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					A teaching unit for Stage 4 English with links to ESL pedagogy

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

September 2006

Page 1 of 22

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

1.

A student responds to and composes texts for understanding, interpretation, critical analysis and pleasure. A student uses a range of processes for responding and composing texts. A student responds to and composes texts in different technologies. A student uses and describes language forms and features, and structures of texts appropriate to different purposes, audiences and contexts. A student makes informed language choices to shape meaning with accuracy, clarity and coherence. A student draws on experience, information and ideas to imaginatively and interpretively respond to and compose texts. A student thinks critically and interpretively about information, ideas and arguments to respond to and compose texts A student makes connections between and among texts. A student demonstrates understanding that texts express views of their broadening world and their relationships within it.

English Syllabus Stage 4 Outcomes (Focus outcomes for this unit are in bold type)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. A student identifies, considers and appreciates cultural expression in texts. 11. A student uses, reflects on and assesses individual and collaborative skills for learning.

The dimensions and elements of the NSW model of pedagogy
Intellectual Quality
Deep Knowledge Deep Understanding Problematic Knowledge Higher-Order Thinking Metalanguage Substantive Communication
English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Quality Learning Environment
Explicit Quality Criteria Engagement High Expectations Social Support Students’ Self-Regulation Student Direction
September 2006

Significance
Background Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Knowledge Integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative
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Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Students learn about:
11.12 outcomesbased learning

Introducing the unit Use the unit overview to discuss with the class the aims of the unit, the focus outcomes to be addressed and the nature of the teaching and learning activities in which they will be involved as well as the mode and requirements of the end of unit assessment task.

Student/teacher Information Sheet 1: Unit overview - The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

Students learn to:
6.5 identify the ways characters, situations and concerns in texts connect to students’ own experiences, thoughts and feelings

4.12b Participate actively in conferencing and brainstorming as a pre and post writing exercise

Part 1: Before reading activities
The fantasy genre Set the context for the study of the text by telling students that The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was written by C.S. Lewis, in England, and first published in 1950. It is now a children’s ‘classic’ which means its timeless themes continue to be read and enjoyed by children all over the world. Introduce the terms: Magic – discuss the connotations of the word Fantasy – what is it and how is it represented in literature, film and oral narratives Discuss with students what they remember about stories they know of and perhaps have read about magic and fantasy. For example The Hobbit, Harry Potter, Watership Down, Lord of the Rings. Display OHTs of covers and illustrations from fantasy novels and films like Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings to encourage discussion of the elements and characters in fantasy. OHTs of covers and illustrations of fantasy novels and films Background Knowledge Engagement High Expectations

Substantive Communication

Book box of fantasy picture books and novels
Page 3 of 22

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

September 2006

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Students learn to:
6.3 explore real and imagined (including virtual) worlds through close and wide engagement with texts

6.5l Find and record information from a variety of sources (libraries, reference material)

Work with the librarian to make up a fantasy book box including picture books for the students to browse through. Encourage them to select one they would like to read/view at home. Show sequences of fantasy movies which illustrate something about fantasy characters. Ask the students to complete Worksheet 1: Exploring a fantasy character.

Copies of Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, Willow and other fantasy movies.

Worksheet 1: Exploring a fantasy character

Background Knowledge Cultural Knowledge

Students learn about:
1.11 the ideas, information, perspectives and points of view presented in imaginative, factual and critical texts 1.12 links between the ideas, information, perspectives and points of view presented in texts and their own background and experience

4.1e Contribute information and express ideas in group tasks and classroom discussions. 4.6 Relates own culture, knowledge and experience to information in the text

Introducing the novel Students read and interpret texts best when they can make links between them and what they know (schema theory). For ESL students who do not share the context of culture underlying texts deriving meaning from them is considerably more difficult. The activities in this introductory section aim to build the links they need to read, enjoy and understand The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Ask which students have already read The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Find out if any have read the novel in a language other than English. Encourage these students to bring in their copy of the novel, or ask them to borrow it from a local library. The fact that it has been translated into many different languages is an indication of its appeal. Ask students to find out if their parents or siblings have read the
September 2006

Engagement Social Support Translations of the novel, if available

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

Page 4 of 22

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

novel. Some students may have seen a film version. Students learn to:
1.8 graphically represent aspects of texts such as the storyline of a novel or film, the structure of a poem, the set of a play, and links in a webpage

Divide students into two groups: 1. those who are familiar with the story, ask them to collaboratively pool and record their memories of the story, such as characters’ names and personalities, settings, events and themes as well as the names and events in the other books in the Narnia series 2. those who are not, ask them to consider first what the title suggests to them and then to predict what the story might be about from examining the cover illustration. Sequencing illustrations from the novel Select key illustrations in the text that could fit into the broad narrative structure of orientation, sequence of events, complication and resolution. Scan onto one or two pages. Photocopy sets and cut out the pictures, placing a set of pictures into enough envelopes for the following activity. Divide the class into pairs or small groups. You may wish to divide the class again into those who are familiar with the novel and those who are not, or have mixed groups. Ask students to sequence the pictures using their collaborative linguistic skills, facilitating the practice of oral language skills for ESL students. Once their attempts have been checked, students then
September 2006

OHTs or PowerPoint slides of the front and back covers of the novel.

Substantive Communication

Scanner, envelopes, scissors

Students learn about:
10.9 the ways culture and personal experience position composers and responders and influence response to and composition of texts
English Stage 4

5.4a Rely on key content words or discourse markers to follow an extended text ('In the end')

Substantive Communication Higher-Order Thinking

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NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements Inclusivity

take turns to re-tell the story in their own words to their partner, regardless of whether they know the names of places and characters. Students learn about:
11.14 research techniques using books, indexes and the internet

You may wish to then re-tell the story using the pictures on power point or overhead yourself, using the characters names and the various settings of the novel. Dictogloss 6.5l Find and record information from a variety of sources (libraries, reference material) Reinforce the basic outline of the story by creating a dictogloss as a listening activity. This activity also develops active listening and note taking skills in all students. A dictogloss can be created by writing your own short summary of the novel, ensuring you include elements from the orientation, sequence of events, complication and resolution. You may wish to highlight this structure briefly with students prior to this activity. Then, read your passage aloud to the class who listen and write down the key words and phrases. Next, working again in pairs or small groups, students compare their words and then share with the rest of the class (model the correct spellings on the board). Students then reconstruct the passage in their groups before reading aloud for the class to determine if they have all of the important elements of your summary. As a class discuss family, cultural and religious attitudes to fantasy, magic and the supernatural. Make notes on the Teacher prepared dictogloss

Students’ SelfRegulation

Students learn to:
3.3 use the features of information and communication technologies, including word processing, importing and manipulating of graphics, and formatting to compose a variety of texts for different purposes and audiences

Class access to computers and the Internet
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English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

September 2006

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

board during the discussion representing different understandings, beliefs and attitudes. Research task: C S Lewis Distribute Worksheet 2: Internet research: C S Lewis, and explain the requirements of the research task. Ask the students to go to Google: <www.google.com.au> and type in ‘C S Lewis’, ‘Narnia’, or ‘The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe’. Other sites include: Into the Wardrobe: a C. S. Lewis web site: <http://cslewis.drzeus.net/> The Chronicles of Narnia: <http://disney.go.com/disneypictures/narnia/> Narnia on DVD: <http://www.disney.co.uk/DisneyVideos/narnia/> Narnia fans: <http://www.narniafans.com/> Bring in some Turkish delight for the students to sample or distribute a recipe for them to try at home. Recipes for fetes: Turkish delight: <http://www.fetesandfestivals .com.au/recipes.htm#Turkish %20delight> Worksheet 2: Internet research: C S Lewis Student Direction

Part 2: During reading activities
Reading the novel
English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/ September 2006

Class set of novels and dictionaries.
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Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Students learn to:
1.1 respond to imaginative, factual and critical texts, including the required range of texts, through wide and close listening, reading and viewing

5.1a Listen for relevant information when questions are given beforehand 4.8i Use an accessible English dictionary to check the meanings of new words

With some classes it may be necessary to read all or most of the novel in class while others will want more independence. The pace and structure of this section of the unit can be adapted to meet the experience and ability of specific classes and groups of students. Vary the approach to the reading of the novel; reading can be done aloud, silently, as a whole group or in smaller groups. When using small group reading, group students to ensure proficient readers are not frustrated by slower readers or that slower readers are not intimidated by those more proficient. Keep in mind that students need to hear reading modelled by proficient readers and this is particularly so for ESL students. This can be achieved by you reading selected chapters or you can organise for older students from another class to read parts of the novel onto audio tapes that can be played to students. As the novel, or sections of it, is read in class ask students to prepare by reading the relevant chapters the night before. For those who will want to read ahead and complete the story keep them engaged in class by allowing them to read other books in the Narnia series (refer to the list at the end of the program). The worksheets for each chapter can be completed in class or for homework; they include extension activities for motivated students or those who need less structured support.

Tape/CD player and audio tapes/CDs. Audio cassettes or CDs are available from Southern Scene: <http://www.southernscene.c om.au/pages/cart.htm> Scroll down to Audio books and click on the link Chivers for Children 2006. Then select February under either Cassette or CD. Copies of the other books in the Narnia series.

Students learn to:
4.5 selectively use dictionaries, thesauruses, spellchecks and other reference texts 4.6 use Standard Australian English, its variations and different levels of usage appropriately.
English Stage 4

September 2006

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NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Chapters 1- 2 Listening activity This activity can be used with groups of students who have not yet read the novel. Write the questions below on the board and then read the first page of the novel aloud to students as they listen but do not follow the text in their books. 1. What were the names of the four children? 2. Why were they sent away from London? 3. What was the housekeeper’s name? 4. What did the professor look like? 5. What was the children’s reaction to coming to his house? Students learn to:
1.8 graphically represent aspects of texts such as the storyline of a novel or film, the structure of a poem, the set of a play, and links in a webpage

Substantive Communication

5.5h Transfer information from texts into given formats (tables, diagrams, story maps)

6. Who was the youngest of the children? Discuss answers Read or play audio tape/CD of Chapters 1-2 Building vocabulary Show students an approach to learning new words using Worksheet 3: Building vocabulary. Allow time throughout the reading of Chapters 1-2 for students to complete the worksheet at their own pace. Encourage them to use the
September 2006

High Expectations Worksheet 3: Building vocabulary On-line or class thesauruses and dictionaries
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Students’ SelfRegulation

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Students learn about:
4.8 the ways in which specific language forms and features and structures of text are used to shape meaning including: 1. in written texts: medium, organisation, sentence structures, grammar, punctuation, vocabulary and spelling, the use of formal or colloquial language and figurative language 4.13 the metalanguage of subject English used to describe, discuss and
English Stage 4

6.6 Relates a text's format, structure and choice of language to its purpose

context of new words to guess their meanings before consulting a dictionary. Show students how to use online dictionaries and thesauruses as well as the traditional kind. Worksheets 4-14 feature a Key Words section; encourage students to find the meanings of words in these lists that are new to them using the approach on Worksheet 3 as they read. Students should add to these lists where necessary. Issue Worksheet 4: Chapters 1-2 and ask students to complete the language and responding activities. Timeline Ask students to create a timeline in their workbooks to record the key events in the novel. They can begin by recording the main events of chapters 1 and 2. Ensure they leave space to complete the timeline as reading progresses. Some students may wish to add illustrations to the timeline. At some point discuss the way time is represented in the story and how the children’s adventures in Narnia were a split second in real-time, whereas they were years in the lives of the children as they experienced the adventure. Chapters 3-4 Read (aloud, silently, at home, in class, individually or in groups) or play audio tape/CD of Chapters 3-4. Ask
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Worksheet 4: Chapters 1-2

Student Direction

Metalanguage

5.9b Write from the viewpoint of a designated

Worksheet 5: Chapters 3-4

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NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
character in a story 6.5b Participate in class/group discussions of text interpretation s 6.5d Discuss characters and their motivations in a story 6.10b Use and sustain a register appropriate to subject content, purpose and audience 6.5 Reads with understandin g a range of authentic texts for varying

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

differentiate texts and their language forms, features and structures.

students to explore the key words and complete the language and short answer questions on Worksheet 5: Chapters 3-4. Remind them to add to their timeline of the story. Descriptive language Distribute Worksheet 6: Describing words and phrases. Explain that good writers use description to help make their story appealing by painting a picture in the reader’s mind. Read through the extract from Chapter 3 provided on the worksheet demonstrating how adjectives, adverbs and comparisons are used to create imagery. Activities on the worksheet require students to describe and begin to analyse descriptive language used in the extract (explaining the effect is a Stage 5 outcome). This next activity gives students an opportunity to practise using descriptive language. Allocate each student a picture of a fantasy character and a copy of Worksheet 7: Barrier game. Students are required to use descriptive language and techniques to create images of their fantasy character and reflect upon the effectiveness of their choice of words. A barrier game is a communicative activity which gives students the opportunity to hear and practise language. The word ‘barrier’ is used because only one student has access to information while the other student must listen to the clues in order to guess what this information is to complete the task. In this barrier game each student has a picture of a fantasy character. Working individually they
September 2006 Page 11 of 22

Worksheet 6: Describing words and phrases

Pictures of fantasy characters from the picture books in the library book box or videos/DVDs

Worksheet 7: Barrier game

Substantive Communication

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
purposes, making justifiable interpretation s beyond a literal level

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

write a description of their character using adjectives and adverbs and at least one simile, without letting their partner see either the picture or their description. Then they take turns describing their character to complete the task, a drawing of each other’s fantasy character. Chapter 5 Read or play audio tape/CD of Chapter 5 and complete the reading and responding and language activities on Worksheet 8: Chapter 5. Students should also add to their timeline of the story.

Worksheet 8: Chapter 5 Additional information: The Brain Rummager: <http://home.alphalink.com.a u/~umbidas/> About Homophones: <http://home.alphalink.com.a u/~umbidas/Homophones_m ain.htm> Deep Understanding Problematic Knowledge

Students learn to:
6.5 identify the ways characters, situations and concerns in texts connect to students’ own experiences, thoughts and feelings 6.6 use imaginative texts as models to replicate or subvert into new texts

6.6 Relates a text's format, structure and choice of language to its purpose 6.7 Interprets complex language used for a range of purposes 6.8 Selects reading strategies appropriate to the nature of text and task

Empathy task Ask students to write a journal entry from the point of view of Lucy, including her thoughts and feelings, after Edmund lied to Peter and Susan about being in Narnia. If students have not written a diary entry before use OHT 1: Example of a diary entry (from the point of view of Mr Tumnus, the Faun) as a model. Discuss the purpose, audience and structure and language features of a diary entry. These include: ‘Dear Diary’, use of first person, emotive and descriptive language describing feelings, reactions, hopes and fears. Discuss Edmund’s lying to Peter and Susan and ask students who they would believe. Go through the conversation in the novel between the Professor and Peter
September 2006 Page 12 of 22

OHT 1: Example of a diary entry

Explicit Quality Criteria Student Direction Metalanguage Narrative

Students learn to:
1.1 respond to imaginative, factual and
English Stage 4

NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

critical texts, including the required range of texts, through wide and close listening, reading and viewing 1.5 interpret, question and challenge information and ideas in texts through close study

and Susan in Chapter 5. Discuss what makes a story believable. Is it the person who tells it or the information presented? 4.1e Contribute information and express ideas in group tasks and classroom discussions 4.7 Interprets simple texts, recognising key words connecting ideas and the organisation of information in a text 5.5 Reads with understandin g a range of Introduce the True/False game to students. Students are to write two stories about themselves, one of which is true, and one of which is false. These are to be read out to the class, and the class is to vote on which story they believe is the true one, giving reasons for their answers. Worksheet 9: Chapters 6-8 Worksheet 10: Chapters 910 Worksheet 11: Chapter 11 Worksheet 12: Chapter 12 Worksheet 13: Chapters 1314

Chapters 6-17 Read or play audio tape/CD of Chapters 6-8, 9-10, 11, 12, 13-14, 15-17 focusing on new vocabulary featured in each key words list on Worksheets 9-14. Each worksheet explores a variety of language techniques used by C.S Lewis and provides a range of reading and responding activities for students to complete. Extension activities are provided on each worksheet.

Students learn about:
6.8 the ways ‘the real world’ is represented in the imaginary worlds of texts including literature, film, media and multimedia texts.

Remind students to add to their timeline of the story as they Worksheet 14: Chapters 1517 complete the reading of each section.

Part 3: After reading activities
Consolidating knowledge of the characters in the story The following three worksheets may be completed by students working in pairs as a way of consolidating knowledge of the characters and events in the story and as
September 2006

Social Support Students’ SelfRegulation
Page 13 of 22

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
texts, including those remote from personal experience, interpreting mainly at a literal level and using the information for other purposes

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

preparation for composing tasks while providing more opportunities for them to practise using new terminology learned throughout the reading of the novel. Worksheet 15: How well do you know the plot? Cloze summary Worksheet 16: How well do you know the characters? Matching characters with quotes Worksheet 16: How well do you know the characters? Matching characters with quotes OHT 3: Answers to Matching characters with quotes Worksheet 17: True or false? Worksheet 17: True or false? Worksheet 15: How well do you know the plot? Cloze summary OHT 2: Answers to Cloze summary

Students learn to:
1.1 respond to imaginative, factual and critical texts, including the required range of texts, through wide and close listening, reading and viewing 6.3 explore real and imagined (including virtual) worlds through close and wide engagement with texts 11.5 use speaking and writing as learning processes for sorting and selecting information and
English Stage 4

5.6d Identify key aspects of a narrative (theme, plot, final resolution)

OHT 4: Answers to True or false? Exploring conventions of narrative Find out what students already know about the terms narrative and plot. Add to this if necessary or build on student contributions by exploring synonyms like storyline and summary of events (for plot) and story, tale or yarn (for
September 2006 Page 14 of 22

NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

clarifying ideas

narrative), terms which students should have been introduced to in Stage 3 English. 4.1e Contribute information and express ideas in group tasks and classroom discussions 5.5j Collect, organise and analyse information from a text according to guidelines (in diagrammatic form, such as flow charts, graphs) 6.5d Discuss characters and their Ask students to recall the names of the different stages of a narrative. This question should activate prior knowledge of the terms orientation, complication, climax and resolution, which are used in Stage 3 English. As a class recap the major events of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, listing student contributions on the board. Distribute Worksheet 18: How well do you know the narrative structure? Matching activity and tell students to cut out the jumbled terms, definitions and relevance to The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Students need to use their knowledge of narrative structure and the events in the novel in order to paste the pieces into a new table in their workbooks. Distribute Worksheet 19: Story sequencing. Students cut and paste the plot summary in the correct order. Then ask students to discuss the stages in the story and the events that fit into each stage using the terms orientation, complication, etc. Some discussion and justification about which events make up the climax, whether or not there is more than one climax, or where the resolution begins, should take place. Worksheet 18: How well do you know the narrative structure? Matching activity Scissors and glue OHT 5: Answers to Matching activity Worksheet 19: Story sequencing Scissors and glue OHT 6: Answers to Story sequencing Substantive Communication Metalanguage Deep Knowledge

Students learn about:
1.15 the forms and features of language, the structures of texts and the nature of content that enables categorisation by content, composer and genre 4.13 the metalanguage of subject English used to describe, discuss and differentiate texts and their language forms, features and structures.

Students learn to:
11.4 use the
English Stage 4

September 2006

Page 15 of 22

NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
motivations in a story

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

language of the subject when engaging in learning

Exploring characters Ask students to recall the names of the characters in the story. Discuss the features that distinguish one character from another. List their responses on the board. These may include: Substantive Communication

Students learn about:
6.8 the ways ‘the real world’ is represented in the imaginary worlds of texts including literature, film, media and multimedia texts. 6.10 the structures and features of imaginative texts including characterisation, setting, tension and climax, chronology and time, narrative voice, effective beginnings and endings

6.5b Participate in class/group discussions of text interpretation s 5.9c emulate literary forms such as poetry and dialogue, drawing on studied models 6.5 Reads with understandin g a range of authentic

    

appearance personality actions likes and dislikes relationships. Engagement

The next sequence of activities explores four different characters from the story using a variety of approaches. Lucy Write up a list of page numbers on the board which give a good insight into Lucy’s character. Refer particularly to Chapters 2-3 and 14-16. Group students and allocate a page number to each group. Direct students to read this page and choose a line from it that reveals something about Lucy’s character. Ask a representative from each group to write the line on the board with a short description of what it reveals about Lucy’s character thus creating a class mind map of Lucy’s character on the board. Ask students to copy into their workbooks. Edmund
September 2006

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

Page 16 of 22

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
texts for varying purposes, making justifiable interpretation s beyond a literal level

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

Students learn to:
6.4 use the features and structures of imaginative texts to compose their own texts and engage their audience

Distribute Worksheet 20: Character fact file: Edmund. Students need to find quotes from the story which highlight aspects of Edmund’s character and be creative in their own description of him. The White Witch Re-read relevant sections of the novel relating to the White Witch and then ask students to complete Worksheet 21: Describing a character: the White Witch. The worksheet is a scaffold of a character description. Students can then adapt the template to describe their thoughts about one of more other characters from the story. Aslan Use Worksheet 22: Who is Aslan? to discuss the character of Aslan and his role in the novel. Creating settings Distribute Worksheet 23: Creating settings. The four passages from the story illustrate how language is used to create the physical surroundings and atmosphere in major settings in the story. For each passage: Read it to the class and ask students:
  

Worksheet 20: Character fact file: Edmund Students’ SelfRegulation Worksheet 21: Describing a character: the White Witch

Students learn about:
4.8 the ways in which specific language forms and features and structures of text are used to shape meaning including: 2. in written texts: medium, organisation, sentence structures, grammar,
English Stage 4

Worksheet 22: Who is Aslan?

Worksheet 23: Creating settings Metalanguage Substantive Communication

6.5 Reads with understandin g a range of authentic texts for varying purposes,

Where does this passage fit into the story? What is it describing? What pictures (images) are created in your mind as you read this description?
September 2006

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NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
making justifiable interpretation s beyond a literal level 6.9a Write a variety of fictional or non-fictional narratives using orientation, complication and resolution 6.9b Write imaginative narratives showing plot development and character portrayal 6.9 Communi cates on a range of topics, marshalling


Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements High Expectations Social Support

punctuation, vocabulary and spelling, the use of formal or colloquial language and figurative language 4.13 the metalanguage of subject English used to describe, discuss and differentiate texts and their language forms, features and structures.

What words are used to create these images?

Ask students to underline in red pen the describing words they like in the passage, call them adjectives. Read the passage with some of the adjectives deleted. What is the effect? Ask students to highlight in different colours any similes and examples of personification in the passages. Their ability to do this will depend on the prior learning of figurative language techniques. Issue vivid, vibrant pictures of landscapes, interesting buildings or people to pairs of students. Ask them to describe the picture. Some students may need to begin by listing words and creating sentences from the words list. Show them how to construct a topic sentence introducing the image they are describing. Exploring themes 1. Heroism Assess, activate and build on students’ understanding of the concept of theme. Brainstorm themes in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, such as heroism, cowardice and betrayal, the forces of good versus evil. Focus on the theme of heroism. Jointly construct a class mind map of Aslan’s heroism
September 2006

Students learn to:
6.4 use the features and structures of imaginative texts to compose their own texts and engage their audience

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

Page 18 of 22

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/english/

Outcomes

ESL scales links
ideas through a variety of well-known text types 6.11 Writes a variety of coherent texts characterised by a cohesive and flexible use of language 6.12 Plans and revises writing to enhance its fluency, accuracy and readability

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements Deep Knowledge

Students learn to:
1.1 respond to imaginative, factual and critical texts, including the required range of texts, through wide and close listening, reading and viewing 1.5 interpret, question and challenge information and ideas in texts through close study 1.7 respond to and compose texts beyond the literal level

throughout the story. Ask all students to contribute ideas and show them how to support the statements they make about Aslan with reference to the text. Annotate the mind map with page references and short quotations that students find in the novel. Discuss the heroism displayed by the children in the story, especially Peter and Lucy. Ask students what they think about Peter’s actions in saving his sister from the wolf Maugrim. Record key ideas, page references and quotations on the board during the discussion. Students use this discussion and board notes as well as their own ideas and examples from the text to create their own mind map of the heroism displayed by the children drawing on the structure and content of the Aslan mind map for support. Students can do this in groups of 2 or 3 or individually. Issue Worksheet 24: Research task: My hero. Allocate class time for students to complete the research task on a person they admire using books from the school library and articles from the Internet. The general instructions are broad and you may wish to add extra criteria to either support or extend students. Extension Students find other examples of heroism in fiction and nonfiction texts, including the news. For example, they could research the story of Phi Nona, the boy who saved his two sisters after they were separated from their parents and toddler brother in the Torres Strait in 2004.
September 2006

Deep Understanding Higher-Order Thinking

High Expectations Worksheet 24: Research task: My hero Class access to the school library and the Internet Connectedness

Students learn about:
1.12 links between the ideas, information, perspectives
English Stage 4

6.9b Write imaginative narratives showing plot development and character

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Outcomes

ESL scales links
portrayal

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

and points of view presented in texts and their own background and experience

2. Religion Ask the students to draw up a two column table in their books. Drawing on the students’ background knowledge, summarise the main points from the account of Jesus’ death and resurrection on the board, and then ask students to write down any parallels they see in Aslan’s in the second column. Now read the account of Jesus’ death and resurrection in one of the New Testament Gospels in the Bible and then re-read the account of Aslan’s in Chapters 14-15. Add any further details to the table and discuss the sacrifice of Aslan being symbolic of the sacrifice of Jesus in the Bible. Distribute Worksheet 25: Symbolism which summarises the religious symbolism in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and read through together before asking students to write their own paragraph explaining how the Biblical account of Jesus’ death and resurrection compares to the account of Aslan’s in the novel. Model the language of comparison, encouraging students to use terms such as ‘is similar to’, ‘similarly’, ‘also’, ‘in contrast to’, ‘whereas’ and ‘however’. Worksheet 25: Symbolism A copy of one of the Gospels in the New Testament Background Knowledge Knowledge Integration

Students learn to:
10.2 identify and explore the ways different cultures, cultural stories and icons, including Australian images and significant Australians, including Aboriginal Australians, are depicted in texts

Students learn about:
10.6 representa tions of culture through choices of language and content
English Stage 4

Writing a fantasy story Ask students to imagine they have found their way into a
September 2006

Narrative

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Outcomes

ESL scales links

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements

10.8 signs, symbols, icons and stereotyping in texts and what they signify about different cultures 10.9 the ways culture and personal experience position composers and responders and influence response to and composition of texts

new and fantastic world. It can be similar to Narnia but it must be very different from their real life, people they know and their current surroundings. Ask them to write a fantasy story describing this world and their adventures in it. They should reflect on and use what they have learned from the activities on writing descriptions and narrative elements and structure in the course of the unit. See Worksheet 26: Writing a fantasy story. Worksheet 26: Writing a fantasy story

Part 4: Assessment for learning portfolio
Students select three pieces of work completed during the unit to revise, edit, polish and submit for marking in their learning portfolio. At least one piece of work must be word processed and one must be handwritten / drawn. The presentation of the third piece is the student’s choice. Teacher feedback will be in the form of performance descriptors. See Student/teacher information sheet 2: Assessment task and feedback guidelines for a list of possible compositions that students may choose from and the feedback descriptors. Student/teacher information sheet 2: Assessment task guidelines and feedback

Student Direction Significance: Narrative Explicit Quality Criteria High Expectations Student Direction

Students learn to:
6.2 compose a range of imaginative texts including narrative, poetry, instructions, scripts, advertisements and websites

Part 5: Additional content
Additional activities for students include:
September 2006

Students learn to:
English Stage 4

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Outcomes

ESL scales links
   

Teaching and learning activities

Resources

Quality Teaching dimensions and elements Engagement

6.2 compose a range of imaginative texts including narrative, poetry, instructions, scripts, advertisements and websites 1.1 respond to imaginative, factual and critical texts, including the required range of texts, through wide and close listening, reading and viewing

Inventing their own fantasy kingdom Creating a story map Writing a review of the 2005 film version of the novel and posting it on an internet fan site Reading the other books in the Narnia series: The Magician’s Nephew, The Horse and His Boy, Prince Caspian, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, The Silver Chair, The Last Battle. References Lewis, C.S. (1950) The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Melbourne: Penguin Books. Publications with classroom resources: Gazis, S., Slattery, J., Simon, W. and Shepherd, M., (1998) Literacy Links: A Student Handbook, Melbourne: Longman. Shepherd, M., (1995) The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe: Literature Unit, Melbourne: Hawker Brownlow Education.

Student Direction

English Stage 4 NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum K-12 Directorate

September 2006

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