Little Witch’s Big Night By Deborah Hautzig, Illustrated by Marc Brown NAME: Erin Bell DATE 11/13/09 Grade Level: 2nd Subject: Language Arts Content Standard(s): Main Standard Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate text: 1. (2.6) Recognize cause and effect relationships in text Sub Standards Speaking Applications 1. (2.1) Recount experiences or present stories: a. Move through a logical sequence of events. Rationale: 1. To give students the opportunity to learn about Halloween through literature and to learn about the origins of the holiday and the meaning it originally held. 2. To introduce students to new vocabulary 3. To expose students to the sound of fluent reading (the teacher reads aloud) 4. To allow students to interact with one another through a class discussion surrounding the story’s plot and character’s actions (practicing cause and effect) 5. To explore how cause and effect occurs in stories and in real life 6. To engage with the text through comprehension questions and life application 7. To give students the opportunity to be excited about reading a fun story Links to Prior Knowledge or Experience: (Background knowledge gained outside school or in school/skills) 1. Students have a personal connection to make believe 2. Many students have a personal connection to Halloween, but some might not, thereby fostering an environment of teaching amongst peers 3. Students are able to share experiences and thoughts surrounding stories and their personal life with partners, the class, and in writing 4. All students have told stories to a friend or family member about something that was important to them Performance Objective(s): Students will: 1. Participate in class discussions at designated stopping points in the story to check for comprehension a. Discuss with a partner what the cause and effect is of Mother Witch’s punishment of Little Witch b. A few will share with the class c. Share with a partner a time when their mother or their care taker was upset with them and what happened
A few will share with the class Share with their partner something special they would like to teach a friend A few will share Discuss as a class if we think it was right for Mother Witch to punish Little Witch for being clean. When have our parents have been wrong about something? 2. Students will respond to three prompts to demonstrate that they understand the events in the story, cause and effect, and noticing cause and effect in their own lives. They will answer two comprehension questions about the story and one life application question at the end. This is the essential objective. (See Assessment #2 for specific comprehension questions) 3. A few will share their answers with the class. Assessment/Evaluation: (Time: 15 ) 1. Students will share their understanding of the text by discussing questions with their partner through Think, Pair, Share. I will have a clipboard and walk around and listen to students noting how they are recounting the events in the story and in their own experiences. a. Students will show their understanding of the cause and effect concept by answering questions (same as performance objective #2): b. When Little Witch did________, what happened? (story comprehension) c. Mother Witch punished Little Witch because_________________________. Do you agree with what Mother Witch did? (story comprehension, evaluative comprehension) d. Have you ever gotten in trouble? What happened? What was the consequence? (life application) e. Now, Identify the cause and the effect of your action in question c. (life application) f. Make up a situation in which there is a cause and effect. (higher level thinking) ***NOTE: i. The above will be evaluated out of 10 points. Each question is worth 2 points, one for the first part of the question and one for the second. ii. Most children should be able to answer through question d, question e is higher level thinking for those who need to be pushed. Scaffolds for English learners & Children with Special Needs: 1. Realia: pumpkin, broom, witch hat, picture of an astronaut, cobwebs 2. Pictures, words, definition cards for vocabulary lesson 3. Pair sharing for all class discussions 4. Following along in their own book and listening 5. Use a T chart to model cause and effect questions on poster paper on the board so that children can visually see the relationship between cause and effect and the academic language that goes along with this concept. 6. Cause and effect activity where half the class has a sentence strip with a cause and half have ones with effects. Students walk around the room finding the partner who has the cause that matches their effect and vice versa. When they have found their
d. e. f. g.
partner they will place the paired cause/effect strips in a pocket chart. Academic Language:
Read, write, speak, listen
1. Vocabulary introduced before story through picture, word, and definition activity: Halloween, grouchy, screeched, cobweb, suddenly, astronaut, zoomed, whizzed, winked, spookiest 2. Cause and effect activity with sentence strips focusing on the relationship between the academic words, see Scaffold section #6 3. Using a T chart on poster paper on the board, explain how to answer the structured questions for after the story using cause and effect vocabulary: when this occurred, this resulted; when I did this, this was the consequence; because of this, this happened. Note: Do this before the sentence strip activity so children are familiar with the vocabulary. a. Event (Cause) Result (Effect) with a line drawn vertically between the terms. Underneath each side model examples of the cause/effect language and then ask for class input. Materials: 1. Book: Little Witch’s Big Night by Deborah Hautzig 2. Copies of book for the children. 3. Realia: pumpkin, broom, witch hat, picture of an astronaut, cobwebs 4. Standard size paper copies of vocabulary words, definitions, and photos of words in large font 5. Board magnets for vocabulary papers 6. Large, black marker 7. Flip chart paper for T chart for cause and effect 8. Sentence strips with causes and effects written out 9. Pocket chart 10. Transparency of cause and effect worksheet 11. Overhead projector 12. Photocopies of cause and effect worksheet 13. Chart paper with vocabulary words and definitions written out 14. Paragraph about the history of Halloween 15. Small easel paper for how students celebrate the holiday INSTRUCTION: Procedures & Activity/Activities:
Motivate, Model, Practice
(Time: 1.5 hrs
1. Have students come to the carpet to talk about Halloween. Use the realia to scaffold the holiday for English Language Learners. Ask a few students to share what they think Halloween celebrates. Read and then post history of the holiday on a small easel after students have shared. (See attached sheet on Halloween background.) 2. Use chart paper to write down what students do to celebrate the holiday. 3. Hold up the book and share the title of the story. Have students think, pair, share what they think the story will be about. 4. Ask students to think about when they have had an exciting night and what happened to them.
5. Have students move back to their desks in an orderly fashion. 6. Introduce the vocabulary by reading the words from a list along with their definitions. 7. Have children read along with you the second time. 8. Remove the vocabulary list. 9. Take out the standard size papers of the vocabulary words, definitions, and photos. Create space on the board in order to make a grid with the papers. The columns will be words, definitions, then photos. Mix up the papers and draw one. Show the class and ask them if it is a word, definition or photo. If it is a word or a definition ask them to read it aloud to you. If it is a photo have them say what it is of. Put it on the board. Draw another paper and place it in its appropriate spot. Do this with all the words. Then have students read over the words, definitions, and look at the photos as a class. (See attached example) 7. Use a T chart to model cause and effect questions on poster paper on the board so that children can visually see the relationship between cause and effect and the academic language that goes along with this concept. Ask for examples from the students of cause or effect and then ask another student for the possible effect or cause depending on the first question asked. 10. Perform the cause and effect activity where half the class has a sentence strip with a cause and half have ones with effects. Students will walk around the room finding the partner who has the cause that matches their effect and vice versa. When they have found their partner they will place the paired cause/effect strips in a pocket chart. 11. Introduce the story through alerting the children to pay attention to cause and effects that occur. 12. Ask students to take out their books and open to page 1. 13. Have students place their finger on the first word of that page and ask them to follow along with you as you read the story. 14. Read the story aloud with good pace, intonation, and expression. 15. Stop at the end of page 13. 16. Have students answer the following questions verbally and discuss them as a class. ***NOTE TO TEACHERS FOR VOCABULARY USAGE: Punishments are intended to stop behavior. Consequences are intended to teach how to behave differently because a consequence happens as a direct result of the action. ***THERE ARE MORE QUESTIONS PRESENT THAN NEED TO BE ASKED. BE SURE TO FOCUS ON CAUSE AND EFFECT. a. Why does Little Witch feel this is the worst Halloween ever? b. How is Little Witch feeling? c. What did she do to make her mother refuse to let her go flying? d. Define Consequence and Punishment—Because Little Witch’s mom wanted her to keep her room messy, a logical consequence from her mom would be messing up her clean room. But her mom punished her instead which means that what her mom says to her is not directly related to what she did. e. Did Little Witch’s mother give her a consequence or a punishment? f. What are some consequences for behaviors in our class? (Relate this back to
g. h. i. j.
the cause and effect chart pushing the students to use the academic language. Make a list on the t-chart) When has your mother or another family member given you a consequence for what you did? Do you think you deserved the consequence? Why is her bat trying to make her feel better? When you are upset what makes you feel better? i. EXTRA: Ask: What is a punishment? (Something that is not directly related to the action. Ie. I didn’t make my bed and now I can’t go trick-or-treating. Consequence is a natural effect of an action. Ie. I forgot to take the trash out so now I have to take it out.) ii. EXTRA: Why do you think her mother punished her instead of giving her a consequence? STOP!!! Continue Lesson Tomorrow. (Time: 1 hrs )
17. Review the reading from the day before. Make the review a popcorn discussion with children in order to see what they remember. 18. Continue to read the story until page 21. 19. Have students answer the following questions verbally and discuss them as a class: a. What did the trick-o-treaters ask Little Witch for? b. How do you think Little Witch felt when she thought she had nothing to offer? c. What special talent would you like to teach a friend? d. How do you feel when you get to share a talent with someone? 20. Continue to read the story until page 41. 21. Have students predict how they think Mother Witch will feel when she comes home from flying. 22. Finish the story and discuss the following as a whole class: a. Go over a general comprehension of the story asking students for the cause and effect of the main events. b. Sometimes parents are wrong and apologize for what they did earlier. Has a family member ever apologized to you for something they did? c. Do you know when you have done something wrong? d. How do you feel? 23. Have children close their books and ask the paper monitors to pass out the worksheet. (See questions listed under Assessment, 2) 24. Brainstorm as a class ideas for the first question on the overhead. On the same overhead model how to answer the first question. Therefore the children see ideas and an answer. They now have the option to make up their own or use the teacher’s. 25. If students finish early, have them flip paper over and draw a line down the middle. On the first half they will draw an action picture of a situation and on the second half they will draw the effect. Have them write a sentence describing the situation. Put sentence starters on the board for them to follow. 26. Then finish the lesson by going over the comprehension classes as a class and taking answers from a few people.
Closure: (Time: 5 min ) Whole class discussion about what cause and effect is. Relate this idea to consequences we face when we have gotten in trouble and think about how we as a class set up consequences when people do not follow the class rules. Talk about how consequences teach us about why our behavior was not appreciated. Also discuss how we are like a family in the classroom and want to make sure we foster a healthy environment for everyone and why this is important. Reflections: Students: (Time: included in lesson ) Will answer the final question on the cause and effect worksheet, which is a type of reflection on when they personally have understood the effects of their actions. Additionally if they create another example on the back of their sheet they are also reflecting on the information they gained. In all discussions there is an aspect of reflection because students are thinking about what they learned. Reflections: Teacher Write a short follow up to the lesson surrounding how it went for the students. Make notes of changes to future lessons like this and make note of whether or not the students understood the concept of cause and effect. Think about if I need to revisit the topic later on and what could have gone better.
Edu 275 Effective Teaching 2009-2010
Information for Teachers. Where did Halloween come from? There are many different ideas about Halloween's origins. Some say it dates back nearly 6,000 years, while others argue that Halloween has a much shorter history. What most agree on is that Halloween's original focus was more about harvests than horror. Some say the tradition began with the Celts, who lived thousands of years ago in what is now Ireland, the United Kingdom and northern France. The Celts celebrated their new year on November 1, which marked the end of summer and the beginning of the dark, cold winter (the only two seasons the Celts recognized.) To help protect themselves and their crops during the long winter, the Celts staged a joyous harvest celebration called Samhain (pronounced sow-in), which means "summer's end." Some say Celtic priests burned crops and animals as part of the celebration. They also supposedly wore costumes and told each other's fortunes at this time. Why did people start trick-or-treating? Trick-or-treating most likely dates back to early All Souls' Day parades in England. During the festivities, poor people would beg for food. Families would then give them pastries called "soul cakes" in return for their promise to pray for the family's dead relatives. Children eventually took on this tradition, known as "going a-souling," and they would visit houses in their neighborhood for drinks, food and money. Where did the idea of wearing Halloween costumes come from? Dressing up in Halloween costumes also has European origins. Hundreds of years ago, people believed that ghosts roamed the streets on Halloween night, so they wore masks when they left home to fool ghosts into thinking they were other spirits. On Halloween, people would also place bowls of food outside their homes to please the ghosts and discourage them from entering their houses. Over the course of several centuries, people gradually began to eat these goodies themselves (and leave nothing for the ghosts!). Why are Jack-o'-Lanterns made out of pumpkins? Hundreds of years ago, children in Scotland and Ireland made their version of Jack-o'-Lanterns out of turnips. When European immigrants came to America and saw that pumpkins made better Jack-o'-Lanterns because of their bright orange color, round shapes and soft insides. Can you imagine carving faces into a tough old turnip? Source: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/specials/story/0,6079,58038,00.html
Comprehension Questions Name: _____________________________ Date: ______________________________ Little Witch’s Big Night By Deborah Hautzig, Illustrated by Marc Brown
1. When Little Witch did _________________________________________, what happened? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________. 2. Mother Witch punished Little Witch because_________________________. Do you agree with what Mother Witch did? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________. 3. Have you ever gotten in trouble? _______________________________ What happened? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________.
4. What was the consequence? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________. 5. Now, Identify the cause and the effect of your action in question 4. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________. 6. Make up a situation in which there is a cause and effect. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________.