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The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs
Michael Arnold
University of Melbourne Parkville Victoria 3010 Australia mvarnold@unimelb.edu.au

l ABSTRACT
Homes were connected electronically to the outside world less than 100 years ago. And now, (as if the home has not been burdened with enough responsibility), it is asked to play a major role as a communications node in a global network of interactive media. The homes of many (but not all), connect directly to friends, acquaintances, and 500 million strangers: to the local community, to work, to social, political, and commercial organizations, to entertainment and service providers. This paper describes a method to collaborate with households to investigate the effective uses of such technologies, the affects of this use, and how the home domesticates the technologies. To collaborate with households in the project we propose a novel research strategy derived from Gaver‟s “cultural probes”, and this strategy is described. In so doing, the paper hopes to make a methodological contribution to the empirical study of domestic ICTs at a time when the field of community networking is attracting a surge of research interest. strategy, and to combat other clans. This is just one of several worlds he inhabits at irregular intervals, some for fun, others for practical reasons. Right now he is supposed to be accessing this week‟s Competency Nodule from the Learning Provider – but he‟ll come to that later as his electronic organizer sends ever more insistent reminders. His organizer is coordinated with his stepmother‟s through the household‟s shared on-line diary – something he doesn‟t particularly like – but accepts as necessary if „Mum‟s Taxi Service‟ is to ferry him around. On the other hand, he hasn‟t found it necessary to leave the house for quite some time now. The picture continues with Mum sitting in the kitchen doing the home-management jobs - checking the week‟s purchases with the “smart” on-line refrigerator, checking banking transactions with her “smart agent” software, authorizing money to be moved from one account to another, and authorizing bills to be paid. That done, she switches to the Community Intranet to check the latest developments in local opposition to a proposed high-density development, and to look at the images of the school concert she missed last week. Dad is in Singapore for a few days but he remotely checks the home fax and his home voice mail for messages, while exchanging work files between his home office and his Sydney and Melbourne offices. Web-cams and the intelligent security system reassure him that all is well at home, and the family‟s array of mobile phones, networked computers, and on-line entertainment/communication centres keep him in voice, text and image contact in real-time, anytime, anyplace. The connected home in this technophilic picture of contemporary/near-future life is redolent of old-fashioned stereotypes and new-fashion imagery that some will find attractive and others depressing, but is none-the-less coming closer to the lived experience of affluent Australians with each new product release. To render this connected home tractable to research, it may be viewed in terms of ICT functions that interpolate it as a place of leisure, a command and control centre, a place for production, and a place for consumption. As a place of leisure, domesticated ICTs promise us context and content. In terms of context we are promised more time for ourselves – to be delivered through on-line, automated and labour-saving services ; creature comfort – to be delivered through automated, “smart home” technologies; and a sense of security – to be delivered through intelligent surveillance devices. In terms of entertainment content, the connected home contains a bewildering array of integrated, interactive home entertainment devices, for music production, television viewing, interactive

Categories and Subject Descriptors
K. [Computing Milieux] K4 [Computing in Society] K4.2 Social Issues K8 Personal Computing

General Terms
Design, Experimentation, Human Factors.

Keywords
Domestic Technologies, Telecommunication, Research Methods.

1. INTRODUCTION
The domestic landscape painted by LG, Motorola, Sony, and Microsoft, depicts a multitasking teenager in her bedroom plugged into a streamed music pod drawing on a database in Los Angeles, whilst texting her friends in the next street to review the day, and keeping half an eye on the “Michael Jackson is Innocent” discussion group. Perhaps she and her mates will swarm tonight at the HiFi bar, or perhaps the Jello Club, or perhaps someplace else. In the next room her brother has turned off the DVD on his plasma screen, and is playing an interactive first-person-shooter. He is “Tobar” in this world - a long-standing member of a „clan‟ that draws members from Japan, the US and Hong Kong to talk

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

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game playing, website surfing, chatting with distant others, exchanging files, and video and DVD viewing. The materiality of broadband, digital TV, home theatres and the like, manifests a broad cultural shift that relocates public entertainment and public spectacle from shared spaces such as football grounds and cinemas to private spaces – first the home lounge room, now in further dispersal to bedrooms. As a command and control centre these domesticated ICTs promise us access to detailed, real-time information about our finances, our consumption patterns, our commitments and priorities, and about one another, with the potential implied for increased control of our finances, consumption, commitments and priorities, and of one another. ICTs have an unprecedented facility for instrumental precision, and in the last half century they have played a vital role in sociotechnical regimes that are disciplined, regulated, standardised and precise. The Internet has vastly extended the reach of regimes that were once applied to local manufacturing and office processes, but now marshal resources and coordinate them across the globe. Promising similar levels of effectiveness and efficiency, ICTs are moving from industrial and commercial contexts to domestic contexts, bringing with them their ethos of efficiency, and where they may similarly articulate the tasks, schedules, and priorities of householders, and make them commensurable with others. As a centre of production the contemporary home trends back to its pre-modern role at the centre of human activity. As a centre of contemporary production, the home accumulates, produces, and transmits information in vast quantities. Firstly, the home is a data-mine of considerable value, exploited through invisible, routine surveillance and processing of commercial transactions and home utility and service use. Secondly, the home is used as a communications and publishing centre by members of the household, in the course of coordination, recreation, socializing, and self-expression. Thirdly, as the boundaries that confine work to defined places and times have weakened and disappeared, and the home returns to its role in the market economy, it takes its place as a data processing centre. Fourthly, to shift registers, the connected home also produces the subjects in the home. ICTs inscribe representations of users in their design, and by attributing and delegating a variety of responsibilities, competencies, needs and desires [18], these technologies interpolate users of various kinds [19]. Like traditional domestic technologies such as “white goods” (e.g. washing machines), and “brown goods” (e.g. hi-fi systems), contemporary ICTs are not just objects of consumption, but are also productive of genders, norms and roles. They inscribe values apart from those associated with functionality and usefulness [11] – though to foreground functionality and usefulness is also productive of a certain kind of value. But alongside production, the contemporary connected home is also significant as a centre of ICT consumption. Historically, information and communication technologies migrated from their place of origin – the workplace – to the domestic environment. Telephones, fax machines, mobile phones, computers, printers, scanners were all initially designed and marketed with the workplace in mind, only later to find their way into homes. This still occurs of course – for example, wireless local area networking is beginning to move to the home‟s computers. But in

addition to transferral, we also see that the home itself is often the first and primary target for ICT innovation and marketing [20]. Products such as interactive, digital television services; home shopping and home banking; “smart home” control of security, utilities, appliances, and services to the home; integrated, computer based entertainment hubs; commander style telephone systems; and “intelligent”, networked appliances, have all been marketed principally to the home rather than the workplace. And so, the home may now take its place as a fully integrated and articulated node in the digital space of flows. The contemporary home is truly a machine for living. What are we to make of this invitation to configure the home to be better entertained, organized, reachable, productive, consuming, communicative, at all times, from all places? What sort of life is this? What do we make of the effects and affects of these increasingly powerful, insistent and capable actors that now inhabit the most private of our environments? A study that attends to both the effective uses of domestic ICTs, and the emotive responses to this use, may be a necessary strategy.

1.1 Effects and Affects
To understand the effects (functional values) of these technologies we look at the work they perform to provide for leisure, command and control functions, production and consumption. We might therefore attend to effects such as the instrumental coordination of family members and others, social interaction and “phatic” communication between family members and others, security and safety functions, paid work activity, consumption, access to informational resources, and providing a mode for self expression. By examining functions such as these – cross referenced to who is using, when, in what circumstances and how often – researchers may draw conclusions about the implications – effects – of these uses on the household, and on the technology. To understand the affective (emotive) implications of the technology researchers must rely even more closely on the collaboration of the people in the homes in question. This poses considerable methodological difficulties for the researcher. We want access to routine home-life – problematic in itself. We want access to technologically permeated homes, which implies homeowners that are well to do – not the usual target for the social researcher‟s gaze. We want somehow to elicit subject, emotive responses, not the prosaic stuff of quantitative market research. Above all we want to hear the voices of the household. The method outlined below makes a stab at overcoming these difficulties, but first, just what technologies are we talking about?

1.2 Which Technologies?
Like the objects in a certain Chinese Encyclopaedia [2], the domestic technologies in question may be grouped in many ways. One strategy is to foreground certain technologies as the focus of study, whilst placing others in the background to provide the foreground with contrast and comparison. So, in the background, standing ready to cast light and shadow on our protagonists, are the older technologies associated with the connected home and domestic spaces [17, 22]. For example, the configuration of footpaths, walking tracks and roads, form complicated networks

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

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that have connected homes for thousands of years. Similarly, the presence, style and orientation of a fence, front garden, front porch, front door, windows, back-yard, and back fence, all invite or dissuade connection between the home and others. The orientation of one house to its neighbours – in a terrace, in a court, flanking a park, lining up along a straight road, backing onto a common lane, proximity to market places, parks, cafes and common “third spaces” – provide reasons and methods to connect or not connect, communicate and interact or not, engage with the community or not, and technologies as innocent as an automatic roller-door to a garage, make a great difference to casual, routine, everyday connections to others. Personal correspondence, letters, postcards and greeting cards, have made and broken many a marriage, friendship and business deal. Newspapers, pamphlets, and printed notices of various kinds have also connected the home to a wider social and cultural environment, and this form of connection has been strong enough to play a crucial role in the formation not just of community, but of society qua gesellschaft, modern nation states, and national identity [16]. These traditional spaces and devices provide the context for modes of action that are normative – the spoken word, exchanged face to face at the shopping centre; the chat over the fence, in the park, or at a school meeting; the written word on the postcard, or the long out of date school newsletters found crumpled in the bottom of the school bag. These familiar, traditional and normative modes of information and communication that connect the home may not be the main focus of a study of domestic ICTs, but provide the background “benchmarks” for comparing the effective and affective performance of domesticated digital and electronic communications technologies. The technologies in the foreground are best treated in a comprehensive way, rather than singling out this or that device for particular attention. A comprehensive treatment enables interactions among technologies to remain in the frame, along with function substitution, augmentation, and choice making between technologies. A comprehensive study of the home‟s ICTs would then embrace telephones and the growing multitude of wired and mobile services now offered; the internet and all of its domestic applications; broadcast media, now augmented by “new media” digital capacities; and community networks, once the gift of not-for-profit communitarian organizations to help create community where none was present, or strengthen it where it was damaged, or defend it where it was threatened, but now a commodity offered by property developers and body corporate managers as value-adding infrastructure in new estates. In summary then, we need a research method for the connected home that enables us to understand the affects and effects of domestic ICTs, in particular telephones, television, the internet, and residential community Intranets, against the background of traditional information and communication modes, as these domestic ICTs are used in the home for leisure, command and control, production, and consumption.

character flows from this. Direct observation is not always possible or desirable in private settings. Participant observation for example, is a reliable and justifiably well-regarded ethnographic method for application in the work place, but is intrusive and problematic to apply to peoples‟ routine home life. In any event, the presence of a field observer in a private environment such as a home, necessarily alters the environment to something less than private, with a concomitant effect on the social performances that take place within, and on the veracity of the study.

2.1 Part 1: The technology is Introduced
The approach begins conventionally enough with a standard ethnographic technique. Participating families are asked to take us on a “technology tour” of the home, and to provide a technology inventory [1]. The participants will show the researchers around, pointing out the technologies that reside therein and introducing them, explaining their origins, purposes, usefulness or lack thereof, their „character‟, their principle users, rationale for location in the home, and so on. This conversation about the connected home and its ICTs is semi-structured and open ended, and will provide an important introduction to the site and to the actors, and to the relationship between the actors – both human and technological. The conversation may be recorded, photographs taken, and diagrammes made and annotated for analysis in the standard ethnographic fashion.

2.2 Part 2: Domestic Probes
The intention of the “Domestic Probe” is that people are invited to tell their own story of their relationship with technology, and have fun doing so. Domestic Probes are derived from “Cultural Probes”, a method recently developed in response to the problems of user centred design [3-6, 8-12, 14] “Probes are collections of tasks designed to elicit inspirational information from people about their individual lives. Probes provide an alternative to more traditional methods of user research from the social sciences, such as questionnaire studies, focus groups, or ethnographies” [9]. Cultural Probes were intended to move technology design research away from strict issues of effect, function and efficiency, towards an understanding of and support for affective responses and ludic pursuits – playful activities that are meaningful and valuable to those who use technologies, and are thus meaningful and valuable for those of us researching those who use technologies. Combined with more traditional ethnographic methods, and used to supplement understandings developed through traditional ethnographic methods, Cultural Probes enable insights to be gathered from within the site in question, as technology is in use, thus maintaining “fidelity to the phenomenon” [4] without intruding on and disrupting the domestic setting. Following Gaver, Crabtree and others, we construct the “Domestic Probe”, adapted from the “Cultural Probe”. “Domestic Probes” are kits of provocative materials meant to elicit inspiring responses from people. We use them to learn about people‟s home lives for our research on domestic technologies… The returns offer fragmentary glimpses into the rich texture of people‟s home lives” [14].

2. Approach
The aim of such a method is to gain a better understanding of the effects and affects of contemporary machines for living, through examining technologies in use, in situ. But of course the home is a quintessentially private space, and its peculiar and important

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

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Our collaborators will be introduced to the purposes, uses and possibilities of the Domestic Probe, and at the conclusion of the initial connected home tour, participants are given their “Domestic Probe Pack”.

fragments of the connected home in action, and together they constitute an autobiographical montage telling the story of the connected home. 4. A “Connected Home Diary” given to each member of the household and formatted to encourage participants to record their use of connecting technologies – when, why, with what degree of satisfaction, perceptions, impressions, reflections, and anything else the participant wants to note about their experiences with technology. 5. A “random sampler”, comprising an old mobile phone with an unusual ring-tone. When the phone rings (triggered by the researchers) the household takes an immediate “snapshot” of its technology use at that time, using the camera, diary, or other probe device. 6. A “frustro-metre”: a whimsical artefact, in the form of a foam hammer, club, or brick, used by members of the household to mete out a thrashing to badly behaved technology. A pedometer secreted in the device records a rough count of the blows delivered over the research period.

Fig 1. A domestic probe pack1.

The pack consists of a variety of artefacts specifically designed to “probe” the connected home in action, and leave archaeological traces in its wake that stimulate reflection on the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs. The precise contents of the pack depends upon the makeup and preferences of the household in question, and is subject to consultation and negotiation with each household, but in “standard” form might comprise – 1. A set of stamped postcards addressed to the researchers. The image on each postcard is of a communications technology typically found in target homes. On the reverse are questions or statements designed to elicit comment on the technology and its use, and participants are invited to dash off a response and post it as the inspiration strikes them. The questions and statements are open-ended or oblique, and seek an affective response to particular technologies, rather than specifics of use (e.g. “I love it when….”). 2. A set of small stickers, colour-coded to represent each member of the household, and stamped with simple mood-indicating image to represent the affective response to technology use. Stickers are left in handy locations around the house, and participants are asked to apply a sticker to a device each time they use it. The history that builds and becomes ever more evident is a source of reflection for participants and for researchers. 3. The loan of a digital camera to take photographs and short video clips of technology in use. Participants are invited to photograph routine use, and unusual or notable use. Participants are also invited to annotate the images with their comments – either by voice through the camera , or after uploading to a computer . Individually, the photos capture representations of

7. A series of maps that cover the local neighbourhood, the metropolitan area, the country, and the globe, on which participants are asked to record their communications destinations. Sticky notes or coloured pins can be placed in position on the appropriate map, to recall the name of the interlocutor, the date, and perhaps the purpose of the communication. 8. Statements of transactions and accounts due, provide traces of phone use, internet use, and perhaps other modes of connection. Duplicates of these are collected in a container in the Probe Pack and may be annotated to indicate effects and affects. 9. Sedimentary piles of newspapers, junk-mail, school notices, Neighbourhood Watch newsletters and the like, also join the Probe Pack and provide traces of inward bound connections to the home. 10. The Community Intranet routinely captures data about its use, and its users. Traces of postings, pages accessed, time of login and logout, and other data are stored and processed by the server, and are potentially available to the Domestic Probe.

2.3 Part 3: Debriefing
At the conclusion of a negotiated time period (say, two weeks), the researchers will meet with the participants to collect or record the traces, and to discuss initial impressions. Participants and researchers will subsequently meet a second time for a more considered conversation, and to enable the researchers to make a presentation of the collated and attractively bound traces to the household – as a thank-you gift, and a multimedia memento. It is hoped that the traces will guide and stimulate open-ended, semistructured conversations, of the kind commonly employed in ethnographic research. The traces are not “evidence” as such, but act as conversation starters and stimulants for reflection. Although the researchers record, interpret and analyse probe-traces and the conversations, the probe requires the close collaboration of the participants, not just as passive data sources – as subjects of research – but as full participants. Not only are they responsible

1

See http://www.crd.rca.ac.uk/equator/domestic_probes.html

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

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for the traces that build up as the probe is used, the probe‟s traces invite participants to reflect upon and articulate their relations with the technology as the traces accumulate. The focus of analysis is not “…. the material artefacts of the probes – the tapes, the photos, the booklets and diaries, etc. – but rather, the situated character of everyday life …. elaborated by participants‟ accounts of their daily rhythms, routines, and abiding concerns. Such accounts supplement and augment insights gained from direct observation and are generated through cooperative analysis of the returned probe material. Probe materials serve as triggers for analysis then and in asking people to administer them we transform participants into active enquirers into their everyday lives, rather than passive subjects of our research”.[3]

notable in that the empirical work is collaborative; researchers can do more than tell someone else‟s story, but can also provide people with resources to tell their own. The choice of the home as the site for the study is also significant. The home is a social space of a particularly important kind, and has always been an important site for social studies. It is a private space for small groups of intimates. Agency, social structure, power relations, identity, subjectivity, all work differently in the home. The way a home is constituted and the way it performs is crucially important to people, to our culture and society, and crucially important to understand as a sociotechnical environment. With the important exception of feminist scholars – for example Judy Wajcman, – studies of technologically mediated practices have been conducted in the workplace. Consequently, a plethora of important institutions, disciplines, publications and paradigms have grown up around the study of ICTs in the workplace, and workplace ICT research exceeds home focused research by at least an order of magnitude [15]. The home is also an historically fluid, shape-changing institution – at times a sanctuary, meeting place, private place, place of violence, launching place, reproductive space, material asset, headquarters, resource base, resting place, entertainment centre, and so on, for changing combinations of people. A study that focuses on the home‟s performance as a node in a network of connections enables us to focus on that fluidity. That is, how the home is reshaped or configured socially and materially to accommodate and domesticate the connecting technology; how the boundary is drawn around the home, and how it is patrolled to control entry and egress in a space of flows; how the technologies are distributed within the home, which sociotechnical “spaces” are private and which are communal; who uses them and who does not, when, and for what, and under what circumstances; how technologies perform to interpolate the home and the homemakers; how technologies are matched to particular purposes in the home; how the technologies interact, compare, complement and compete with one another; who the communicators, and the technophiles and technophobes; and how the technology is appropriated and domesticated. A study of the affective performance and implications of ICTs is in itself innovatory – systems designers and human-computer interface specialists being more commonly interested in effective issues of functionality and efficiency. To understand the affects of the technology and the connection, we need to know how these are “imagined” [21], and how they are regarded by “homoludens” [8]. What is our relationship with these things, with which we spend so much time? What is their character? What are they seen to be? All of these questions go to life in the connected home, and … “then, yes then, through all this turmoil, a question still haunts us like a spectre: What for? – Whither? – And what then?” [13]

3. Conclusion
Studies of domestic ICTs as sociotechnical phenomena are clearly important. A study such as that suggested here can make an interesting contribution to the field for 4 reasons: a) it directly addresses the foundational controversy of the Philosophy of Technology and Science and Technology Studies; b) it does so empirically, through a innovatory method that in itself is worthy of investigation; c) the field of study, the home, is of significant import; and c) the focus on ICT affect as well as effect is significant. These points will be taken in turn. The question that energises the Philosophy of Technology and provides it with its raison d‟etre is usually put in binary terms – does the presence of ever more capable technologies enrich and enable our lives, or have technologies drained humanity of something that is of immense value? A very long list of eminent scholars, commentators, scientists, entrepreneurs and technologists have contributed to this ongoing debate, that ultimately goes to the ontology of humanity and the phenomenology of our experience of life – Heidegger, Mumford, Ellul, Borgman, Postman and others are brought forward to lead the critique of technology as a force of control, domination and exploitation of people and of nature, and Negreponte, Kelly, Barlow, Papert and others arguing that technologies are instrumental tools that can empower and enrich. A third position, taken by Haraway, Hayles, Latour, Callon and others, denies that there is a Cartesian subject that sits opposite technology to be either master or slave, and argues that the “ontological separation of the human and the technological no longer offers the best model for describing our relationship with, and experience of technology” [7]. This argument about our reflexive engagement with technology is clearly important for the ongoing philosophical project of working through what it is to be human in an environment shared with technologies, and is also important for the pragmatic understanding of those who design and manufacture those technologies, and for those who consume and use those technologies – which of course is all of us. A study such as that suggested, seeks to contribute to this foundational controversy not only through reflection, but also empirically, by collaboratively examining and reporting the experience of those who lead that life. Polemical, abstract and reflective interventions that question the affects and effects of a technically mediated life are valuable, but so too are contributions grounded in the lived experience of those in the technologically saturated space of flows. The form of the suggested study is also

4. References
[1] Blythe, M. and Monk, A. Notes Towards an Ethnography of Domestic Technology. Communications of the ACM DIS2002. 277-281.

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

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[2] Borges, J.L. Other Inquisitions 1937-1952. University of Texas Press, 1993. [3] Crabtree, A., Hemmings, T. and Rodden, T., Supporting Communication Within Domestic Settings. Electronic document, available at http://www.crito.uci.edu/noah/HOIT%20Papers/Supporting %20Comm%20Domestic.pdf. 2003. Last accessed Feb., 2004. [4] Crabtree, A., Hemmings, T., Rodden, T., Cheverst, K., Clarke, K., Dewsbury, G., Hughes, J. and Rouncefield, M., Designing with care: adapting Cultural Probes to Inform Design in Sensitive Settings. in Proceedings of OzCHI2003: New Directions in Interaction, information environments, media and technology, (Brisbane, Australia, 2003), CHISIG. [5] Crabtree, A., Hemmings, T., Rodden, T., Clarke, K., Dewsbury, G., Hughes, J., Rouncefield, M. and Sommerville, I. „Sore Legs and Naked Bottoms‟: Using Cultural Probes in Dependability Research”, Electronic document, available at http://www.mrl.nott.ac.uk/~axc/documents/DIRC_2002.pdf. 2002. Last accessed Feb., 2004. [6] Crabtree, A., Nichols, D.M., O'Brien, J., Rouncefield, M. and Twidale, M.B. Ethnomethodologically informed ethnography and information system design. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51 (7). 666-682. [7] Dholakia, N. and Zwick, D. Mobile Technologies and Boundaryless Spaces: Slavish Lifestyles, Seductive Meanderings, or Creative Empowerment?, HOIT 2003, Electronic document, available at http://ritim.cba.uri.edu/wp2003/pdf_format/HOIT-MobilityTechnology-Boundary-Paper-v06.pdf. 2003. Last accessed Feb., 2004. [8] Gaver, B., Designing for Ludic Aspects of Everyday Life. Electronic document, available at http://www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_News/enw47/gaver. html. 2001. Last accessed Jan, 2004. [9] Gaver, B., Domestic Probes. Electronic document, available at http://www.crd.rca.ac.uk/equator/domestic_probes.html. 2004. Last accessed Jan 22 2004, 2004. [10] Gaver, B., Dunne, T. and Pacenti, E. Design: Cultural probes. interactions, 6 (1). 21-29.

[11] Gaver, B. and Martin, H. Alternatives: Exploring Information Appliances through Conceptual Design Proposals. CHI 2000, 2 (1). 209-216. [12] Gaver, W.W. „Home is Heaven for Beginners‟ Probes and Proposals for Domestic Technologies, Position paper for CHI‟02 Workshop on Technology for Families, 2002. Electronic document, available at http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/interliving/chi02/gaver.pdf. 2002. Last accessed Feb., 2004. [13] Heidegger, M. An Introduction to Metaphysics. Anchor, New York, 1959. [14] Hemmings, T., Crabtree, A., Rodden, T., Clarke, K. and Rouncefield, M., Probing the Probes. Electronic document, available at http://machen.mrl.nott.ac.uk/PublicationStore/2002hemmings-2.pdf. 2001. Last accessed Feb, 2004. [15] Hindus, D. The Importance of Homes in Technology Research, ACM CoBuild‟99 conference paper, 1999. Electronic document, available at http://www.debbyhindus.com/documents/HindusCoBuild99.pdf. 1999. Last accessed Feb, 2004. [16] James, P. Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. Sage, London, 1996. [17] Kitchin, R. Cyberspace: The World in the Wires. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2000. [18] Oudshoorn, N., Rommes, E. and Stienstra, M. Configuring the User as Everybody: Gender and Design Cultures in Information and Communication Technologies. Science, Technology and Human Values, 29 (1). 30-63. [19] Smith, S. “Connected to the Network: The Semiotics, Sociology and Political Economy of Mobile Telecommunications in Australia”. PhD. Thesis, School of English, Media Studies and Art History and School of Social Sciences, University of Queensland, 2001. [20] Venkatesh, A. Computers and Other Interactive Technologies for the Home. Communications of the ACM DIS2002, 39 (12). 47-54. [21] Verran, H. Re-imagining land ownership in Australia. Postcolonial Studies, 1 (2). 237-254. [22] Wertheim, M. The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of space from Dante to the Internet. Doubleday, Sydney, 1999.

Arnold, M. (2004) "The Connected Home: probing the effects and affects of domesticated ICTs" in Adrian Bond (Ed.) Artful Integration: Interweaving media, materials and practices (Vol. 2), proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, July 27-31, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA


				
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