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									                  Deutsche Gesellschaft für
                 Technische Zusammenarbeit




                          TRACER STUDY
             of PACA facilitation trainees in South Africa




                                      by




                               Sonja Fiedeldei


                               15 December 2004




                         German Technical Co-operation
Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa
                                   Table of contents


1     Introduction ______________________________________________________ 3
2     Technical background of the Study_________________________________ 3
3     Feedback from participants ________________________________________ 4
    3.1   Opinion about PACA training _________________________________________ 4
    3.2   Expectations ________________________________________________________ 4
    3.3   Possible improvements________________________________________________ 5
    3.4   Further needs _______________________________________________________ 5
    3.5   Dissemination of PACA tools knowledge _________________________________ 6
    3.6   Impact of PACA _____________________________________________________ 6
    3.7   Use of PACA ________________________________________________________ 6
4     Main findings _____________________________________________________ 7
5     Way forward recommendations ____________________________________ 7




                                 German Technical Co-operation
    Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                              page 2 of 7
1       Introduction
The GTZ BDS/LED Programme in South Africa is assisting Local and District Municipalities to
start Local Economic Development (LED) processes. The identification, development and
testing of the feasibility of different LED approaches, concepts and instruments (eg. PACA) is
one of the four output areas of the Programme. Other main outputs are policy advice, the
dissemination of lessons learned and human capacity building.


Since the launch of the Programme in South Africa, many South African LED practitioners
have been trained in the use of the toolkit “PACA”. Since today almost 15 PACA exercises
have taken place in the country. This “Tracer Study” reflects the opinions and feedback from
the trainees about the four PACA facilitator training events and PACA as a feasible LED tool
for South Africa.


2       Technical background of the Study
This Study aims to identify outcomes according to the Impact Chain of the GTZ LED/BDS
Programme. It evaluates the testing of PACA as a feasible tool, the impact on capacity
building and the use of service.


Since the introduction of PACA in South Africa in 2003, a total number of 71 people were
trained. For the evaluation process every former
                                                         Feedback PACA trainees
participant received a questionnaire with semi       June 2003 Hazyview              10
standardised questions. The return rate was 46       Feb 2004 Ballito                16           %.
                                                     May 2004 KZN EU                  5
The following statistics will refer to the 33
                                                     Sept 2004 Ballito                8
participants who provided their feedback (12         The total # higher than # of trainees,
                                                     because some trainees attended more
“black”, 19 “white” and one “coloured” person). 20   than only one training.                      of
these trainees also took part in a PACA practical, a practical implementation of a PACA in a
South African pilot area under guidance and with constant backstopping by an experienced
PACA trainer.




                                   German Technical Co-operation
    Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                                          page 3 of 7
3       Feedback from participants

3.1     Opinion about PACA training
The overall opinion of the participants about PACA is generally positive. Most of them
describe PACA as practical, intensive, valuable, creative and successful. The trainees
appreciated the bottom-up approach and the new concepts and frameworks that improve the
LED planning and implementation. PACA is a workable tool to discover competitive
advantages easily and enables to do a quick scan of the local economy. It maximizes
stakeholder participation and helps stakeholders to better understand the economic context of
their local economy.


From a more technical side the trainees gained new insights into the methodology and
techniques and many mentioned that they improved their facilitation skills. Some trainees also
mentioned that PACA improved networking and discussions and sharing amongst the
participants.


There was also some critical feedback from the trainees. There are more skills needed for the
interpretation of data collected in interviews and workshops. Some of the trainees also had
their doubts about the implementation of the quick and visible projects and that there is not
enough information about the outcomes so far. The theoretical training is only adding value if
the trainees also participate in a PACA practical and make use of the approach. It was also
mentioned that there is not enough recognition of the role of local government and the socio-
political variables that impact on LED.

3.2     Expectations
The majority of the participants (22) stated that their expectations concerning the PACA
training have been met. Another group (4) said that their expectations have been mostly met.
Other trainees mentioned that PACA has a very sophisticated approach and is more suitable
for an urban context and not for rural unorganized constituencies. There is also a missing link
between the PACA approach and social / community development. The PACA tools are not
new, but only a new combination of tools.




                                   German Technical Co-operation
    Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                                    page 4 of 7
3.3     Possible improvements
The participants gave valuable inputs for possible improvements of PACA. Many trainees
stated that more background information is needed at the beginning and that the one week
training is therefore a little bit short. The participants need a deeper understanding of
principles and mindset of PACA, otherwise the people who are new in the process are
struggling halfway. There is also a need for more practicals to gain more experience. The
PACA practical should take place immediately
after the training.                                     Single ideas for improvements
Many of the trainees mentioned that it is               • Provision of more information
                                                           about what is needed to make
necessary to adjust and realign PACA to South              PACA work
                                                        • Less PowerPoint and more
African standards and circumstances. PACA                  interactive learning
should make use of local experience and be              • Gaining practical experience on
                                                           a voluntary basis (without getting
more open to local conditions and ideas.                   paid)
                                                        • PACA concept could be more
                                                           developed
The dissemination of lessons learned has to be          • Synthesis of results – much is
                                                           lost/thrown away in the process
improved. The practitioners are interested in           • Combine PACA with CEFE, IDP
Case Studies and success stories as practical              review or LED forum
                                                        • Include “build up" in practical
examples. The results of previous PACAs around                                                  the
country for reference can help to prevent future mistakes.

3.4     Further needs
The majority of the participants expressed their need to take part in more PACA practicals
together with experienced facilitators to get more            PACA tools that were used
confident. There is also more practical use needed in         by trainees
                                                              Mesocards              19
terms of Value Chain Analysis and Follow-up Phase.            Diamond                14
The trainees need support from experienced PACA               5 Forces               14
                                                              Stakeholder mapping    14
facilitators for their first own efforts.                     Interaction matrix      8
                                                              SWOT analysis           7
                                                              Pareto                  5
The sharing of findings, experiences and lessons
                                                              Paper Computer          3
learned among the practitioners has to be improved, as
well as the distribution of success stories and updates.




                                        German Technical Co-operation
   Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                                         page 5 of 7
3.5    Dissemination of PACA tools knowledge
Most of the participants did disseminate their new knowledge to others. Only a very rough
number can be given, because some of the trainees could not quantify the number of
beneficiaries exactly. The 33 trainees estimated that they disseminated their methodological
knowledge to at least 400 people altogether.

3.6    Impact of PACA
The impact of PACA on the daily work of the trainees was generally described positive.
Basically the participants improved their understanding of LED and feel more confident now.
They stated that PACA made their work life much easier, because they make use of the
various tools and bottom-up approach. They also could improve their facilitation skills. Some
of the consultants improved their personal work situation, because PACA constituted a part of
their consultancy engagements. Only a very few trainees mentioned that PACA did not
influence their daily work.


The influence on the internal work processes of the trainees was also assessed positively.
Most of the participants recognized a considerable impact due to the use of the tools and
methods. Only a few trainees mentioned that the use of cards and other methods was not new
to them and that PACA therefore had no influence on their internal work processes.

3.7    Use of PACA
23 of the trainees already made use of the      Occasions where trainees used PACA
PACA approach. 8 trainees did not use PACA      • As members of the different PACA           so
                                                   practicals in South Africa (Alicedale,
far and two trainees used the tools and the        Ballito, Kroonstad, Hazyview,
structure, but not under the name of PACA.         Ndlambe, EU KZN)
                                                • For scan of economic situation
                                                • In workshops and meetings
                                                • Together with tourism associations
21 of the trainees have concrete plans to use
                                                • Strategic/business planning
PACA in future. They mentioned planned          • For the elaboration of LED strategies
                                                • IDP reviews with municipalities
activities with different Local and District
Municipalities, EU programmes and planned projects in other African countries. 9 of the
trainees would like to make use of PACA in future, but they don’t have concrete plans at the
moment. 2 trainees are not planning to use PACA in future and one trainee abstained from the
question.

                                  German Technical Co-operation
  Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                                     page 6 of 7
31 of the trainees would recommend PACA as an LED tool, one trainee abstained from the
question and one would not recommend PACA.


4       Main findings
•   The trainees have in general a positive opinion about PACA as an LED tool.
•   Their expectations have been met.
•   Improvement is needed in terms of providing more practical training, to adjust PACA to
    South African Context and to provide Case Studies and Lessons Learned.
•   There is a general need for more practical training.
•   The trainees did disseminate their knowledge to the local level.
•   PACA had an impact on the participants work life and their internal work processes.
•   Most of the participants used PACA already.


5       Way forward recommendations


Testing of feasibility of different LED approaches
•   PACA has to be adjusted to South African context. Mesopartner should get this Tracer
    Study as feedback.


Dissemination of lessons learned
•   This Tracer Study should be distributed to the PACA trainees.
•   The trainees should also have access to the Case Studies of Hazyview, Ilembe and
    Queenstown.
•   The lessons learned of PACA in South Africa should be published on the LED-website.


Human capacity building
•   According to the identified need, the trainees should get the chance to gain more
    experience in PACA practicals.
•   An evaluation of PACA trainees should be repeated in one year’s time.




                                     German Technical Co-operation
    Business Development Services Local Economic Development Programme, South Africa

                                                                                   page 7 of 7

								
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