Swaziland

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Swaziland
Kingdom of Swaziland Umbuso weSwatini

Motto: "Siyinqaba"  (SiSwati) "We are a fortress" "We are a mystery/riddle" "We hide ourselves away" Anthem: Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati

Capital

Lobamba (royal and legislative) Mbabane (administrative; coordinates below) 26°19′S 31°8′E Largest city Official languages Demonym Government Mbabane English, SiSwati Swazi Absolute Monarchy Mswati III Queen Ntombi Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini Themba N. Masuku Independence

 -   -   -   - 

King Indlovukazi Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister

 - 

from the United Kingdom Area

6 September 1968 

 - 

Total

17,364 km2 (157th) 6,704 sq mi 0.9 Population

 - 

Water (%)

 -   - 

2009 estimate 2007 census

1,185,000

[1]

 (154th)

1,018,449 

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Density

 - 

68.2/km2 (135th) 176.8/sq mi 2008 estimate

GDP (PPP)  -   -  Total Per capita

$5.878 billion $5,749
[2]

[2]

GDP (nominal)  -   -  Gini (1994) HDI (2007) Currency Time zone Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code
1

2008 estimate $2.840 billion $2,778
[2] [2]

Total Per capita

60.9 (high)  ▲ 0.547 (medium) (141st) Lilangeni (SZL) (UTC+2) left .sz 268

Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

The Kingdom of Swaziland (Umbuso weSwatini), sometimes called Ngwane, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, bordered to the north, south, and west by South Africa, and to the east by Mozambique. The nation, as well as its people, are named after the 19th century king Mswati II. Swaziland is a small country, no more than 200 km north to south and 130 km east to west. The western half is mountainous, descending to a lowveld region to the east. The eastern border with Mozambique and South Africa is dominated by the escarpment of the Lebombo Mountains. The climate is temperate in the west, but may reach 40 degrees in summer in the lowveld. Rainfall occurs mainly in the summer and may reach 2 m in the west. The area that Swaziland now covers has been continuously inhabited since prehistory. Today, the population is primarily ethnic Swazis whose language is siSwati, though English is spoken as a second language. The Swazi people descend from the southern Bantu who migrated from Central Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. The Anglo Boer war saw Britain make Swaziland a protectorate under its direct control. Swaziland gained independence in 1968. Swaziland is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, and the Commonwealth of Nations. The head of state is the king, who appoints the prime minister and a small number of representatives for both chambers of parliament. Elections are held every five years to determine the majority of the representatives. A new constitution was adopted in 2005. Swaziland's economy is dominated by the service industry, manufacturing and agriculture. Some 75% of the population are employed in subsistence farming, and 60% of the population live on less than US$ 1.25 per day.[3] Swaziland's main trading partner is South Africa, and its currency is pegged to the South African rand. Swaziland's economic growth and societal integrity is highly endangered by its disastrous HIV epidemic, to an extent where the United Nations Development Program has written that if it continues unabated, the "longer term existence of Swaziland as a country will be seriously threatened" [4] . The infection rate in the country is unprecedented and the highest in the world at 26.1% of adults [5] and over 50% of adults in their 20's[6] , as is discussed below.

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History
Artifacts indicating human activity dating back to the early Stone Age 200,000 years ago have been found in the Kingdom of Swaziland. Prehistoric rock art paintings date from ca. 25,000 B.C. and continue up to the 19th century. The earliest inhabitants of the area were Khoisan hunter-gatherers. They were largely replaced by the Bantu tribes during Bantu migrations who hailed from the Great Lakes regions of Eastern Africa. Evidence of agriculture and iron use dates from about the 4th century and people speaking languages ancestral to current Sotho and Nguni languages began settling no later than the 11th century. The Bantu people known as the Swazis established iron-working and settled farming colonies in the 15th century after crossing the Limpopo river. They experienced great economic pressure from the rival Ndwandwe clans from the south.[7] The country derives its name from a later King, Mswati I. However, Ngwane is an alternative name for Swaziland and Dlamini remains the surname of the royal family, while the name Nkosi means King. The autonomy of the Swaziland Nation was dictated by British rule of southern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1881 the British government signed a convention recognizing Swazi independence. However, controversial land and mineral rights concessions were made under the authority of the Foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 in terms of which the administration of Swaziland was also placed under that of the then South African Republic (Transvaal). At the start of the Anglo Boer war, Britain placed Swaziland under its direct jurisdiction as a Protectorate. Repeated representations, especially relating to land issues, by the King and his Councilors were rebuffed. Nevertheless, the Swaziland independence Constitution was promulgated by Britain in November 1963 in terms of which a legislative Council and an Executive Council were established. This development was opposed by the Swazi National Council (liqoqo). Despite such opposition, elections took place and the first Legislative Council of Swaziland was constituted on 9 September 1964. Changes to the original constitution proposed by the Legislative Council were accepted by Britain and a new Constitution providing for a House of Assembly and Senate was drawn up. Elections under this Constitution were held in 1967. Since 1973, Swaziland has seen a rather quiet struggle between pro-multiparty activists and the monarchy.

Government
The head of state is the king or Ngwenyama (lit. Lion), currently King Mswati III, who ascended to the throne in 1986 after the death of his father King Sobhuza II in 1982 and a period of regency. By tradition, the king reigns along with his mother or a ritual substitute, the Ndlovukati (lit. She-Elephant). The former was viewed as the administrative head of state and the latter as a spiritual and national head of state, with real power counter-balancing that of the king, but during the long reign of Sobhuza II the role of the Ndlovukati became more symbolic. As the monarch, the king not only appoints the prime minister—the head of government—but also appoints a small number of representatives for both chambers of the Libandla (parliament). The Senate consists of 30 members, while the House of Assembly has 65 seats, 55 of which are occupied by nominated representatives. Elections are held every five years in November.

Swaziland

4 In 1968, Swaziland adopted a Westminster-style constitution, but in 1973 King Sobhuza suspended it under a royal decree backed by the royalist majority of parliament: in effect a coup by the government against its own constitution. The State of Emergency has since been lifted, or so the government claims even though political activities, especially by pro-democracy movements, are suppressed. In 2001 King Mswati III appointed a committee to draft a new constitution. Drafts were released for comment in May 1999 and November 2000. These were strongly criticized by civil society organizations in Swaziland and human rights organizations elsewhere. In 2005, the constitution was put into effect, though there is still much debate in the country about the constitutional reforms. From the early seventies, there was active resistance to the royal hegemony.

The Swazi bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 10 members appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 Embassy of Swaziland in Washington, D.C. appointed by the monarch; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 members appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly – last held 19 September 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: House of Assembly – balloting is done on a non-party basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round.

Administrative divisions
Swaziland is divided into four districts: • • • • Hhohho Lubombo Manzini Shiselweni

Each district is further divided into tinkhundla. There are 55 tinkhundla in Swaziland and each elects one representative to the House of Assembly of Swaziland.

Administrative divisions of Swaziland 1 - Hhohho 2 - Lubombo 3 - Manzini 4 - Shiselweni

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Geography
Swaziland lies across a geological fault which runs from the Drakensberg Mountains of Lesotho, north through the Eastern highlands of Zimbabwe, forms the Great Rift Valley of Kenya and, eventually, peters out in present-day Turkey.

A small, land-locked Kingdom, Swaziland is bordered in the North, West and South by the Republic of South Africa and by Mozambique in the East. Although Swaziland has a land area of only 17,364 km2, roughly the size of Wales or the American State of New Jersey, it contains four separate geographical regions. These run from North to South and are determined by altitude. Swaziland is located at approximately 26o49'S, Landscape of Swaziland. 31o38'E.[8] . Swaziland also offers a wide variety of landscapes, from the mountains along the Mozambican border to savannas in the east and rain forest in the northwest. Several rivers flow through the country, such as the Great Usuthu River. Along the eastern border with Mozambique is the Lubombo, a mountain ridge, at an altitude of around 600 meters. The mountains are broken by the gorges of three rivers, the Ngwavuma, the Usutu and the Mbuluzi. This is cattle ranching country. The western border of the country, with an average altitude of 1200 meters, lies on the edge of an escarpment. Between the mountains rivers rush through deep gorges making this a most scenic region. Mbabane, the capital, is located on the Highveld. The Middleveld, lying at an average 700 meters above sea level is the most densely populated region of Swaziland with a lower rainfall than the mountains. Manzini, the principal commercial and industrial city, is situated in the Middleveld. The Lowveld of Swaziland, at around 250 meters, is less populated than other areas and presents a typical African bush country of thorn trees and grasslands. Development of the region was inhibited, in early days, by the scourge of malaria.

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Climate
The seasons are the reverse of those in the Northern Hemisphere with December being mid-summer and June mid-winter. Generally speaking, rain falls mostly during the summer months, often in the form of thunderstorms. Winter is the dry season. Annual rainfall is highest on the Highveld in the West, between 1000 and 2000 mm depending on the year. The further East, the less rain, with the Lowveld recording 500 to 900 mm per annum. Variations in temperature are also related to the altitude of the different regions. The Highveld temperature is temperate and, seldom, uncomfortably hot while the Lowveld may record temperatures around 40 degrees in summer. The average temperatures at Mbabane, according to seasons:
Spring September – October 18 degrees Celsius 20 degrees Celsius 17 degrees Celsius 13 degrees Celsius

Summer November – March Autumn April – May Winter June – August

Economy
Swaziland ’s economy is fairly diversified, with agriculture, forestry and mining accounting for about 13 percent of GDP, manufacturing (textiles and sugar-related processing) representing 37 percent of GDP and services – with government services in the lead – constituting 50 percent of GDP. Title Deed Lands (TDLs), where the bulk of high value crops are grown (sugar, forestry, and citrus) are characterized by high levels of investment and irrigation, and high productivity. Nevertheless, the majority of the population – about 75 percent—is employed in subsistence agriculture on Swazi Nation Land (SNL), which, in contrast, suffers from low productivity and investment. This dual nature of the Swazi economy, with high productivity in textile manufacturing and in the industrialized agricultural TDLs on the one hand, and declining productivity subsistence agriculture (on SNL) on the other, may well explain the country’s overall low growth, high inequality and unemployment. Economic growth in Swaziland has lagged behind that of its neighbors. Real GDP growth since 2001 has averaged 2.8 percent, nearly 2 percentage points lower than growth in other Southern African Customs Union (SACU) member countries. Low agricultural productivity in the SNLs, repeated droughts, the devastating effect of HIV/AIDS and an overly large and inefficient government sector are likely contributing factors. Swaziland’s public finances deteriorated in the late 1990s following sizable surpluses a decade earlier. A combination of declining revenues and increased spending led to significant budget deficits. The considerable spending did not lead to more growth and did not benefit the poor. Much of the increased spending has gone to current expenditures related to wages, transfers, and subsidies. The wage bill today constitutes over 15 percent of GDP and 55 percent of total public spending; these are some of the highest levels on the African continent. The recent rapid growth in SACU revenues has, however, reversed the fiscal situation, and a sizable surplus was recorded since 2006. SACU revenues today account for over 60 percent of total government revenues. On the positive side, the external debt burden has declined markedly over the last 20 years, and domestic debt is almost negligible; external debt as a percent of GDP was less than 20 percent in 2006. The Swazi economy is very closely linked to the South African economy, from which it receives over 90 percent of its imports and to which it sends about 70 percent of its exports. Swaziland’s other key trading partners are the United States and the EU, from whom the country has received trade preferences for apparel exports (under the African Growth and Opportunity Act – AGOA – to the US) and for sugar (to the EU). Under these agreements, both apparel and sugar exports did well, with rapid growth and a strong inflow of foreign direct investment. Textile exports grew by over 200 percent between 2000 and 2005 and sugar exports increasing by more than 50 percent over the same period.

Swaziland The continued vibrancy of the export sector is threatened by the removal of trade preferences for textiles, the accession to similar preferences for East Asian countries, and the phasing out of preferential prices for sugar to the EU market. Swaziland will thus have to face the challenge of remaining competitive in a changing global environment. A crucial factor in addressing this challenge is the investment climate. The recently concluded Investment Climate Assessment provides some positive findings in this regard, namely that Swaziland firms are among the most productive in Sub-Saharan Africa, although they are less productive than firms in the most productive middle-income countries in other regions. They compare more favorably with firms from lower middle income countries, but are hampered by inadequate governance arrangements and infrastructure. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union, which may equal as much as 70% of government revenue this year, and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland is not poor enough to merit an IMF program; however, the country is struggling to reduce the size of the civil service and control costs at public enterprises. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign direct investment.

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Health
Swaziland is critically affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, which is now an existential threat to its society. As reported in the 2009 CIA World Factbook, Swaziland has the highest HIV infection rate in the world (26% of all adults; more in other reports) and also the lowest life expectancy at 32 years, which is 6 years lower than the next lowest average of Angola. From another perspective, the last available World Health Organization data in 2002 shows that 61% of all deaths in the country were caused by HIV/AIDS. [9] With a record crude death rate of 30 per 1000, this means that about 2% of the Swazi population dies from HIV every year. Chronic illnesses that are the most prolific causes of death in the developed world accounting only for a minute fraction of deaths in Swaziland; for example, heart disease, strokes, and cancer cause fewer than 5% of deaths in Swaziland in total, compared to 55% of all deaths yearly in the US. [10] In 2004, Swaziland acknowledged for the first time that it suffered an AIDS crisis, with 38.8% of tested pregnant women infected with HIV (see AIDS in Africa). Prime Minister Themba Dlamini declared a humanitarian crisis due to the combined effect of drought, land degradation, increased poverty, and HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy has fallen from 61 years in 2000, to 32 years in 2009[11] . Tuberculosis is also a significant problem, with an 18 percent mortality rate. Many patients have a multi-drug resistant strain, and 83 percent are co-infected with HIV.[12] Public expenditure was at 4 % of the GDP of the country, whereas private expenditure was at 2.3 %. [13] There were 16 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s. [14] Infant mortality was at 110 per 1,000 in 2005[15] , with the WHO showing that 47% of all deaths under 5 are caused by HIV/AIDS.[16]

Culture

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The principle Swazi social unit remains the homestead. The traditional beehive hut is thatched with dry grass. In a polygamous homestead, each wife normally has her own huts and yard surrounded by reed fences for privacy. These comprise three structures mainly for sleeping, cooking and storage (brewing beer). In substantial homesteads there will also be structures used as bachelors' quarters and guest accommodation. Central to the traditional homestead is the cattle byre, a circular area enclosed by substantial logs interspaced with branches. The cattle byre has great ritual as well as practical significance as a store of wealth and symbol of prestige. It contains sealed grain pits. Facing the cattle byre is the great hut which is occupied by the mother of the headman.

Swazi people dancing in a cultural village show.

The headman is central to all homestead affairs and he is often polygamous. He leads through example and advises his wives on all social affairs of the home as well as seeing to the larger survival of the family. He also spends time socializing with the young boys, who are often his sons or close relatives, talking about the expectations of growing up and manhood. The Sangoma is a traditional diviner chosen by the ancestors of that particular family. The training of the Sangoma is called "kwetfwasa". At the end of the training, there is a graduation ceremony where all the local tangoma come together for feasting and dancing. The diviner is consulted for various reasons pertaining to the cause of sickness or even death. His diagnosis is based on "kubhula", a process of communication, through trance, with the natural super-powers. The Inyanga (a medical and pharmaceutical specialist in modern terms) possesses the bone throwing skill ("kushaya ematsambo") used to determine the cause of the sickness. The most important cultural event in Swaziland is the Incwala ceremony. It is held on the fourth day after the full moon nearest the longest day, December 21. Incwala is often given in English as 'first fruits ceremony', but the King's tasting of the new harvest is only one aspect among many in this long pageant. Incwala is best translated as 'Kingship Ceremony' : when there is no king, there is no Incwala. It is high treason for any other person to hold an Incwala. Every Swazi may take part in the public parts of the Incwala, especially the climax, the fourth day of the Big Incwala. The key figures are the King, Queen Mother, royal wives and children, the royal governors (indunas), the chiefs, the regiments, and the "bemanti" or "water people". Swaziland's most well-known cultural event is the annual Reed Dance. In an eight day ceremony, girls cut reeds and present them to the queen mother and then dance. (There is no formal competition.) It is done in late August or early September. Only childless, unmarried girls can take part. The aims of the ceremony are to: 1. preserve girls' chastity 2. provide tribute labour for the Queen mother 3. produce solidarity by working together. The royal family appoints a commoner maiden to be "induna" (captain) of the girls and she announces over the radio the dates of the ceremony. She will be an expert dancer and knowledgeable on royal protocol. One of the King's daughters will be her counterpart. The country was under the chastity rite of "umchwasho" until 19 August 2005. Today's Reed Dance is not an ancient ceremony, but developed out of the old "umcwasho" custom. In "umcwasho", all young girls were placed in a female age-regiment. If any girl fell pregnant outside of marriage, her family paid a fine of one cow to the local chief. After a number of years, when the girls had reached a marriageable age, they would perform labour service for the Queen Mother, ending with dancing and feasting.

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Education
Education in Swaziland is neither free nor compulsory.[17] In 1996, the net primary school enrollment rate was 90.8 percent, with gender parity at the primary level.[17] In 1998, 80.5 percent of children reached grade 5.[17] The country has the University of Swaziland.

Demographics
The majority of Swaziland's population is ethnically Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulu and White Africans, mostly people of British and Afrikaner descent. Traditionally Swazi have been subsistence farmers and herders, but most now mix such activities with work in the growing urban formal economy and in government. Some Swazi work in the mines in South Africa.
Traditional homes in Swaziland

Swaziland also received Portuguese settlers and African refugees from Mozambique. Christianity in Swaziland is sometimes mixed with traditional beliefs and practices. Many traditionalists believe that most Swazi ascribe a special spiritual role to the monarch. Residents of Swaziland have the lowest documented life expectancy in the world at 31.88 years, less than half the world average of 69.4.[18]

Languages
SiSwati[19] (also known as Swati, Swazi or Seswati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni Group, spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. It has 2.5 million speakers and is taught in schools. It is an official language of Swaziland (along with English) and one of the official languages of South Africa. About 76,000 people in the country speak Zulu.[20] Tsonga, which is spoken by many people throughout the region is spoken by about 19,000 people in Swaziland.

Religions
The most common religion in Swaziland is Christianity which totals 82.70% of the total population, in which various Protestant and indigenous African churches, including African Zionist, constitute the majority of the Christians, followed closely by Roman Catholicism. There are also non-Christian religions practiced in the country such as Islam (0.95%), the Bahá'í Faith (0.5%), and Hinduism (0.15%).[21]

Further reading
• Cuisine of Swaziland

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External links
Government • Government of Swaziland [22] • Chief of State and Cabinet Members [23] General • • • • • Swaziland [24] entry at The World Factbook Swaziland [25] from UCB Libraries GovPubs Swaziland [26] at the Open Directory Project Swazi Live [27] Swaziland accommodation and business directory Wikimedia Atlas of Swaziland

Tourism • Swaziland Tourism Authority [28] • Swaziland travel guide from Wikitravel Other • Swaziland Internet Cafe directory [29] • Photographs of Swaziland Wildlife - Hlane Royal National Park, Mkhaya Game Reserve [30]

References
[1] Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (http:/ / www. un. org/ esa/ population/ publications/ wpp2008/ wpp2008_text_tables. pdf). 2008 revision. United Nations. . Retrieved 2009-03-12. [2] " Swaziland (http:/ / www. imf. org/ external/ pubs/ ft/ weo/ 2009/ 02/ weodata/ weorept. aspx?sy=2006& ey=2009& scsm=1& ssd=1& sort=country& ds=. & br=1& c=734& s=NGDPD,NGDPDPC,PPPGDP,PPPPC,LP& grp=0& a=& pr. x=67& pr. y=3)". International Monetary Fund. . Retrieved 2009-10-01. [3] UNDP: Human development indices - Table 3: Human and income poverty (Population living below national poverty line (2000-2007)) (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDI_2008_EN_Tables. pdf) [4] Country programme outline for Swaziland, 2006-2010. United Nations Development Program. http:/ / www. undp. org. sz/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=19& Itemid=67. Accessed November 22, 2009 [5] October 2008 Kaiser Family Foundation HIV/AIDS Policy Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. kff. org/ hivaids/ upload/ 7365-065. pdf) [6] Country programme outline for Swaziland, 2006-2010. United Nations Development Program. http:/ / www. undp. org. sz/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=19& Itemid=67. Accessed November 22, 2009 [7] A Short History of the Kingdom of Swaziland (http:/ / www. jacanalodge. co. sz/ history. html) [8] Swaziland entry at WorldAtlas.com (http:/ / www. worldatlas. com/ webimage/ countrys/ africa/ sz. htm) [9] Swaziland, Mortality Country Fact Sheet 2006. WHO. http:/ / www. who. int/ whosis/ mort/ profiles/ mort_afro_swz_swaziland. pdf. Accessed November 22, 2009 [10] Causes of death in US, 2006. CDC. http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ nchs/ data/ nvsr/ nvsr57/ nvsr57_14. pdf. Accessed November 22, 2009. [11] " Swaziland: A culture that encourages HIV/AIDS (http:/ / www. unhcr. org/ refworld/ docid/ 49e6ef2dc. html)". Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). 15 April 2009. . Retrieved 2009-10-21. [12] " Swaziland: An MSF Doctors Explains HIV-TB Co-Infection (http:/ / www. doctorswithoutborders. org/ news/ article. cfm?id=4034& cat=field-news)". USA: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières. October 28, 2009. . Retrieved 2009-10-31. [13] http:/ / hdrstats. undp. org/ en/ countries/ data_sheets/ cty_ds_SWZ. html [14] http:/ / hdrstats. undp. org/ en/ countries/ data_sheets/ cty_ds_SWZ. html [15] http:/ / hdrstats. undp. org/ en/ countries/ data_sheets/ cty_ds_SWZ. html [16] Swaziland, Mortality Country Fact Sheet 2006. WHO. http:/ / www. who. int/ whosis/ mort/ profiles/ mort_afro_swz_swaziland. pdf. Accessed November 22, 2009 [17] "Swaziland" (http:/ / www. dol. gov/ ilab/ media/ reports/ iclp/ tda2001/ Swaziland. htm). 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. [18] 2009 Statistics from the CIA (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ rankorder/ 2102rank. html) [19] Background Note from U.S. Department of State (http:/ / www. state. gov/ r/ pa/ ei/ bgn/ 2841. htm) [20] " Ethnologue report for Swaziland (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=SZ)". . [21] Religious Intelligence - Country Profile: Swaziland (Kingdom of Swaziland) (http:/ / www. religiousintelligence. co. uk/ country/ ?CountryID=161)

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[22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] http:/ / www. gov. sz/ https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ world-leaders-1/ world-leaders-s/ Swaziland. html https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ wz. html http:/ / ucblibraries. colorado. edu/ govpubs/ for/ swaziland. htm http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Regional/ Africa/ Swaziland/ http:/ / www. swazilive. com/ http:/ / www. welcometoswaziland. com/ http:/ / internetcafedirectory. co. za/ component/ option,com_mtree/ task,listcats/ cat_id,52/ Itemid,26/ http:/ / www. photostaud. com/ africa/ swaziland

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Swaziland  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=333764088  Contributors: -- April, 2help, 4twenty42o, 97198, A love addict, A2Kafir, ALICIA233, Aazn, Acctorp, Ace of Spades, Acntx, Adamkovac, Adashiel, Adrianbrodal, AgnosticPreachersKid, Agriffinny, Ahearnator, Ahoerstemeier, Ahruman, Ahuskay, Aitias, Akanemoto, Akhi, Alansohn, AlefZet, Alex S, AlexiusHoratius, Alice.haugen, Aliceinlampyland, Allstarecho, An Siarach, Anastasios, AndonicO, Andy Marchbanks, Andycjp, AnonMoos, Answerthis, Aquintero82, Archer1234, ArchonMeld, Areback, Art LaPella, Arthurian Legend, Ask123, Astrotrain, Aude, Auntof6, Avala, Awostrack, BZer0, Babbage, Banes, Bastin, Bemoeial, Beno1000, Bidabadi, Big Adamsky, Big mummu2, Bigbhuskyfan, Bikeable, Billfoolsgold, Bkell, Black-Velvet, Blaiseville, Blotto adrift, Bobeek, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, Brainstimul8, Bretreim, Briaboru, Brozen, Burlywood, Buzzp1, CPMcE, CWii, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canthusus, Cantus, Canuckguy, Capnquackenbush, 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Flag of Swaziland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Swaziland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: EugeneZelenko, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mogelzahn, Nightstallion, Ratatosk, ThomasPusch File:Coat of arms of Swaziland.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coat_of_arms_of_Swaziland.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: George McFinnigan, Klemen Kocjancic, Leit, Lokal Profil, Mike.lifeguard, Porao File:LocationSwaziland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LocationSwaziland.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Vardion File:Embassy of Swaziland in Washington, D.C.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Embassy_of_Swaziland_in_Washington,_D.C.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:AgnosticPreachersKid File:SwazilandNumbered.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SwazilandNumbered.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Morwen at en.wikipedia File:Wz-map.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wz-map.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dubaduba, Timichal File:Swaziland landscape.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Swaziland_landscape.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Sara Atkins File:Ssa clem 48.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ssa_clem_48.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was BZer0 at en.wikipedia File:Swaziland - Traditional homes.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Swaziland_-_Traditional_homes.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Caitlin from Hertfordshire, UK

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