITE, an urban network of teacher education institutions. The analysis of the inventories is also being used in developing the model. The final model will consist of vignettes of three hypothetical institutions (a research I institution, a comprehensive regional institution, and a private liberal arts institution) along with the materials and documents to support the vignettes. Once the model is completed, it will be available, along with other components of a toolkit, to institutions who wish to implement a CT&L program. Other components of the toolkit will include a brief introduction to CT&L; the Executive Summary of the profiles; a copy of the commissioned papers; the design conference proceedings; the

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Framework; the completed profiles and cross profile analysis; a white paper describing the national, state, andinstitutional context for teacher education; a program evaluation instrument; and an implementation monograph.The last two items are to be developed in the third project.
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The third project is designed to implement the model at three different types of institutions: a Public Research I institution, a highly selective private institution, and a comprehensive regional institution. While implementing the model, the institutions will collect data about their program and about the individuals involved in the program. An instrument will be developed to measure the progress of the program and the graduates of the program. The three institutions will evaluate each other's programs using a critical friends approach. They will observe each component and provide feedback to each other. An important product that will be developed from this third project is a Primer for Change. This monograph will be written by participants of the three programs as they implement CT&L programs. The participants will include a teacher educator, a teacher education student, a school-based teacher, a university-based program administrator, and a K-12 school-based administrator. The primer will include baseline and continuing data, along with an analysis of the date for each of the three sites. The goal of the three projects is to determine the enablers and barriers to implementing a teacher education program based on contextual teaching and learning and to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in different contexts.

Institutional Mission and Context
With nearly 50,000 students, the Ohio State University is the second largest campus in the country. It is located in the midwest, urban capital of Columbus. Students can select from 170 undergraduate majors, 122 master degree programs, and 98 doctoral programs. For more information on this presentation contact: Susan Hersh Ohio State University 1945 N. High Street Columbus, OH 43210-1172 Telephone: (614) 688-3592 Fax: (614) 292-1196 E-mail: hersh.14@osu.edu
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Exemplary Practices
C-4: Preparing and Supporting High Quality Teachers: The Power of Partnerships History
The Career Development Program (CDP) has been a program option for teacher licensure at UNM for the past 10 years. Specifically, the program targets the non-traditional population of students: second career students and educational assistants. It is the product of a joint partnership between the Albuquerque Public Schools (APS), University of New Mexico (UNM), and the Albuquerque Teachers Federation (AFT). The essence of CDP is to support the professional development of the participant’s career within the educational community. The program has three overall goals: 1. To provide an innovative, superior quality teacher education experience to mid-career professionals which would result in the highest caliber graduates by: a) acknowledging the value of the professional adult learner’s previous educational and life experiences; and b) lessening some of the practical and financial barriers to entering elementary education by mid-career professionals. 2. To shift some of the financial resources of the post baccalaureate program to create an incentive program of scholarships for APS educational assistants who wish to become degreed. 3. To provide meaningful in-service opportunities to veteran district teachers by: a)increasing their participation in the preservice and induction experiences of new teachers; and b) providing release time for professional development and renewal. The APS/UNM/ATF Partnership is a model collaborative program providing systematic opportunities for university faculty to work side-by-side with exemplary classroom teachers, counselors, and administrators in the preparation and support of teachers. The Partnership focuses its efforts along the entire continuum of teacher education from the recruitment of diverse groups (including educational assistants) into teacher

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education; mentoring pre-service teachers; providing induction support to new teachers; and developing networks and support for advanced professional development. The goals of the Partnership are to 1. Improve the learning and development of children and youth through the creation and delivery of a continuum of quality professional development programs and activities for educators, ranging from the student teacher through the experienced teacher, counselor, and administrator. 2. Assist in defining and realizing the broader goals of both the Albuquerque Public School District and the University of New Mexico College of Education. As a part of the APS/UNM/ATF Partnership, the CDP post-baccalaureate program consists of a 43semester hour, 17-month sequence of integrated methods coursework with both pre-service and induction field experiences. Each January, a group of 24 post baccalaureate students begin a first semester which combines rigorous methods coursework and a structured ―teamed apprenticeship‖ student teaching experience in an elementary classroom with a veteran mentor teacher. The pre-service component concludes in an intensive summer of supporting coursework. This is followed by the induction experiences of a ―paired internship‖ in the fall and a ―solo internship‖ in the second spring semester. Throughout the academic year weekly evening seminars accompany the apprentice and intern semesters. The design of the program provides opportunities for apprentices/interns to have maximum ―hands-on‖ experience in elementary classrooms and school settings throughout the pre-service and induction experiences. The CDP is a very dynamic process grounded in educational theory intended to blend with the practical experiences of the classroom settings. Apprentices/interns learn about children through the study of: child development, learning theory, learning styles, motivation, intelligence, critical thinking, socialization, culture, and diversity. The concurrent theory-to-practice opportunities in the design of the program ensures apprentice/interns opportunities for application of what they are learning about children, teaching and learning. This inherent scaffolding also provides many opportunities for the apprentices/interns to develop the skills for articulating their beliefs and the knowledge that supports their practice. `
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An Overview of the Partners Involved
Albuquerque Public Schools is one of the largest and most diverse districts in the nation with over 85,000 students and 10,000 employees. The Albuquerque Teachers Federation represents over 6,000 school employees in APS. UNM is the largest university in the state with about 25,000 students and 2,000 faculty. The College of Education has about 115 faculty, 2,400 undergraduate and graduate students, and graduates about a third of the state’s new teachers. For more information concerning this presentation contact Peter Winograd University of New Mexico Hokona Hall, Room 121 Albuquerque, NM 87131 Phone: 505-277-4533; Fax: 505-277-4661 Winograd@unm.edu Rosalita Mitchell University of New Mexico Hokona Hall, Room 291 Albuquerque, NM 87131 Roalita@unm.edu Sharon Olguin University of New Mexico Hokona Hall, Room 106 Albuquerque, NM 87131 Solguin@unm.edu Teresa Kokoski University of New Mexico Hokona Hall, Room 234 Albuquerque, NM 87131 Kokoski@unm.edu
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Exemplary Practices
C-5: Connecting Teaching and Learning in Teacher Preparation and Licensing History
The introduction of standards-based education reform in Oregon's public schools has dramatically changed both K-12 education and teacher education in Oregon. In order to fully prepare candidates to meet the challenge of standard-based schools, the WOU teacher education program has been redesigned by faculty in both Liberal Arts and Education. To insure that K-12 students meet the more rigorous standards, teachers need to have higher expectations for all students; use a greater variety of teaching strategies; have a deeper understanding of the content that they teach; and have a better understanding of human development and learning. WOU is committed to preparing teachers who can meet those challenges. The following are the key concepts upon which the new initial licensure program has been built: Seamless education: The current emphasis from the Oregon Department of Education and the Governor's Office is to minimize the traditional lines among early childhood, elementary, middle level, high school and community college/university education. The new emphasis is on values related to lifelong learning with proficiency-based outcomes. In the new program, candidates have course work in human development and learning that ranges from early childhood to young adulthood. Every candidate ties a portion of his or her field experience to each of the our four authorization areas (early childhood, elementary, middle level and high school). The candidate will qualify for a license in two authorization areas. Connecting teaching and learning The core of the curriculum and the emphasis of the field work is a belief that teachers are responsible for bringing about learning gains in every student in their class. Teacher work sample methodology is used to give candidates a model for planning instruction and evaluating their own effectiveness as teachers. Coursework is integrated, taught and assessed by teams of faculty In the past, faculty have taught courses individually, perhaps inviting other faculty as guest speakers to present information on areas such as diversity or special education. In the new program faculty teach in teams to meaningfully integrate information. This should also contribute to their own professional growth. Assessment of student competencies is evaluated by student peers, faculty teams, and professionals from the field. Emphasis on continuing professional development. First term students receive a description of the 14 proficiency I for beginning teachers. Attainment of the proficiencies is documented through Course work, field experience, work samples, portfolios and the integration/capstone projects. A mentoring component of the program insures that each student's strengths and weaknesses are individually reviewed, and students are assisted in developing their own areas of interest A teacher education program that is closely tied to school districts. Western has made a commitment to form partnerships with and to assist school districts as they restructure to accommodate their school improvement plan and the changing nature of teachers' work. In the redesign, one third of the 48-hour professional core is field experience. The students are placed in a district for the four terms of field experience as part of a partnership agreement between the district and Western. These partnerships provide settings where candidates along with school and university faculty may work collaboratively to improve their teaching. In addition, every faculty member is involved in a public school, the Department of Education, or an education-related community service program.
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Authentic Assessment
Just as Oregon's public school standards have defined what K- 12 students should know and be able to do, the School of Education has defined teaching proficiencies as statements of what teacher candidates should know and be able to do. The curriculum, instruction, and assessment of the candidates are based on these teaching proficiencies. There are four points in time when candidates are assessed as to their current level of performance of the proficiencies. At the end of each term, the candidates submit portfolios of evidence that document their level of proficiency in each of the areas. A scoring rubric has been developed that provides ratings for Beginning, Emerging, Developing, Maturing, Strong, and Exemplary practice. Licensure recommendation is based upon the candidate's rating on the rubric, as well as other measures. While traditional forms of documentation, such as tests and term papers, are still used to evaluate students' knowledge, more authentic instruments are used to evaluate what they are able to do. In addition, Teacher Work Sample Methodology provides a format for linking candidate teaching to progress of their K-12 students.

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Each teacher education candidate is expected to produce two work samples during their four terms. The first is a smaller version of the final product which is required for completion of student teaching and recommendation for initial licensure. The Teacher Work Sample consists of: A unit topic A brainstormed graphic organizer A rich description of the context/setting Related national, state, and/or district goals Rationale The unit goals The working graphic organizer The list of objectives (at least 10) which support the unit goals Lesson plans (at least 10), including any supporting materials Pre- and post-assessment items for each unit goal Pre/Post test assessment results displayed by cluster and student Narrative data interpretation Reflective essay The Teacher Work Sample Methodology is being viewed as the benchmark for other states considering a standards-based curriculum and it provides an exemplar for the attribute of authentic assessment. The most unique aspect of the Teacher Work Sample is that it uses student learning to assess candidate performance. Student teachers are required to pre- and post-test K-12 students and interpret the data. Both the Teacher Work Sample and the teacher proficiencies include assessment strategies that have been derived from multiple sources and that are ongoing and blended with instruction. Thus while assessment is used to help professors evaluate candidates, it is also used to help student teachers modify instruction to insure that students are learning.

Institutional Mission and Content
Western Oregon University has a long and distinguished history of teacher education. The university was established in 1856. For many years it was a normal school. Today it has a strong School of Liberal Arts that works closely with the School of Education to assure excellent preparation of teachers. Western Oregon University has over 4,000 graduate and undergraduate students, with about 1,000 enrolled in teacher education and related fields. The teacher education programs include undergraduate and graduate programs in early childhood, elementary, middle level, high school, and special education. Student teachers, through partnership agreements, work in a wide range of rural, suburban, and urban schools. For the past 15 years, faculty have worked on a methodology to connect teacher work to student learning gains. The Teacher Effectiveness Project has produced a database of over 1,200 candidates and their effectiveness with K- 12 children and youth in a methodology called Teacher Work Sample Methodology, This work has been extended into Oregon's requirements for initial and advanced licensure.
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Key Partnerships
Tarry Templeman, Teaching Research Division Del Schalock, Academy for Standards Based Teaching and Learning Courtney Vanderstek, Oregon Education Association Center for Teaching and Learning Jim Chadney, Dean, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences For more information concerning this presentation please contact: Dr. Meredith Brodsky School of Education Western Oregon University 341 Monmouth Avenue Monmouth, OR 97361 Email: brodskm@wou.edu Dr. Helen Woods School of Education Western Oregon University 341 Monmouth Avenue Monmouth, OR 9736
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Exemplary Practices
C-6 Contextual Teaching and Learning: A Problem-Based Approach
The Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA), passed after the state’s system of public education was found unconstitutional because it failed to ensure an adequate education to all students, ushered in an era of exciting change at both the K-12 and post-secondary level. The systemic nature of KERA provides a reform climate that pushes schools to become more equitable, more accountable, and asks teacher preparation programs to focus on teacher knowledge and performance in real settings. The School of Education’s mission statement pledges that: ―The University shall collaborate with the public schools to further educational reform in Kentucky.‖ For more than a decade, the University of Louisville has collaborated with local educators to create professional development schools. PDS sites, where teacher preparation courses are taught, simultaneously focus on new teacher preparation and continuing school improvement and professional development activities. These sites also spur the inquiry of teacher education faculty members relative to effective, contextually sensitive teacher education and K12 teaching practices. Kentucky’s sweeping educational reform efforts have supported University efforts to strengthen relationships among schools, families, and local communities. As an urban institution, U of L is particularly concerned with improving the education and quality of life for persons of all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Thus, in addition to preparing teachers to meet standards for experienced teachers (see below), the Department of Secondary Education adopted the program, ―Understanding the Complex Lives of Children and Adults in Schools and Society.‖ One fundamental belief of the department’s teacher education program is that understanding any complex phenomenon cannot be separated from knowledge of the context in which that phenomenon occurs. Therefore, program curriculum is centered around problembased learning activities designed to help students understand the school context, the local community, and create multiple opportunities for teacher education students to interact with high school students in a variety of school and community contexts. These projects are significant not only in helping address essential questions facing educators in urban schools, but also in modeling a pedagogical approach. Some call this inquiry approach, influenced by social constructivist learning theory, project-based learning, contextual learning, or authentic instruction. Regardless, of the label, however, this pedagogical approach assumes that active student learning is preferable to passive receipt of ―expert‖ knowledge; that knowledge must be constructed in meaningful contexts; and that school learning should be connected to the world beyond the classroom. In addition to fitting departmental beliefs about teaching and learning, these ideas are consistent with the perspective adopted in Kentucky’s academic expectations for students. By modeling such pedagogy, program faculty are hopeful that graduates will be more comfortable and capable of implementing a similar approach in their classrooms. More basic to the program’s emphasis on inquiry, however, is a commitment to preparing teachers to adopt a problem solving perspective with respect to their practice. In this way, faculty endeavor to prepare teachers who focus less on ―doing it right‖ and more on understanding what their students need to do in order to learn important content. While some may characterize this perspective as less practical since less attention is paid to filling teacher education students’ ―tool kits‖ (the strategies they are likely to rely on to survive their early teaching careers). Rather, program faculty encourage teacher education students to experiment with inquiry-based approaches in their classroom practicum, internship, and student teaching placements, but emphasize that these practices are context-sensitive and are not inherently ―effective.‖ Teacher education students are encouraged to view themselves as learners, to collect data about their students’ learning and their teaching practice, to form critical friendships with their colleagues, and reflect on their own practice through journal writing and continued professional development. All of these efforts, program faculty hope, will help program graduates focus on their students’ learning rather than their own teaching performance.
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Kentucky Experienced Teacher Standards 1. The teacher provides professional leadership within the school, community, and education profession to improve student learning and well-being. 2. The teacher demonstrates content knowledge within own discipline(s) and in application(s) to other disciplines 3. The teacher designs/plans instruction that develops student abilities to use communication skills, apply core concepts, become self-sufficient individuals, become responsible team members, think and solve

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problems, and integrate knowledge. 4. The teacher creates a learning climate that supports the development of student abilities to use communication skills, apply core concepts, become self-sufficient individuals, become responsible team members, think and solve problems, and integrate knowledge. 5. The teacher introduces/implements/manages instruction that develops student abilities to use communication skills, apply core concepts, become self-sufficient individuals, become responsible team members, think and solve problems, and integrate knowledge. 6. The teacher assesses learning and communicates results to students and others with respect to student abilities to use communication skills, apply core concepts, become self-sufficient individuals, become responsible team members, think and solve problems, and integrate knowledge. 7. The teacher reflects on and evaluates teaching/learning. 8. The teacher collaborates with colleagues, parents, and other agencies to design, implement, and support learning programs that develop student abilities to use communication skills, apply core concepts, become self-sufficient individuals, become responsible team members, think and solve problems, and integrate knowledge. 9. The teacher evaluates own performance in relation to Kentucky’s learner goals and implements a professional development plan. 10. The teacher demonstrates competency in educational technology.

Institutional Mission and Context
The University of Louisville is a metropolitan research university located in Kentucky's largest urban area. The University serves the specific educational, intellectual, cultural, service, and research needs of the greater Louisville region and has a special obligation to serve the needs of a diverse population, including many ethnic minorities and placebound, part-time, nontraditional students. U of L is home to approximately 21,000 students and 1,800 faculty. The University of Louisville offers graduate, professional, baccalaureate, and associate degrees, as well as certificates, in over 170 fields of study through 11 schools and colleges. The School of Education’s eight academic departments offer a variety of degree and certification programs including undergraduate degree programs, Master's and Doctoral level programs, and the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. The Department of Secondary Education recommends approximately 80 students per year for certification in Art, Biological and Physical Sciences, Business, English, Foreign Language, Mathematics, and Social Studies. The Jefferson County Public Schools serves approximately 92,000 students in 87 elementary schools, 23 middle schools, 20 high schools, and 21 other learning centers. The student population is approximately 69% Caucasian, 30% African American, and 1% other. In May 1993, the National Alliance of Business (NAB) honored Louisville and Jefferson County as the recipients of the first annual Scholastic Community Award for Excellence in Education.

Key Partnership Representatives
Doug Simpson, Dean, School of Education, University of Louisville Wynn Egginton, Co-director, Nystrand Center of Excellence in Education Allan Dittmer, Chair, Department of Secondary Education, University of Louisville Lori Holland, Gheens Academy, Jefferson County Public Schools For more information on these exemplary practices contact: Dr. Steve Ryan, Assistant Professor, Department of Secondary Education University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 Phone: (502) 261-8397 Email: ryan@louisville.edu FAX: (502) 852-1417
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What is Contextual Teaching and Learning?
What is the best way to convey the many concepts that are taught in a particular course so that all students can use and retain that information? (ini satu) How can the individual lessons be understood as interconnected pieces that build upon each other? (ini dua) How can a teacher communicate effectively with students who wonder about the reason for, the meaning of, and the relevance of what they study? (ini tiga) How can we open the minds of a diverse student population so they can learn concepts and techniques that will open doors of opportunity for them throughout their lives? (ini empat) These are the challenges teachers face every day, the challenges that a curriculum and an instructional approach based on contextual learning can help them face successfully. The majority of students in our schools are unable to make connections between what they are learning and how that knowledge will be used. This is because the way they process information and their motivation for learning are not touched by the traditional methods of classroom teaching. The students have a difficult time understanding academic concepts (such as math concepts) as they are commonly taught (that is, using an abstract, lecture method), but they desperately need to understand the concepts as they relate to the workplace and to the larger society in which they will live and work. Traditionally, students have been expected to make these connections on their own, outside the classroom. According to contextual learning theory, learning occurs only when students (learners) process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response). This approach to learning and teaching assumes that the mind naturally seeks meaning in context—that is, in relation to the person’s current environment—and that it does so by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful. Building upon this understanding, contextual learning theory focuses on the multiple aspects of any learning environment, whether a classroom, a laboratory, a computer lab, a worksite, or a wheat field. It encourages educators to choose and/or design learning environments that incorporate as many different forms of experience as possible—social, cultural, physical, and psychological—in working toward the desired learning outcomes. In such an environment, students discover meaningful relationships between abstract ideas and practical applications in the context of the real world; concepts are internalized through the process of discovering, reinforcing, and relating. For example, a physics class studying thermal conductivity might measure how the quality and amount of building insulation material affect the amount of energy required to keep the building heated or cooled. Or a biology or chemistry class might learn basic scientific concepts by studying the spread of AIDS or the ways in which farmers suffer from and contribute to environmental degradation.

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THE ROLE OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING IN CONTEXTUAL TEACHING: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FOR TEACHER PREPARATION1[1] Scott G. Paris University of Michigan Peter Winograd University of New Mexico A Commissioned Paper for the U.S. Department of Education Project Preparing Teachers to Use Contextual Teaching and Learning Strategies To Improve Student Success In and Beyond School. Dr. Kenneth R. Howey, Project Director.2[2]

Abstract
As teachers are pressed to extend their craft to prepare more diverse students for the challenge of work and life beyond school, they are challenged to provide more authentic instructional contexts and activities than traditional knowledge-based curricula. In order to be successful, teachers must be reflective and analytical about their own beliefs and practices and they must acquire a deep understanding of cognitive and motivational principles of learning and teaching. Toward this end, we examine how teachers can model and promote self-regulated learning for their students. Self-regulated learning is characterized by three central features; awareness of thinking, use of strategies, and situated motivation. These features of independent learning need to experienced, constructed, and discussed among teachers so that they understand how to nurture the same development among students. Then the focus of instruction is shifted to fostering strategic and motivated students rather than delivering curricula or managing classroom behavior. We review 12 principles of self-regulated learning, in four general categories, that can be used by teachers in the classroom. Within the category of self-appraisal, we discuss how teachers can analyze their own learning styles, evaluate their own understanding, and model cognitive monitoring. Within the category of self-management, we discuss how teachers can promote mastery goal orientations, time and resource management, and use ―failure‖ constructively. We discuss how self-regulation can be taught with various tactics such as direct instruction, metacognitive discussions, modeling, and self-assessment of progress. The last several principles are discussed as ways to help students gain a sense of their personal educational histories and to shape their identities as successful students participating in a community of learners. In the final
1[1]

A special thanks goes to Dr. Mary Nordhaus, who coordinates the Professional Development Schools, and to Sharon Olguin who coordinates the Career Development Program. These two outstanding teacher educators and their students provided some of the models, critical information, and thoughtful feedback used in this chapter.
2[2]

The work reported herein was supported in part under the Education Research and Development Centers Program PR/Award Number R305R70004, as administered by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. However, the contents do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum, and Assessment or the National Institute on Early Childhood Development, or the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal government.

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section of the chapter, we describe an example of a successful partnership between a university, a community, and teachers that enacted these principles of self-regulated learning in authentic contexts of teaching and learning. We note the promises and obstacles confronting teacher education programs in implementing more demanding and contextualized instructional practices.

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The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation
The purpose of this set of commissioned papers is to explore ways that educators can strengthen the relevance and meaningfulness of what is taught and learned in schools. As Borko and Putnam (this volume) state in the first chapter, there is a great deal of concern that teachers and schools are failing to help children acquire the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that are crucial for life outside school and in the workplace. The challenge we face is how to make the learning in schools more authentic, more useful, and more contextualized for students so that they are equipped to solve problems that they confront in and beyond school. How can we connect schools to real life contexts or situations so that all students are successful once they leave the classroom? How can we provide students with the skills and motivation to be self-regulated and life-long learners? The other chapters in this volume explore the notion of contextualized learning and teaching from various perspectives. Each chapter identifies specific strategies for linking schools to communities and the workplace that increase students’ awareness about the application, rather than mere accumulation, of knowledge. Borko and Putnam provide a social-constructivist perspective on cognition that emphasizes the distributed and collaborative nature of learning. Wade focuses on the power of service learning for university students as a way of connecting schools to community needs. Lynch and Harnish examine ways to prepare teachers to use workbased learning to link their students to the world of work. Young argues eloquently for the importance of culturally relevant pedagogy so teachers are sensitive to students who have different backgrounds, lifestyles, and values. Darling-Hammond and Snyder focus on the importance of authentic assessment for contextualizing the meaningfulness of learning and promoting students’ motivation. Pierce examines ways that teachers can use problem-based teaching to foster inquiry about issues that integrate the curriculum and apply students’ knowledge. Although each of the authors in this volume brings a different approach to the issue of making school more relevant to the outside world, there are some common threads among their views. From our perspective, it seems clear that teachers need to provide instruction across a more extended variety of contexts, incorporate a wider set of perspectives, and implement a more extensive set of instructional strategies than has traditionally been the case. In each of these new contexts, with each of these unfamiliar perspectives, and with each of these new strategies, teachers need to be much more thoughtful and reflective about their teaching and about their students. All of these chapters extend the notion of education beyond the acquisition of skills and information in their emphasis on learning in diverse contexts as necessary for subsequent application of knowledge. We examine how teachers can help their students become more autonomous, strategic, and motivated in their learning so that they can apply their efforts and strategies in a variety of meaningful contexts beyond school. Our premise in this chapter is that teachers need to understand their own thinking to become more effective in nurturing the thinking of their students. When new teachers have acquired an understanding of the social and situated nature of learning, an appreciation of the importance of authentic contexts, the habit of reflecting upon their own experiences, and the willingness to question their own assumptions and beliefs, then they will be more prepared to create the kinds of learning climates that will enable students to learn the lessons that really matter. This view is consistent with the recommendations of a special Committee on the Teaching of Educational Psychology, created by Division 15 of the American RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 22

Psychological Association, who advocated that future teachers use a psychological perspective on learning to create a coherent framework of ideas about student learning (Anderson, Blumenfeld, Pintrich, Clark, Marx, & Peterson, 1995). They argued that deeper understanding of the cognitive, motivational, and situated characteristics of learning can help teachers design better instruction. In this chapter we will examine the conceptual foundations of self-regulation and how it is related to learning strategies, metacognition, motivation, and related constructs of contextual teaching and learning. We will explore the benefits that accrue to teachers when they become more knowledgeable about metacognition and engage in effective self-regulation. Next we will identify and explain some principles of self-regulation that can guide teachers’ decision-making. We will examine how these principles can be put into practice both in the preparation of teachers and in the instruction of students. Then, we will examine how one teacher preparation program attempts to help new teachers become more aware of their own learning and teaching. Next, we will consider the obstacles, both conceptual and organizational, that teachers confront as they try to become reflective, metacognitive, and self-regulative in their classrooms. Finally, we end with some suggestions and policies that can help new teachers become more thoughtful and effective in helping their students experience success in and beyond school.

What is Self-Regulation of Thinking and Learning?
The term self-regulated learning (SRL) became popular in the 1980’s because it emphasized the emerging autonomy and responsibility of students to take charge of their own learning. As a general term, it subsumed research on cognitive strategies, metacognition, and motivation in one coherent construct that emphasized the interplay among these forces. It was regarded as a valuable term because it emphasized how the ―self‖ was the agent in establishing learning goals and tactics and how each individual’s perceptions of the self and task influenced the quality of learning that ensued. In the past ten years, a great deal of research has focused on a constructivist perspective on SRL (e.g., Paris & Byrnes, 1989), on social foundations of SRL (e.g., Pressley, 1995; Zimmerman, 1989), on developmental changes in SRL (e.g., Paris & Newman, 1990), and on instructional tactics for promoting SRL (e.g., Butler & Winne, 1995). The integrative nature of SRL stimulated researchers to study broader and more contextualized issues of teaching and learning while also showing the value of SRL as an educational objective at all grade levels. Interested readers can trace the history and various theoretical orientations to SRL in a volume by Schunk and Zimmerman (1989). What is important for teacher educators is that SRL can help describe the ways that people approach problems, apply strategies, monitor their performance, and interpret the outcomes of their efforts. In this brief overview, we focus on three central characteristics of SRL; awareness of thinking, use of strategies, and sustained motivation. Awareness of thinking. Part of becoming self-regulated involves awareness of effective thinking and analyses of one’s own thinking habits. This is metacognition, or thinking about thinking, that Flavell (1978) and Brown (1978) first described. They showed that children from 5-16 years of age become increasingly aware of their own personal knowledge states, the characteristics of tasks that influence learning, and their own strategies for monitoring learning. Paris and Winograd (1990) summarized these aspects of metacognition as children’s developing competencies for self-appraisal and self-management and discussed how these aspects of knowledge can help direct students’ efforts as they learn. We tried to emphasize that the educational goal was not simply to make children think about their own thinking but, instead, to use metacognitive knowledge to guide the plans they make, the strategies they select, and the interpretations of their performance so that awareness leads to effective problem-solving. Our RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 23

approach is consistent with Bandura (1986) who emphasized that self-regulation involves three interrelated processes; self-observation, self-evaluation, and self-reaction. Understanding these processes and using them deliberately is the metacognitive part of SRL. Use of strategies. A second part of SRL involves a person’s growing repertoire of strategies—for learning, studying, controlling emotions, pursuing goals, and so forth. However, we want to emphasize that our concern is with ―being strategic‖ rather than ―having‖ a strategy. It is one thing to know what a strategy is and quite a different thing to be inclined to use, to modify it as task conditions change, and to be able to discuss it and teach it. There are three important metacognitive aspects of strategies, often referred to as declarative knowledge (what the strategy is), procedural knowledge (how the strategy operates), and conditional knowledge (when and why a strategy should be applied) (Paris, Lipson, & Wixson, 1983). Knowing these characteristics of strategies can help students to discriminate productive from counterproductive tactics and then to apply appropriate strategies. When students are strategic, they consider options before choosing tactics to solve problems and then they invest effort in using the strategy. These choices embody SRL because they are the result of cognitive analyses of alternative routes to problem-solving. Sustained motivation. The third aspect of SRL is motivation because learning requires effort and choices. Paris and Cross (1983) argued that ordinary learning fuses skill and will together in selfdirected actions. SRL involves motivational decisions about the goal of an activity, the perceived difficulty and value of the task, the self-perceptions of the learner’s ability to accomplish the task, and the potential benefit of success or liability of failure. Awareness and reflection can lead to a variety of actions depending on the motivation of the person. Researchers and educators have characterized SRL as a positive set of attitudes, strategies, and motivations for enhancing thoughtful engagement with tasks but students can also be self-directed to avoid learning or to minimize challenges. When students act to avoid failure instead of pursue success, attribute their performance to external or uncontrollable forces, use self-handicapping strategies, or set inappropriate goals, they are undermining their own learning. These behaviors are self-regulated but may lead to diminished effort, task avoidance, and other actions that decrease engagement and learning. Learned helplessness, apathy, and defiance may also be counterproductive motivational responses to learning that can be overcome with better understanding of SRL. In our view, teachers need to understand students’ motivation in order to understand how they learn, what tasks they choose, and why they may display persistence and effort or, conversely, avoidance and apathy. Self-regulation thus implies ―personalized cognition and motivation‖ (Hickey, 1997) that exemplifies behaviors that may or may not be consistent with the teacher’s agenda for learning. Because teachers need to be diagnostic about their students’ learning styles and orientations, it is helpful to analyze students’ awareness, use of strategies, and their motivation. It is important to note that our view of self-regulated learning does not conflict with Borko and Putnam’s view of cognition as situated, social, and distributed. They argue, and we agree, that to understand knowledge and learning, we must better understand the importance of contexts, social relationships, collaboration, and cooperation. Self-regulated learning does not mean that knowledge and learning exists solely in the mind of an individual. Rather, self-regulated learning recognizes that individuals have some control over their own learning, across contexts, across relationships, and across situations. We think that teachers who use a psychological lens to analyze students’ strategies, motivation, and attitudes gain deeper understanding about students’ behavior in the classroom which, in turn, allows them to design better instruction that can make learning more meaningful for them.

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Why is Self-Regulation Important for Teachers?
Understanding the notion of self-regulation is important for teachers because teaching requires problem-solving and invention. Teachers face problems and challenges that are complex and rarely straightforward. As Schon (1987) points out, teaching teachers facts and rigid decisionmaking models is less effective than nurturing within teachers the capacity and skills to deal with the difficult problems of the real world. It is ironic that teachers are often taught with pedagogical methods that are contrary to the principles that they are being taught, such as direct instruction on problem-based learning or cooperative learning. Corno and Randi (1997) advocate that teachers should be given the same contexts, challenges, and choices that are beneficial for students and we agree wholeheartedly. They describe a model of professional development called ―collaborative innovation‖ in which teachers work together to adapt, invent, evaluate, discuss, and revise instruction that fits their own classrooms and contexts, including such factors as students, time, buildings, resources, accountability pressures, and parents. In our view, collaborative innovation provides opportunities for teachers to become self-regulated, strategic, and motivated themselves as they invent their methods of instructing and assessing students which mimic the processes of collaborative innovation that they want their students to discover and create. It is a professional development model of the co-construction of meaningful experiences. One of the most well-known approaches to providing teachers with both capacity and skills to be innovative is the work on reflective practice (e.g., Dewey, 1933; Liston & Zeichner, 1987; Schon, 1983; 1987; 1991). Although definitions of reflective practice vary, in general, it refers to the teacher’s ability to engage in active, persistent analysis of his or her beliefs and knowledge and the consequences that follow from those beliefs and knowledge. Ross (1990), for example, defined reflection as a way of thinking about educational matters that involves making rational choices and assuming responsibility for those choices. Ross (1990, p. 99) goes on to say that the elements of reflective practice include: • recognizing educational dilemmas; • responding to a dilemma by recognizing both the similarities to other situations and the unique qualities of the particular situation; • framing and reframing the dilemma; • experimenting with the dilemma to discover the implications of various solutions; • examining the intended and unintended consequences of an implemented solution and evaluating it by determining whether the consequences are desirable. Ross’s definition incorporates the earlier work of Dewey (1933), Schon (1983), and Liston and Zeichner (1987) by emphasizing the importance of requisite attitudes, such as introspection, open-mindedness, and a willingness to accept responsibility, and requisite attributes, such as teachers’ values and moral structure. These are part of teachers’ implicit pedagogical theories that are manifested in their practices. Clearly, teachers’ attitudes, attributes, and understandings will influence the kinds of student difficulties that will be recognized, how those difficulties will be interpreted and diagnosed, and what judgments are made about the desirability of various solutions. Schon (1991) poses several questions about reflective practice that are important for teachers to consider: 1. What is it appropriate to reflect on? 2. What is an appropriate way of observing and reflecting on practice?

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3. When we have take the reflective turn, what constitutes appropriate rigor? 4. What does the reflective turn imply for researchers’ stance toward the educational enterprise—the subjects, the research activity, and researchers themselves? These are key questions with complex answers. We believe that the conceptual framework of SRL provides one important perspective useful in addressing these four questions. In particular, we feel that understanding the notion of SRL enhances a teachers’ ability to be reflective because SRL provides additional insights into the issues of teaching and learning, particularly those that arise when teachers are faced with the challenge of connecting their teaching and the students’ learning to the real world. Knowing more about their own thinking, developing effective strategies, and sustaining their own motivation will be crucial for teachers interested in making schooling more relevant to the outside world. In addition, by combining the notions of contextual teaching and SRL, teachers gain a deeper understanding of the learning experiences that face their students. Teachers have a better sense of what is entailed in those experiences, what obstacles need to be overcome, and what teaching or learning strategies will be called into play. For example, Wade (this volume) argues that much of the value in service learning comes from the changes in students’ abilities to question their own thinking, assumptions, and motivations. One of the driving questions about service learning is how to set up experiences in communities that encourage students to become more aware of their own understanding of and involvement in meaningful civic participation. Finally, the more that teachers understand about their own thinking, the better they can model for students. Understanding self-regulation can help teachers make thinking public and visible. Thinking—strategic, independent, and inquisitive—then becomes a topic of classroom discussion and an explicit goal of education. Understanding the nature of self-regulation and how it is nurtured opens up a world of possible roles and relationships between teachers and students. That is why metaphors of teaching as coaching and mentoring are popular today; they emphasize how teachers design and scaffold experiences that lead students to emulate the wisdom of teachers.

Turning Principles into Practice
Our aim of focusing on SRL in preparing teachers to use contextual teaching is to help new teachers better understand themselves as thinkers so they can impart a metacognitive curriculum to students that is thought-provoking and stimulating. In this section, we focus on some of the principles that describe how teachers can become engaged in SRL and, correspondingly, what they can do to promote children’s self-regulation. We offer the following list as guidelines for enhancing self-regulation for both teachers and students. Each is explained and illustrated as an example of turning theory into practice.

1. Self-appraisal leads to a deeper understanding of learning.
One general aspect of metacognition is the periodic appraisal of one’s thinking. It is useful for teachers and students alike because it is reflection on the dynamics of teaching and learning, the core of education, and a first step to changing or revising one’s approach. Here are some ways that self-appraisal enhances learning.

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A. Analyzing personal styles and strategies for learning, and comparing them with others, increases awareness of different ways of learning. Teachers can assess their own learning strategies in college by examining the processes they use to write papers, the tactics they use to search for information in the library or on the Internet, or their methods of studying for tests. Each of these activities are similar to the tasks they will present to children so they need to become aware of their own learning strategies and then compare them to other options. For example, teachers may discover that some people use notes or outlines before writing but others do not; some may revise 20 times while others revise once; some may ask for friends to read early drafts but others are reluctant to share their writing. Teachers need to know why adults choose particular methods for writing papers so that they can create situations in which their students discover the same range of styles. Teachers also need to become aware that learning strategies are often unexamined, often superficial or easy, and often difficult to change. Unless they go through the process of explaining, discussing, and justifying their own strategies, they may not understand how children can create or adopt poor learning strategies. Moreover, until one discusses why strategies are chosen and if someone would give up their strategy, they may not realize how entrenched people can be with their prior habits. B. Evaluating what you know and what you do not know, as well as discerning your personal depth of understanding about key points, promotes efficient effort allocation. Perhaps the most surprising finding from early metacognitive research was that children are often unaware of what they do not know (Markman, 1981) and unable to distinguish important from unimportant information (Brown & Baker, 1983). Either they fail to reflect on what they do not understand or mistakenly assume that things make sense when they do not. This is exactly why periodic selfappraisal is useful. Teachers may fail to discern their own understanding also. Sometimes they follow a teachers’ manual or prescribed lesson plan so carefully that they fail to ask if it makes sense to themselves, if all the information is necessary to teach, or if it could be presented in a more sensible sequence. How can teachers learn to judge their own knowledge states in a contextualized manner? One possibility is to have them evaluate a lesson that they are preparing to teach to identify the important and secondary information. This can be done through highlighting or summarizing in a way that can be used directly with students also. Another method is to identify aspects of the lesson that may be confusing to them so that they do not provide superficial or erroneous information to students. Another method is to ask questions of other teachers about their lesson plans to prompt them to assess their own level of understanding and to provide warrants for their teaching. C. Periodic self-assessment of learning processes and outcomes is a useful habit to develop because it promotes monitoring of progress, stimulates repair strategies, and promotes feelings of self-efficacy. Research on children’s reading has shown that they rarely stop as they read a passage to determine if it makes sense, if their rate is appropriate, or if they need to reread (e.g. Winograd & Paris, 1988). Instead, they read start to finish and then are perplexed if they cannot answer the teachers’ questions. When children fail to monitor their comprehension, they may erroneously attribute poor performance to their low ability rather than lack of strategic reading and they may feel ashamed of their reading instead of proud. Adults can exhibit similar behavior. For example, college students who write a single draft of a paper because they procrastinated until the last minute and then feel relieved simply that it was done are exhibiting poor strategies, failure to plan and monitor, and little sense of accomplishment or efficacy with the result. What can be done? Teachers can model comprehension monitoring with each other during joint reading. For example, using the reciprocal teaching technique developed by Palincsar and Brown (1984), RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 27

teachers can take turns as the ―student‖ reading or the ―teacher‖ asking questions. This demonstrates the value of periodic monitoring for teachers in a way that is directly replicable in the classroom. Another contextualized strategy is to review progress on reports and projects at the beginning, middle, and end of the activity so that the learning strategies are reviewed and revised if necessary during the construction of the activity. At the end, teachers should discuss their attributions for success and take pride in their use of strategies.

2. Self-management of thinking, effort, and affect promotes flexible approaches to problem-solving that are adaptive, persistent, selfcontrolled, strategic, and goal-oriented.
SRL cannot be reduced to a list of steps to follow nor a menu of options because the construct denotes dynamic actions of learners engaged in complex problem-solving. Therefore, management of resources, including time and collaboration with others, must be negotiated and renegotiated with management of one’s available strategies, motivation, and affect. Selfregulated learners do not simply follow a plan of action; they adapt to changing conditions and know what to do when they encounter problems. It is the flexible responses to unforeseen circumstances that typifies self-regulation and it is important to note that self-regulated learners do not lose sight of their goals or lose positive perceptions of themselves when things do not unfold as planned. A. Setting appropriate goals that are attainable yet challenging are most effective when chosen by the individual and when they embody a mastery orientation rather than a performance goal. When goals are set by others, behavior is compliant or obedient rather than self-directed. However, setting goals is difficult for children and adults are often unaware of the problems. For example, children often set goals such as ―I will work harder‖ or ―I will read more books‖ but these are performance goals that do not emphasize conceptual understanding and deep learning. When goal setting activities promote performance goals instead of mastery orientations, SRL is actually undermined (Anderman & Maehr, 1994). A further problem encountered by children is that they often choose unattainable or distant goals such as ―I’ll be the best reader in class‖ or ―I’ll get all A’s on my report card‖ that are forgotten, not checked, or stated to appear virtuous rather than a realistic guide or standard to attain. Teachers can understand the difficulties encountered in setting goals when they engage in the process themselves. For example, at the beginning of a course, the instructor can ask teachers to list their goals for the course and then discuss them in small groups. This exercise can be used to point out differences between proximal vs. distal goals, attainable vs. unattainable goals, and performance vs. mastery goals. Furthermore, the conversations can consider when goals are made as guides for the student as opposed to high aspirations intended to impress or please others. This discussion should contrast deep and shallow approaches to goal-setting and demonstrate the value in mastery goals set at a challenging standard. B. Managing time and resources through effective planning and monitoring is essential to setting priorities, overcoming frustration, and persisting to task completion. SRL requires abundant practice for children to become proficient. Thus, teachers need to provide practice making choices and establishing priorities. Some teachers worry that children will make poor choices if given too much freedom but clever teachers know how to organize the environment so that all choices are acceptable. For example, many teachers allow children to select their own books or choose their own project topics or design extension activities for language arts, science, or math but thoughtful teachers know how to limit the choices to a prescribed set of books, topics, or activities. In a similar fashion, children need to practice setting priorities for their own work RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 28

during the day and week. Teachers who encourage SRL often challenge students to check the available time and assignments so they can choose their work wisely. Finally, planning a schedule for homework and projects gives children practice organizing their own schedules. If this is first introduced during middle school, students often have trouble using their planners but if they have practiced planning their school activities previously, then they use plans effectively. Teachers need to reflect on the ways that they make and follow plans, how they set priorities, and how they persist at tasks despite distractions if they are to teach children to do likewise. Corno (1993) refers to these tactics as ―volitional strategies‖ because teachers and children alike need to have action-based strategies that connect intended plans with desired goals. Teachers’ management strategies are seen daily by children and if teachers are disorganized, it encourages children to be disorganized too. Teachers can model good planning through the use of ―tools‖ such as day planners, monthly reminders, wall calendars, and lists and ―processes‖ such as dealing with plans which go awry. The latter might be illustrated by teachers who are confronted with competing demands and must make priorities and choices or who resist acting angrily to frustration and failure but instead deal constructively with it and make the best of the situation. C. Reviewing one’s own learning, revising the approach, or even starting anew, may indicate self-monitoring and a personal commitment to high standards of performance. Failure is an obstacle to SRL when learning stops and low ability is the perceived reason for failure. John Holt’s classic book, entitled How Children Fail detailed many ways that children close down their thinking and withdraw from teachers and learning. But failure is defined by students and teachers within classrooms in different ways and Clifford (1991 ) suggests that we teach students to think of ―constructive failure‖. In this approach, everyone fails frequently but the stigma is removed when students realize that it is the response to failure, not failure itself, that is important. The self-regulated learner analyzes reasons why learning did not occur as planned and then revises the approach to circumvent the problem. This illustrates both flexibility and persistence of SRL, but it also signals high personal standards and a mastery orientation. When the task is completed or an obstacle encountered (e.g., computer disk crashes), the self-regulated learner is willing and able to start over with a better plan. Teachers need to understand how different students react to failure, how they interpret failure, and why they are willing or not to start over because it is not just ―high‖ or ―low‖ motivation at issue here. Feelings of efficacy and positive expectations can lead to examine possible causes for failure, to invent new approaches, and to persist until the goal is reached. Teachers can empathize with students better if they have experienced failure so they need to participate in exercises in which some people perform poorly and must explain their performance and what they will do differently next time. These activities prevent withdrawal and promote seeking alternative solutions. They also show that failure is common and not necessarily an indication of low personal ability. Practice, experience, and modeling by teachers can promote selfmanagement of a wide range of SRL.

3. Self-regulation can be taught in diverse ways.
One of the underlying assumptions of this chapter is that SRL can be taught to both children and adults. This does not mean it is necessary to teach everyone nor necessary to teach the same things to those who are taught. Because SRL is flexible and adaptive, different kinds of strategies and motivation might be emphasized for different learners. Just as teaching begins with the learner, not the curriculum, SRL begins with the learner and not a list of tactics. We think that wise teachers adapt their methods of instruction to the learner but that all good teachers include components of SRL in what they teach and expect of their students. RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 29

A. Self-regulation can be taught with explicit instruction, directed reflection, and metacognitive discussions. Cognitive research has shown that expertise can develop in many ways and explicit instruction is not always necessary. However, many children do not gain metacognitive insights or use SRL effectively without direct instruction and it seems plausible that many teachers can increase their own metacognitive understanding through explicit instruction. The most direct method of making new teachers aware of SRL is to incorporate it in the curriculum as a topic of study. Teacher education courses in educational psychology can present background information on research and theory underpinning SRL. Teachers can use information on SRL to create thoughtful activities for students in science, math, and language arts. The key here is to identify the metacognitive understanding and regulating strategies that are desired and expected of students at each grade level and then to find ways to engage students in thinking about their own learning periodically. For example, Du Bois and Staley (1997) describe an educational psychology course designed to help pre-service teachers understand SRL and incorporate it into their teaching. The course provides explicit information about four SRL topics, metacognition, cognitive strategies, academic motivation, and volition so that students study the research and theory that provides the foundation for SRL. The course includes a five-phase model of self-change (Prochaska, Di Clemente, & Norcross, 1992) that helps students to become aware of SRL tactics and eventually to implement and sustain them. The five phases are; precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance, and they embody the same kinds of emerging awareness and control that we have described as metacognitive self-appraisal and self-management. The course provides opportunities for students to be reflective through journals, strategy analysis, and group discussions. Moreover, the instructors teach ―strategy orchestration‖ through ―contextualization‖ which helps students connect motivation to strategy use through modeling, guided peer questioning, and self-evaluation, all processes that are similar to those we have described throughout this chapter. Teachers who engage in these kinds of activities in teacher education classes are more likely to understand SRL, perceive the value of SRL, and teach SRL to their students. B. Self-regulation can be promoted indirectly by modeling and by activities that entail reflective analyses of learning. SRL can be taught indirectly with classroom activities, tools to evoke reflection and metacognitive understanding. One excellent method is the use of journals because they can be used with students of any age. Prospective teachers who use journals in classes learn to distinguish superficial entries and responses from analytic entries and responsive comments so they are less likely to ―do journals‖ as an activity and more likely to use journal writing as an avenue for self-exploration, self-discovery, and self-disclosure. A second tool that translates easily from teachers to students is conferences. Conferences can be focused on cooperative projects, report cards and grades, planning and brainstorming, and other classroom events but in all the endeavors, the focus of the conference can include analyses of thinking, learning, and teaching. Paris and Ayres (1994) interviewed teachers as they implemented literacy portfolios in their elementary classrooms and found that teachers reflected on the usefulness of the portfolios throughout the year. They gauged children’s reactions to the organization and management of the portfolios, questioned what work samples to include, and made adjustments to their classroom portfolios to insure that children used them appropriately. Not only did teachers model reflection for students but, conversely, children provoked teachers to reflect on their instruction. Teachers who listened to children discuss their journals, progress, and learning were stimulated to reflect on the effectiveness of their portfolios and change them as needed.

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C. Self-regulation can be promoted by assessing, charting, and discussing evidence of personal growth. Assessments of growth are closely aligned with journals and conferences because they are all tools for promoting reflection on progress and learning. SRL can be promoted through record keeping of goals met, grades received, and progress made in behavior management and learning. Teachers who use these records will understand how periodic self-appraisal can lead to feelings of pride or to renewed efforts. This simple technique is used often by people who monitor their diets, exercise, expenditures, and so forth and it can easily be extended to academic performance. Portfolios may be the best example of an assessment tool that promotes SRL. Teacher education courses need to use these more frequently and in more conceptually driven ways so that prospective teachers understand how they promote students’ reflections, not just collections. Ideally, the portfolios would span more than one course and one semester so that teachers can identify the changes during their professional preparation.

4. Self-regulation is woven into the narrative experiences and the identity of each individual.
Lave and Wegner (1994) discuss how learning is situated in domains of expertise and social interactions that they label ―legitimate peripheral participation‖ (LPP). One of their central points is that learning is part of a person’s narrative story, both a cause and consequence of their identity. They provide examples of tailors, midwives, and recovered alcoholics who learn the skills of their group, attain the identity of the group, tell their own ―war stories‖ like the group, and regulate their own behavior according to the identity of the group. In this view, SRL is shaped by the identity of the group one belongs to or aspires to join. What is learned depends on the group identity but how it is learned, according to Lave and Wegner, is similar across people and groups because it hinges on participation through apprenticeship that gradually moves to full membership. A. How individuals choose to appraise and monitor their own behavior is usually consistent with their preferred or desired identity. Children become students when they move into formal schooling but throughout their careers in education, they gain other identities, especially from age 12 on. These identities are sometimes evident in labels such as ―geeks‖, ―brainiacs‖, ―burnouts‖, or ―gangstas‖ and sometimes they are more covert, evident only by participation in proscribed activities of the group whether that is consistent with teachers’ educational goals or not. What this means is that students use SRL for different ends, depending on their identities. If they believe that getting good grades is inappropriate for their group, they may eschew effective SRL techniques such as doing homework planfully. If their identity is consistent with a collegebound or intellectually curious person, then they may engage in positive aspects of SRL appropriately. What does this mean for teachers? Too often teachers are unprepared to work with students who have backgrounds substantially different from their own. They need to consider how students’ identities influence the likelihood that they will be responsive to teaching about SRL. For example, teachers who are sensitive to multicultural values and non-academically oriented families may understand why some students actively avoid deep engagement in school while others embrace it. Role-playing and frank discussions with ethnically and socially diverse peers may all enhance teachers’ understanding of students who have identities that are different from their own. These experiences will help teachers understand how their peers as well as their students might resist traditional learning strategies and motivational appeals but might work diligently for other types of SRL that are consistent with their identities, groups, and aspirations. RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 31

B. Gaining an autobiographical perspective on education and learning provides a narrative framework that deepens personal awareness of self-regulation. Throughout this chapter we advocate teachers reflecting on their own learning and teaching experiences in order to achieve insight into their thinking and pedagogy. One excellent method for teachers to use is to create an educational autobiography in which they trace the influences on their education. This would include identifying family influences, favorite teachers, ―turning point‖ experiences, as well as personal recollections of special aptitudes, choices of majors and careers, and identification of preferred learning and teaching styles. The purpose of the educational autobiography is to help prospective teachers understand their own longitudinal development so they can use similar exercises with their own students to build self-awareness. C. Participation in a reflective community enhances the frequency and depth of examination of one’s self-regulation habits. Reflection is not an isolated activity of introspection followed by brilliant insights. Indeed, reflection may be redundant and noninsightful on many occasions. This is why repeated reconsideration of thinking and learning is necessary as conditions, knowledge, and experience change the ways we interpret our mental lives. Other people can provide valuable guidance for reflection because they stimulate us to see thinking from new perspectives and in new ways. This is why collaboration in a community of scholars is so vital to children’s intellectual development and teachers’ professional development (Brown & Campione, 1990). How can teachers participate in collaborative reflection? One method is to review videotapes of teaching together. Two teachers may videotape each other and then talk about what they were trying to do and whether it was effective or not. Some of the discussion can revolve around issues of metacognition and SRL. What techniques did teachers build into the lesson plan? What did they model? How did they encourage students to think about thinking and have metacognitive conversations while simultaneously covering the curriculum material? Peer conferences about teaching that focus on SRL can be illuminating about how to create that focus in daily activities, how to elicit student conversations, and how to talk about it with another professional teacher. A second method of collaborative reflection is revealed in the internship programs established in teacher education programs in which master or mentor teachers help beginning teachers reflect on their instructional content and pedagogical styles. Mentors provide nurturance and guidance for new teachers by noting and comparing their professional development with others, sharing ―war stories‖ and personal narratives, reassuring them that the problems they encounter can be solved, supporting them with motivational encouragement, and promoting their professional identities as teachers. Mentors can provide ―inside‖ or expert advice about self-regulating strategies that they have discovered and used so that their practices are passed on as a legacy of proven SRL tactics for teachers and students. It is the participation with peers that builds a professional identity that, in turn, motivates new teachers to adopt effective SRL habits.

Self-Regulated Learning, Contextual Teaching, and Teacher Preparation: An Example From the APS/UNM Partnership
In this section of the paper, we will describe one of the teacher preparation programs at the University of New Mexico that is built on the understanding that a partnership between the university and the public school provides a more meaningful context for teacher preparation and development than do more traditional models of teacher preparation. In addition, this program emphasizes the importance of social relationships in learning to become a teacher. Finally, this program focuses very heavily on helping the teachers become more aware of their own learning so that they can better help their students succeed. We will start with a description of the context. RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 32

Then we will focus on some of the instructional strategies designed to help teachers focus on their own learning. The Context. The Albuquerque Public Schools, the Albuquerque Federation of Teachers, and the University of New Mexico have developed a partnership that is aimed at developing a system of recruiting, preparing, and supporting teachers throughout their careers. The Partnership is a collaborative effort that provides systematic opportunities for university faculty to work with classroom teachers, counselors, and administrators in the preparation and support of teachers. The Partnership includes programs that focus on the recruitment of diverse groups (including educational assistants) into teacher education; mentoring pre-service teachers in a variety of programs including Professional Development Schools; providing induction support to new teachers; and developing networks and support for advanced professional development. In addition, the Partnership sponsors initiatives in bilingual education, literacy, counseling, and educational technology. Instructional Strategies. For the purpose of this paper, we will focus on the work of the student teachers (referred to as novice teachers) in the Partnership’s Professional Development Schools (PDS) which are located at two school sites in Albuquerque. The teacher-preparation curriculum is organized around four critical questions: 1. Who am I as a teacher? 2. Who are the children I am teaching? 3. What comprises the school community? 4. How do I connect my emerging understanding of self, children, and community to content understandings? During their year-long involvement in the PDS program, novice teachers engage in a number of projects aimed at exploring these four critical questions. The projects most related to our topics of SRL and contextual teaching include: • A Teaching Autobiography which helps the novice teacher to understand their assumptions about teaching and learning and to clarify the values and beliefs they bring to the classroom. • A Philosophy of Teaching aimed at capturing the novice teachers’ emerging ideas about teaching and learning as well as helping them to articulate the rationale behind their instructional practices. • A Reflective Journal which provides a place where the novice teachers and their mentors can exchange their ideas about teaching in a safe and thoughtful way. • A Community Study in which novice teachers develop a systematic understanding of what it is like to be a child in the school and what it means to connect the community context to children’s learning. • Child Study/Kid Watching Project which is a collaborative effort between the mentor and the novice teacher. The novice teacher observes and documents two children as they develop over the year. • Teaming to Teach requires novice teachers to work collaboratively with each other in order to gain a deeper understanding of what it takes to transform content for different learners, to use a variety of curricula, and to be part of a team. • Community Service connects the novice teachers to the authentic needs of the school, to small groups of students, and to the broader community. Consider for a moment, how these instructional activities can enhance the novice teacher’s ability to engage in the five principles of self-regulated learning: RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 33

1. Self-appraisal leads to a deeper understanding of learning. 2. Self-management of thinking, effort, and affect promotes flexible approaches to problem-solving that are adaptive, persistent, self-controlled, strategic, and goal-oriented. 3. Self-regulation can be taught in diverse ways. 4. Self-regulation is woven into the narrative experiences and the identity of each individual. The novice teachers have systematic opportunities to engage in self-appraisal by thinking about themselves as teachers, about their approach to teaching, and the experiences they are having as they go through the PDS program. In addition, there are structured opportunities to discuss these self-reflections with others in their cohort. Projects like the reflective journal, the community study, the child study, and teaming to teach provide the novice teachers with opportunities and structure aimed at helping them develop more flexible, strategic, and effective approaches to problem-solving. Because these instructional tasks take place over the entire length of the PDS program, the novice teachers are able to see how their knowledge and thinking changes over time. The variety of instructional tasks helps ensure a diversity of opportunities for selfregulation and reflection. Finally, the fact that novice teachers are involved in a reflective community that encompasses the community, the schools, and the cohort, allows them to use the power of social relationships to strengthen their own habits of self-reflection. The Professional Development Schools in the APS/UNM Partnership have been evaluated in a number of ways including how well the new teachers know their students, how well they know their subject matter, how they work with colleagues and constituencies, and how they participate in the working of a good school. The results indicate that the new teachers perform well on these objectives. In addition, the feedback from hiring principals is very positive, particularly about the students’ understanding of themselves as teachers, and their ability to provide clear and articulate rationales for their curricular choices and strategies. Of course, the evaluations also indicate that there are areas that need to be strengthened including the need for students to develop deeper understandings of child development, educational foundations, multicultural education, and educational technology. In summary, the PDS program shows how instructional strategies that enhance SRL can be incorporated into teacher preparation programs. But it is important to note that such strategies are only a start. The need for more extensive strategies in teacher preparation programs that are more contextualized along the lines suggested by other chapters in this volume is clear. We will focus on some of the obstacles that we must address if we are to make real progress in helping teachers connect students to authentic learning experiences beyond school.

Obstacles and Concerns
Although it is exciting to think about ways that self-regulation can be embedded in teacher preparation programs, it is important to be realistic about the challenges that must be addressed if our vision of teachers who are adept at SRL is to be turn into widespread practice in real classrooms. Here are some of our concerns. The first major obstacle is the uneven and often inadequate preparation that teachers receive. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1996, 1997), for example, states that only 500 of the nation’s 1200 teacher preparation programs meet common professional standards. In addition, NCTAF estimates that more than 12% of all newly hired teachers enter classrooms without any preparation at all, and another 15% enter the classroom without fully meeting state standards. Uneven or inadequate preparation leads to a host of problems, of course, RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 34

but one of the worst from our perspective is that poorly prepared teachers are more likely to engage in perfunctory curriculum delivery rather than engage in thoughtful self-regulation. A second problem, related to the first, is the difficulty of strengthening those existing teacher preparation programs that are adequate. Too many teacher education programs are locked into rigid frameworks of individual courses with minimal overlap and integration. They often have limits on the number of credit hours that students can take before graduation or certification. Professors from different disciplines feel that students never get enough preparation in their particular areas, and in too many cases, they are correct. Developing a teacher preparation curriculum that expects teacher candidates to engage in SRL and provides real support and opportunities for such thoughtful activities is no small feat. We would dare to say that, in most institutions across the country, teacher educators are struggling to manage large numbers of students on tight budgets with short timelines. Expecting such programs to become more concerned about nurturing the intellectual growth of individual students may not be realistic until and unless fundamental changes are implemented in the ways that teacher preparation programs are organized and supported. The situation in teacher preparation is likely to get worse as the nation experiences a predicted increase in the demand for new teachers. According to various estimates, student enrollments will grow to 54.3 million students by the year 2007, up from 50 million students in 1995. Combine this increase in the number of students with the fact that large numbers of current teachers are nearing retirement, and one can see why experts are predicting that the nation will need to hire at least two million new teachers in the next ten years. What this means is that the number of poorly prepared teachers or unprepared teachers is likely to increase unless teacher preparation programs are changed in significant ways. Strengthening the way that teachers are prepared is crucial but it is only part of the solution. The NCTAF (1996, 1997), for example, argues that schools must be reorganized for student and teacher success. The NCTAF offers a number of recommendations in this regard but one is particularly relevant to our efforts at promoting SRL. The NCAFT recommends that schools rethink schedules and staffing so that students have more time for in-depth learning and teachers have more time to work with and learn from one another. This recommendation is crucial, given that most elementary teachers have only 8.3 minutes of preparatory time for every hour they teach and high school teachers have just 13 minutes of preparation time for every hour they teach. Our final concern has to do with the nature of the curriculum that teachers are expected to teach and that students are expected to learn. If we really want teachers and students to engage in SRL, then classroom curriculum must be organized in ways that support and value autonomous inquiry and strategic problem-solving. The good news is that the right language often shows up in many of the national and state efforts to develop learning standards and goals. For example, the Performance Standards developed by the New Standards project focus on the importance of helping students learn problem solving strategies and self-management techniques. The National Educational Goals Panel (www.negp.gov), states, as part of Goal 3: Student Achievement and Citizenship, that ―... every school in America will ensure that all students will learn to use their minds well, so that they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation’s modern economy.‖ But the bad news is that our paltry support of innovative curriculum development and our reluctance to really change our highstakes assessment systems means that students and teachers will continue to focus on low-level kinds of learning. We face the fundamental question of whether we can really change curriculum and assessment systems in ways that support thoughtful teachers and students who can deal with

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complexity or whether those systems will continue to foster the illusion that life, like the tests we give, has only one correct answer.

The Future of Self-Regulation, Contextual Teaching, and Teacher Preparation
We have argued throughout this chapter that teachers need to become aware of SRL, to become models of effective strategies, to analyze their own students’ learning, and to implement classroom activities that contextualize learning. As authors, we can do no less than enthusiastically practice what we preach. Here, then, are some recommendations for helping teachers and students become more self-regulated learners. • We strongly endorse the recommendations of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (1996; 1997), particularly those that deal with standards for teachers and students; reinventing teacher preparation and professional development; recruiting and retaining qualified teachers; and creating schools that are organized for student and teacher success. • Teacher preparation programs must become a higher priority for universities in general and colleges of education in particular. We have models of teacher preparation programs that provide new teachers with rich curriculum and powerful mentoring relationships but these are labor-intensive and expensive. Using these models to prepare a larger proportion of new teachers will require universities and colleges to rethink their priorities. • Courses on pedagogy need to designed and taught that focus on teaching and learning strategies that promote SRL for both teacher and students. • Educators need to do a better job of communicating with the public, policymakers, and other stakeholders about the nature of teaching and learning. We need to build a solid base of support among parents, legislators, the media, the business community, and other influential citizens for the importance of teacher preparation and the profession of teaching. We are excited about the potential inherent in current teacher education reform movements. But it is essential that we temper our enthusiasm with an appreciation of the realities of the issues that we face. Solving the pedagogical issues in teacher preparation will be easier than solving the political and economic issues. Our ability to make progress depends on our ability to think clearly about the challenges, to imagine a better world for our children, and to stand firm for those things we value.

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References
Anderman, E. M., & Maehr, M. L. (1994). Motivation and schooling in the middle grades. Review of Educational Research, 64, 287–309. Anderson, L. M., Blumenfeld, P., Pintrich, P. R., Clark, C. M., Marx, R. W., & Peterson, P. (1995). Educational psychology for teachers: Reforming our course, rethinking our roles. Educational Psychologist, 30, 143–157. Baker, L., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. D. Pearson, M. Kamil, R. Barr, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 353– 394). New York: Longman. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Borkowski, J., Carr, M., Rellinger, E., & Pressley, M. (1990). Self-regulated cognition: Interdependence of metacognition, attributions, and self-esteem. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp.53–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brown, A., Bransford, J., Ferrara, R., & Campione, J. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J. H. Flavell & E. M. Markman (Eds.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 77–166). New York: Wiley. Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1990). Communities of learning and thinking, or a context by any other name. Human Development, 21, 108–125. Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245–281. Clifford, M. M. (1991). Risk taking: Theoretical, empirical, and educational considerations. Educational Psychologist, 26, 263–297. Corno, L. (1986). The metacognitive control components of self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 333–346. Corno, L. (1989). Self-regulated learning: A volitional analysis. In B.J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (pp. 111– 141). New York: Springer-Verlag. Corno, L. (1992). Encouraging students to take responsibility for learning and performance. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 69–83. Corno (1993). The best-laid plans: Modern conceptions of volition and educational research. Educational Researcher, 22, 14–22. Corno, L., & Randi, J. (1997). Motivation, volition, and collaborative innovation in classroom literacy. In J. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp.14–31). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co. Du Bois, N. F., & Staley, R. K. (1997). A self-regulated learning approach to teaching educational psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 9, 171–197. Flavell, J. H. (1978). Metacognitive development. In J. M. Scandura, & C. J. Brainerd (Eds.), Structural/process theories of complex human behavior. The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordoff. Hickey, D. (1997). Motivation and contemporary socio-constructivist instructional perspectives. Educational Psychologist, 32, 175–193.

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Lave, J., & Wegner, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Liston, D. P., & Zeichner, K. M. (1987). Reflective teacher education and moral deliberation. Journal of Teacher Education 38(6), 2–9. Mezirow, J. & Associates (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America’s Future. New York: Columbia University. National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. New York: Columbia University. Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 117–175. Paris, S. G., & Ayres, L. R. (1994). Becoming reflective students and teachers with portfolios and authentic assessment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Paris, S. G., & Byrnes, J.P. (1989). The constructivist approach to self-regulation and learning in the classroom. In B. Zimmerman & D. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 169– 200). New York: Springer-Verlag. Paris, S. G., & Cross, D. R. (1983). Ordinary learning: Pragmatic connections among children's beliefs, motives, and actions. In J. Bisanz, G. Bisanz, & R. Kail (Eds.), Learning in children (pp.137–169). New York: Springer-Verlag. Paris, S. G., Lipson, M. Y., & Wixson, K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293–316. Paris, S. G., & Turner, J. T. (1994). Situated motivation. In P. Pintrich, C. Weinstein, & D. Brown (Eds.), Student motivation, cognition, and learning: Essays in honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Paris, S. G., & Newman, R. S. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 87–102. Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. W. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B.J. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp.15–51). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40. Pressley, M. (1995). More about the development of self-regulation: Complex, long-term, and thoroughly social. Educational Psychologist, 30, 207–212. Prochaska, J. A., Di Clemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Application to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102– 1114. Rohrkemper, M., & Corno, L. (1988). Success and failure on classroom tasks: Adaptive learning and classroom teaching. Elementary School Journal, 88, 297–312. Ross, D. (1990). Programmatic structures for the preparation of reflective teachers. In R. T Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach ( Eds.). Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 97–118). New York: Teachers College Press. RESUME CTL by MF (Pro Bu DK,CS) 38

Schon, D. (1983).The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. Schon, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schon, D (1991). The reflective turn: Case studies in and on educational practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social-cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329–339. Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. (Eds.) (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement; Theory, research, and practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Background on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)
Here we are in the twenty-first century with the world of technology at our fingertips. So why is it that many young people are finding it a struggle to make the transition from school to work? Not only is it a frustration for students but also a cost for business and our economy as a whole. We need to prepare young people for high-quality jobs. An excellent way to do this involves strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). These strategies work together to connect the content of knowledge with the context of application. Students then can process new information in a way that makes sense to them because it fits in their frames of reference. In a CTL learning environment, students discover meaningful relationships between abstract ideas and practical applications in a real world context. Students internalize concepts through discovery, reinforcement, and interrelationships. Contextual Teaching and Learning creates a team, whether in the classroom, lab, worksite, or on the banks of a river. CTL encourages educators to design learning environments that incorporate many forms of experience to achieve the desired outcomes (Hull & Souders, 1996). The Contextual Learning Institute and Consortium (CLIC) Research Project, conducted by the Oregon State University, was designed to train teachers in the contextual learning methodology. Results from the CLIC project include:
o o o o o o

Students accepted more responsibility of their own learning Student discipline problems, absenteeism, and tardiness were down Students enjoyed a positive social interaction All students learned more (gifted, average, and less gifted) Contextual learning teachers need significant school-based logistical support Teaching teams are important in contextual teaching and require planning time

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o

Longer class sessions and teacher teamwork are significant keys for contextual teaching and learning (Contextual Learning Institute and Consortium, 1996).

Simply placing a student in a "real-world" context does not guarantee a learning experience. Effective contextual learning results from a complex interaction of teaching methods, content, situation, and timing. For programs to work, changes must be made in the following areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. curriculum, instruction, and assessment links to workplaces, community organizations, and other contexts staff development for teachers and employers school organizations communication and time for planning and development (National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, 1996)

Education institutions must invest resources in faculty training programs which emphasize contextual learning. Experience at the secondary level has shown that faculty who attempt contextually based courses with no training become frustrated. Contextual learning adds new dimensions to a teacher's responsibilities, including courses that become more interactive, applied, and laboratory-oriented than traditional courses. Faculty development is paramount (Hull & Souders, 1996)

Teaching Objectives from a CTL Viewpoint
1. Present a contextual learning experience, which follows these CTL strategies: o Is problem-based o Uses multiple contexts o Draws on student diversity o Supports self-regulated learning o Uses interdependent learning groups o Employs authentic assessment 2. Seek assistance from your Circles of Support (scroll down a little over half way on this WEB page), including colleagues and community members*. *Important note: Be politically astute! Some investigations within the contexts of your school and community can result in sensitivity among people. For example, if a class discovers that the community or school leadership has NOT planned for possible environmental incidents, then it becomes necessary to avoid putting anyone on the spot personally. You and your students will need to call forth your collective skills in diplomacy, which is itself a tremendous learning opportunity. Like emergency responders who find themselves in potentially explosive hazardous materials situations, you may need to come to an understanding of when to simply "back away."

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3. Seek a workplace experience.
Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

Contextual Teaching and Learning Is Problem-Based
    

A problem is a simulated or real question, issue, challenge, or difficulty in need of a solution Is relevant and worthwhile to students’ lives – their families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities Promotes critical thinking Encourages a systematic approach to addressing the problem Integrates disciplines

Action Planning Goals:
What you should see in the Action Plan:




The action plan is based on a simply stated overarching problem. That problem: o Is historically important; o Has no obvious right answer; o Requires higher order thinking skills; o Is continually revisited throughout a course of study; o Is framed to provoke and sustain student interest; o Is linked to other problems. The student work is organized around a set of subproblems, which all will require higher order thinking skills.

What you should see in the learners:


All three features of substantive conversation occur, with at least one example of sustained conversation. Sustained conversation is extended long enough to build an improved and shared understanding of ideas. Substantive conversation: o Is reciprocal, which means that the student and teacher question, state opinions, and provide ideas/information from their perspective. o Includes higher order thinking, which means the student shows evidence of evaluating, synthesizing, applying ideas and information to current, past, or future situations or concepts. o builds coherently on participants' ideas and promotes a collective understanding of the theme or topic of the action plan.

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The Challenge:
Find a problem that relates to your subject area and your students. Pick a topic you already cover and ask yourself, ―Can I make this problem-based?‖ Narrow down your topics so that they don’t bog down. Don’t be afraid to start small so you can experience success. Problems could range from one class to an entire unit or course. Use what you already do in your course. For example, students may have formerly read about a concept (such as methods of water quality testing, writing a set of instructions, working with ratios, etc.), watched a film, listened to a lecture, or completed a worksheet. A contextual approach would be to have students bring in water samples from various sources in the community, and use a test kit to evaluate the water for bacterial contamination. This would be followed up by a class presentation and discussion. This could be a springboard to further independent studies. Is there a problem? How could it be solved? As you work with the national or local standards (math, science, etc.), you can either start with a standard and determine a related problem, or start with problems of interest and then identify the applicable standards being addressed.

Examples:
The problem can be extensive, requiring research.
o o o o o o

Scott CC team was concerned about the declining air quality in the community. North Scott HS was concerned about the water quality in their community as a result of urban sprawl. CHS ...about the effect of lead contamination in a local marsh on aquatic life and migratory birds. CW .... how do agricultural chemicals affect the watershed? How does a community find use for abandoned properties that are contaminated or perceived to be contaminated? Strategic placement and management of hog confinement operations

Problems may be presented as smaller, more manageable or limited:
o

o o o o o

Students can test home or school water samples for bacteria, air quality (rate of exchange) of a classroom, sound levels in proximity to band instruments. Which is louder, the auto technology shop or the band room? What goes into managing a client relationship? Should you use antibacterial soap? How do you dispose of potentially hazardous products? Is paper recycling feasible? How environmentally friendly is a classroom or school?

Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

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Contextual Teaching and Learning Draws Upon Multiple Contexts




Students learn in the real world where the knowledge would be applied – school (both the classroom and school "life"), workplaces, home, the local community, and sometimes, places beyond that community. Simulation of a situation or place can provide a satisfactory context, if the real world context is unavailable or poses a hazard.

Action Planning Goals:
What you should see in the Action Plan:
 

Purposeful contexts, in and outside the classroom, that will enhance student learning experiences. Three or more purposeful activities that will promote community connections.

What you should see in the learners:


Students apply content knowledge in the school, community, workplace, and/or family context in order to complete aspects of the action plan. During research, students are observed using one or more resource systems and primary resource materials.

Challenges:
Using multiple contexts outside the classroom may be limited by time, money, and resources. The challenge is to look at what you are already teaching and to incorporate different avenues to explore the concept. Look for ways to gain administrative, colleague, and community support. When you come up with a good teaching project, share it with others.

Before and After Example:
Before: A lesson on writing technical instructions, students read examples and the teacher lectured. Then the teacher gave a list of topics to choose from (e.g., how to change a tire). All this took place in the classroom. After: With the contextual approach, students analyzed tasks performed in a process by outside experts. From the task analysis, students developed a set of instructions that adhered to a template provided by the teacher. The students took the instructions back to the experts setting for evaluation. This was followed up by revisions until the instructions were perfect.

Examples:
o

Students may go outside of the classroom. An example of this would be the contexts for water quality studies: drinking water plant, wastewater treatment facility (both large and 43

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o o

o o

o

small), wetland habitats, private wells and septic systems, surface water sites (creeks, rivers, lakes...), testing laboratories, and government agencies. Guest experts may be invited into the classroom from private industry, government agencies, special interest and civic groups. Other teachers may lend their expertise to your classroom (such as an English teacher covering journal writing for a science teacher). In the Before and After examples, students went to another teacher’s classroom to analyze tasks in a process. Students may experience another context through a simulation. This is especially effective where a context may be dangerous (e.g., hazardous materials spill). Students may create models that relate content to the real world. For example, a model hog confinement area may be constructed and shown as a point source of pollution to a stream using commonly available materials (e.g., food color). When students pursue research, require that primary sources be included, meaning interviews with experts.

Reflection:
The adage ―No person is an island‖ is particularly applicable here. Seek and use support.

Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

Contextual Teaching and Learning Draws Upon Student Diversity


Recognizes that learning is influenced and enhanced by the student's individuality – ethnicity, personality, social group, attitudes and values, habits, health status, skills and talents already acquired, genetic predispositions, background and experiences, interests, and learning style preferences or intelligences (e.g., mathematical, verbal, natural, musical, spatial).

Action Planning Goal:
Students evaluate (e.g., discuss, write, and/or display) how and why their norms, communication patterns, and/or beliefs have developed as the result of differences and similarities that exist among them and individuals different from them.

Challenges:

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The challenge is to look at your student group and their differences and then to utilize those differences to create a rich learning environment. The teacher needs to create a climate of openness and recognition of students’ diversity. The goal is to have students evaluate how diversity enhances learning.

Before and After Example:
Before, we were focused on teaching the curriculum; after, we became focused on teaching the students. We recognize that students come into our classrooms with different backgrounds, beliefs, skills, talents, and interests.

Strategies and Additional Examples:
o

o o o o

o o

Students are given the opportunity to focus on areas of interest within the larger topic of study. For example, in studying water pollution, a student may choose the subtopic of well water if he/she lives in a rural setting. Students select methods of presentation. For example, a student who avoids speaking in front of groups may choose to do a model, video, PowerPoint presentation, etc. Self-contained special education students went on several field trips with science classes and were involved with videotaping during the trips. A class of mildly disabled students made all the arrangements for transportation and scheduling of field trips. On field trips, students chose tasks for data collection based on individual interest, such as testing water, collecting samples, writing qualitative observations, taking photos, measuring, and recording data. Student learning communities have been comprised of students with different talents and skills. Role plays, such as town meetings and mock trials, allowed students to bring their backgrounds and viewpoints to bear.

Educator Reflections:
CTL experiences should build upon student diversity and respect for our diverse world.

Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

Contextual Teaching and Learning Leads Toward Self-Directed (i.e., Self-Regulated) Learning


Inspires the goal of lifelong learning, which implies that learners are able to seek out, 45

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analyze, and use information with limited or no supervision. Educators help students grow in their abilities to research, produce evidence of their learning, use their time well, learn from mistakes, and reflect on how they learned.

Action Planning Goals:
What you should see in the Action Plan:
 

Coherence through a clearly communicated set of learning objectives and activities to be presented to students. Opportunities for students to set many of their own learning goals.

What you should see in the learners:


During their activities, students increasingly self-direct their learning until they become mostly self-regulated.

Challenges:
Most students have been spoon-fed and told what to learn and when to learn it. The attitude is often "You're the teacher. You tell us what to do." Educators cannot presume simply to turn students loose and expect them to be immediately self-regulated. The challenge is to develop strategies that move students closer and closer to becoming individuals who can learn with little to no supervision.

Before and After:
Before, in a science class, students were given cook-book instructions for a lab to be completed during class. After, students were given limited instructions. It was their task to design an investigation that would find a solution to a real-world problem.

Examples and Strategies:
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Students were told the real story of engines being damaged in air shipping. Teachers created and wrote up a case study about the situation. Students from English, social studies, math, automotive, and science were provided the case study, which required them to collaborate on a solution for safely shipping the parts from Seattle to Japan. They needed to understand the foundations, economics, and history of shipping; develop and test models and prototypes; and present the solution to school and community members. A student interested in video technology was given the opportunity to film class activities in order to document them. He took full responsibility for filming, editing, adding graphics, and providing narration. In essence, the teacher of the class activities became the student's client.

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A science student created a video-lab on the dissection of a cat. The video is to be made available to other students as a training resource. The math department became a client of an honors student who created a departmental web site. The student ran a comprehensive needs assessment and then set out to satisfy those needs, such as hours for math lab, chapter reviews, actual math problem examples, references and resources. Students who have a client relationship with someone (a teacher or a community member) must submit projects for review and revision before making them final. This allows the student to correct mistakes. Students in an English class use journaling to write their expectations of the class, themselves, and the teacher. They turn in two copies, one for them to keep and one for the teacher. At mid-term the students receive back their writing and are asked to reflect on whether they have met their own expectations. They also need to determine a strategy for self-improvement in meeting those expectations. Students in an auto technology class know that as a final evaluation their engines will be evaluated by a panel of experts from the community and that the engine performance will have to be perfect (100%!). If the engines are not perfect, they have a chance to correct their performance. The grade becomes a B, because this drives home the need for attention to detail and the fact that doing things twice costs the employer money.

Reflections:
Teachers should expect as much out of themselves as they do of their students. They should be willing to learn from their mistakes and to improve their teaching. They should be reflective, looking for ways the classroom can model the real world.

Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

Contextual Teaching and Learning Uses Interdependent Learning Groups
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Based on learning communities, where students and teachers share knowledge, focus on goals, and allow all to teach and learn from each other. Two or more groups connect in that knowledge-sharing, goal-focus, and teachinglearning with each other. These connections enhance interpersonal skills as participants work in teams. The creative process is magnified when people solve problems together.

Action Planning Goal:
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What you should see in the Action Plan:
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The action plan clearly provides opportunities for groups of students to engage in all of the elements required for interdependent learning.

What you should see in the learners:
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All members of the learning groups share responsibility, knowledge, goals, and allow all to teach and learn from each other. Student groups are engaged in five or more of the elements of the highest level of the group process. The highest level of the group process occurs when members: o give and receive feedback o invite excluded members to become more active o recognize, discuss, and often resolve conflict o use one another as resources o show interest in one another o use clear group norms to attain the group goals.

Challenges:
Social skills need to be built in preparation for working together. Teachers need to teach group process. The teacher needs to create an open environment where students can teach and learn from each other. The teacher and students must expect all group members to participate, sharing equally in responsibilities.

Before and After:
Before, the teacher directed the groups, their goals, and how they would be accomplished. Now, the teacher provides the groups with an evaluative rubric. Students know what to expect and have the opportunity to set their own learning goals.

Examples and Strategies:
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Students in six science classes took different field trips (e.g., a wastewater facility in their community). Based on their field trip, small groups from each class built models of facilities they had seen. Then they presented the models and explanations to the other science classes. A learning disabilities history class did historical primary research on the growth of their community and how the handling of water and wastewater changed through the community's history. The students passed their research findings along to the science classes. HVAC students who had researched indoor air quality explained to students in a math class the concept of parts of contaminants per cubic meter (a regulatory standard). The math teacher provided her students with materials to build 1-cubic-meter boxes. A microbiologist in the community measured out and provided a quantity of pseudocontaminants equivalent to a few parts per million. HVAC students visited the math class 48

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to help the math students demonstrate the meaning of parts per million (i.e., 1 ppm = a cubic centimeter in a cubic meter). The math and HVAC students then discussed the concept of risk assessment. A class of students went on a field trip to contemplate structures such as bridges and towers. Using straws and paper clips, student groups designed and built structures such as bridges or towers to comprehend the parameters of structural design. They presented and shared with each other what they discovered. A chemistry class was divided into groups by task. Tasks included taking water samples, measuring temperature and pH. Although simple, qualitative tests could be performed by students, more expensive water tests were performed by the water pollution control plant. Once data was tabulated, individual groups of students were assigned to analyze and report their conclusions to their own class and to an environmental education class. Students developed presentation materials. The environmental science class used the chemistry class data in developing their roles for a simulated town meeting about what to do regarding the contaminated site. A technical writing class divided into groups to develop instructions about real processes. Each group observed students in applied technology classes (auto collision repair, HVAC and auto technology) who were considered "expert workers." After analyzing tasks and drawing the process, the communications students created comprehensive instructions. They went back to the expert workers in the technology classes for review and revision sessions. A teacher had a particularly challenging chapter to teach. As a method of forming the groups, the teacher had the students identify the main concepts presented in that chapter. Each student privately chose which concept they most wanted to study. Student study groups were formed. Groups used resource materials to develop the concept and create a visual display for class presentation.

Reflections:
In the olden days collaborative learning was called cheating.

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Contextual Teaching and Learning Uses Authentic Assessment
Authentic assessment:
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Leads and expects students to use higher order thinking skills in addressing a problem, issue, or concept Is a meaningful product of the students’ new knowledge and skills 49

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Relates to the central goal of instruction (includes meeting national and local standards) Is blended with the teaching and learning process Provides students with opportunities and direction for improvement in learning Provides educator with opportunities and direction for improvement in teaching

Challenges:
Compared to using previously prepared objective tests, authentic assessment takes more time for teachers to develop and apply. Also, to know what is really meaningful, the teacher needs to get out into the "real world" to find out how the subject matter is really used, and if it is even necessary. This addresses the age-old student question of "What am I ever going to use this for?"

Reflections:
What does the real world want students to know and be able to do? Sometimes this is different from what teachers want students to know and be able to do. The teacher must go to the real world and ask. This may be done through teacher job shadowing, internships, and advisory councils.

Action Planning Goal:
What you should see in the Action Plan:
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Assessments direct students in activities that require interpreting nuances of a topic, going deeper than surface exposure or familiarity. Successful completion of all assessment activities will require students to understand and use the discipline content.

What you should see in the learners:
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Each student or group of students has two or more opportunities to answer specific questions and receive feedback regarding progress during the activity.

Before and After:
The auto technology teacher used to give true-false, matching, and multiple guess tests about engines. Now the students must rebuild an engine that meets industry standards.

Examples and Strategies:
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A teacher evaluated a writing assignment or a project against a rubric. The students had the rubric beforehand so that they knew what to aim for. Knowing ahead that community experts were invited to evaluate student products, the students put more effort into their work. 50

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The evaluators were the students' peers. Not wanting to embarrass themselves in front of classmates, they worked to meet the top criteria of an assessment rubric. Students were given a checklist of questions that led them to self-reflection. Using that tool, they evaluated their own process and products and became their own worst critics. Students create portfolios of their class work. From time to time they reflect upon the entries and select the best items for their final portfolio. Students analyzed a data set, compared the findings to regulatory or industry standards, and made recommendations for meeting the standards. Students developed an oral presentation to demonstrate their comprehension of a subject. Students created demonstrations of concepts studied in the course.

Environmental Themes Main Menu / ATEEC Homepage / Contextual Information Page

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