Instructional Strategies Annotated Bibliography Ben Hall/EDUC291 Bangert-Drowns, Robert L., Kulik, Chen-Lin C., Kulik, James A., & Morgan, MaryTeresa (1991). The Instructional Effect of Feedback in Test-Like Events. Review of Educational Research, 61, 2, pp. 213-238 The authors analyze various studies where feedback was given and outline what variables of feedback have a positive or negative effect on the learner. They found four variables in the use of feedback: presearch availability, type of feedback, use of pretests, and the type of instruction used to facilitate feedback. The authors conclude that feedback has a positive effect when learner mindfulness is encouraged. They outline a five stage process that includes the initial state of the learner, activating search and retrieval strategies, constructing responses, evaluating responses after receiving feedback, and adjusting the learner’s cognitive state. This comprehensive meta-study uses data from a variety of sources and compares feedback given in many different educational situations. Bulgren, Janis, & Scanlon, David (1998). Instructional Routines and Learning Strategies That Promote Understanding of Content Area Concepts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 41, Issue 4, pp. 292 – 303 This article presents two approaches to fostering comprehension among all student populations. Strategic teaching is the process of selecting, organizing, manipulating and complementing critical content and is represented by the acronyms CONCEPT and COMPARING. Strategy integration involves teaching learning strategies while teaching content and is represented by the acronym ORDER. Examples of each specific strategy are given in the article. This study assumes that the techniques will work for all content areas but focuses on social studies in their examples. Hattie, John, Biggs, John, Purdie, Nola (1996) Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 66, Issue 2, pp. 99 – 137 This meta-analysis focused on study skill interventions, which were based on task-related skills, self-management of learning, motivation, or self-concept. The types of interventions were classified through the use of the Biggs and Collis (1992) Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) Taxonomy. Intervention studies were classified as unistructural, focusing on one feature or dimension; multistructural, a range of independent strategies that are not integrated; relational, integrating all components; or extended abstract, translating the relational to a new domain. The authors found that all strategies were successful but that those on the first two levels were most successful. The authors also recommend that study skill instruction be integrated with the teaching of content. Specific studies are cited, but there is no ranking of the success of particular study skills. Harniss, Mark K., Dickson, Shirley V., Kinder, Diane, & Hollenbeck, Keith L. (2001). Textual Problems and Instructional Solutions: Strategies for Enhancing Learning from Published History Textbooks. Reading & Writing Quarterly, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 127 – 150 The authors state that classroom instruction is organized around textbooks, those textbooks fail to pursue big ideas or large questions, and that teachers will not spend a lot of time modifying curricular materials. Specific suggestions that will help this situation are given for history content. Those suggestions include enhancing organization through a problem-solution-effect structure and factors that effect group success. Other suggestions include developing background knowledge, adapting presentations, interspersing questioning, and integrating reading and writing. Throughout this study there are specific examples that illustrate major concepts and strategies. There is no discussion of how or if these strategies could transfer to other subject areas. House, J. Daniel (2003). The Motivational Effects of Specific Instructional Strategies and Computer Use for Mathematics Learning in Japan: Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 30, Issue 1, pp. 77 – 96 This article outlines the strategies that teachers use to increase the enjoyment during learning for students, as assessed during the TIMSS. House associates modeling, collaborative learning, using things from or relating studies to everyday life, linking new content to old, project-based work, and working from worksheets or textbooks with a higher level of enjoyment during learning. The frequent use of a number of these activities was shown to have the most positive effect. The use of computers was not significantly associated with a higher level of enjoyment for learning. Since the TIMSS report is limited to Science and Math curriculum, there is no correlation with other content areas. Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T., & Stanne, Mary Beth (2000). Cooperative Learning Methods: A Meta-Analysis. www.co-operation.org/pages/clmethods.html The authors state that this work is a comprehensive review of the research done on the effectiveness of cooperative learning methods. This meta-analysis rates various cooperative learning models according to effect size and the directconceptual nature. The authors include studies from the last thirty years and rank specific methods accordingly. The characteristics of each method and the effectiveness of the various methods on particular subject areas are not mentioned. Kendall, John (2000). Topics: A Roadmap to Standards. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 84, pp. 37 – 48 Kendall states that organizing the content of curriculum (knowledge and skills) into topics would make it more accessible to and understood by teachers and students. An eight-step process for developing topics is outlined in the article and proposed topics for English Language Arts and Mathematics are given in the appendices. The article does not address other content areas. Marzano, Robert J., Pickering, Debra J., & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development This text is a thorough and detailed examination of nine instructional strategies and the studies that have been done on their effectiveness. Examples are given for all nine strategies which include identifying similarities and differences, summarizing and note taking, reinforcing effort and providing recognition, homework and practice, nonlinguistic representations, cooperative learning, setting objectives and providing feedback, generating and testing hypotheses, and cues, questions, and advance organizers. These strategies could be refined further by studying which strategies work best with various age groups, types of learners, and specific content areas. Scherer, Marge (2002). Do Students Care About Learning? A Conversation with Mihaly Csikszentmilhalyi. Educational Leadership, Vol. 60, Number 1, pp. 12-17 Through the interview process, Scherer outlines the Csikszentmilhalyi study that was used to follow 1,000 students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 and their experiences with learning. Connecting curriculum to real-life and developing student strengths rather than weaknesses are the instructional strategies mentioned in the article. The research mentioned in this article is not supported by any data. Stephen, Veronica P., & Varble, Mary Ellen (1993). Instructional Strategies for Minority Youth. Clearing House, Vol. 67, Issue 2, pp. 116 – 121 The authors identify potential problems in teaching and learning for minority youth and then outline four changes – teachers should re-assess their perceptions of student potential and set high expectations, relate teaching materials to reallife, change to student-centered instruction, and revise evaluation to eliminate bias. Their suggestions for student-centered learning include integrating and developing reading, writing, speaking and listening, using cooperative learning, linking units to real-life, integrating the curriculum, and using quality literature. Suggestions for evaluation include portfolios, peer and self-evaluations, student exhibitions, video presentations, and interviews. This article identifies various strategies, which have been shown by other research to work across socioeconomic boundaries.