VIEWS: 554 PAGES: 73



Susan E. Zens

St. Norbert College De Pere, WI

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Theological Studies

Approved: ____________________ Thesis Director

____________________ Reader

____________________ Reader

Copyright 2007 Susan E. Zens All Rights reserved. The author hereby grants to St. Norbert College permission to reproduce and distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in part.


CONTENTS Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..4 Changing Roles in Ministry Laity……………………………………………………………………………...7 Clergy………………………………………………………………………….....9 Authority………………………………………………………………………..12 Leadership………………………………………………………………………14 History of Leadership and Authority…………………………………………...18 Biblical Framework…………………………………………………………………22 Vatican II & Papal Documents……………………………………………………...25 Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity Decree on Priestly Training Theology for the Laity……………………………………………………………....30 Spiritual Gifts, Charisms and Talent………………………………………………..34 Discernment…………………………………………………………………………36 Ministry……………………………………………………………………………...42 Summary…………………………………………………………………………….45 The Thesis Project…………………………………………………………………..47 Inventory of the Seven Programs…………………………………………………...49 Designing Curriculum and Evaluating Theologically……………………………....51

3 The Four Sessions Who is the Holy Spirit?.........................................................................................54 Our New Identity after Vatican II……………………………………………....55 Tabulating Our Spiritual Gifts…………………………………………………..59 Spiritual Gifts and Ministry……………………………………………………..60 Participants‟ Evaluation……………………………………………………………..61 Evaluation Based on Goals……………………………………………………….....63 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..64 Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………67 Appendices Personal Spiritual Gifts Quotient………………………………………………. 71 Class Evaluation Form………………………………………………………….72

INTRODUCTION At one time the role of the laity in the Roman Catholic Church was expressed as “Pray, pay, and obey.” Yves Congar relates an anecdote from an essay; „The Laymen in the Pre-Reformation Parish.‟ A priest was quoted as having said that the laity has two

4 positions in the church: kneeling before the altar and sitting below the pulpit. A third was added by a cardinal who stated: he also puts his hand in his purse. Who are the laity and what is their role in the Church? To answer this question the clergy and their role must be defined. In this thesis their relationship to each other will be explained by investigating authority and leadership within the Church as well as the history of these concepts. This paper will examine Biblical excerpts and Vatican II documents to demonstrate how they authorize spiritual gifts. An alternative theology for laity will be suggested in addition to exploring spiritual gifts, the discernment process, and ministry. Developing a formation process to encourage a larger percentage of active parishioners in ministry will be the focus of the project. The discernment of spiritual gifts will be suggested as this formation process to actively involve the laity and connect them with ministries. Several existing programs devoted to the discernment of spiritual gifts will be evaluated and portions of them will be used in a workshop to assist parishioners in understanding and activating their new role. There is no doubt that the role of the laity within the Catholic Church has recently changed dramatically. Some believe it is due to the shortage of priests and religious. Since 1964, new seminarians in the Church have declined by 75%. (Finn 27) This in turn causes shrinking numbers of those in pastoral leadership in the Catholic Church. In Emerging Laity, James and Evelyn Whitehead suggest that the vocational crisis is a paradox of loss and gain: while losing seminarians, we are gaining more parishioners involved in ministry. There are many ready to serve, but the imagination necessary to restructure and reshape new leadership roles is missing. The hierarchy is reluctant to share power and authority and they seem unable to envision how it could be done.

5 Parishioners are concerned about entering the realm of the clergy, not realizing they already participate due to their Baptism and Confirmation. If parishioners had additional knowledge regarding church documents, authority within the church, and the roles of the ordained and non-ordained, then the Church ministry would benefit from the gifts of both clergy and laity. In the 1960‟s Vatican II set in motion the framework for many changes in the Catholic Church. One theme permeating this Council was aggiornamento, a “breath of fresh air,” that called for renewal, and updating. Scripture became more prominent in the Mass and in Bible studies for Catholics. The Eucharist was considered from the early perspective of the church when it was a communal meal rather than a ritual sacrifice. The Communion rail was taken away and parishioners were allowed to participate actively as Extraordinary Ministers of the Eucharist in giving Communion. Changes in the liturgy, use of the vernacular, and the rearrangement of the altar by Vatican II have all resulted in more active parishes, but many parishioners do not hear the call for active participation in ministry or if they do, they are reluctant to respond. This has been my personal dilemma. Somehow I became very focused on the outward changes of Vatican II, but I never read the documents nor understood their full meaning. There must be many other Catholics in the same or similar predicament. In her short reflection titled, A Plea for Collaborative Ministry, Virginia Sullivan Finn feels that the Lineamenta for the Synod on the Laity expresses desire for involvement of laity, but provides no framework for the needed formation. Without a collaborative pastoral framework there will be no substantial formation for lay mission, for Christian-inspired intervention. Without a solid formation

6 process, dangers cited in the Lineamenta, e.g., „flight from the world,‟ „absorption into secularism,‟ are almost inevitable. Overestimating or idealizing the „intervention‟ by the lay person in his or her web without having helped the lay person develop the spiritual depth, the discernments, and the tools to bring about effective intervention, can evoke confusion and discouragement that leads to flight or to an over-identification with secularism.” (Finn 25) Finn compares the formation of marriage candidates with the formation available for the involvement of laity and finds the latter has very little substance. In her experience with her daughter‟s wedding preparation the prospective bride and groom met weekly with a group of other marriage candidates and a diocesan priest to reflect on their relationship with their new partner. There was also a theology course focused on marriage which was available. Besides this the Pre-Cana classes have a driving force already in place due to the love developed between the man and woman and the natural planning process for their future. In contrast to this there are very few organized collaborative sessions available for laity to understand their role in the Church or to discern the gifts and direction they should take for ministry. Many Catholics born before Vatican II are still involved in more passive roles and are reluctant to share in the authority in the Church. This reliance on an old system of authority with one leader or parent in charge is typical of the broader culture of the early 1950‟s. Like children, the laity, were to be seen and not heard. This assumption created a type of leadership that was carried over into the Church and has led to a stagnant relationship between clergy and laity. The laity also rely more on personal piety rather than on the communal aspects of the church. The rosary, novenas, and even personal

7 altars at home reflect their emphasis on personal spirituality. How can the laity be reached, realize they have been given spiritual gifts for the benefit of the whole community and encouraged to use them? This question demands thoughtful research and reflection topic by topic. LAITY First of all, how did the church begin to use this term the laity? In Hebrew there is no term for laity. The only distinction was between Jewish people and Gentiles. (goy) In the Greek Old Testament the term lay is used only as an adjective with the word people. It originally referred to people other than the Jews or the People of God. It designated those who were not consecrated (Gentiles) from those who were consecrated (Jews). Eventually, it was used to distinguish the people from the clerics or to distinguish one who is qualified, from one who is not. “New Testament authors did not use the Greek terms for „laity‟ at all. They rejected the Greek word laikos, which means „belonging to the common people‟ because they felt it was a degrading term.” (Stevens 26-27) Another word used in the Greek language, idiots, was used to describe those who were not yet Christians and did not understand the rites used in services. “It means „layperson in contrast to an expert or specialist‟. This word is never used by an inspired apostle to describe Christians!” (Stevens 29) “„Laity‟, in its proper New Testament sense of laos-the people of God-is a term of great honour denoting the enormous privilege and mission of the whole people of God. Once we were not a people at all, but now in Christ, we are „a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people (laos) belonging to God‟.” (1Pet.2:9; Ex. 19:6) (Stevens 5) Yves Congar, in his definition of laity states, “It designates the simple, not

8 specially qualified members „among‟ God‟s people, the whole of whom are consecrated.” (Congar, Lay People 3) Clement of Rome did use the term laity at the end of the first century to describe the faithful in comparison to the presbyters. Later, Tertullian used „lay person,‟ in a positive manner by espousing that laymen could perform the duties of priesthood if needed. (Stevens 26-27) Some Protestant theologians have established a theory that the early church was an “undifferentiated primitive community living under a charismatic regime.”(Congar, Lay People 4) This would indicate there were no separate entities of laity and clergy. While the issue is complex, historians can determine that by the middle of the third century, there were actually three categories or states of life used to refer to those in the Church: the clerical, the monastic, and the lay. The clerical position is distinguished by service of the altar and to the Christian people. It is not a way of life, but is related to the office or function of clerics. The monastic state involved a way of life for people devoted to prayer and living apart from the world. They were primarily dedicated to God and holiness. The lay state on the other hand defines a group of Christians working toward their salvation in everyday life. They are part of the world and are oriented toward secular life. Eventually, clerics were expected to seek the level of sacredness developed by the monks. Some monks, meanwhile, began to take on tasks of the liturgy and were ordained. These two states became more similar especially in the West as celibacy was required for all priests, monks, clergy, and women‟s religious orders which resulted in even greater differences between all religious and the laity. These distinctions between clergy and laity have contributed to the difficulty encountered in utilizing spiritual gifts in ministry.

9 CLERGY If the laity comprised the unordained people of God, then who were the clergy and what was their relationship to the laity? First of all the clergy were the trained, authorized, and eventually, ordained members of the Church. The ancient Church initially elected leaders by a process of casting lots and relying on the Holy Spirit to assist them in the selection process. (Acts 1:24-26) Once these elected leaders returned to the lay state, another leader or president was elected. Those who were elected were expected to accept the call of the community. Since the leaders were part of the local Church, the elected person was well known for his faith and convictions. The community had time to test the candidate‟s apostolic faith so it would reflect the apostolic community. Once elected, the new leader was seen as a gift of the Holy Spirit to the community. He was sacramentally conferred with this new honor by “the „laying on of hands‟ with epiclesis or prayer of the whole community to the Spirit.” (Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership 42) This special ceremony was presided over or completed by the bishop who called upon the Holy Spirit to confer power on new leaders in the Church. Thus, the clergy had the power and ability to proclaim the good news. In the early Church, a leader could return to the lay state. A “fundamental consequence of the canon of Chalcedon was that a minister who for any personal reason ceased to be the president of a community ipso facto returned to being a layman in the full sense of the word.” (Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership 41). Besides being elected as new leaders of the Church and experiencing ordination, these leaders were expected to be a sacerdos in the sense of being president of the Eucharist. Cyprian was one of the first to begin explaining the Eucharist in Old

10 Testament sacrificial terms. He suggested the priest was acting in the place of Christ when he presided over the Eucharist. (Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership 48) This eventually led to the ordained as the exclusive presiders over the Eucharist. “Everything that the priesthood of the Old Covenant prefigured finds its fulfillment in Christ Jesus, the „one mediator between God and men.‟” One concept within the Christian tradition considered Melchizedek, “ . . . „priest of God Most High,‟ as a prefiguration of the priesthood of Christ, the unique „high priest after the order of Melchizedek,‟” (CCC 1544, Heb 5:10). While all clergy and laity are considered as the priesthood of all believers, only the former receive the sacrament of Holy Orders. This special consecration that includes the imposition of hands, allows the clergy to act as the representative of Christ in an unbroken succession from the apostles. Through the sacrament of Holy Orders, priests share in the universal dimensions of the mission that Christ entrusted to the apostles. The spiritual gift they have received in ordination prepares them, not for a limited and restricted mission, „but for the fullest, in fact, the universal mission of salvation‟ to the end of the earth,‟” prepared in spirit to preach the Gospel everywhere.‟”(CCC1565) Over time the clergy became important figures in each community. Their status was elevated as the most educated in each community. Their duties comprised taking care of their flock from birth to death. They were involved with all aspects of family and community life. The Parish Church maintained its status as the center of the community even when the schools became public entities. This was due to the proximity of the Parish Church to everyone in the neighborhood. There was little transportation and people tended to live in one area the major portion of their lives. As nations became

11 industrialized, with more movement of families, the Church lost its centralized character. Families relied on themselves and not on an institution. Priests still worked with their own parish and managed to maintain their identity as someone who could be all things to all people. Even in the 1950‟s, before Vatican II, most parishes had enough priests to work with the poor, attend the sick in the hospitals, take the Eucharist to the sick, teach, perform sacramental duties, etc. There was hardly an area of daily life in which they did not function. After Vatican II, there were many secular changes contributing to fewer clergy. They could no longer be all things to all people. Vatican II called for a new style of leadership: Priests, prudent cooperators with the Episcopal order as well as its aids and instruments, are called to serve the People of God. They constitute one priesthood with their bishop, although the priesthood comprises different functions. Associated with their bishop in a spirit of trust and generosity, priests make him present in a certain sense in the individual local congregations of the faithful, and take upon themselves, as far as they are able, his duties and concerns, discharging them with daily care. As they sanctify and govern under the bishop‟s authority that part of the Lord‟s flock entrusted to them, they make the universal Church visible in their own locality and lend powerful assistance to the upbuilding of the whole body of Christ(cf. Eph. 4:12). Intent always upon the welfare of God‟s children, they must strive to lend their effort to the pastoral work of the whole diocese, and even the entire Church.” (The Church, 28) The above quote serves as an elementary definition of the role of priests, but does

12 not give explicit directions for their work with laity. Certainly, it does not suggest empowerment of the laity in regard to their spiritual gifts. This section explains that the clergy are the trained and ordained members of the parish authorized to preside over the Eucharist, but how does the laity begin to understand their relationship with the clergy and ultimately the role of the laity in ministry? AUTHORITY One of the major elements underlying the issue of laity involvement is the issue of authority. Specifically in the Catholic Church, the question is: who has authority and where do parishioners fit into this function of the Church? Authority is defined by John L.McKenzie “as the power or right to give commands, enforce obedience, take actions, or make final decisions.”(McKenzie 6) There are different kinds of authority, such as de jure authority, inherited by kings. Some are granted authority by being born into royal families. Authority is then granted by investiture. There is also jurisdictional or legal authority, which is used to promote order and avoid chaos. This type of authority is given to police, judges, etc. by the public, but how is authority understood in a Western religious institution? The word authority originates from the Latin word, auctor, which means author or source. It is a word that has a negative connotation for many people because of abuses of those in authority. Authority can be understood as restraining freedom, limiting efforts for change, or restricting criticism of those in power. Authority can be tyrannical and dominative. There is a fine line between authority and tyranny, but all authority involves a relationship between those in authority and those who accept authority.

13 In the Western world, an independent, self-sufficient person is regarded with high esteem. In leadership roles, this characteristic suggests that only one leader and only one way to lead a group is needed. A second problem in the Western world is reliance on dichotomies. In this culture, many people view the world as divided between good and evil, men and women, and soul and body. Groups of people are compared and labeled as leaders or followers, i.e. the clergy and the laity. In the Catholic perspective some parts of society are labeled as holy and others as secular. Until all aspects of the world are accepted as intersecting and intertwined, as Augustine stated in The City of God (Strothmann 7), our concepts of power, authority, and leadership will remain stagnant, unfulfilled and non-collaborative. Another critical component of religious institutions involves confusing the authority of a person with the authority of the office held. Some Catholics consider authority in the Church as a divine right, especially in connection with the teaching office or magisterium of the Church. Priests in the Catholic Church are ordained. This means that an indelible seal or sacramental character is imposed on the recipient‟s soul. Although all Catholics are sealed by the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation (CCC 1121), priests are also authoritatively sealed to give homage to God by the sacerdotal power to forgive sins, consecrate, preach, sanctify and take care of souls. This authority and its sacred powers are conferred on the candidates for priesthood by the bishop with the oil of sacred chrism and the laying on of hands. Historically, as the clergy became separate from the laity in 1059, they became a distinct social class. It was assumed all power and authority resided in them and not in

14 the office. Pope Gregory VII further divided the clergy and laity when he split the Church from other political powers in the eleventh century. This gave Church officials more power with a corresponding loss of power for the laity. With the Church clergy able to make all powerful decisions regarding doctrine, ethics, and formation the personal consciences and authority of the laity were more eroded. Thus, laity was expected to follow the leadership of the church, obey their commands, and learn to think as they did. LEADERSHIP What types of leadership were accepted in the Church and where did they originate? This portion of the thesis will concentrate on leadership styles needed including models for both the laity and clergy, but especially those needed to utilize spiritual gifts. First, types of leadership illustrated in the Old Testament will be examined followed by metaphors taken from Scripture to give laity new possibilities for leadership. These metaphors will include models such as king, servant, steward, and father. Then in the New Testament the types of authority Jesus advocated will be examined. The Old Testament reflects different styles of leadership needed, depending on whether the Israelites were wandering in the desert or were exiled in a foreign country. During the Exodus Moses and Aaron had to guide the Israelites to a new country by finding the best route, locating food, setting up times for rest as well as for traveling, and arranging a time for rituals. In the Old Testament, the Israelites asked God to establish a king as their leader. This in effect meant a monarch who was in charge of a large geographic area with dominion over everyone. During the Exile, a more prophetic type of leadership was necessary to promote hope and to set guidelines for a return to their

15 own country, then to rebuild the temple. In the Old Testament spiritual leadership was practical, royal or prophetic. One of the most traditional metaphors for leadership is that of a king. The image of King David as one of the most influential and dynamic leaders in the Old Testament became idealized. This model is one of governing with power over all others. It suggests only one leader with many followers expected to obey the leader. Another Biblical image of a leader is that of a servant. A servant was the lowest of all positions yet the prophet Isaiah used the servant image to refer to Israel as a servant nation, despised by many. Even though the servant may be treated unjustly, his suffering can eventually lead to exultation. As a country, the citizens were expected to uphold justice and to build up the tribes of Jacob, so as a nation or as an individual, the faithful were expected to do the work and will of their Lord. In this sense they understood themselves as servants of the Lord. Another metaphor is of a steward, in which a leader is expected to assist in managing, but does not have complete authority. In Biblical times, a steward would oversee a household, dispensing authority as needed. Thomas Hawkins suggests that the steward is comparable to a catalyst. The steward doesn‟t necessarily make all decisions, but he assists others to become leaders. Since power is not a static, personal possession, but is derived from the group and their interaction, the catalyst is necessary to assist the group in releasing and allowing power to function. This type of leadership was demonstrated by Ezra and Nehemiah during the rebuilding of Jerusalem. The Father image was generated from the stories of the patriarchs, but interestingly enough this image was rarely ascribed to God in the Old Testament. More

16 will be said about the Father image in the discussion of leadership images in the New Testament. Each model of leadership has certain disadvantages. The king model gives one person all authority. The servant model may be perceived as having too much humility and servitude. The father model could imply that laity are children, always under the father‟s authority and never allowed to reach their own potential. The steward model of leadership permits the most possibilities for a shared leadership. This model calls for the trust that allows for gradual development of gifts in the community. This style of leadership could most easily allow the laity to utilize their own special spiritual gifts. Moreover, this type of leadership is most congruent with the teaching of Jesus. Jesus advocated a type of leadership new to His times. (Whitehead 12-13) He continually criticized the authority of scribes and Pharisees by noting their adherence to the letter of the Law and not the spirit of the Law. He suggested that not only was murder a serious crime, but that thinking angry thoughts and that insulting others were also crimes against the Commandments. He disobeyed their dietary laws. He challenged those laws which condemned working on the Sabbath as a grave sin even if it concerned feeding His apostles or healing the sick. He often criticized the Jewish leaders‟ desire for honors, privileges, and power. In Matthew 23, Jesus clearly described the type of leadership not acceptable to Him by referencing the hypocritical behavior of the scribes and Pharisees. He noted their obsessions about types of clothing, their behavior, and their lack of justice, mercy, and faith. He captured the essence of His own style of leadership by stating, “All who exalt themselves will be humbled, and all who humble themselves will be exalted.”(Mt.23:12)

17 Christian theology of leadership, however, utilizes a New Testament metaphor for leadership, that of a father. Christians are taught to pray to God the Father, to revere Him, and to look to Him as the prime member of the Trinity and as the source of all goodness. In Luke 12:22-32, the image of Father and God are interchangeable. This image is the Father as care-giver and leader. In ancient times as well as contemporary God was perceived as a kind-hearted leader or as a harsh disciplining father, but Jesus pronounced that His followers must not call anyone else on earth „father.‟(Mt. 23:9-11) He was not suggesting that people do not have fathers or that people disobey their fathers, but that no one except God should have that title of power and prestige over others. The ultimate Master is God who leads and empowers each person. According to Jesus‟ teaching and example power and gifts do not need to follow a vertical hierarchy within the group, but can be considered in a horizontal fashion. “We can picture our powers as „for‟ one another, instead of „over‟ each other.” (Whitehead 115) These gifts, which come to each person from the Holy Spirit, are freely given and utilized for the good of all. In a group process Christians can assist others in finding and sharing their gifts while seeking their own. The continual disbursement of gifts enhances the power of the whole group. These metaphors illustrate how people have tended to view leadership roles as the functions of transcendent fathers or dominant kings rather than as shared power given to leadership of the Church under different circumstances. The type of leadership Jesus suggested was revolutionary for his time and clarifies this role for our time. If clergy and laity both begin looking at different forms of leadership for different ministries and at each person utilizing spiritual gifts, the results will benefit the whole Church.

18 HISTORY OF AUTHORITY AND LEADERSHIP In order to develop better models of leadership and authority for the utilization of spiritual gifts, it benefits the laity to understand how these attributes developed within the Church. Jesus did not set up a specific plan for authority and leadership in the early Church, so when the apostles established the Church, there were no guidelines for authority, power, and leadership. Initially people treated each other as equals and shared their possessions. (Acts 2) There were disciples, but no formal ministries. Once the apostles died, the communities they left behind were mainly interested in building upon the apostles‟ foundation. Apostolic teaching and writing continued under the apostles‟ pseudonyms during the post-apostolic period. At this transitional time, all the levels of ministry in the Church were “incorporated into the totality of all kinds of services which are necessary for the community.” (Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership 13). The early Church committed itself to the task and mission of continuing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. They were more concerned with an unbroken succession in teaching than an unbroken succession of ministry. As the communities grew, leadership evolved, but was not necessarily labeled. Over most of the first three centuries communities selected their own leaders. There were no definitive titles or offices. Rather some communities were strongly influenced from the Greek and Roman styles of government while others imitated the Old Testament priesthood style of leadership. In the early Christian writings the term hierus (priest) was originally applied to Jesus Christ and to the whole believing community. It was never used in the New Testament to refer to someone holding an office in the church. Once Christians became completely separated from Judaism in the very last quarter of the second century, hierus

19 did begin to be used to signify officeholders in the church. This usage was strengthened by the developing understanding of the sacrificial nature of the Eucharist, and the belief that the Last Supper is a divine mystery. When Constantine converted and advocated Christianity as the state religion, leadership took on more aspects of the secular with adherence to the Roman style of governance. In the Roman Empire, ordinate meant an appointment or „incorporation‟ into the government, with the senators classified as an elite group. Eventually, came the ordo et plebs, a distinction between the upper social class and a class of ordinary people. In Rome the governor gained importance and the popular assembly could express only agreement. This arrangement was followed by a strong council with one or two leaders. This style of governing influenced a similar style in the Church with the leader eventually known as the bishop. After the third century, deacons and presbyters gained importance and were ordained, eventually leading to the clericalism which still exists in the Church. The biggest difference between clergy at that time and clergy of today was that then the ordained had to be “called” by a congregation and could only be ordained if a community selected them. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451, great clarity concerning ordination was achieved. Canon 6 from this Council stated, “„No one may be „ordained‟ priest or deacon in an absolute manner (apolymenos) … unless a local community is clearly assigned to him, whether in the city or in the country, whether in a martyrdom (burial place where a martyr was venerated) or in a monastery,‟ then „the holy Council resolves that their cheirotonion (ordination or appointment) is null and void … and that they may not therefore perform functions on any occasion.‟” (Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership

20 38) A greater distinction was made between clergy and laity with the adoption of special styles of dress for the clergy. This leadership style based on the Roman style of governance persisted for many centuries. After the sixth century, the popes came to be attached to the emperors and were forced to act as their pawns. Every step the popes took had to be negotiated with the civil authorities of several countries. During the time of Pope Nicholas II, selection of a new pope was given to the College of Cardinals. This started an erosion of the king‟s power over the pontificate. In the eleventh century, Pope Gregory VII claimed total authority over civil governors for the papacy and the Church. Ordination was allowed without a community assignment for each priest or bishop. Priesthood was becoming a “state of life.” Leadership became detached from territory so that authority and power emanated from the office in both the church and the secular world. Bishops, like the senators, were given special privileges and could easily have become too secular, but the monastic movement called them to a higher spirituality. Still, bishops or leaders were expected to be all things to all men. James D. and Evelyn Whitehead characterized this as the coalescing of different ministries into the role of the bishop or presbyter (143) so that Church structure began to be visualized as vertical. From this viewpoint spiritual gifts and the ministry of the laity disappeared. Growth in new canon law occurred as Gregory VII asked for juridical texts to confirm his ideas. The study of texts created a legalistic system which led to the Pope as the supreme authority giving him the ability to depose kings. This process shifted papal authority from a spiritual realm of God and the Trinity, and brought a more secular hierarchy. (Congar, Power & Poverty 6)

21 Following the Reformation, the Catholic Church defended its position even more strongly by centralizing the authority of the church within the papacy. At the Council of Trent dogma was developed to support the doctrines of the Church. The canon of the Old and New Testaments was confirmed; the number of Sacraments was established as seven; the doctrine of transubstantiation was confirmed; the Nicene Creed was accepted as the basis of Catholic faith; clerical celibacy and monasticism were maintained; tradition was declared as important as Scripture as a source of spiritual knowledge; the sole right of the church to interpret the Bible was asserted; justification by works and faith was confirmed; and purgatory was reaffirmed. In other words, the Church asserted many of its doctrine in response to Luther and the new Protestant movement. As Church was established as the highest moral authority, the further erosion of the concept of a conscience as a personal responsibility occurred. Catholics were expected to view the Pope and Vatican as the final authority. The Vatican developed rules for fasting, the liturgy, marriage, education of seminarians, canonization of saints, and the establishment of religious orders. The Council of Trent linked the priesthood and the sacraments more closely. As a reaction to Protestant Reformers‟ criticism of the ordination of priests and their view on the priesthood of all believers, Catholic laity were distanced even more from the clergy. Because Luther taught that Papal hierarchy was not necessary, the Council of Trent reiterated the Catholic stance of a hierarchy of bishops, priests and the Pope as divine ordinance. It also “emphasized being in the state of priesthood rather than doing the ministry.” (Rademacher 74) The Council of Trent set up seminaries for training young men for priesthood, which located power of ordination in the office of the bishop rather than from the “call” of a particular community. Vatican I added to the

22 concept of papal infallibility and authority from a top-down hierarchy. This summarizes only a few of the doctrines which the Pope and the Vatican authorized during the Council of Trent and Vatican I. In this process the laity were relegated to a position below clergy as recipients of all ministries, rather than as those involved in ministries. There was a gradual disregard for spiritual gifts with more emphasis on a passive laity. BIBLICAL FRAMEWORK Besides identifying the laity, their relationship to clergy, and the issues of authority and leadership, it is important to show the Biblical framework for spiritual gifts. The following Biblical excerpts validate the long standing idea of spiritual gifts and the great variety available. These passages focus on the initial foundation laid by Jesus and the continuing theology to build upon his teaching by St. Peter and St. Paul, as the earliest church leaders, demonstrated the special gifts and talents needed to maintain a faithful community. They brought Christians into the early church by showing that each believer was called by Jesus. As apostles they were to follow Him and go out to share His good news. According to the grace of God given to me, like a skilled master builder I laid a foundation, and someone else is building on it. Each builder must choose with care how to build on it. For no one can lay any foundation other than the one that has been laid: that foundation is Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 3:10-11) Those early Christians formed small groups and gathered together in homes where everyone contributed toward the welfare of their new religion. However, they soon experienced problems which created division within the Church. The following passage was written to remind them that all are part of the one body of Christ and that all

23 are called to God. Paul wrote to the Ephesians to remind them of their special gifts given by God and the grace they would receive. He also emphasized the love necessary for unity in the Church. There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope of your calling, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all. But each of us was given grace according to the measure of Christ‟s gift. Therefore it is said, “When he ascended on high he made captivity itself a captive; He gave gifts to his people.” (Ephesians 4:4-8) In this passage each person was given different gifts so each may each add to the ministry of the Church. Not all the gifts are equal or the same, but all are for the good of the whole Church. Just as different parts of the body contribute to the welfare of the whole body, so do the gifts of each one contribute to the welfare of the Church. Paul emphasized the love and unity necessary to mature and leave behind childlike attributes. The gifts he gave were that some would be apostles, some prophets, some evangelist, some pastors and teachers, to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ until all of us come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to maturity, to the measure of the full stature of Christ. (Ephesians 4:11-13) Paul reiterated this discussion of different gifts when he wrote to the Corinthians and the Romans. Many of the early communities had similar problems. Sometimes the gifts caused division. Paul reminded them that there may be a variety of gifts, service and activities, but there is one Lord, Spirit and God for all.

24 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit, and there are varieties of services but the same Lord and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who activates all of them in everyone. To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. To one is given through the Spirit the utterance of wisdom, and to another the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, to another the working of miracles to another prophecy, to another the discernment of spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues. All these are activated by one and the same Spirit who allots to each one individually just as the Spirit chooses. (1 Corinthians 12:4-11) Paul preached a similar refrain to the Romans, but emphasized that all were gifts from God and given in different measure to each person. This was not so some could glorify themselves, but to glorify God. Christians were called to do the will of God for full transformation of the community into Christ‟s body. For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of yourself more highly than you ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned. For as in one body we have many members, and not all the members have the same function, so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually we are members one of another. We have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us: prophecy in proportion to faith; ministry in ministering; the teacher, in teaching; the exhorter in exhortation; the giver in generosity; the leader in diligence; the compassionate in cheerfulness. (Romans 12:3-8)

25 These New Testament exhortations encouraged Christians to discover their gifts, to fulfill their purpose for the Kingdom, and to bring fulfillment to others. Early Christians were called to develop spiritually and share their gifts, keeping in mind Jesus as the source and focus of ministry. It was God, not individual persons or the Church, who was glorified as Peter stated in the following passage: Above all maintain constant love for one another, for love covers a multitude of sins. Be hospitable to one another without complaining. Like good stewards of the manifold grace of God serve one another with whatever gift each of you has received. Whoever speaks must do so as one speaking the very words of God; whoever serves must do so with the strength that God supplies, so that God may be glorified in all things through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen. (1 Peter 4:3-11) These New Testament verses about serving God and the Church along with developing gifts illustrate the authentic path for Christians. Nearly two thousand years later, the Vatican II documents expound a similar message confirming spiritual gifts and ministry. They illustrate the direction the Church expects members to take to become active participants. VATICAN II AND PAPAL DOCUMENTS Lumen Gentium or the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, written as part of the Vatican II Documents in 1964, contains ample instruction concerning spiritual gifts and the priesthood of all believers. This document starts the discussion of gifts with the concept of one body, and one Spirit and the sacraments as vital to the Church. When Catholics receive Baptism they are formed in the likeness of Jesus Christ. “For in one

26 Spirit, we were all baptized into one body.”(51) Participation in the Eucharist means breaking bread with Him and with all the members. “Because the bread is one, we though many, are one body, all of us who partake of the one bread.”(53) “Also in the building up of Christ‟s Body various members and functions have their part to play. There is only one Spirit who, according to His own richness and the needs of the ministries, gives His different gifts for the welfare of the Church.”(57) Later in the document, these gifts are recognized as essential to build up the body of the Church. It is not only through the sacraments and the ministries of the Church that the Holy Spirit sanctifies and leads the people of God and enriches it with virtues, but, „allotting his gifts to everyone according as He wills, (114) He distributes special graces among the faithful of every rank. By these gifts He makes them fit and ready to undertake the various tasks and offices which contribute toward the renewal and building up of the Church, according to the words of the Apostle: „The manifestation of the Spirit is given to everyone for profit.‟(115) In the Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity (Apostolicam Actuositatem), the union of the laity with Christ‟s body at Baptism is discussed. This declaration by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965 also states that this union is strengthened by the Holy Spirit at Confirmation. The laity are considered as part of the priesthood of all believers who witness to Christ throughout the world. In this document the Church ties the laity to the mission of the Church which is to spread the Kingdom of God throughout the world so all people may join in His saving redemption. All are called from a passive life to a more active participation in the Church and in the world, in spiritual as well as secular

27 activities so that everyone may have a relationship with Jesus Christ. As its name suggests, this document concentrates on the lay apostolate, which Russell Shaw states is done “outside the confines of the Church” (10) or in the secular world. Lay ministry is considered to be that which is done within the Church such as lectoring, cantoring, or being an extraordinary minister of the Eucharist. While this distinction is important to note, both the lay apostolate and lay ministry require discernment of spiritual gifts. Both are called forth by the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation. One type revitalizes the other so that ministry within the Church can be generated outside the Church on a larger scale. Another Vatican II document, the Decree on Priestly Training (Optatum Totius) encourages priests to “eagerly embrace the lay apostolate.”(6) “Likewise, let them be properly instructed in inspiring and fostering the apostolic activity of the laity and in promoting the various and more effective forms of the apostolate.”(20) The Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum Ordinis), another Vatican II Document, unequivocally states that priests “must work together with lay faithful” (9) and are “not to be separated from the People of God or from any person; but they are to be totally dedicated to the work for which the Lord has chosen them.”(3) According to this Vatican II document, the Decree on the Bishop‟s Pastoral Office in the Church (Christus Dominus), the bishop “should be diligent in fostering holiness among the clerics, religious and laity according to the special vocation of each.”(15) At the end of December, 1988, Pope John Paul II wrote a post-synodal apostolic exhortation titled On the Laity (Christifideles Laici), which once again clarified the role of the laity and charisms. He began by comparing the People of God to Matthew‟s

28 parable concerning the laborers in the vineyard. (Mt. 20:1-2) He suggested that all are called as laborers to go out into the world or God‟s vineyard to complete the mission of the Church. He also quotes St. Gregory the Great‟s views on this parable of the laborers and the vineyard. “Keep watch over your life, dear people, and make sure that you are indeed the Lord‟s laborers. Each person should account what he does and consider if he is laboring in the vineyard of the Lord.”(2) Pope John Paul II suggested that the laity should respond to the invitation of the Holy Spirit promptly and with gladness and generosity to go out into the vineyard. He felt the Gospel parable spoke with even greater urgency by repeating the invitation “to go out into the vineyard” a second time. Pope John Paul II reiterated that with Baptism, Christians are called into one body (1 Cor.12:13) and that they are to participate in the threefold offices of Christ as priest, prophet and king. Just as David was anointed King in the Old Testament, so “Christ” means anointed. “Not only has our head been anointed but we, his body have also been anointed.”(14) As Peter says in 2:4-5 we are “to be a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Christ…you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God‟s own people, that you may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.” After Vatican II the Pope emphasized “forcefully the priestly, prophetic and kingly dignity of the entire People of God in the following words: „He who was born of the Virgin Mary, the carpenter‟s Son-as he was thought to be--Son of the living God (confessed by Peter), has come to make us „a kingdom of priests.‟”(14) As part of the priestly office, the laity are called to recognize that all have access to God through Jesus Christ. The ordained priest is not necessary as a conduit to God or

29 Jesus, but has the duty is to prepare laity to receive and hear the word of God for them. All Christians have the ability to read and interpret Scripture with the assistance of the Holy Spirit and the Church community. As prophets, Christians are not expected to foretell the future, but to speak the Word of God. When Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God (over 100 times), he was not referring to a place, but to the rule of the sovereign God and the response of believers. As God the king exercises his authority in his world, and people respond to it, there the „kingdom of God‟ will be experienced in many ways. There can be no one place, time event or community which is the „kingdom of God‟ any more than „the will of God‟ can be tied down to any specific situation or event. „The kingdom of God‟ is God in saving action, God taking control in his world, or to use our title, „divine government.‟(Stevens 183) Laity are called to become regents or representatives of the King and rather than passive believers. They share in Christ‟s mission by discernment, making decisions, and leading other people to a new life in Christ. This threefold office that includes all Baptized Christians is accomplished with the aid of the Sacraments, beginning with Baptism and continuing with Confirmation. The Eucharist acts as nourishment by Jesus. In order to assist in completing this threefold office, discerning their spiritual gifts (charisms) given abundantly to them by the Holy Spirit is the responsibility of the laity. Whether these gifts are exceptional, simple, or ordinary they need to be utilized for the good of the ecclesiastical community to build up the Church and the rest of humanity. Charisms bring holiness and grace to all those who work in the vineyard and increase spiritual affinity for both those who give

30 and those who receive. The discernment of spiritual gifts is a way to expand Christ‟s ministry in the Church and allow Christ‟s work through the laity in the world. THEOLOGY FOR THE LAITY A practical theology focused on the laity and their experiences will assist them in their new role in the Church rather than a systematic theology. In the early church up to the eleventh century theology developed in local communities and monasteries. The latter were centers of the academic, scholarly life of the Church. This early theology was practical, based on practical wisdom, and strengthened by Scripture interpreted by analogy. When the universities were established in the eleventh century, theology became an intellectual endeavor based on Aristotle and speculative science. Thomas Aquinas was prominent in this new type of theology-- which led to systematic theology, an abstract science. Emphasis on theology of this type needs to be redirected to enable laity to embrace a more practical theology able to permeate their whole way of life. Theology for the laity establishes connection between the secular and spiritual. Henri Nouwen expressed it well when he said, “theologia is not primarily a way of thinking, but a way of living.” (Stevens 15) Paul Stevens suggest that theology for the whole people of God is not watered down or “putting the cookie jar on the lower shelf,” but rather as William Perkins says, “a science of living blessedly forever.”(Stevens 15) In order to rethink traditional theology, it is necessary to reconsider the issue of vocation and work. This section will focus on these two issues as well as how they have been viewed historically. Briefly, in contemporary culture, vocation is considered as a position in secular society and work is considered more menial and less rewarding. Historically, vocation referred to entering the priesthood or living a special spiritual way

31 of life. It was considered a special calling from God to devote one‟s life to the Church and to become more spiritual. In the Old Testament the idea of call was developed in the Church by an early concept of ekklesia meaning „an assembly duly summoned.‟ (Stevens 83) God calls and brings a community together, just as he called Israel to be His people. “The word qara means „call out,‟ a summons that implies sovereignty through naming. Naming, however, in Hebrew was not merely attaching „a verbal handle,‟ but „to be called something was to be something‟. When God called Israel, they „became‟ his people.” (Stevens 83) Some people, like the prophets, were called dramatically, but others, known as the people of God, were summoned to assist in God‟s plan for the world. “It is a call to salvation, a call to holiness and a call to service.” (Stevens 84) In the New Testament, in addition to being called collectively, believers were also called individually. The rich, the poor, owners, slaves, and even tax collectors were called. Jesus used the call in selecting the twelve Apostles to follow Him and go out to spread His good Word. His call brought people to repentance, to transformation, and to the Kingdom of God. The New Testament has numerous direct references to the Greek words, kaleo and klesis, which mean to call, or a calling, and vocation. (Stevens 85) Paul‟s letters used language to call people to salvation in Christ. This is the external call felt by people to be called from a source outside them. (Stevens 86) Some feel there is an especially strong call for ministers, pastors, or priests and a general call for all others. It is suggested the call for pastors was an inner call, to be used for the edification of the Church. In the

32 secular world people do not refer to “being called” to a particular job. It is just labeled as work. What is work and how can it be included as part of a spiritual life? Looking at the ancient Greek world will indicate how work was originally perceived, thus giving insight into today‟s perception of work and its connection to spirituality. The ancient Greeks used slaves as their manual laborers. All other people considered contemplation and philosophizing to be their function and their station in life. Physical labor was not regarded as highly as contemplation in the ancient Greek world. Later as the Church emphasized preparing for eternity, the status of the contemplative was regarded as higher than that of others. During the Renaissance there was a resurgence of interest in Greek philosophy, but instead of seeing contemplation as the ultimate goal, the intellect was revered. During the Reformation vocations were considered to be established by God. Martin Luther taught that all human work glorified God, but many continued to view work as worldly and vocation as spiritual. The Industrial Revolution emphasized recompense for work. People were so isolated from the finished product that their work was disassociated from the satisfaction that comes from completing a task. Both Freud and Marx, in different ways, suggested that work gave meaning to life. Many people in the modern world have assimilated this philosophy and considered work more important than a spiritual calling. Society learned to compartmentalize work and religion by giving priority to work and disregarding spirituality.

33 In today‟s society work is a defining element, but with conflicting aspects. Work is considered employment only if people receive payment. Today people must exhibit a number of skills and be able to adapt and change often. No longer is one job pursued for life. Not only have needed skills changed, but so also the workplace. With the computer and advanced communication the primary and secondary workplace can be in the home. This can lead to a stressful situation with little time away from work. There is certainly less physical work today, but in the Western world work has become more pervasive thus allowing less free time. As people age they have begun to visualize retirement as a time of not working at all. This may be an enormous fallacy from a Christian perspective. Whether in retirement or still working, all individuals are “„citizens of two cities‟ . . . synthesizing their human, domestic, professional, social, and technical enterprises with religious values.” (Leckey 14) The laity has started to see some of these new possibilities in connection with work. By the changes called for by Vatican II the laity are becoming more involved in Church life. This active participation in ministry in the Church has not, however, evolved into a concern for the daily work produced or for society as a whole. A new theology of work and spirituality based on the everyday experiences of the laity is needed. Certainly those engaged in providing goods or services that „seem‟ to have less intrinsic value and durability will require an occupational conversion to view their work as holy, pleasing to God and worthy of God‟s „it is good‟. This, of course, is precisely what a good theology of work must do. Where society does not invest meaning in a task, does not socially reinforce it, this task must be regarded as God

34 does—as part of making God‟s world work. Intrinsically work is good for us, good for the world and good for God. This is one of the most crucial and most neglected equipping tasks of the church. (Stevens 124) Leckey thinks there must be more opportunity provided for dialogue and questioning by the laity so the laity can come to a truer meaning of life. If more discussion of work was encouraged inside and outside the Church, it could lead to a merging of the secular and the spiritual. The hidden dimensions of work can bring people closer to God and assist in identifying His calling for them. In Life Together Dietrich Bonhoeffer stresses the importance of work to bring people out of themselves, away from selfishness and self-centeredness. When a person does a task or becomes so involved in a cause that it becomes work for the Lord, and not just for himself or herself, or for his or her limited agenda, then the „it‟ or meaning of life changes into and becomes the „Thou‟ which is God, the source of all fulfillment. (Stevens 125) A practical theology for the laity will connect everyday experiences, work, and leisure with a lifelong development of Christian faith and practice. As individuals receive and attempt to use such a theology, they will return to a consideration of the role of spiritual gifts in the life of each and every Christian. SPIRITUAL GIFTS, CHARISMS AND TALENT Charisms are special gifts given to each believer by the Holy Spirit. In the New Testament the Greek word for charism means “favor” or “gratuitous gift.” According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church “Charisms or spiritual gifts, are special abilities given to Christians by the Holy Spirit to enable them to be powerful channels of God‟s love and redeeming presence in the world. Whether extraordinary or ordinary, charisms

35 are to be used in charity or service to build up the Church.” (CCC 2003) Spiritual gifts and charisms are used interchangeably, but talent is considered an inherited asset, coming from one‟s parents. A talent can eventually develop into a charism, but a charism is empowered supernaturally by the Holy Spirit to be used outwardly for the good of the church. Spiritual gifts are confusing because in Scripture different gifts are listed in different orders with different emphases. The Roman Catholic Church has organized the gifts into two categories. One category has the gifts listed in Isaiah11:2-3 as given for the sanctification of an individual. The Church has designated these as special gifts from the Holy Spirit received at Confirmation. They are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety (godliness), and fear of the Lord. These are believed to be gifts to utilize for personal transformation. The second category is defined as charisms and to be used in service to others. Listed in Romans 12, 1 Corinthians 12, and Ephesians 4, the gifts can be given and received because of the Holy Spirit‟s involvement. However, ego or expectations of power may overtake a person who has been gifted, causing an imbalance or weakness in the Church community. It is stressed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church that all charisms be subjected to the shepherds or clergy for testing to be sure they work for the good of all. Discovering individual charisms and directing them into ministry is much more challenging than most people realize. DISCERNMENT The Catechism of the Catholic Church suggests that discernment of charisms is necessary and must be referred to the Church‟s shepherds. No charism is exempt from

36 the scrutiny of the Church. This is done so that each spiritual gift may be aligned with other gifts to insure that the whole ministry works together. All charisms must work toward “the common good, be complementary, and in keeping with charity.”(CCC 801) Determining those charisms is especially difficult within a democratic society that tends to become embroiled in the process of decision-making and loses sight of true discernment. Thomas Hawkins notes that in a democratic society debating and voting are utilized in meetings to establish direction. Generally people are so involved in debating that they lose sight of what the goals might be. In debate convictions and positions are solidified, sides are taken, and there is less room for compromise. One side wins and all the others are to abide by this new decision. This can lead to less enthusiasm and assistance for the final decision especially on the part of the “losers.” Thus the traditional win/lose attitude characterized by using parliamentary procedure, Robert‟s Rules of Order and a democratic process negates discernment. The major emphasis in discernment is a relationship with God: to find God and to discern God‟s will. This is handled through a process of dialogue rather than debate. Listening to others, encouraging their input and trusting in mutuality and interdependence fosters recognition of the Holy Spirit‟s gifts of holiness and spirituality. Understanding “that God operates through calculated inefficiency” means “the most unlikely member of the community may possess the critical insight everyone else needs.”(Hawkins 36) When people “let go,” trust God and give up personal control, God‟s will, through the working of the Holy Spirit, has a chance to direct them. Discernment‟s goal is neither better discussions nor more harmony in a congregation. Its ultimate purpose is increasing intimacy with God---holiness of

37 heart and habit. While parliamentary procedure and Robert‟s Rules aim at efficient control of meetings, discernment seeks a person‟s conversion, purification, and being spiritually formed and transformed after the image of Christ. (Hawkins 37) In the discernment process, Hawkins advocates following a process which Ignatius Loyola developed through his Spiritual Exercises for the Society of Jesus. In the first phase of discernment, Loyola states there are three ways to discernment. The first is such a strong call or event that there is no way to disregard it. One example given is Paul‟s life-changing trip to Damascus when God spoke to him. At other times, individuals may feel no strong shift in their feelings or events, so Loyola recommends writing a list of all the pros and cons of a decision. This second approach invites a rational reflection in which good sense and natural reason are allowed to flourish. The third way to discernment is to imagine oneself in different situations. It could involve imagining oneself at the time of death and reflecting on a particular decision before Christ. Would He approve of the decision? People could also visualize themselves being approached by someone they love who has the same dilemma. What would they advise? These are characteristic tools of the discernment process. If decision-making is followed by times of unrest with emotions exhibiting first one extreme of exhilaration followed by one of regret and depression, individuals may utilize another eight steps toward discernment. 1. See what is consistent with Scripture. If evidence cannot be found in Scripture to align with a new decision, there is a need to be skeptical of that decision.

38 2. Does this decision promote growth, risk-taking and openness to the future? It is more likely to be a decision from God if it involves making a change in a new direction which will encourage people to transform themselves. 3. Will the decision promote peace or generate fear and hostility? John Futrell in Thomas Hawkins book, Building God‟s People, suggests that good spirits bring peace with a decision, but evil spirit stir up confusion. 4. Does this decision promote deep inner peace, not just the acceptance of relief of finally making a decision? 5. Are individuals able to share this decision with others? If they are reluctant to open themselves to criticism, a decision may not be a part of God‟s plan. 6. Does this decision come from prayer and reflection with God? This does not just mean a time of talking to God, but a time of listening. 7. Test the decision by seeing if doors open and allow the decision to be implemented. 8. Make sure that several of the above steps are apparent in the final decision. (Hawkins 44-46) The sixth step in discernment relating to prayer and reflection listed above is very crucial in discerning spiritual gifts. It involves communication skills with God, especially good listening skills learned in the Church. Beginning in the 16th century, the Catholic Church was seen as divided into two sections, those who comprised the teaching Church (ecclesia docesn) and those in the learning Church (ecclesia discens). The bishop was seen as both, but the laity was generally considered only of the latter. This was a result of the Counter-Reformation when the Church began to place more

39 emphasis on canon law than on theology or the Sacraments. This caused a shift toward a more hierarchical or pyramidal view of the Church. “The dynamic understanding of the Christian faith as that which must be proclaimed and received within the life of the Church was replaced by a juridical conception of command-obedience wherein the faithful contribute nothing in the act of obedient reception.”(Gaillardetz 114) Laity was expected to obey the teaching magisterium. Personal consciences were not to be developed to question the Church. The diagram below illustrates this type of reception.

1) Formal Teaching The Magisterium promulgates law and teaches doctrine.

2) Reception The faithful obediently accept these laws and doctrines.

Vatican II suggested the need for a new model of communication, but did not specify a particular model. Catholic theologians have been exploring new models of ecclesial reception more “in tune” with the perceptions of Vatican II. Any new model should include more participation by the whole Christian community with mutual and reciprocal relationships. This does not mean that bishops‟ and priests‟ authority would be undermined, but that the whole Christian community would be empowered on many different levels.

40 Gaillardetz suggests looking at Cardinal John Henry Newman‟s idea conspiratio fidelium et pastorum or the “breathing together of the faithful and the pastors.” (Gaillardetz 111) In this same essay, On Consulting the Faithful in Matters of Doctrine, Newman emphasizes the Holy Spirit as the “holy breath” of God, working in all people. “A common mistake in popular ecclesiology identifies the faithful with the laity. But as Vatican II taught, the faithful, the fideles, are the whole people of God, lay and clergy, so there can be no opposition. The bishop‟s role of leadership is situated within his common Christian identity as a christifidelis, a “Christian faithful.”(Gaillardetz, 111) Cardinal Newman refuted the two divisions in the Church mentioned earlier, which are the teaching church (ecclesia docens) and the learning church (ecclesia discens) He felt bishops should refer to the faithful by gathering information and insights from them in the learning process before beginning to teach. Cardinal Newman also recognized a shared rhythm that exists between the laity and the clergy, and is initiated by the Holy Spirit. (Gaillardetz 112) The early Church saw the bishop in a similar manner as is shown in this excerpt from St. Cyprian. But it is unrepentant presumption and insolence that induces men to defend their own perverse errors instead of giving assent to what is right and true, but has come from another. The blessed apostle Paul foresaw this when he wrote to Timothy with the admonition that a bishop should be not wrangling or quarrelsome but gentle and teachable. Now a man is teachable if he is meek and gentle and patient in learning. It is thus a bishop‟s duty not only to teach but also

41 to learn. For he becomes a better teacher if he makes daily progress and advancement in learning what is better. (Gaillardetz 112) The chart below by Richard Gaillardetz (115) illustrates a new communio model of reception, made more appropriate for the Church by Vatican II. It shows the laity both receiving and providing information, thus practicing a less passive role than in the past.

The Christian Faithful’s Pluriform Expression of Its Faith: The people of God express their faith in liturgy, devotion, religious art, daily Christian living, etc.

Episcopal Reception of these Expressions of Faith: The bishops, immersed in the life of the Church, receive these faith expressions and assess their fidelity to the apostolic tradition.

Reception of Doctrinal Formulations: The Christian faithful engage this official teaching and, upon recognizing its fidelity to the lived faith of the Church, actively appropriate the new formulation. This, in turn, leads This new theology of rec to new expressions of faith

Official Formulation of Doctrine: The Bishops, if need arises, give doctrinal form to the insights manifested in the faith expressions of the community.

This new theology of reception reflects “the lived experience and testimony of the Christian community.”(Gaillardetz 116) This model is similar to the leadership style of Jesus. “The image of Jesus presented in the scriptures is one of a leader in constant relationship and dialogue with his followers. From the very beginning of his ministry, Jesus chose to lead „with‟ others. He gathered people around him, invited them to join him, listened patiently to them, taught them new ways of approaching things and

42 empowered them to carry on with others.”(Sofield 94) The apostles followed this style. They developed their laws and doctrines from their experiences and the testimony of their communities. Even the creeds developed at the first councils, were a collaboration of many people over a long period of time. These first doctrines were accepted at different paces in different areas. Their reception was a process. Even at this early point in time bishops were in charge of dispersing information or as Gaillardetz suggests, serving as the memory of the Church. Since Vatican II, many new teachings are gradually being assimilated and a transformation is happening. This is the spiraling effect needed for promoting new doctrine and interdependence resulting in mutual and reciprocal relationships within the church, which encourages spiritual gifts. MINISTRY As with work, ministry is another baffling element in our world today. Ministry should result from discerning and activating spiritual gifts; however the traditional definition is very limited and curtails a full development of ministry especially among the laity. In spite of the many pronouncements about the role of the laity in the world, there seems to be within the church a very restrictive view of what constitutes ministry. All too often, ministry is seen as activities which are sanctioned by the Church, are formally set up through the agency of the church, or are led by people appointed by the church.(Sofield 82) With this perspective in mind, ministry is often assigned to the clergy. They assume this responsibility for ministry because traditionally this has been their role. With the shortage of priests and changes in expectations for clergy, contemporary clergy need

43 new tools and processes to empower their congregations to develop leadership in areas the clergy can no longer service. If we look at „ministry‟ in its original Greek form, the word is translated into diakonia which means „service‟. In the Old Testament service was noted by the word abad. This word is used 290 times in the Old Testament and means „to work or to make.‟ It came later to be understood as „to worship.‟ In this way „service‟ is not a function of any one group nor is it a particular place. It is an effort directed toward others and ultimately toward God. Stevens suggests substituting the word „servant‟ for service so that ministry is thought of as becoming servants of the Lord and for the Lord. “This concept of the servant of the Lord is radically different from the contemporary view of ministry which boils down to being servants of people or the church for God‟s sake rather than serving God for the benefit of people and God‟s world. The difference is subtle and sublime. The essence of ministry/service is being put at the disposal of God.”(Stevens 135-136) According to Schillebeeckx there is a tension “between an ontological sacerdotalist view of ministry on the one hand and a purely functionalist view on the other.”(Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership 70). A new theology of the Church‟s ministry would assist in resolving this, if the Church‟s „ministry in the Church‟ could be seen “as a charismatic office, in the service of leading the community, and therefore as accepted by the community. Precisely in this way it is a gift of God.”(Schillebeckx, Ministry: Leadership 70). Stevens elaborates to say ministry “is putting ourselves at the disposal of God for God‟s purposes in the church and world. Ministry is from God, to God and of God.” (Stevens 157)

44 “Bishop Howard Hubbard of Albany, New York describes the church as, „a community of collaborative ministry.‟ He recommends three tasks to bring this community of collaborative ministry into existence. They are to: 1. help every baptized person realize that as a result of baptism each one is called to holiness and ministry; 2. assist every person to discover their gifts and talents, and help in discerning where and how they can use those gifts in service and in ministry; 3. challenge all leaders to see their primary role as empowering and animating the gifts of the entire community.” (Sofield 22) This new collaborative type of leadership could be adopted to facilitate ministry in the Church. When collaborative or team effort is prevalent, change (transformation) follows. Leaders are expected to practice new forms of leadership in which they function as coaches or facilitators. “Partnerships, teams, alliances, and linkages are the language of the day, but the primary emphasis is on responsible individuals working cooperatively with others to achieve agreed-upon goals.”(Sofield 96) Workers are encouraged to consider each other as peers and not competitors (even though the latter is still valued at universities and in early academic situations). People working as a team increase their potential for learning from others and for developing programs more effectively. As collaboration increases, so will the community aspect of the Church. This approach suggests that priests could be liberated from being all things to all people; they could empower others to grow into leadership roles. In order to give ministry back to the whole People of God Thomas Gillespie, the past President of Princeton Theological Seminary

45 suggests the following in his article „The Laity in Biblical Perspective‟ in Theology Today. It will be realized only if the „nonclergy‟ are willing to move up, if the „clergy‟ are willing to move over, and if all of God‟s people are willing to move out. For the ministry of the community is rendered first and foremost in the world and for the world. It is performed in the daily lives of its people, in their participation and involvement in the structures of a complex society, in their sacrificial obedience in „worldly affairs,‟ in their mission to reclaim the world for the God who claims the world in love. (Stevens 158) SUMMARY A more productive understanding of spiritual gifts evolves from subtle changes in 1) how lay Catholic perceive their own roles and that of the clergy, 2) the perceived difference between authority and leadership, 3) the discernment of gifts for ministry, 4) the relationship between work and vocation, 4) the response to, initiation of, and participation in ministry of the whole Church In this new vision of Church the laity and the clergy both have a major responsibility. The laity assume their role as active parishioners through a more thorough examination of the Vatican II Documents, especially Lumen Gentium and more community formation. These assist the laity in recognizing they are the „People of God‟ and are consecrated as the priesthood of all believers. Once the laity incorporate these ideas, their new role in discerning and utilizing their spiritual gifts will be obvious. The clergy have received their new identity from the Vatican II documents and the decrees on the apostolate, but some continue to struggle with how to implement these

46 changes because the laity has not fully internalized their role. The clergy will continue to utilize their authority as established by the sacramental office of the Church until they can begin to empower the laity by suggesting new types of roles in the Church to utilize collaborative leadership. One beginning point is collaboration within the clergy, a process that may eventually extend to other members of the Church. Many Catholic laity recognize the authority of the Church, its traditions, and clergy, but they do not see themselves as leaders. Community activities established within the Church, for example, a Scripture study group, hospitality ministries or other non-threatening endeavor, will assist laity to become more confident about assuming further roles of responsibility in the Church. Discerning spiritual gifts encourages prayer and the reading of Scripture. This is necessary to strengthen their relationship with God who will give the gifts to the laity to answer the call to serve in the Church. The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola provide guidelines and encouragement to weigh the options of our spiritual gifts. Learning to listen to others in the community can provide important direction. A new theology of work and vocation based on life experiences rather than abstract theology may enable the laity to utilize spiritual gifts. Viewing work and vocation as equally important can have great spiritual possibilities and impact. If spiritual and secular entities are united internally within each Christian, then they can be united externally with common goals. Analyzing work and learning to appreciate how it can assist individuals spiritually creates a new perception of work. With a new connection between work and spirituality, Catholics may focus more on God and less on themselves.

47 Finally, ministry can no longer be exclusive to the clergy. Thomas Gillepsie says succinctly: “„the nonclergy or laity needs to move up or step up, while the clergy learn to move over and make room for the laity.‟”(Stevens 158) This involves collaboration, working together and respect for the leadership roles both can display. Both clergy and laity will need to make changes, take risks, and experiment to discover what types of leadership are needed for ministry in their Church. The following project description of a four week course on discernment of spiritual gifts was designed to 1) increase awareness, 2) inspire engagement in ministry, and 3) unify the ministry of the laity. The parish chosen for this workshop is a more traditional conservative Roman Catholic Church comprised of many adult members. Many of the parishioners do not live near the Church and travel some distance to attend this particular Church. THESIS PROJECT After careful consideration of the laity, the clergy, and their relationship to each other and by clarification of authority and leadership, the issue of formation for activating parishioners is still prominent. In my consideration it seemed likely that a program which assessed each person‟s spiritual gifts would naturally begin the process and lead to a more active ministry. With a view toward the design of a workshop on discerning spiritual gifts, five programs were selected to assess their relevance to this thesis project. Each program had been successfully used in other Churches for the discernment of spiritual gifts and a more active ministry within the Church. These programs varied in the materials available. They ranged from just one book to some with audio visual aids, power point presentations, and several related books

48 including one for the teacher and the participant. The earliest material developed in 1978 in California by C. Peter Wagner and the Charles E. Fuller Institute in California is called the Spiritual Gifts Discovery Workshop. All of these initial programs are Protestant, some quite lengthy, and suggest a year or two of phase development for a gifts discernment course in a local parish. Later two other programs were added to give a Catholic perspective.



PROGRAM Discovering God's Vision for Your Life, You and Your Spiritual Gifts. Kenneth C. Haugk, 1998. Network: The Right People, In the Right Places…For the Right Reasons. Bruce Bugbee, Don Cousins, & Bill Hybels, 1994. New Beginnings, A New Way of Living as a Catholic. Paul Wilkes, 2003.



Eight weeks

One hour


Participant's manual Leader's guide Planning & preparation manual Ministry-mobilization manual

Teacher‟s manual comprehensive, easy to read and use- Good meditations. Gives extra information concerning spiritual gifts

Ten to twelve months

Forty-five to ninety minutes

Yes, Grid for answers too small and difficult to use

Participant's guide Implementation guide Consultant's guide Two VCR tapes Set of overhead masters

Overall time frame too lengthy-Participant‟s Guide too elementary & Leader‟s Guide too difficult to follow

Three weeks

One hour

Yes, Easy to utilize

Participant's guide Leader's guide Implementation guide Consultant's guide Two VCR tapes Set of overhead masters

Requires several leaders to implement-Good assessment tool- Good suggestions for including total parish


PROGRAM Serving from the Heart, Finding Your Gifts and Talent for Service. Carol Cartmill & Yvonne Gentile, 2002. Spiritual Gifts Discovery Workshop. C. Peter Wagner, 1994. The Called and Gifted Small Group Process. Michael Sweeney, O.P. & Sherry Anne Weddell, 2005. The Equipping Church. Sue Mallory & Brad Smith, 2001.






Eight or four weeks

One to two hours

Yes, Emphasis on speaking in tongues

Eight sets of overhead slides Digital photo slide show Promotional poster Four music tracks Four handouts for slide show

Good music tapes included, but the remainder of the program was not inspirational

Twelve weeks

Sixty to ninety minutes

Yes, Last Session

Overhead transparency Worker development chart Personal interview guide Spiritual gifts profile Workers needed list

Has good lesson plans with extra activities and handouts Bible verses listed for each spiritual gift

Five weeks

Two and a half hours

Yes, more technical language used

Leader's and participant's guides Eight CD's Participant's workbook

Too many CD‟s-not enough time devoted to discussion No discussion questions given

Ten to twelve months

Eight one hour or four two hour


Flow chart for leader's development Interview forms Ministry surveys Humorous hand-outs

Overall time frame too longrelies heavily on infrastructure-no guides for participants

51 DESIGNING CURRICULUM AND EVALUATING THEOLOGICALLY Listed below is the criteria used for evaluating these programs.       The program must be Biblically based. Each session should be one to two hours long. The sessions should involve a two to four week period. The program must conform to the teachings of the Catholic Church. The program must include some type of assessment tool. The session should include some types of worksheets, hand-outs, and extra information for participants.  All sessions must include some entertaining aspects. One of the most important criteria for these programs required that they must have a two-to four-week time period for conducting them. The Equipping Church and the Network: The Right People, In the Right Places..For the Right Reasons consisted of a one-to two-year time frame for development of the whole Church so those two were definitely not good choices. Most of my other criteria were met in all the programs since 1) they were biblically based, 2) contained an assessment tool, and 3) could be adapted to a one-or two-hour format. I selected The Spiritual Gifts Workshop to initiate discussion concerning the Holy Spirit and the Biblical framework. The Called and Gifted Small Group Process gave the best Catholic perspective on ministry after the reforms of Vatican II so it was chosen as the second session for the workshop. New Beginnings was selected due to the spiritual gifts assessment tool. This is an inventory of approximately 100 statements with a range from „never‟ to „always‟ to determine in which areas an individual‟s special gifts are most prominent. The last program selected for the

52 curriculum was Discovering God‟s Vision for Your Life because of its wonderful meditations. The first step in developing the curriculum was setting the stage for spiritual gifts. The Spiritual Gifts Workshop by C. Peter Wagner illustrated some good, simple, and entertaining tools I could use. The “Spiritual Gifts Quotient‟ would act as a pre-test to assess the participant‟s knowledge of spiritual gifts. Then portions of the first two lessons from The Spiritual Gifts Workshop would establish a good foundation for my workshop. The criterion most difficult to ascertain was the extent to which these programs confirmed the teachings of the Catholic Church. I determined that the missing component in these other programs was any reference to Vatican II and the changes since that time. The Called and Gifted Small Group Process discusses the Vatican II-based changes for the laity, giving new identity to Christians. The new naming of Catholics as „the People of God‟ as noted in Lumen Gentium is the initial focus of this program. This program reveals the link between consecration of people and the mission of the Church. That is crucial to a fuller understanding of spiritual gifts, especially among the laity of the Catholic Church. Therefore, I selected the talks entitled: “Our Identity as Christians,” “Introduction to Office in the Church,” and “Lay Office and the Mission of the Church” as significant portions of the workshop. I also ordered the “Initial Discernment Participant‟s Guide” from The Called and Gifted Small group Process I for each of my participants. I finally selected the New Beginnings program because it was Catholic in orientation and because the assessment tool seems easier to use than the others.

53 Tabulation of the test does not require specialized skills. It was easy to read and to reproduce. I also selected their “Explanation of Talents” which gave a short two line definition of each gift I selected Discovering God‟s Vision for Your Life because their meditations and extra information on the history of spiritual gifts would benefit the participants. Their focus on the definitions of charisma, vocation, and grace were helpful Besides selecting portions of four programs in designing my curriculum for the discernment of spiritual gifts, I also directed the arrangements for the course by:     Meeting with the senior pastor Securing a room for the workshop Conducting the general promotion Contacting a target audience of lectors and extraordinary ministers of the Eucharist

By the week before the class was due to begin I had ten people enrolled for the workshop on spiritual gifts, some from my own parish and others from a variety of other parishes in Albuquerque. Final work on the workshop included creating the agenda for each of the four sessions, the goals for the program and preparing worksheets for use. Listed below are the goals for the classes on discerning spiritual gifts.  To assess and increase parishioner‟s knowledge of spiritual gifts. 1. To learn the difference between charisms and talents. 2. To understand the gifts the Holy Spirit gives us for our own use. 3. To understand the gifts the Holy Spirit gives us for others.  To match parishioners‟ spiritual gifts with ministries in their Church and the secular world.



To encourage people to utilize their spiritual gifts. 1. To increase understanding by discussing their gifts 2. To increase mutuality by recognizing gifts others may have


To give parishioners a new way of looking at ministry and Church. 1. To recognize the laity as an active participant in the Church. 2. To understand our new identity as Christians. 3. To learn the primary mission of the lay office.

FIRST SESSION: “Who is the Holy Spirit?” Goals: To introduce the concept of the Holy Spirit. To understand who the Holy Spirit is. To understand the difference between the gifts of Is. 11 and spiritual gifts To find Biblical references for the spiritual gifts Gathering Registration and Name Tags Prayer and Music Introduction of the Participants/ Introduction of Facilitator Teaching Module 1:  Fill out the Spiritual Gifts Quotient from Spiritual Gifts Discovery Workshop (See Appendix I)   Short Discussion on Gifts Work in groups of two to complete an exercise on the Holy Spirit using the following Biblical excerpts: John 14:15-21, 15:26, 27; 16:5-16.  Discuss Gifts of Isaiah 11


Break Teaching Module 2:  Split into three groups. Each group will list the gifts from one of the three Biblical references listed below. 1. Corinthians 12:8-10 2. Ephesians 4:11 3. Romans 12:6-8  Closing Prayer Distribute Meditation “The Brave Friendship of God” from Discovering God‟s Vision for Your Life (Leader‟s Guide 30) Goal Evaluation: Introducing the participants to the Holy Spirit by reading excerpts from the Gospel of John worked well. In discussing the names and symbols for the Holy Spirit it was evident the group understood the Holy Spirit and symbols used to represent the Holy Spirit. After reading Isaiah 11 the participants learned that these gifts are presented to the individual at Confirmation for their own sanctification. This led to discussing the differences between charisms/spiritual gifts given to us by the Holy Spirit and talents inherited from our parents. The group succeeded in finding the spiritual gifts as listed in the New Testament and some discussion concerning the differences was held. This exercise introduced them to the biblical framework for spiritual gifts as noted earlier in this thesis. Session Evaluation: The “Spiritual Gifts Quotient” was successful in alerting participants to what this session could teach them. It made them eager to learn more about the Holy Spirit and the gifts listed in the Bible. They were very adept at finding titles and functions for the Holy Spirit as listed in the Gospel of John. It was interesting

56 to hear the variety of answers and the deep faithfulness displayed. This provoked a beneficial discussion on the work of the Holy Spirit. One participant questioned the intentions of the Holy Spirit and posed questions concerning predestination. Class members quickly steered each other toward the idea of the grace that is given to all of us by the Holy Spirit offering that grace is never “earned,” but is given to all. This enhanced the discussion concerning the Holy Spirit and gave everyone some theological points to digest. SECOND SESSION: “Our New Identity after Vatican II” Goals: To review and discuss differences in the Church since Vatican II. To learn about our new identity in the Church To understand Fr. Sweeney‟s idea of the most radical statement of Vatican II To understand the office of the Church Gathering Opening Prayer and Music Introduction of New Participants Teaching Module 1:  Introduce discussion on Vatican II and how that has changed many things in the Church.  Listen to “Our Identity as Christians” Disc 1 Track 1 from the Called and Gifted Small Group Process. Discuss the most radical statement of Vatican II according to Fr. Michael Sweeney.

57  Listen to “Introduction to Office in the Church” from the Called and Gifted Small Group Process, Disc I, Track 3. Ask participants to listen for what office means, how the office is bestowed and how it is vicarious. Break Teaching Module 2:  Inform the participants how to take the Spiritual Gifts Assessment taken from New Beginnings: a New Way of Living as a Catholic. Provide time to complete the assignment.  Prayer and Summary of the Next Class

Optional Activity: Paraphrase “Helping Others Meet Christ” given by Sherry Weddell from the Called and Gifted Small Group Process to be used if time permitted. Goal Evaluation: This session was diverted from the original goals due to the addition of two new participants who were Baptist. They were challenged about their theology by other participants. After some interesting dialogue the group discussed changes since Vatican II. They also listened to Fr. Sweeney discuss our new identity in the Catholic Church since Vatican II. Time was limited (due to the previous discussion) so rather than taking the assessment in class they were to be done individually at home. Session Evaluation: This session turned into an extended discussion of “born again” and “being saved by Jesus.” After the Protestants shifted their language to “being committed to Jesus,” the rest of the group could relate to a similar understanding expressed by Confirmation and Baptism in the Catholic Church. This dialogue demonstrated the need for more ecumenical discussions.

58 The group did return to the agenda. However, changes after Vatican II discussed were those related to the physical changes: the priest turning toward the congregation, the altar being moved, and the communion rail removed. Some thought there was less reverence in the Church since Vatican II and felt that loss. To strengthen the Vatican II discussion I emphasized the following information in their books, “Initial Discernment Participant‟s Guide.” Pre-Vatican II Thinking of Christ as redeeming me Post Vatican II Thinking of Christ as redeeming the World. Concerned with our own attempts at perfection Devoted to our own salvation Holiness is found in the church Concerned with helping and aiding others Devoted to world salvation Holiness is found in both the Church and the secular world. In his discussion Fr. Sweeney had broached the subject of the laity “as opposed” to the clergy. This type of reaction to authority in the Church is why I chose to define authority and leadership in addition to relating the historical aspects so that clarification would be apparent. It is noteworthy that this group did not discuss this aspect or seem to feel it was very important to them. Since the group had concentrated so much time on the earlier discussion concerning the beliefs of different denominations, there was no time to complete the assessment so the participants took them home to do later. This worked better so they could concentrate.

59 Due to the interesting nature of this class discussion each participant was called personally in the next week. Some said they felt very frightened at first due to the discussion with Protestants. Others felt it made the evening more lively and interesting. They were each able to comment and time was given to work through any differences of opinion. SESSION III: “Tabulating our Spiritual Gifts” Goals: Tabulate the assessment tool Discuss the spiritual gifts and their attributes. Discuss the discernment process. Discuss the charisms and how they are documented in the Bible. Gathering Prayer and Music Teaching Module 1:   Tabulate the Assessment Tool. Discuss the Discernment Process using “Three Steps to Discernment” taken from “Discerning Charism: A Workbook for Navigating the Discernment Process” and St. Ignatius “Spiritual Exercises” using personal information from class participants. Break Teaching Module 2:  Listen to “The Five Steps of Discerning a Charism” from the Called and Gifted Small Group Process, Disc III, Track 3. Discuss discernment.  Closing Prayer

60 Goal Evaluation: Everyone tabulated their scores and began discussing their spiritual gift using the chart from New Beginnings: a New Way of Living as a Catholic to understand their spiritual gifts better. We shifted to a discussion of discernment. Two of the participants relayed information concerning the “Spiritual Exercises” of St. Ignatius which was advocated in this thesis. This discussion did shift to different types of prayer. The second half followed the set agenda. Session Evaluation: Tabulating the assessment tool provoked a discussion, not only participant‟s best spiritual gifts, but also those areas in which they did poorly. The handout Called and Gifted Small Group Process was used, but the class enjoyed the expertise of those participants who had started the “Spiritual Exercise” of St. Ignatius the most. The CD by Sherry Anne Weddell was more humorous and provoked stories of others in their discernment process. SESSION IV: “Spiritual Gifts and Ministry” Goals: Link spiritual gifts with ministry. List types of ministry in the parish or those still needed. Have the participants complete the evaluation form. Gathering: Prayer and Music Teaching Module 1:    Break Senior Pastor Edmundo Rodriguez gave a presentation about ministry. Discuss ministries available in this parish or others. Distribute and discuss resources available for formation and other ministry

61 Teaching Module 2:   Evaluation Form (See Appendix II) Closing with prayer and personal affirmation

Goal Evaluation: Fr. Rodriquez gave a presentation concerning parish ministries which were functioning well and new ministries which might be needed. After he left the group shared different ministries in which they were participating. I distributed the PMD (Pastoral Ministries Division) Express newsletter which gives information concerning all the ministries available at the Catholic Center. After the break and before completing the evaluation form, I quickly summarized the four classes. There was some discussion and then the evaluation form was completed. Session Evaluation: Fr Rodriguez‟s presentation provoked discomfort in some because they felt they already were doing enough ministries. Others could not see the connection to spiritual gifts and wondered why he had come. Those participants were dwelling on spirituality, but not on spiritual gifts. Most of the participants had never seen the PMD Express and enjoyed the sharing about ministries they had done or were now doing. I added the summarization of the classes because some participants were still experiencing negative feelings about the addition of Protestant individuals. The discussion revealed that some participants still felt threatened by other Christian denominations. This discussion assisted in the evaluation process because I could ask specific questions. The group seemed reluctant to leave and wanted to set up other classes at some time in the future.

62 PARTICIPANT’S EVALUATION The evaluation form (See Appendix II) completed by the participants demonstrated that members enjoyed the first class the most. This session had concrete objectives which were fulfilled immediately during the class. For example, the worksheets gave the participants a specific direction to locate the Biblical framework for the spiritual gifts. Most of the group felt they had learned something new about spiritual gifts. The evaluation form question regarding the material covering our new Christian identity after Vatican II received low scores. Two full pages in their book the “Initial Discernment Participant‟s Guide” from The Called and Gifted Small Group Process I outlined the new changes in identity within ourselves, the Church and the world from pre-Vatican II to post Vatican II. Participants did feel Vatican II Council brought about significant changes. After reflection it seemed as if I were asking a question that the participants had never considered before. The participants were not intrigued by the Vatican II changes that refocused ministry from clergy dominated model to a clergy/laity shared model. Participants seemed particularly enthusiastic about taking the assessment and learning about their personal gifts, but were not interested in utilizing gifts in a new ministry. The group expressed interest in continuing some form of classes at a later date. It came as an unexpected bonus to see them excited about meeting and sharing again. Everyone enjoyed the discussions so much that we had a difficult time ending the last class.

63 The group revealed their own wonderful spirituality and depth of understanding while discussing the Holy Spirit‟s influence in our lives. It was amazing to discover how much faith this group offered each other. To summarize, the participants utilized the materials presented and integrated the spontaneous curriculum; however, at the conclusion of the workshop on discernment, few participants understood or were interested in activating the link between discernment of spiritual gifts and ministries. EVALUATION BASED ON THE GOALS FOR THE CLASS The group performed fairly well on the first set of goals I had developed. They learned the difference between charisms and talents. Most participants had some indication of their own spiritual gifts which the assessment assisted them in confirming. Many are using their gifts and have been in ministry for many years. At the last class participants described their ministries. Two of the participants are active as hospital Eucharistic Ministers. One works with a food pantry, and another does organizational work for a nursing home. Some do music ministry, ushering, and hospitality. My last set of goals concerning new ways of looking at ministry and the Church were not completely realized. The participants are much more active as laity than before Vatican II, but seem to lack direction and the desire to effect change. The participants did not seem to have issues with authority and leadership in the Church nor did they feel opposition to the ordained clergy. This might have been discussed if more leading questions concerning ministry and the laity‟s role were used or if copies of the Lumen Gentium were distributed. The participants accepted the Church and their role as “doing whatever the ordained expected.” To summarize, the participants utilized the materials presented and integrated the curriculum, however, at the conclusion of the workshop of

64 discernment, few participants were motivated to move from discernment of spiritual gifts into ministries. An unintended benefit of this program was the dialogue that allowed these Catholics to learn more about other Christian denominations. This dialogue cemented my belief that many of our differences are due to semantics. After the Protestants used the term „committed to Jesus‟ and discussed similar core beliefs, the defensiveness of the Catholics dissipated. This demonstrates a need for more ecumenical meetings between the ordinary people of many different Christian denominations. Another unexpected benefit was the development of community that this group generated in a short time span. They enjoyed getting together and discussing topics concerning religion. They mentioned this several times and seemed willing to continue with other topics. They seemed ready for more community involvement, but weren‟t sure how to initiate ministry with collaborative leadership. Most participants were eager to assist in the completion of my project, but a few were still focused on their own personal piety and would prefer to continue to keep their religious life private. CONCLUSION In the Catholic Church the hierarchical structure is well established. This structure has served and continues to serve as a needed component in such a large system. At first glance, this hierarchy seemed the major stumbling block for utilizing spiritual gifts, but this is more a perceptual problem than a structural problem. For example, some Catholics do not feel they are in opposition to the Church‟s hierarchy nor do they intend to be only recipients of doctrine. Although many in the laity are willing to assist where needed, they are often hampered by outdated ideas of religion as an exclusively a private

65 affair. Personal piety, praying the rosary, and going to Mass may form spirituality, but these practices are insufficient supports for a ministry formed by the mutual sharing of gifts. Spiritual gifts are used for others, with others, and directed toward others. Working inside a community of believers involves others in the discernment process. Positive and negative feedback concerning spiritual gifts give Catholics a better understanding of what they possess in order to serve and praise God. To establish a community devoted to and supportive of spiritual gifts used in ministry there are some small steps a congregation may consider: 1. Establish a program for registering and interviewing each new member in a parish. 2. Offer a class on what the impact derived from new ministries could be in their congregation. 3. Encourage older members of the Church to join a group for welcoming new parishioners. Their role as good Catholic models could also be utilized for the RCIA process. 4. Assign parishioners as mentors to a new RCIA candidate. 5. Encourage collaboration by offering to answer questions or sit with them at Mass. Small steps promote community involvement and may lead to utilizing spiritual gifts on a regular and habitual basis. Eventually the parishioners may take the initiative by noticing a need for a particular program, and promoting a new ministry. In this way the spiraling effect mentioned earlier would take place. (See chart on page 41)

66 This thesis project I conducted suggests the need for a special formation program to include assessment and discernment tools for gifts to bring the laity into a new active ministry. Such a program could act as a bridge between the laity and the clergy with collaborative leadership as an initial goal. Once a lay person assumes even a small role in the Church or community and feels invited and welcome to participate, spiritual gifts of the person will be recognized and called forth in the community. The Church would benefit significantly from laity becoming active in ministry. This is evident through studying the historical aspects of authority and leadership, the Biblical excerpts, the Vatican II documents, and other documents of the Church. Internalizing the role as consecrated members of the body of Jesus Christ is a step toward becoming mature Christians. My experience with this workshop demonstrates this will only be established if laity are willing to take chances, experiment with new ministries, continue to seek development, and learn to share in a community environment. The clergy and the laity will continue to struggle with collaboration and mutual roles of leadership. As in any conflict there will be many changes in direction and accomplishment, but the goal of a shared model of ministry with gifts and discernment; the laity and clergy; and a spirit refreshing and directing ministry is the unity of ministry and laity.


Bugbee, Bruce, Don Cousins, and Bill Hybels. Network: The Right People..In the Right Places . . . . For the Right Reasons. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub.House, 1994. Catherine of Siena Institute. “In Depth: Questions and Answers.” 14 Jan. 2007. < http:/www.siena.org/spgifts.htm> Cartmill, Carol and Yvonne Gentile. Serving from the Heart: Finding Your Gifts and Talent for Service. USA: Abingdon Press, 2002. Catechism of the Catholic Church. Liguori, MO: Liguori Publications, 1994. Congar, Yves Power and Poverty in the Church. Trans. Jennifer Nicholson. Baltimore, MD: Helicon, 1964. ----- Lay People in The Church. Trans. Donald Attwater; Westminister, MD: The Newman Press, 1965. D‟Antonio, William, James Davidson, Dean Hoge, and Ruth Wallace. American Catholic Laity .Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1989. Dues, Greg and Barbara Walkley.Called to Parish Ministry. Mystic, CT: The Columbia Press, 1995. Finn, Virginia Sullivan. “A Plea for Collaborative Ministry.” One Body Different Gifts Many Roles Reflections on The American Catholic Laity. National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Washington, DC: 1987. Ford, Paul R. Unleash Your Church. Pasadena, CA: Charles E. Fuller Institute, 1993. Forester, Patricia M. and Thomas P. Sweetser. Transforming the Parish: Models for the Future. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1993.


Forte, Bruno. The Church: Icon of the Trinity . Trans. Robert Paolucci. Boston, MA: St. Paul Books and Media, 1991. Gaillardetz, Richard R. By What Authority: A Primer on Scripture, the Magisterium and The Sense of the Faithful. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2003. “Gifts, Charisms, and Ministries of the Holy Spirit.” 14 Jan. 2007. <http://www.religion> Gonzales, J. L., comp. The Sixteeen Documents of Vatican II and the Instruction on the Liturgy with Commentaries by the Council Fathers. Boston, MA: St. Paul Catholic Book and Film Centers, 1965. Greinacher, Norbert & Norbert Mette Eds. Diakonia: Church for Others. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark LTD, 1988. Hawkins, Thomas R. Building God‟s People: A Workbook for Empowering Servant Leaders. Nashville, TN: Discipleship Resources, 1990. Haugk, Kenneth C. Discovering God‟s Vision for your Life: You and Your Spiritual Gifts. St. Louis, MO: Tebunah Ministries, 1998. Kuhn, Donal H. and Loughlan Sofield. The Collaborative Leader. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1995. Leckey, Dolores R. Laity Stirring the Church. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1987. Mallory, Sue. The Equipping Church: Serving Together to Transform Lives. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001. Mallory, Sue and Brad Smith. The Equipping Church Guidebook. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001. McBrien, Richard P. Ministry: A Theological, Pastoral Handbook. San Francisco: CA


Harper & Row Publishers, 1987. McKenzie, John L. Authority in the Church. New York, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1966. Miguens, Manuel. Church Ministries in New Testament Times. Arlington, VA: Christian Culture Press, 1976. Nouwen, Henri J. M. Creative Ministry. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1971. Paprocki, Joe. You Give Them Something to Eat. Notre Dame, Indiana: Ave Maria Press, 1998. Pope John Paul II. “On the Laity.” December 30, 1988: 1-6, 10, & 12-21. 7 Dec. 2006. <http://www.catholicculture.org/docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=5482.> Pope Paul VI. “Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests.” December 7, 1965: 1-2, 8 & 17. 7 Dec. 2006. <http://www.vatican.va/archive/histcouncils/iivaticancouncil/documents/vat->. Rademacher, William J. Lay Ministry: A Theological, Spiritual, and Pastoral Handbook. New York, NY: The Crossroad Publishing Co., 1997. Schillebeeckx, Edward. Ministry: A Case for Change. Trans. John Bowden. Bloemendaal, Holland: Utigeverij H. Nelissen, 1980. ---- Ministry: Leadership in the Community of Jesus Christ. New York: Crossroad, 1981. Shaw, Russell. Ministry or Apostolate? Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 2002. Sofield, Loughlan and Carroll Juliano. Collaboration: Uniting Our Gifts in Ministry. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 2000. Stevens, R. Paul. The Other Six Days: Vocation Work, and Ministry in Biblical


Perspective. Cambridge & Vancouver, BC: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. & Regent College Publishing, 2000. Strohmann, F. W., Ed. Saint Augustine on the Two Cities. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co: New York, NY, 1957. Walsh, John and James Digiacomo. So You Want to Do Ministry. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1986. Wagner, C. Peter. Your Spiritual Gifts Can Help Your Church Grow. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1994. Weddell, Sherry Anne. The Called and Gifted Small Group Process. Colorado Springs, CO: The Catherine of Siena Institute, 2002. Whitehead, James D. and Evelyn Eaton Whitehead. The Emerging Laity: Returning Leadership to the Community of Faith. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1986. Wilkes, Paul. New Beginnings: A New Way of Living as a Catholic. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2003. Yoder, John Howard. The Fullness of Christ: Paul‟s Revolutionary Vision of Universal Ministry. Elgin IL: Brethen Press, 1987.

71 APPENDIX I Personal Spiritual Gifts Quotient

A. I would rate my personal understanding of spiritual gifts as follows:

_______Good Understanding _______Moderate Understanding _______Slight Understanding

B. If you can, list the names of up to five spiritual gifts.

1.________________________________ 2.________________________________ 3.________________________________ 4.________________________________ 5.________________________________

C. Name three key Biblical chapters

1._________________________________ 2._________________________________ 3.__________________________________

D. Register your own self image regarding your spiritual gifts in one of the categories below:

______I am fairly sure I know my spiritual gift or gifts. If so, it is (they are):

1._________________________________ 2._________________________________ 3._________________________________

_____I am positive, but I think I might have this gift (gifts):

1._________________________________ 2._________________________________

_____I really wouldn‟t know how to identify my spiritual gift or gifts at this point.

Modified from The Spiritual Gifts Discovery Workshop, C. Peter Wagner

72 APPENDIX II CLASS EVALUATION FORM Answer each of the following statements by rating them from zero to five with zero as never or not at all and five as always or very much.

Did you enjoy the first class where we located Biblical passages and discussed the Holy Spirit? Did you learn anything new about spiritual gifts? Did you enjoy the talks on the CD‟s? Do you have a new understanding of our Christian? identity after Vatican II? Did the assessment assist in discovering your spiritual gifts? Did you feel you could contribute to the class? discussion? Was the time of the class convenient?

___________ ___________ ___________



___________ ___________

Answer the following questions with a short sentence or comment. Should the classes have been shorter or longer?

What did you enjoy most about the classes?

What did you enjoy the least about the classes?

Would you like to see other classes held like this?

Are they any other topics you would like to explore?

Any other comments?


To top