"Reflective practice for professional"
The main objective of the Integrated Framework is “to ensure that teachers and programmes engage in reflection about teaching and learning, learning that such reflection is rooted in evidence and leads to action for improvement. improvement.” Report of a Quality Audit of The Chinese University of Hong Kong September 2008 Reflective practice for professional advancement Reflection is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull it over and evaluate it. Boud, Cohen and Walker(1985) David Santandreu Hokling Cheung Outcomes At the end of this workshop, you should be able to – Identify the qualities and competences required from an effective teacher q – Apply skills for reflection and continuous evaluation for professional advancement – Describe a teaching portfolio’s structure and essential content element THREE PARTS 1. 1 Effective teachers? 2. Reflective practice? ) p a) Its importance b) Major attributes indicating reflective practice 3. Teaching portfolios: Why? What? How? University teachers as reflective professionals U i it t h fl ti f i l Standards in practice 1. 1 Educators value and care for all students and act in their best interests. 2. Educators are role models who act ethically and honestly. pp y g growth 3. Educators understand and apply knowledge of student g and development. 4. Educators implement effective practices in areas of planning, instruction, assessment, evaluation and reporting. 5. 5 Educators have a broad knowledge base and understand the subject areas they teach. 6. Educators engage in career-long learning. p 7. Educators contribute to the profession. British Columbia College of Teachers http://www.bcct.ca/documents/AboutUs/Standards/edu_stds.pdf QUESTION What professional competencies & p p personal qualities are required from an effective teacher? Educators engage in career-long learning l l i Educators engage in professional development and reflective practice, understanding that a hallmark of professionalism is the concept of professional growth over time. Educators develop and refine p p personal philosophies of education, teaching and learning that are informed by theory and practice. Educators identify their professional needs and work to meet those needs individually and kt t th d i di id ll d collaboratively. What is, in your opinion, reflective practice/a reflective p act t o e e ect e practitioner? How would you recognize a reflective y g practitioner if you saw one? The value of reflection Reflective teachers - YES ! Are better able to structure situations and problems Use a questioning approach when evaluating their experience ( (why did this happen?) y p Are clear about what they want to learn and improve Can describe and analyse experience (s) and interaction well Have strong feelings of personal security and self efficacy self-efficacy QUESTION - Is this a valuable process? - Longitudinal study of the teacher education programme in Utrecht. Korthagen and Wubbels (1995) ‘Reflective practitioners’ usually refers to adult p y learners who are engaged in some kind of activity (often professional) which they can use to reflect on their strengths and/or weaknesses fl h i h d/ k to improve. What is reflective practice? Moon defines reflective practice as “a set of abilities and skills, to indicate the taking of a critical stance, an orientation to problem solving or state of mind” i t ti t bl l i t t f i d” (1999: 63). In short, thinking about your learning. A simple definition Cowan suggests that learners are reflecting in an educational sense “when they analyse or evaluate when one or more personal experiences, and attempt to generalise from that thinking” (1999: 18). Therefore … Solving a problem? Problem solving meaning a “healthy, normal and creative process in which capable practitioners attempt to (1) make sense of puzzling or challenging phenomena, phenomena (2) identify areas of practice that bear scrutiny, (3) define particular goals for improvement and (4) pursue actions explicitly intended to accomplish them” them (Schön, 1990) Engaging in reflective practice involves a process of solving problems and reconstructing meaning Reflection not only brings new understanding to the individual teacher concerned, but also helps him/her to critique, challenge and ultimately transform practice (e.g. Penny et al;1996;Francis,1997;Stuart et al;1997;Taylor,1997) l 1997 T l 1997) Copeland, Birmingham, de la Cruz, Lewin (1993) offer 12 critical attributes that would indicate a teacher’s stance p towards reflection and thus be present in the reflective process of a teacher Problematic situations are central to the study of reflection to the y extent that the study of reflective practice is essentially concerned with how educators make sense of the phenomena of experience that puzzle or perplex them (Grimmet, MacKinnon, (Grimmet MacKinnon Erickson & Riecken 1990) Riecken, Take a few minutes and share your views with us A problem is identified 4 attributes related to problem solving 4 attributes related to generating solutions 3 attributes related to testing solutions 1 attribute related to learning f from reflective practice a reflective teacher i not only aware of fl i h is l f these problems she he/she also takes care to define them in an explicit and conscious way What can be done to help this student get along better with his peers in teamwork? The problem derives from a concrete situation in practice The identified problem has meaning for the practitioner. For example an instructor may be having difficulties with student assessment and his supervisor suggests ways to improve, if the instructor does not share the supervisor’s concern but reviews the issue only because of the supervisor’s requirement that instructor cannot be said truly to be engaged in reflection How can I avoid the confusion my students experienced last year when they were introduced to polymers? Attributes related to generating solutions l i Possible solutions to the problem are generated Solutions may come to mind quickly and almost automatically or they may be the result of more deliberate seeking seeking. Teachers may veer f from the course of th their lecture/tutorial plan as they see difficulties arising and adjust the lecture/tutorial to meet their students’ needs better Rather than i l R th th simply applying preconceptions, l i ti knowledge or theory in a passive one-way process, process experienced professionals draw on a ‘repertoire of examples, images, understanding and actions’ to interpret g p situations in an immediate and interactive way. Schön (1983) Solutions are generated from or are grounded in theories, assumptions or theories research findings which are explicitly held and understood by the practitioner Solutions may as well be grounded in the teacher’s personal knowledge of life in general , teaching in general or general, teaching certain students in particular. (Grimmet et al 1990) al, The generation of solutions engages the teacher in a critical examination of his or her own professional actions and its link to target actions in others The reflective teacher takes the responsibility for resolving the problem situation Practical knowledge Craft knowledge (Elbaz, 1983) (Tom and Valli, 1990) The solutions sought are expected to have positive consequences in terms of student learning attributes related to testing solutions 1. A solution to the problem is selected (which one is best suited) “It has been suggested that reflective thinking involves a look into the , , p p future, a forecast, an anticipation or a prediction…” (Dewey, 1933) 2. The chosen solution is implemented (without action reflection is incomplete) 3. The solution is weighted as to its effect o the target act o s and the on t e ta get actions a d t e consequences of these effects in terms of students’ outcomes 1 attribute related to learning from reflective practice IMPORTANT 1. A reflective teacher does not always accept the first solution that surfaces, but retains open-mindedness as solutions are generated. 2. The reflective teacher is one who is aware of the underlying reasons which guide the solutions being considered 3. Reflective 3 Reflecti e teachers ha e the abilit to stand apart from the self to have ability critically examine their own actions and the context of those actions (Valli & Taylor, 1988) The reflective process leads to an enhancement of the teacher’s understanding, used to give meaning to the professional context in which the problem was identified p 4. 4 A reflective teacher generates potential solutions with an eye toward their applications in the future to real problems, considering students’ learning. A systematic and continuous evaluation and reflection l i d fl i Some guiding questions – Do I engage in self-appraisal and critical evaluation of my work? How often? – A I open to the possibilities of change Am t th ibiliti f h and innovation? What are they? – Do I contribute to the whole department whole-department and even the whole university’s teaching and learning environment and culture? Any reflections/comments on those attributes? Approaches to critical reflection Feedback collection – 1-minute paper (at the end of each lesson) – Teaching Feedback Questionnaire g Shall we recap? A person is reflective when he or she is engaged in structuring his or her perception of a situation, of his or her actions or learning or when he or she is engaged in altering or adjusting these structures. structures (De Jong and Korthagen 1989) Korthagen, Peer observation – Observe and be observed Written accounts of experiences – – – – – Self-reports Autobiographies (reaction sheets) Journal writing J l iti Collaborative diary keeping Recording lessons Teaching is a complex and sophisticated process, in which the teacher is actively engaged, and has a vital part in shaping, interpreting and changing situations. In other words “We d “W do not learn f tl from experiences; we l i learn from reflecting on our experiences.” “Reflection commences when one inquires into his or her experience and relevant knowledge to find meaning in his or her beliefs.” John Dewey 1933 A teaching portfolio? What i that? Wh t is th t? Purpose? Portfolios are widely used in both preservice and professional development contexts to t t t support teachers teachers’ reflection on their instructional p practices (Mansvelder-Longayroux, Beijard, Verloop, & Vermunt, 2007; Zeichner & Wray, 2001) Why compiling a teaching p y p g g portfolio? At the University of Exeter student teachers are given student-teachers workshops on how to design a learning portfolio. It is explained that the portfolio will: …help you to think about what you are doing in a help more systematic way so that you can become more confident in knowing what you need to do, more effective in doing it and better able to g assess how well you are succeeding... It will enable you to write more articulate applications for jobs; help you in job interviews by enabling you to discuss your skills and experiences…. di kill d i (University of Exeter Law school) Record your effort and achievement as an educator y Foster reflection on and refinement of your teaching Give evidence of your reflection and consequent improvement of your teaching Document your teaching for external review/supports your application for promotion. Any first steps? Identify it Id tif its purpose Is it a learning portfolio? To engage you in enquiry about your teaching and to document growth over time A “credential portfolio”? To determine whether credential portfolio ? you have demonstrated some level of proficiency on a set of teaching standards A ‘showcase’ portfolio representing your best work that you can use when applying for a teaching position? At Stanford university, 4 ki d of evidence St f d i it kind f id What goes into the portfolio? a) ) The University of California-Santa Barbara proposes 3 kind of evidence that can be included: a) b) c) Test and test-like events (tasks assigned by others to be completed within a set time-frame) Observations (a record of what other people note when they watch you peer reviews TFQs) you, reviews, Performance work samples (direct evidence of your work) b) c) d) Artefacts (documents produced in the normal ( p course of teaching) Reproductions (documents about typical events in your teaching) Attestations (documents about your teaching prepared by someone other than you) Productions (documents prepared especially for the portfolio such as captions and reflective statements What kind of artefacts? 1. Narrative statements of teaching goals and philosophies hil hi 2. Tutorials/lectures and unit plans 3. Supervisor’s observation notes and evaluation 4. Video t 4 Vid taped teaching samples (if any!) dt hi l !) 5. Research projects/publications Shall I include anything I think is useful, other , than the prescribed evidence? ‘The most effective teaching portfolios include a combination of prescribed evidence (specific: include a video of a lab lesson) and self-selected evidence’. Barton and Collins (1993), University of Rhode Island and Florida state University What d h Wh t do I have to keep in mind? t k i i d? ‘The value of teaching portfolios is greatly enhanced when teachers are given opportunities to interact with others on a regular basis in their construction’. (Bird, 1990) In other words The nature and quality of the social interactions that you experience in the process of portfolio construction is primordial p What happens with the portfolio once it is completed? Or what should happen according to you? Criteria? ‘Portfolio entries prepared by the teacher alone Portfolio have limited prospects either for improving teaching or for evaluating. These entries call g g for little or none of the collegial or supervisory support… and they do not clearly engage teachers and others i substantial t h d th in b t ti l conversations’. (Bird, p.247-248) Should the portfolio be assessed? By who? Those reading your portfolio seek evidence you have: The criteria used a Michigan State University to assess portfolios includes: a) b) c) Whether the goals and outcomes for student learning are clear and worthwhile Whether the tasks and activities fit the goals Whether the assessment reflects an understanding of where the teachers are in their learning and whether the next steps make sense ALIGNMENT? 1. A scholarly approach to teaching 2. 2 Obtained student and peer feedback of your teaching and that you have acted on the results 3. Reflected on how your teaching has influenced student learning 4. Made an impact on student learning Any questions to help me start off? What details should you include? TEACHING CONTEXT TWO sections: In your discipline, what content area do you regard as strongest? Are there content areas in which you need to improve your knowledge? A summary containing the statements of your teaching y g activities reflection and impact [teaching philosophy] Which teaching approach has been most beneficial for students? y Why? Give examples of alternatives teaching approaches you have used What do you regard as the least effective teaching activity you undertake? Appendices containing the evidence t support th summary id to t the DISCIPLINE KNOWLEDGE SPECIFIC ASPECTS How do you ensure your teaching materials reflect the latest knowledge in your di i li ? fl t th l t t k l d i discipline? Do you discuss with colleagues current developments in your discipline and what do y you do to broaden and deepen y p your knowledge? Have you stated the goals of your teaching clearly, including learning outcomes? How often do you do it and tell students? Overall, how effective do you think you are as a teacher? How effective are you in assisting students to learn? Would you g (evidence) ) students agree? ( Do you regularly evaluate the learning outcomes of your students? Do you use student and peer-evaluation, think about the results and use them to improve the quality of your teaching? Is t e e a simple and systematic approach? s there s p e a d syste at c app oac A teaching philosophy? Gathering and reflection (in a context of collegiality and collaboration) Fundamental questions (Goodyear& All hi 1998) (G d & Allchin, What is my motivation in teaching? Identify your teaching activities and responsibilities Select i di t S l t indicators f your TLAs and for TLA d their impact and effectiveness Begin collecting documentary evidence to support your claims Assimilation A i il ti and expression Reflection, analysis and evaluation Use and application Under what constraints and opportunities do I learn and do others learn? What outcomes do I expect of my teaching? How do I measure successful teaching? What habits, attitudes, methods mark my successful teaching achievements? Teaching philosophy statement, mindful of style (…a straightforward, well( a straightforward organized… narrative, first person approach is preferred (Chism, 1998) Appendices, what s Appendices what’s that? Platforms and Tools Examples of student evaluations (TFQs) Examples of peer evaluation Letters from students Examples of student work Presentations and publications Workshops and professional development courses Service on learning and teaching committees. Blackboard Personal Portfolio Course-based wiki & blog MyExpo M E po (personal wiki & blog) iki GoogleApps – GoogleDocs & Google sites etc Reflective practice is important to the development of all professionals d l t f ll f i l because it enables us to learn from experience. Although we all learn from experience, experience more and more experience does not guarantee more and more learning. Beaty (1997:8) Questions are welcome