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Sahiti sravanti July-Sep2009

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AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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Edited, printed and published by E N Murthy on behalf of The Alpha Foundation, C.P. Brown Academy, 104, Nirmal Towers, Megacity No. 200, Dwarakapuri Colony, Punjagutta, Hyderabad-500 082, India. Printed at ICIT Software Centre Private Ltd. Plot No. 165 & 166(P), Phase-V, IDA, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad - 500055, India.

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'™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou—Ö’ „ѨK«∞iO z# ~°K#Å∞ PÜ«∂ ~°K~Ú`«Å « « Jaè„áêÜ«∂Å∞ =∂„`«"∞Õ . ã≤.Ñ≤. „É∫<£ JHÍ_» g ∞ "å\˜ ` À UH©ÉèíqOK«#=ã¨~°O ÖË^Œ∞.

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PKå~°º `«∞=∞‡Ñ¨Ó_ç HÀ\©â◊fi~°~å=Ù

''„|Ǩχ ã¨$+≤ì x~å‡}Ï#O`«~°O, qâ◊fi(ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞ʼnõΩ) P^è•~°OQÍ „âıÜ≥∂~°∂Ѩ"≥∞ÿ# ^èŒ~å‡xfl
ã¨$+≤ìOKå_»∞. P ^èŒ~°‡OáêÅ#‰õΩ áêʼnõΩ_»∞ Hõ#∞Hõ<Õ ^èŒ~°‡O HõO>Ë „âı+¨ì"≥∞ÿ#k ÖË^Œ∞—— (|$ǨÏ^•~°}ºHÀѨx+¨`«∞Î 1–4–14)
~åA ´ Hõ∆„uÜ«Ú_»∞ Ѩi}q∞OKÕ â◊s~° ã¨∂„`«O, (Hõ∆„`«ó ´ #tOKÕk) J`«xÖ’x ^èŒ~°‡ã¨fi~°∂ѨO |∞∞+≤† „|Ǩχâ◊H˜Î (#Hõ∆„`«O) „¿Ñ~°}â◊H˜ÎÜ≥ÿ∞# |∞∞+≤H˜ Hõ„∆ uÜ«∞ â◊s~åxH˜ [iˆQ q"åǨÏO ^•fi~å ~å[i¬– [x‡ã¨∞<åfl_»∞. Î (q=~åʼnõΩ „H˜O^Œ #∞^•Ç¨ÏiOz# „QÆO^äŒO K«∂K«∞HÀ"åe ÖË^• <å âıfi`«K«Ûù„`«O). ("Õ^ŒO „|Ǩχ=∞#fl =∂@<Õ Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞ `«# 'P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ—Ö’x Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞ºÅ ~å[huÖ’ WÖÏ J<åfl_»∞. '^èŒ~°‡ã¨fi~°∂ѨÙÖˇ·# kfiAÅ ~°Hõ∆}‰õΩ, ^•#O ™êfi`«‡~°Hõ∆}‰õΩ *Ï˝#=Ú ZO`Õ <å~åÜ«∞}∞ ™È~°∞=Ú—— (~å[huÖ’ Ѩ^ŒºO).
"Forward the spiritual authority unto their union (Spiritual authority and Temporal Power in the Indian, Theory of Government".

„¿Ñ^ŒO „|Ǩχ – „¿Ñ^ŒO Hõ∆„`«O „|ǨχHõ∆„`«Ü≥∂ó ã¨O㨯 $`≥·ºó (S`«ˆ~Ü«∞O) „¿Ñ^ŒO Hõ∆„`«O J#fl=∂@‰õΩ ^•#O K≥Ñ≤Ê– „¿Ñ^ŒO „|Ǩχ â◊ÉÏÌxH˜ *Ï˝ # O– <å~åÜ« ∞ }∞x ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_» ∞ . JO>Ë "Õ ^ Œ H ÍÅO #∞O_ç ~å=∂Ü«∞}–=∞ǨÉèÏ~°`åk =∞¿ÇÏuǨ™êÅ^•fi~å H“\˜ÅºO =O\˜ âß„ã¨Î „QÆO^ä•Å ^•fi~å U ~å[i¬`«`«fiO K≥ѨÊ|_»∞`«∂– ~åÜ«∞Å"åi ^•HÍ áêÅ# ~° ∂ Ѩ O Ö’ |Ç≤ Ï ~° æ ` « = ∞ø`« ∂ =㨠∞ Î O ^À– ^•xx ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞ `«# HÍ=ºOÖ’ Zxq∞^Œ= =O`«∞ Ѩ^•ºÖ’¡ (100 Ѩ^•ºÖ’¡) ã¨O„QÆÇ≤ÏOKå_»∞. J^≥O`« âß„ã‘ÎÜ«∞"≥∂ JO`« ™êfi#∞Éèí=O. `å`«Ê~°º"Õ∞=∞O>Ë ~åÜ«∞Å"åi HÍ=º x~å‡} „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ XHõ |$ǨÏ`ü (=∞ǨÏ`ü ´ HÍã≤‡H±) ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞ (ã≤O|Ü≥∂ã≤ãπ) =Ú#flk. Jk =¸_»OK≥Å∞QÍ LO@∞Ok. 1. ã¨$+≤ìÖ’x ã¨=∞ã¨Î r=*ÏÖ=ÚÅ =∞^茺 ã¨=∞`«. 2. =ºH˜Î (ã¨=∂[O) „ѨHõ$u ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O. 3. =ºH˜Î { „ѨHõ$u { ^≥·=O ´ q~å@û=∞#fiÜ«∞O. =ºH˜ÎH˜ „ѨHõ$u â◊s~°O† <å~åÜ«∞}∞#‰õΩ #~°∞_»∞ â◊s~°O.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 5

W^ŒO`å â◊s~° { P`«‡ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞"å^ŒO... "Õ^•O`« ѨiÉèÏ+¨Ö’ Hõ~°‡ { *Ï˝# ã¨=ÚK«ÛÜ«∞"å^ŒO ("≥·+¨‚=O K≥Ñ≤Ê#k^Õ). WO^Œ ∞ Ö’ ~åA „Ѩ * Ï㨠= ∞#fiÜ« ∞ 㨠fi ~° ∂ Ѩ " ≥ ∞ ÿ # ~å[^è Œ ~ ° ‡ O (P^Œ~°≈ „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO) ~å[i¬ ã≤^•úO`«"≥ÚHõ¯>Ë WHõ¯_» K≥ѨÊ|_»∞`«∞#flk. ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë Jk <Õ\˜H© J`«º=ã¨~°O Hõ#Hõ. Ô~O_»∞ ã≤^•úO`åÅ∞<åfl~Ú. ~å[^èŒ~°‡ q+¨Ü«∞HõOQÍ 1. P^Œ~°≈ (P^蕺`«‡Hõ) „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO 2. PkèHÍiHõ „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO. "≥Ú^Œ\˜k ÉèÏ~°fÜ«Ú_»∞ „ѨuáêkOz#k. W^Õ |$ǨÏã¨Êu =∞`«O– Ô~O_»=k â◊√„Hõ=∞`«O. â◊√„Hõ=∞`« "Õ∞=∞O>Ë =∂ˆHqe¡~Ú<£ („áêâßÛ`«º) ‰õ∆Ω„^Œ~å[hu"å^ŒO. nxx QÆ∞iOz J"≥∞iHÍ Ñ¨O_ç`«∞_»∞ _®II "≥∞HõOr „É∫#∞– `«# âıfi`«K«Ûù„`«O ("≥·\ò JO„ɡÖÏ¡) (Wk â◊`«Ñ¨^èŒ „ÉÏǨχ}OÖ’x =∂@) „QÆO^äŒOÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`«OÖ’ Wk Hõ}˜Hõ~å[huÖ’ HõxÊã¨∞ÎOk. (PkѨ~°fiO Zxq∞^Œ= Pâßfiã¨OÖ’ ^Œ∞~Àº^èŒ#∞xH˜ Hõ}˜‰õΩ_»#fl"å_»∞ K≥ÑÊ#@∞¡) nx#∞^•Ç¨Ïiã¨∂Î =∂ˆHqe¡~Ú<£ =∞`«O HõxÊã¨∞Ok J<åfl_»∞. ≤ Î HÍh Jk „Ѩ u <åÜ« ∞ Hõ q+¨ Ü « ∞ O Hõ # ∞Hõ Jkè H ÍiHõ ~å[hux â◊√„Hõ=∞`«OQÍ K≥Ñ≤Ê ã¨ÉèÏѨ~°fiOÖ’ <å~°^Œ∞_»∞ ^èŒ~°‡~åA#‰õΩ ~å[^èŒ~°‡O „Ѩɒ^èŒO KÕ™êÎ_»∞. Wk <åÜ«∞‰õΩx ѨHõ∆OQÍ (^èŒ~°‡~åA ´ ~å[^èŒ~°‡O) ÉèÏ~°`«OÖ’ =∂\˜=∂\˜H˜ "å_»|_»¤ â◊|ÌO ^èŒ~°‡O `«Ñ¨Ê hu HÍ^Œ∞. hu JO>Ë ™ê=∂lHõO. ^èŒ~°‡=∞O>Ë SÇ≤ÏHõ =Ú+≤‡Hõ ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O. Ô~O_»∂ "Õˆ~fi~°∞QÍ „áêp#∞Å∞ K≥áêÊ~°∞. ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞ D Ô~O\˜x ^Œ$+≤ìÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ìH˘x ~åA JO>Ë Uq∞\’ x~°fiz™êÎ_»∞. P^蕺`«‡Hõ |∞∞+≤`«fiO ֒ѨŠã¨∞Êùi¿ãÎ ^•xx ^èŒ~°‡OQÍ Hõ~°‡ ~°∂ѨOÖ’ PK«iOKÕ"å_»∞ ~åA. ‰õÅã≤#"åx<Õ ~å[i¬ J<åfl~°∞. ^•x `å`« Ê ~° º O q=i㨠∂ Î ... P#O^Œ ‰ õ Ω =∂~° ™ êfiq∞QÍ~° ∞ K≥|∞`«∞<åfl_»∞ ÃÑ· „QÆO^äOÖ’. "spiritual authority and Temporal Œ
Power in the theory of Indian Government. "The kingship envisaged by the Indian and traditional

AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

doctrine is then as far removed as could well be from what we mean when we speak of an absolute Monarchy or of 'Individualism', the supposedly Machievellain. Artha Sastra asserts (1-6) that only a ruler who rules himself can forge flatly rule others! whatever sovereign even one whose dominion extends to the ends of the earth is of perverted disposition and ungoverned senses' must quickly perish going on to say that. That whole of this science has to do with a victory over the powers of perception and Action.(P. 86)

''Hõ$`«ûflO âß„ã¨Î q∞^ŒO WO„kÜ«∞ [Ü«∞ó——– (1–6) D J~°÷âß„ã¨ÎO WO„kÜ«∞ [Ü«∂~°÷O K≥ѨÊ|_ç#k JO>Ë Z=_»∞ ã¨fiH©ÜÕ∞O„kÜ«∞ =∞<ÀqHÍ~°"≥∂ "å_Õ ~åA HÍ"åe– Jx ''`«#∞^•# `˘Å∞`« ÔQÅ∞=<£ =∞#∞[ѨuH˜ =ÅÜ«Ú– (âßOu 2–276) q#∞=Ú `«#∞fl ÔQÅ∞K«∞@∞# "Õ~˘HõO_≥, ѨO KÕO„kÜ«∞=ÚÅ `«∂ÅhHõ H˘Åk <åQÆ∞@Ü«∞ l`ÕO„kÜ«∞`«fiO|∞QÆÅ– ~åA iѨÙÅ K≥~°∞= ÉÏÅ∞ #$Ѩ=ˆ~}º (âßOu 2–277) Wk ÉèÏ~°`« ~å[^èŒ~°‡O. W^Õ ÃÑ· POQÆ¡ "åHͺʼnõΩ `å`«Ê~°ºO. Ü«∂OQ∑ J<åfl_»∞. H˘xfl "ÕÅ ã¨O=`«û~åÅ „H˜`«"Õ∞ phÜ«ÚÅ∞ ~Ú<£–Ü«∂OQ∑ ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O K≥áêÊ~°∞. JO>Ë pHõ\˜ („ã‘Î) "≥Å∞QÆ∞Å (ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_»∞) ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O (ã¨∂~°º { K«O„^Œ ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O). W^Õ „áêp# Éè Ï ~° ` « ~å[=OâßÅ ~å=∂Ü« ∞ }O 㨠∂ ~° º =Oâ◊ Q Í^ä Œ . Éè Ï ~° ` « O K«O„^Œ=Oâ◊ Hõ^äŒ. „ѨѨOK«O– qâ◊fiO Ô~O_»∞ q~°∞^•úOâßÅ =∞^茺 Ѷ¨∞~°¬} Ѩ_»∞`«∞Ok. =∞ǨÏi¬ ^•xx ã¨=∞#fi~ÚOz =∞ǨHÍ=ºO ã¨$+≤ì™êÎ_»∞. 'J^Õ— ™ê=∂lHõ =ºH˜Î qâ◊fi ^≥·= ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞OQÍ =ºHõÎ=∞ø`«∞Ok. nxx ÉèÏ~°fÜ«Ú_»∞ K«`«∞~å„â◊=∂Å ^•fi~å Ѩi+¨¯iOKå_»∞. 1. „|ǨχK«~°ºO– q^•ºã¨Oã¨÷– WHõ¯_» QÆ∞~°∞t+¨º|O^èŒO. 2. QÆ$ǨÏã¨÷ ÖË^• QÍ~°›ã¨÷ºO ´ WHõ¯_» „ã‘ÎѨÙ~°∞+¨|O^èŒO. 3. ("å# „Ѩã¨÷O) – ~åR=º=ã¨÷ – WHõ¯_» ~åA { „Ѩ*Ï|O^èŒO. 4. ã¨<åºã¨O – =ºH˜Î { ^≥·"åÅ ã¨O|O^èŒO P`« ‡ { â◊ s ~° 㨠= ∞#fiÜ« ∞ O, D <åÅ∞QÆ ∞ ~° H ÍÅ [O@Š㨠= ∞#fiÜ« ∞ O. U^≥ · < å 㨠O Ѷ ¨ ∞ ~° ¬ }#∞ 㨠= ∞#fi~ÚOz 㨠= ∞`« # ∞ ã¨$+≤ìOK«@O. „Ѩã¨∞Î`åOâ◊O ~åAÅ „Ѩ*Ï ã¨=∞#fiÜ«∞O.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 6

~åA#‰õΩ „Ѩ[ â◊s~°=Ú– „Ѩ[‰õΩ ~å*Ï`«‡ (âßOu 2–274) ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞ ã¨iQÍæ WÖψQ J<åfl_»∞† Jx ''~åR =~°ú#"≥∞^ŒQÀ~°∞ ~åA "Õ∞Å∞ ~åR=Ú#∞ HÀ~°∞——– (4–205) â◊s~° ã¨O~°Hõ∆} KÕã¨∞H˘O>Ë P`«‡ ~°Hõ∆ U~°Ê_»∞`«∞Ok. D Ѩ~°ã¨Ê~° P^è•~å^èÕÜ«∞ÉèÏ=O =Å¡ ã¨=∂[ âßOu U~°Ê_»∞`«∞Ok. ~åA#‰õΩ Ô~O_»∞ â◊s~åÅ∞ 1. `«#k 2. „Ѩ[Å∞. „Ѩ[ ´ ã¨O`å#O Hõ#∞Hõ `«e¡, Ñ≤Å¡Å#∞ K«∂K«∞H˘#fl@∞¡ ~åA „Ѩ[Å#∞ K«∂K«∞HÀ"åe Jx ÉèÏ~°`«O– J^Õ ~åÜ«∞Å"åO„_»∞ ÃÑ· Ѩ^ŒºO ^•fi~å K≥Ñ≤ÊOk. nxHÀã¨O ã¨fiâ◊s~°O– ã¨=∂[ ~°∂Ѩ „Ѩ*Ï â◊s~°O– HÍáê_»∞HÀ"åe. `«# â◊s~åxfl HÍáê_»∞H˘#fl@∞¡ „Ѩ*Ï â◊s~åxfl HÍáê_®e– J#\ÏxH˜ PÜ«∞# âı¡ëêÅOHÍ~°~°∂ѨOÖ’ Ô~O\˜h ã¨=∞#fi~Úã¨∂Î K≥Ñ≤Ê# Ѩ^Œºq∞k. ™êOQÆ ~ å[º "≥ Ú Ô H `« ∞ Î Q Í ™êfiOQÆ ~ å[º "≥ Ú Hõ ¯ Z`« ∞ Î Q Í #$Ѩ u PÜ«Ú+¨ºÑ¨~°`« (4–270) â◊s~° ~°Hõ∆} =∞O„`«∞Å ^•fi~å =∞O„`åOQÆ, ã¨áêÎOQÆO (~åA–J=∂`«º– ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«– HÀâ◊– [#Ѩ^Œ– |Å– ^Œ∞~åæÅ∞– U_»∞ JOQÍÅ∞, ZHõ¯_≥Hõ¯_» ¿ÇÏ=∂kx^èŒ∞Å∞– (Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°ºÅ‰õΩ Hõ^äŒÖ’ N~°OQÆ<å^äŒ∞_»#fl xkè Åaèã¨∞ÎOk.) #Å¡^èŒ#O L<åflÜ≥∂ QÆ∞iÎOz „Ѩ*Ï#∞QÆ∞}OQÍ r=#=∂~åæÅ∞ HõeÊOK«@O. Jk "≥·^Œ∞ºx ^•fi~å Wk =∞O„u ^•fi~å. WO^Œ∞ˆH ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°<åfl~°∞. ''~åA#‰õΩ Ç≤Ï`«∞Å∞– JÇ≤Ï`«∞Å∞– Ç≤Ï`åÇ≤Ï`«∞Åx =¸_»∞ =~åæÅ∞QÍ ¿ã=‰õΩÅ∞O\Ï~°∞——. Ç≤Ï`«∞Å∞–"≥·^Œ∞ºÅ∞, *’ºu+¨µº_»∞, ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞Å∞, Hõ=ÙÅ∞ WO^Œ∞Ö’ ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞x ™ê÷#"Õ∞q∞\˜? „áêp# =∞O„u Ѩi+¨`«∞ÎÖ’ W`«xHÍ™ê÷# =Ú#flk ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ? ÉèÏ~°`«O ã¨ÉèÏѨ~°fiOÖ’– <å~°^Œ∞_»∞. nè~°∞_»∞, ^èŒ~å‡^èŒ~°‡q âß~°^Œ∞_»∞, |Ǩï„â◊√`«∞O_»∞, ã¨=∞z`«∞Î_»∞, N"å}©~°=∞}© „t`«=^Œ#㨠~À~°∞Ǩï_»#[#∞<≥ hѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞_»kèáê! Wk ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞Å ÅHõ∆}O. „Ѩ^è•#=∞O„u Ѩi+¨`«∞ÎÖ’ ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞ ÖˇO^Œ∞HõO>Ë– =∞O„`«∞ÖËq^èŒOQÍ ~å[^èŒ~°‡ ^Œ$ëêìº ^èŒ~°‡ ™ê÷Ѩ#=∂~åæÅ∞ K≥|∞`å~À J^Õq^èŒOQÍ P^蕺u‡Hõ PkÉè∫uHõ L`åÊ`åʼnõΩ q~°∞QÆ∞_»∞ K≥|∞`å~°∞ Hõ#∞Hõ. Ju=$+≤ì, J<å=$+≤ì =O\˜ "å\˜x `˘ÅyOz „Ѩ*Ï~°Hõ∆} ZÖÏ KÕÜ«∂e Jx ~åA ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞x ã¨O„Ѩk¿ãÎ J`«_»∞ Ü«∞[˝Ü«∂QÍ^Œ∞Å∞ KÕ~ÚOz "å\˜x x"åi™êÎ_»∞. WÖÏO\˜ ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞_Õ ##flÜ«∞ ~å[~å[#ˆ~O„^Œ∞#‰õΩ, P Ѩ^Œº=∞O`å PÜ«∞# ã¨fiÉèÏ= Hõ^äŒ#"Õ∞. ~åÜ«∞Å"åiH˜ #~°fit~°ó „Ѩ^è•x ™êà◊fiu=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞ ˆH=Å =∞O„u HÍ^Œ∞. J`«_»∞ ã¨~åfiQÆ=∞áê~å"å~°áês}∞_»∞ Hõ#Hõ ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞ ‰õÄ_®!
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

D L`åÊ`åʼnõΩ =∞# ~å*ϺOQÆOÖ’ x"å~°}ÀáêÜ«∂Å∞ ÖË=Ù. Wk áêâßÛ`«ºO Hõ#Hõ. ("Õ∞Ѷ¨∞=∞^èŒ#O =O\˜k ã¨`«Êùe`åÅx=fiÖË^Œ∞.) „áêp# K«„Hõ=iÎ P^蕺u‡Hõ, PkÉè∫uHõ– Éè∫uHõ "Õ`«Î W=hfl ~åÜ«∞Å"åiÖ’ L<åflÜ«∞#\ÏxH˜ PÜ«∞# K≥Ñ≤Ê# HÍ=º"Õ∞– ~å[^èŒ~°‡"Õ∞ ™êHõ∆ºO. ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞_»O>Ë Éèíq+¨º`ü Ç≤Ï`«O `≥eã≤ É’kèOKÕ "å_»x J~°÷O. #ˆ~O„^Œ∞_»∞– q"ÕHÍ#O^Œ HÍ=\ÏxH˜ XHõ =∞ǨQÆ∞~°∞=Ù J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ#@∞¡ ~åA #∞O_ç ^èŒ~°‡ áêʼnõΩ_≥·# K«„Hõ=iÎx Hõ«#\ÏxH˜ „Hõ`«∞=Ù ~å[ã¨∂Ü«∞O (ã¨ÉèÏѨ~°fi `å`«Ê~°ºq∞^Õ) ~åA#∞ „Ѩã¨qOK«@=∞x P â◊ÉÏÌxHõ~°÷O. D „H˜Ü«∞ x~åfiǨωõΩ_»∞ ѨÙ~ÀÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞. (q=~åʼnõΩ K«∂_»∞_»∞ P#O^Œ‰õΩ=∂~°™êfiq∞QÍi ÃÑ·„QÆO^äŒO) D „uq^èÀ`åÊ`åÅ∞ ã¨OÉèíq¿ãÎ ~å*ˇ·# "å_»∞ kfi *Ï^Œ∞Å ^•fi~å „Hõ`«∞=ÙÅ∞ KÕ~ÚOKåÅ<åfl~°∞. Éè∫uHÀѨ„^Œ"åÖˇÖÏ x"åiOKåÖ’ KåÖÏ K≥áêÊ_»∞. U Ѩ@∞ì# qã¨∞=Hõ ~° H∆ÍѨ~°∞_»=Ù QÆ=Ú‡ „Ѩ[ÅK«H˜¯, qѨ#∞flÖò ‰õÄ ÃÑ\˜ì# qx f~°∞Ê=Ú HÍѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ g∞^Œ x_»‰õΩ HÍ~°ºÉèí~°O|∞Öò ZÖÏO\˜ ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’<≥·<å „Ñ¨*Ï ~°Hõ∆} U=∞~°=^Œ∞Ì. JO>Ë áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞ ~åÜ«∞ÉÏi Hõ^äŒ#O „ѨHÍ~°O– `≥Å"å~°∞*Ï=Ú# ~åÜ«∞Å∞ QÆ∞„~°Ñ¨Ù ™êfis KÕ¿ã "Õà◊Ö’ ~å[^èŒ~°≈#O ÅaèOK«x „Ѩ[Å∞ `«Œ=∞QÀ_»∞ K≥ѨÙÊH˘<Õ"å~°@. t"år ‰õÄ_® ~å*ˇ·<åHõ Ti=∞^茺 ÉÏqH˜ =zÛ "≥ÚHõO Hõ_»∞QÆ∞H˘<Õ"å_»@. Wk „Ѩ[Å =∞^茺‰õΩ „ѨÉèí∞=Ù ~å=@O. Wk ~åA ÅHõ ∆ } "≥ ∞ ÿ ` Õ =∞O„u ''K« k q, J^è Œ ~ ° ‡ cè u ´ #$Ѩâß„ã¨Îqkè[[˝`«, =Ü«∞ã¨∞û _≥|ƒkH˜Ö’#∞– <Õ|k\˜H˜ ÉÏǨϺ=Ú<≥· Ü«∞~°∞*Ïã¨fi ѨÓ~°∞fiÖˇ·, =∞^Œ=∞i ~åA „áê~°÷# #=∂`«Œº`«Q“H˘#∞—— (4–211). D Ѩ^ŒºO "≥#∞Hõ ÉèÏ~°`«O– H“\˜ÅºO =O\˜ „QÆO^ä•Öˇ<Àfl L<åfl~Ú. JHõ¯_» KÕã≤# =∞O„u qKå~°}H˜k ™ê~åOâ◊OQÍ „"å™ê_»∞ ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞. (K«∂–<å P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ– ™œO^Œ~°º"åºYº) WO^Œ∞Ö’ =Ü≥∂ x~°‚Ü«∞O 50–70 =∞^茺– ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë Jk "å#„Ѩ™ê÷<å„â◊=∞HÍÅO. JѨÊ\˜H˜ =Ü«∞ã¨∞û`Àáê@∞ |∞kú ‰õÄ_® ÉÏQÆ∞Ѩ_»∞`«∞Ok. ™êfi~°÷O `«yæ Ѩ~å~°÷O ÃÑiˆQ HÍÅO ^≥·=O "≥·Ñ¨Ù#‰õΩ „"≥ÚQÆ∞æ K«∂¿Ñ HÍÅO Hõ#Hõ „Ѩ[Å#∞– "åi ^èŒ<åxfl Å∂\© KÕ¿ã ÅHõ∆}O áÈ`«∞Ok Hõ#Hõ. JÖÏO\˜"å_»∞ JáêÊl. (DÜ«∞# Hõà◊√§ Ñ‘H˜OKå_»#fl Hõ^䌖 =\˜ìk. ~åÜ«∞Å∞ "å~°∞ k=OQÆ`«∞Öˇ·<å/KåÖÏHÍÅO PÜ«∞# „|u‰õΩ#fl@∞¡ u~°∞Ѩu âßã¨<åÅ∞ K≥|∞`«∞<åfl~Ú. "å\˜x Ѩi+¨¯iOz# ™ê^èŒ∞ã¨∞„|Ǩχ}ºOQÍ~°∞ W^Õ ã¨∂zã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞.) Hõ#∞Hõ<Õ ¿ÑÜ«∞ãπ „"å™ê_»∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 7

''J`«_»xflq^è•ÖÏ =∞ǨK«„Hõ=iÎ J#fl=∂@‰õΩ J~°∞›_≥·#"å_»∞——. Jx... WOHÍ nè~°…OQÍ =i‚™êÎ_»∞. =∞Ǩ=∞O„u ÅHõ∆}ÏÖ’¡ =Ü«∞ã¨∞û`À áê@∞ =Oâ◊OÖ’ ™êO„HÍq∞Hõ ~ÀQÍÅ∞O_»~å^Œ#fl=∂@ KåÖÏ *Ï„QÆ`«ÎQÍ qKåiOK«^ŒQÆæk. ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë ÉèÏ~°`«OÖ’ K≥ѨÊ|_ç#k Hõ^•! ''Pk (=∞Ǩ"åºkè–#∂º~Àã≤ãπ) „uQÆ∞}=ÚÅ q+¨=∞`«fiO =Å¡ =ã¨∞ÎOk. "å`«, Ñ≤`«Î, HõѶ¨ ^ÀëêÅ q+¨=∞`«fiO =Å¡ (^ÕǨÏ) "åº^èŒ∞Å∞ =™êÎ~Ú—— Jx. Hõ#∞Hõ D Ô~O_çO\˜#∞O_ç ~åA q_ç=_ç LO_®e. P ^ÀëêÅ=Å¡ áêÅ#Ö’ q+¨ = ∞`« fi O J㨠= ∞`« =㨠∞ Î O k. g~° ∞ – ''áê@K«Û~°„ѨÉèí∞=ÙÅ∞ F_ç#"åi ÉèÏ~°ºÅ#∞ K≥~°|@ì@O– ^èŒ#Å∞|ú`«—— Hõ Å "å~“`å~° x ~åÜ« ∞ ÖË J<åfl_» ∞ . "å~° ∞ zÅ¡ ~ ° „Ѩ É è í ∞ =ÙÅ∞. ^•i^ÀÑ≤_çQÍO„_»@! Wk =∞Ǩ „ѨÉèí∞ÅHõ∆}O HÍ^Œ∞. (4–285). gˆ~ JkèHÍiHõ, Sâ◊fi~°º Ö’Éèí∞Öˇ·# ~åAÅ∞. g~°∞ J^èŒ~°‡cè`«∞Å∞ HÍ~°∞. ^èŒ~å‡xH˜ "å~°O>Ë cèu. ÉèÏ~°`«OÖ’ H“~°= ѨHõ∆O ™ê~°fiÉè∫=∂kHÍ~°Ö’Éèí∞Å∞. Ô~O_»= ѨHõ∆O P^Œ~°≈/^èŒ~°‡ ѨHõ∆OQÍ x~°∂Ñ≤OK«|_ç#O^Œ∞=Å¡<Õ "≥O@<Õ ^èŒ~°‡~åA Ѩ\Ïìaè¿+HõO [~°QÆÖË^Œ∞. âßOu– J#∞âßã¨xHõ Ѩ~åfiÖ’¡ Z<Àfl h`«∞Å∞ K≥áêÊHõ ^èŒ~°‡~å[Ѩ\Ïìaè¿+HõO [iyOk. D tHõ∆} HÀã¨"Õ∞ 2–3 Ѩ~åfiÅ∞ Hõ^äŒ [iyOk. ˆH=ÅÜ≥∂^èŒ∞Å∞ ~åAÅ∞ H͉õÄ_»^Œ∞. ^èŒ~°‡áêʼnõΩ_Õ ~åA HÍ"åe. WO^Œ∞ˆH ~åÜ«∞Å"åi Hõ^äŒÖ’¡x =∞^èŒ∞~å K«„Hõ=~°∞Îe^ŒÌ~°#∂ P^蕺u‡Hõ =º‰õΩÎÅ#∞ KÕÜ«∞=Åã≤ =zÛOk. D֒ѨO |∞∞+≤`«fi֒ѨO. JO>Ë ˆH=ÅO ÉÏǨïâ◊H˜Î`À– ~å[hu`À ~åAÖˇ·<å~°∞ `«Ñ¨Ê P^蕺u‡Hõ`« "åiÖ’ ã¨$+≤ìOK«ÖË^Œ∞. "≥Ú^Œ\˜ Hõ^äŒÖ’ q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_»#fl QÆ∞~°∞=Ù ^ŒÜ«∞=Å¡ ~åA D Ö’áêxfl áÈQ˘@∞ìH˘<åfl_»∞. Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞ºÅ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ XHõ "≥·+¨‚=Ùx ^ŒÜ«∞=Å¡. JO^Œ∞‰õΩ ѨÓ~°fiO Éè∫uHõ xkè<Õ ÉèÏqOz# ~åA#‰õΩ ^•x=Å¡ P^蕺u‡Hõ xkè Å|ú"≥∞ÿ#k. JO^Œ∞ˆH D Ѩ^ŒºO ‰õÄ_® âıëêÅOHÍ~°ÜÚHõ"∞# xkèH© P^蕺u‡Hõ ^è<åxˆH J#fi~ÚOKÕ@@∞¡ ¡ « Î ≥ÿ Œ ~åÜ«∞@OÖ’x Bz`«ºO. Wk Hõq`åã¨O|Okè q+¨Ü«∞O. ''ã¨Êù@Å=∞}∞Öò „QÍÅ âßO`«"≥∞ÿ âıfi`«"≥∞ÿ #\˜ì „`åK˘Hõ¯\˜ K«∞\˜ìÜ«ÚO_»∞, ~°H∆ÍQÆ$Ç‘Ï`«=∞<£ „Ѩ^äŒ`˘e¡HõÅ^Œk á⁄ÅÜ«∞ã¨O^Õ _®~°∞<≥ÅÅ∞ QÍx ÜÕ∞áê>ˇ |eÜ≥ÿ∞# KÕ=_»∞ „áê}˜ Ç≤ÏO ™êk ѨÓ[#=ÚÅ HÍã¨Ñ¨_»^Œ∞ `«# "≥Å∞O„QÍ Q˘y x~°O[# ^Œ$+≤ìH˜<≥ ÅHõ∆º "≥∞ÿÜ«ÚO_»∞ #Ü«ÚºxO`«O`«QÍ^Œ∞ ~°`«fl"≥ÚHõ¯\˜ ÃÑ·#ѨÓ~°fiO|∞ "≥∞~°Ü«Ú HõÆÅ^Œ∞ Ѩ^Œ‡O|∞, â◊OYO|∞, =Å∞‰õΩÖË\˜ HõHõ∆Ü«∞=∞#O`« =∂^Œº "Õ∞HÍO`«=∞O^Œ∞ Éèí∂Ѩ! hH˘Hõ¯xÔH HÍHõ K«∂Ѩ~å^Œ∞ (4–200)
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

D Ѩ^ŒºO N~°OQÆ<å^äŒ∞#‰õΩ áêuÃÑ\˜ì# xkèH˜ J#fi~Úã¨∞ÎOk. x^èŒ∞Å∞ „ѨÉèí∞`«fi^•#O Hõ#Hõ ~åA#HõѨÊyOK«@O „Ѩ[Å ^èŒ~°‡O Hõ#Hõ XHõ q„ѨÙ_»∞ =zÛ ~åA#∞ ^≥·=Éèí‰õΩÎx KÕ™êÎ_»∞. J`«x`À áê@∞QÍ ~åA "≥o§ N~°OQÆ<å^äŒ∞x ^Œi≈™êÎ_»∞. Wn Éè∫uHõ ~åA â◊s~°OÖ’ P^蕺u‡Hõ`#∞ ^≥=â◊Hx "Õ∞ÖÁ¯ÅÊ@O. « · Θ ~åA XHõ Hõ#∞fl`À Éè∫uHõ â◊„`«∞=ÙÅ#∞ =∞~˘Hõ ^•x`À JO`«óâ◊„`«∞=ÙÅ#∞ HõxÃÑ\Ïìe. ZÖÏQÆO>Ë K≥@∞ìÃÑ· XHõ Hõ#∞fl `≥iz– XHõ Hõ#∞fl =¸ã≤ x„kOKÕ ÉèÅ∂¡HOÖÏQÍ Jx =∞~˘Hõ KÀ@ ÃÑÑ^ºŒ O „H˜O^Œ<Õ (241)Ö’ í õ · ¨ K≥áêÊ_»∞. D ã≤ ^ •ú O `åxfl "åºMϺxOz =ÚyOѨ Ù Ö’ P#O^Œ ‰õΩ=∂~°™êfiq∞QÍ~°∞ „"å™ê~°∞. P SÇ≤ÏHõ{J=Ú+≤‡Hõ ã¨=∞#fi~°∂Ѩ"∞# ~å[i¬ `«`fi „Ѩuáê^Œ<å~°‰Ω ≥ÿ Ϋ úõ =∞ǨHõq `«# HÍ=ºOÖ’ Ô~O_Õ âß„™êÎÅ#∞ q=iOKå_»∞. 1.~å[^èŒ~°‡ 2) Ü≥∂QÆO

a king". The inner sage is a person who has established virtue in himself, the outer king is one, who has accomplished great deeds in the world. The highest ideal for the man is at once to possess the virtue of a sage and the accomplishment of a ruler and so become what is called a 'sage king' or what Plato would term the philospher king. The inner sage, 'prajnatman' is the Emperor or king of kings, the jivatmon is viceroy and it is for the latter and active self and active self to do what the former and contemplative self enjoins, not to do as the lies.

(P#O^Œ‰õΩ=∂~°™êfiq∞ ÃÑ· „QÆO^äŒO. ¿Ñ. 31) J^Õ „QÆO^äOÖ’ =∞Ǩ ã¨^ã∞¨ û(~°≈)# ã¨∞`«O. (ã¨∂HõO Hõ^#∞^•Ç¨ÏiOz Œ Œ Î Î Œä P^Œ ~ ° ≈ K« „ Hõ = ~° ∞ Î Å q+¨ Ü « ∞ O É∫^Œ ú " åV‡Ü« ∞ OÖ’#∞ L#fl@∞¡ L^•Ç¨ÏiOKå_»∞.) D Hõ ^ ä Œ |∞^Œ ú É è í Q Æ " å#∞_®#O^Œ ∞ #‰õ Ω `« # #∞ QÆ ∞ iOz `å<Õ Ñ¨Ó~°fi[#‡Ö’ P^Œ~°≈K«„Hõ=iÎ#x J`«x ÅHõ∆}ÏÅ#∞ q=i™êÎ_»∞. `«^•^è•~°OQÍ [QÆæÜ«∞º¿Ñ@Ö’ PO„^èŒteÊ „H©. ѨÓ. 2= â◊`åaÌÖ’ tÅÊO K≥Hͯ_»∞. P ÉÁ=∞‡ ‰õÄ_® ÃÑ· „QÆO^äŒOÖ’<Õ JK˘ÛuÎOK«|_ç#k. P tÖÏÊxH˜ ã¨r==¸iÎ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞. DÜ«∞<å `«##∞ QÆ∞iOz `å<Õ HÍ=ºOÖ’ P^Œ~°≈K«„Hõ=iÎ ÉÁ=∞‡#∞ â◊|Ì~°∂ѨOÖ’ teÊOK«∞H˘<åfl_»∞. B`« Î ~ åǨ Ï =∞Ǩ  Éè Ï ~° ` « " Õ ∞ –~å[^è Œ ~ ° ‡ ^Œ $ ëêì º ^Œ H ˜ ∆ } ^Õ â ◊ O Ö’ P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ ~°∂ѨOÖ’ J=`«iOz#k. JHõ¯_® ~å[^èŒ~°‡O ^•fi~å P`«‡ „Ѩ™ê÷#O =i‚OѨ|_ç#@∞¡QÍ<Õ WHõ¯_® P`«‡ T~°úfi „Ѩ™ê÷# ™ê^èŒ#OQÍ<Õ Ü≥∂QÆâß„ã¨Îã¨=∞xfi`«"≥∞ÿ# ~å[^èŒ~°‡O "åºMϺxOѨ|_ç#k. =ºH˜Î ã¨=∂[ ˆH∆=∂~°÷O ~å[^èŒ~°‡O Ü≥ ∂ QÆ =ºH˜ Î â߄㨠Π㨠= ∞#fiÜ« ∞ O KÕ ã ≤ áêeOKÕ " å_» ∞ ~å[i¬. P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ ã¨OH˜∆ѨΠÉèÏ~°`«O. ~å[i¬ `«`«fi"åºMϺ`«. J`«x ~°∂Ѩ"Õ∞ K«i„`«Ö’ =∞#‰õΩ ÅaèOz# NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞. D „áêp# ÉèÏ~°`« ~å[^èŒ~°‡"Õ∞ P^èŒ∞xHõ HÍÅOÖ’ N J~°qO^Œ =∞ǨÜ≥∂y, =∞Ǩ`å‡QÍOnèÅ ^•fi~å „Ñ¨Kå~°OÖ’H˜ `Õ|_ç#^Œx – âıfi`«Kè«Ûù„`«=∞#fl „QÆO^äŒOÖ’ "≥∞HõOr „É∫<£– P#O^Œ ‰õΩ=∂~°™êfiq∞QÍ~°∞ `«# „QÆO^äŒOÖ’ „"åâß~°∞. W^Õ <Õ\˜H˜ |∞~°^ŒQÆ∞O@Ö’ kQÆ|_çáÈ~Ú# QÆOyQÀ"≥·#k. D "åºã¨O PÜ«∞# ~å*Ϻaè¿+Hõ ѨOK«â◊`åÉ’Ì`«û= ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOQÍ =∞Ǩ„ѨÉèí∞=Ù#‰õΩ Hõ~°∂Ê~° h~å[#O.

Ô ~ O_» = ^•xHÀ㨠" Õ ∞ =∞`« "å`å=~° } Ïxfl <Õ Ñ ¨ ^ ä Œ º OÖ’ ÃÑ\˜ ì HÍ=ºx~å‡}O KÕÜ«∞@"Õ∞ HÍHõ MÏO_çHõº ˆHt^èŒfi[ ã¨O"å^ŒOÖ’ Ü≥∂QÆq^Œº#∞ QÆ∞kQÆ∞KåÛ_»∞. ^•xH˜ „â’`« "≥Ú^Œ\˜ áêO_»ºK«„Hõ=iÎ. =HõÎ q+¨µ‚=Ù#‰õΩ =∂=∞QÍÔ~·# q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_»∞ z`«Î Éèí∂q∞HõÖ’ q+¨µ‚=Ù#∞ xÅ∞ѨÙH˘#fl"å_»∞† q+¨µ‚=Ù#‰õΩ â◊s~°"≥∞ÿ#"å_»∞. ~å[^èŒ~°‡=Ú „u=~°æ ™ê^èŒ#"≥∞ÿ`Õ J^Õ QÆ∞~°∞`«~° "≥∂Hõ∆^èŒ~°‡=Ú#‰õÄ T`«=∞x ÉèÏ~°`«O âßOuѨ~°fiO U#∞QÆ∞#‰õΩ JO‰õΩâ◊OÖÏO\˜k ~å[^èŒ~°‡O, Ö’HÍxH˜ D SÇ≤ÏHÍ=Ú+≤‡Hõ–„Ѩ=$uΖx=$uÎ J=~ÀǨÏ}– P~ÀǨÏ} ~°∂Ѩ"≥∞ÿ# rq`«=Ú#‰õΩ P Ô~O_Õ „Ѩ^è•# âß„ã¨Î q^ŒºÅ∞. Hõ#∞Hõ<Õ MÏO_ç‰õΩºx Hõ^äŒÖ’ F_çáÈ~Ú# W`«x ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ=zÛ ÔQez# ˆHt^èŒfiA_»∞ Ü«∞[˝ ^èÕ#∞=Ù#∞ K«OÑ≤`Õ „áêÜ«∞tÛ`«Î=∞_çy#ѨÙ_»∞ =∞O„`«∞Å<åfl~°∞. ~å[ºOHÀ~°∞HÀ Jx. JѨÙÊ_»∞ MÏO_ç‰õΩº_»∞

''J#=Ù_»∞ #Å¡ #qfi =∞#∞*Ï^èŒÑ¨Ù_çÅ∞¡#∞ g∞~°Å~°÷âß„ã¨Î#Ü«∞ qKå~°HÀq^Œ∞Å∞ ^ŒHõ¯ "≥∂Hõ∆=∂~°æ #Ü«∞qKå~° HÀq^Œ∞Å∞QÍ~°∞–
JuK«OK«Å ~å*ϺÅÅH˜∆‡<Õ=∞x K«x"Õ_»∞"å_»#Hõ\Ï! Ѩ~°=∂~°÷=Ú "Õ_»Hõ J=∞‡Ç¨=ÚÅ<£ (3–58) nxH˜ „â’`« Éè‰Ωõ _# "≥Ú^Œ\áêO_»º K«„Hõ=iÎ Hõ#∞Hõ ~åA Ü≥∂QÆq^•º í Î ·≥ ˜ "Õ`«Î HÍ"åe ^≥·=z`«∞Î_»∞–Éèí‰õΩÎ_»∞ HÍ"åe. J~Ú`Õ `«Ñ¨Ê Q˘Ñ¨Ê ^èŒ~°‡ áêʼnõΩ_»∞ HÍÖË_»∞.
"Most Chinese philosophic schools have taught the way of what is called the inner sage and the outer is

z~°∞<å=∂ : #O. 14a, 4= ÉÏ¡H±, 8= „HÍãπ, _ç.a. ã¨O„^Œ, q^•º~°}ºÑ¨Ù~° áÈãπì, ɡOQÆà◊¥~ü – 560 097. ÃãÖò #O. 09342537644 ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 8 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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™êà◊√= =Oâ◊ã∞¨ ʼnõΩ ǨÏã¨Q`"∞≥ ÿ "åi #∞O_ç 16= â◊`åaÌ P~°OÉèÏxH˜ `«∞à◊√= =Oâ◊ã∞¨ Å Jnè#OÖ’H˜ ÷ ÎÆ « ÷ ~å=@O`À ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆO „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿOk.
™êà◊√= ~åAʼnõΩ =∞O„uQÍ =ÙO@∂, "åà◊√§ z#flÑ≤Å¡Å∞ HÍ=@O`À ~å*Ϻkè H Í~å#flO`å `å<Õ x~° fi Ç≤ Ï ã¨ ∞ Î # fl `« ∞ à◊ √ = #~°™ê<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞ 1503Ö’ =∞~°}˜OKå_»∞. J`«x `«~°∞"å`« P ÉÏ^è Œ º `« Å #∞ KÕ Ñ ¨ \ ˜ ì # J`« x H˘_» ∞ ‰õ Ω g~° # ~° ã ≤ O Ǩ Ï ~åÜ« ∞ Å∞ ™êà◊√==Oâßxfl JO`«OKÕã≤ 1505Ö’ `å#∞ ã≤OǨã¨#=∞kè+≤ªOK«@O`À `«∞à◊√= =Oâ◊áêÅ# „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿOk. u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞^•~°∞Å#∞ J}z ~å*Ϻxfl ã≤ ÷ s Hõ i OK« @ OÖ’, q㨠Πi OK« @ OÖ’ J`« x <åÅ∞ˆ Q à◊ § áêÅ<åHÍÅO QÆ_çzOk. PÜ«∞# =∞~°}Ï#O`«~°O ã¨=u `«=Ú‡_»∞ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ 1509Ö’ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ã≤OǨã¨<åxfl Jkè+≤ìOKå_»∞. JO>Ë PÜ« ∞ # Ѩ \ Ïì a è ¿ +Hõ L`« û "åÅ∞ [iy WѨ Ê \˜ H ˜ 500 ã¨O=`«û~åÅ~ÚO^Œ#fl=∂@. 1529 =~°‰õΩ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ ѨiáêeOK«QÍ P `«~°∞"å`« q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂*Ϻxfl PÜ«∞# `«=Ú‡_»∞ JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞Å∞, JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞Å =∞~°}Ï#O`«~°O 1541Ö’ J`«x H˘_»∞‰õΩ "≥OHõ\Ï„k H˘O`«HÍÅO, P `«~°∞"å`« JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞Å `«=Ú‡_»∞ ~°OQÆ~åÜ«∞Å H˘_»∞‰õΩ ã¨^•t=~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~å[ºO KÕâß~°∞. J~Ú`Õ JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞Å HÍÅO #∞O_ç ‰õÄ_® NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å JÅ∞¡_≥·# ~å=∞~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~å[„ѨuxkèQÍ ã¨~åfikèHÍ~åÅ∞ K«ÖÏ~Úã¨∂Î =ã¨∞Î<åfl_»∞. JoÜ«∞ ~å=∞~åÜ«∞Å∞QÍ K«i„`« „Ѩã≤kúÔHH˜¯# W`«x ~å[H© Ü « ∂ Å∞, ^Õ j Ü« ∞ Ѩ i ã≤ ÷ ` « ∞ Å∞ Hõ e ã≤ 1565 [#=iÖ’ ~åHõ∆ã≤–`«OQÆ_ç Ü«Ú^•úxH˜ ^•ifâß~Ú. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[º Ѩ`«#O „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿOk. P `«~°∞"å`« J~°g\˜ "åi áêÅ#Ö’ |ÅÇ‘Ï#OQÍ =Ù#fl `«# Jã≤Î`åfixfl xÅ∞ѨÙH˘#\ÏxH˜ PYi áÈ~å@O KÕã≤Ok. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[ºK«i„`«Ö’ ã¨fi~°‚Ü«ÚQÍxfl Pq+¨¯iOz#k NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞. PÜ«∞# áêÅ# „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿOk "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ ~åHõ∆ã≤ `«OQÆ_ç Ü«Ú^ŒúO =~°‰õΩ –1509 #∞O_ç 1565 =~°‰õΩ– =Ù#fl J~°úâ◊`å|ÌѨ٠ÃÑ·|_ç# HÍÅO ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆOQÍ K≥ѨÙÊHÀ`«yOk. `å#∞ ÖËHõáÈ~Ú<å =∞~˘Hõ =ÚѨÊÜÕ∞à◊§áê@∞ PÜ«∞# HÍÅѨ٠~å[H©Ü«∂i÷Hõ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ™êO㨯$uHõ "å~°ã¨`«fiO q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂*Ϻxfl P=iOKÕ =ÙOk. P HÍÅѨ٠q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[º K«i„`« ã¨O㨯$u ™êÇ≤Ï`åºÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆO „ã‘ÎÅ ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞Å#∞ x~åúiOK«@O D „Ѩã¨OQÆ"åºã¨O L^ÕÌâ◊O.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 9

q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ~åAÅ HÍÅOÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâßxfl ã¨O^Œi≈Oz# áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞ Ü«∂„u‰õΩÅ∞ ^˘q∞OQÀ Ѩܫ∞ãπ, ÃѶ~Àfl #∂ºx*ò „"åã≤# „"å`«Å#∞ ~åÜ«∞"åK«HõO ^ŒQÆæ~° #∞O_ç q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[ºK«i„`«‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz =zÛ# J<ÕHõ ~°K«#Å#∞, ~åÜ«∞Å HÍÅѨ٠™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl, P^è•~°OQÍ KÕã¨∞H˘x ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆѨ٠„ã‘ÎÅ ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞Å x~åú~°}‰õΩ J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ# =¸Å ã¨=∂Kå~åxfl ¿ãHõiOK«@O [iyOk. ~åK«iHõÉèí∂™êfi=∞ºO J`«∞º#fl`« ™ê÷~ÚH˜ KÕ~°∞H˘#fl q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[ºOÖ’ ã¨OѨ^ŒÖˇO`« "≥Å∞¡"≥`åÎÜ≥∂ JO`«QÍ ˆHO„nHõ$`«O ‰õÄ_® JÜ«∂º~Ú. Pi÷Hõ JO`«~åÅ ^˘O`«~åÅ∞#fl ã¨=∂[OÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅO^Œ~°∂ XˆH™ê÷~ÚH˜, ã¨O㨯$uH˜ K≥Ok#"åà◊√§ HÍÖË~°∞. Hõ#∞Hõ „ã‘ÎÅO^Œi rq`«=¸ XˆH ~°HõOQÍ =ÙO_»^Œ∞. D ^Œ$+≤ì`À K«∂z#ѨÙÊ_»∞ ÅaèOz# ã¨=∂Kå~°O "Õ∞~°‰õΩ ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆѨ٠„ã‘ÎÅ#∞ „Ѩ^è•#OQÍ 1.JO`«ó ѨÙ~°„ã‘ÎÅ∞ 2. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞, "Õâ◊ºÅ∞ 3. ™ê^è•~°}„ã‘ÎÅ∞ – Jx =¸_»∞ ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ =sæHõiOz J^茺ܫ∞#O KÕÜ«∞=K«∞Û.

1. JO`«óѨÙ~°„ã‘ÎÅ∞ :
~åAÅÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞, Éè’QÆO H˘~°‰õΩ `≥zÛÃÑ@∞ìH˘#fl „ã‘ÎÅ∞, "åà◊§ PO`« ~ ° O yHõ K≥ e Hõ ` ≥ Î Å ∞, ^•ã‘ Å ∞, JO`« ó Ѩ Ù ~° =º=Ǩ  ~åÅ#∞ K«Hõ¯Éˇ>Ëì„ã‘ÎÅ∞ JO^Œ~°∂ D =~°æOÖ’H˜ =™êÎ~°∞. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å `«O„_çH˜ =ÚQÆ∞æ~°∞ ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞ Ѩ<≥flO_»∞=∞Ok. "åiÖ’ =ÚY∞ºÅ∞ =ÚQÆ∞æ~°∞. XHõ~°∞ L`«¯à◊ ~å[ѨلuHõ, =∞~˘Hõ~°∞ N~°OQÆѨ@ì} „ѨÉèí∞=Ù ‰õΩ=∂Ô~Î. "Õ~˘Hõ~°∞ "Õâ◊º. ~å*ϺxH˜ ~åHõ=ÚO^Œ∞ P"≥∞Ѩ@¡ `«#‰õΩ#fl =∞‰õΩ¯=, ã¨O|O^èŒO HÍ~°}OQÍ `å#∞ KÕã≤# "åQÍÌ#O „ѨHÍ~°O ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~åA J~Ú# `«~°∞"å`« K«@ì|^Œú ÉèÏ~°ºQÍ P"≥∞#∞ ã‘fiHõiOKå_»∞–Jx ^˘q∞OQÀ Ѩܫ∞ãπ J<Õ áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞ Ü«∂„u‰õΩ_»∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. D =ÚQÆ∞æiH˜ HõeˆQ =∞QÆã¨O`å#OÖ’ XHõ~°∞ ~å*ϺxH˜ "å~°ã¨∞Å∞. q∞ye# `˘q∞‡k=∞Ok K«@ì|^ŒúÉèÏ~°ºÖË J~Ú<å "åi Ñ≤šʼnõΩ ~å*Ϻ~°›`« ÖË^Œ∞. XHõ"Õà◊ D "≥Ú`«ÎO Ѩ<≥flO_»∞=∞OkÖ’ U XHõ¯iH˜ =∂„`«"Õ∞ XHõ H˘_»∞‰õΩ =ÙO>Ë J`«#∞ Jx"å~°ºOQÍ ~å[º"å~°ã¨∞_»=Ù`å_»∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ u~°∞=∞Å^Õqx ÃÑàϧ_ç# `«~°∞"å`« ÃÑàϧ_ç# ѨÓ~°fi"Õâ◊º z<åfl^Õq. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ `«# ÉèÏ~°ºÅO^Œi HõO>Ë#∞ z<åfl^Õq g∞^Œ<Õ =∞‰õΩ¯= Jx #∂ºx*ò ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. =Ú‰õΩ¯u=∞‡# áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}O J=`åiHõÖ’ Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å#∞ 'z#fl=∞^Õg rq`«<åÜ«∞Hõ— (1–13) Jx ¿Ñ~˘¯#@O nxx |ÅѨ~°∞ã¨∞Î#flk. ÃÑ^ŒÌ#‰õÄ_® z<åfl^Õq u~°∞=∞Å^Õ=ÙÅ<Õ =~°∞㨄Hõ=∂<Õfl =∞#∞K«i„`« J=`åiHõÖ’ áê\˜OKå_»∞ (1–14) âßã¨<åÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® D =~°∞㨠„Hõ=∞"Õ∞ Hõ#|_»∞`«∞Ok. g@xfl\˜x |\˜ì "Õâ◊º ã¨O™êiHÍ=\ÏxH˜ ™ê=∂lHõ ~å[H©Ü«∞ Ǩϟ^•#∞, P"≥∂^•xfl á⁄O^Œ\ÏxH˜ =Ù#fl J=HÍâßÅ#∞ QÆ∞iÎOK«=K«∞Û. ~åÜ« ∞ Å =¸_» = Éè Ï ~° º ÅH© ∆ ‡ ^Õ q . P=ÚHõ Î = ∂ź^Œ Ö ’ Hõ = ∞ÖÏ|˚ = ÚdQÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#|_ç # ^Õ " Õ i . (1–17) ÅH© ∆ ‡ ^Õ q „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^ŒQÆ[Ѩu ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞. „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^Œ∞_»∞ L`«¯à◊~åA. „H©.â◊. 1513 z=~°Ö’ L^ŒÜ«∞yi =Ú@ì_ç`À „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿ# NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å HõoOQÆ*„·ˇ `«Ü∂„`« ^•^•Ñ¨Ù ã¨O=`«û~°O#fl~°#_çz „Ѩ`åѨ~∞„^Œ∞_ç ÉèÏ~°º#∞ « ° ~åÜ«∞Å∞ |OnQÍ fã¨∞H˘x "≥à◊§@O`À, J`«x H˘_»∞‰õΩ =∞~°}O`À ã¨OkèÉË~åÅ ^Œâ◊‰õΩ KÕiOk. P ^Œâ◊Ö’ „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^Œ∞_ç ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞#∞ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞ÅH˜zÛ q"åǨÏO KÕÜ«∞@O, PÜ«∞# ÉèÏ~°º q_»∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ, ~å*Ϻxfl uiy WÜ«∞º\ÏxH˜ XHõ +¨~°`«∞ J~ÚOk. Ü«Ú^•úÅÖ’ F_çáÈ~Ú# ~åAÅ∞ `«=∞ K≥à‹§à◊§<À, ‰õÄ`«∞à◊§<À q*Ë`«ÅH˜zÛ ÃÑo§KÕã≤ ã¨Okè KÕã¨∞H˘#@O ~å[H©Ü«∂ÅÖ’ XHõ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ KåÖÏHÍÅO #∞O_ç =ã¨∞Î#fl^Õ. P „Hõ=∞OÖ’<Õ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^Œ∞_ç ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞#∞ q"åǨÏ=∂_»\Ïxfl J~°÷O KÕã¨∞HÀ=K«∞Û. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å ÉèÏ~°ºÅÖ’ ¿Ñ~°∞`À `≥Å∞ã¨∞Î#fl =∞~˘HÍ"≥∞ J#flѨÓ~°‚. "≥Ú`«ÎO Ѩ<≥flO_»∞=∞Ok K«@ì|^ŒúÉèÏ~°ºÅÖ’ q∞ye# Zxq∞k =∞Ok ¿Ñ~°∞¡ `≥eÜ«∞~å=@O ÖË^Œ∞. ~åAQÍi ÉèÏ~°ºÅO^ŒiH© ã¨fiO`« Wà◊√§ ^•ã‘Å`À JO`«óѨÙ~° Ѩi"å~°O`À ~°Hõ∆‰õΩÅ`À U~åÊ@∞ KÕÜ«∞|_»`å~Ú. D Ѩi"å~°=∞O`å „ã‘ÎÖË. HÍHõáÈ`Õ JO`«óѨÙ~° ~°Hõ∆}‰õΩ H˘*Ï˚Å∞ =ÙO\Ï~°∞. JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘Î Öˇ=~°∂ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ Hõà◊§|_»~å^Œ∞. ~åA J#∞=∞u`À ZѨÙÊ_»~Ú<å J`«∞º#fl`« JkèHÍ~°™ê÷#OÖ’ =Ù#fl ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ#∞ HõÅ∞ã¨∞HÀ=K«∞Û. |Ü«∞@‰õΩ "≥àϧÅO>Ë =¸_»∞<åÅ∞QÆ∞ =O^ŒÅ=∞Ok H˘*Ï˚ŠѨǨÏ~åÖ’ `«Å∞ѨÙÅ∞ =¸ã≤# ѨšH©Ö’ "≥àϧe. ~åAQÍi ÉèÏ~°ºÅ‰õΩ _»|∞ƒ‰õΩ, #QÆʼnõΩ H˘^Œ=ÖË^Œ∞. ÃÑ·#∞Oz H˜OkH˜ â◊s~°=∞O`å =„*ÏÅ∞, =∞}∞Å∞, =∂}˜HͺÅ∞ =Ú`åºÅ∞ á⁄ky# PÉèí~°}ÏÅ∞ ^èŒi™êÎ~°∞. XH˘¯Hõ¯ ~å}˜H˜ JÅOHÍ~åÅ`À ‰õ Ä _ç # J~° " ≥ · = ∞Ok Ü« ∞ =fi#=`« ∞ Öˇ · # „ã‘ Î Å ∞ ѨiKåiHõÅ∞QÍ =ÙO\Ï~°∞. JÅ¡™êx ÃÑ^ŒÌ# =∞#∞K«i„`«Ö’ ã¨fi~Àz =∞<À~°=∞Å ÃÑO_ç¡ ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ P"≥∞ `«O„_ç ‰õÄ`«∞iH˜ '~°ã≤Hõ [#O|∞Å =∞#O|∞Å =∞~°∞Å∞ H˘Å∞ѨO*Ïe, ã¨∞~°∞z~åÉèí~°} Éèí∂+≤`«O|QÆ∞ ѨiKåiHÍ ã¨Ç¨Ï„ã¨=Ú—#∞ (5–101) J~°}OQÍ WzÛ#@∞¡ „"åã≤# q+¨Ü«∞O QÆ=∞xOKåe. WÖÏO\˜ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å JO`«ó ѨÙ~°OÖ’ Ѩ<≥flO_»∞"ÕÅ=∞Ok =Ù<åfl~°∞. JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞Å JO`«óѨÙ~°OÖ’
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 10

<åÅ∞QÆ∞ "ÕʼnõΩ q∞Oz =Ù<åfl~°∞. gà◊§O^Œ~°∂ ~åAQÍi Éè’QÆO H˘~°‰õΩ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»`å~°#flk "Õˆ~QÍ K≥ѨÊ#=ã¨~°O ÖË^Œ∞. ѨiKåiHõŠѨx ˆH=ÅO JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ# ¿ã=Å∞ JOkOK«@"Õ∞ HÍ^Œ∞. "åà◊√§ ~åA‰õΩ Öˇ·OyHõ ¿ã=Å∞ JOkOKåe. P Ѩ<Õ ÖËHõáÈ`Õ "åà◊√§ '~° ã ≤ H õ [ #O|∞Å =∞#O|∞Å =∞~° ∞ Å∞ H˘Å∞Ѩ O *Ïe# "å~° ∞ — HÍ#=ã¨~°O ÖË^Œ∞. Wxfl"ÕÅ=∞Ok „ã‘Å∞#fl JO`«óѨÙ~° áêÅ<å =º=Ǩ~åÅ∞ K«∂_»\ÏxH˜ Î xÜ«∞q∞OK«|_ç# „ã‘ÎÅ∞, ^•ã‘Å∞ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok =ÙO\Ï~°∞. ~åAQÍiÔH·<å, ~å}˜"å™êxÔH·<å =O@KÕ¿ãk, Éè’[#Ѩ٠U~åÊ@∞¡ K«∂¿ãk „ã‘ÎÖË. JO`ÕHÍ^Œ∞ ѨšH©Å∞ "≥∂¿ã É’~¸ÅQÍ#∂, |@ìÅ∞ =ÙuˆH "åà◊√§QÍ#∂, `«k`«~° QÆ$ǨÏHõ$`åºÅ x~°fiǨÏ}Ö’#∂ „ã‘ÎÅ∞<åfl~°∞. JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ΊѨ i ~° H õ ∆ } ‰õ Ω Hõ u Î , _®Å∞, qÅ∞¡ , ÉÏ}ÏÅ∞ Ѩ \ ˜ ì # „ã‘ Î Å ∞, =∞Å¡Ü«Ú^ŒúxѨÙ}∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ xÜ«∞q∞OK«|_ç=Ù#fl@∞¡ Ѩܫ∞ãπ, #∂ºx*ò ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞. JO`«óѨÙ~° [=∂Y~°∞ÛÅ q=~åÅ∞ „"åÜ«∞\ÏxH˜, ~å*ÏO`«óѨÙ~° áêÅ<å q+¨Ü«∂Å∞, iHÍ~°∞¤Å∞ „"åã≤ÃÑ\˜ì `«=∞ ѨÙã¨ÎHÍÅ#∞ |Ü«∞\˜"åà◊§ „"å`«Å`À áÈeÛ K«∂K«∞H˘#\ÏxH˜ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ xÜ«∞q∞OK«|_Õ"åà◊√§. JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ J=ã¨~åÅ H˘~°HÀ U"≥∂ *’ºu+¨ xѨÙ}∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅ∞, ™ÈkK≥¿ÑÊ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ JO`«óѨÙ~° =º=ã¨÷Ö’ ÉèÏQÆ"≥∞ÿ HõxÑ≤™êÎ~°∞. WHõ ã¨Ow`« ѨiHõ~åÅ#∞ "å~Úã¨∂Î, áê_»∞`«∂ JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ#∞, ~åA#∞ ‰õÄ_® ~°OlOѨKÕÜ«∞\ÏxH˜ ã¨Ow`« q^•fiOã¨∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok xÜ«∞q∞`«∞ÅÜÕ∞º"å~°∞. „ã‘ÎÖË [_ô˚Å∞QÍ, HÀ~°∞ì |O„\’`«∞Å∞QÍ =Ù#fl JO`«óѨÙ~° <åºÜ«∞=º=ã¨÷ XHõ\˜ Jaè=$kú KÕÜ«∞|_çOk. ~å[Éèí=<åÅ HÍѨ Ö Ï‰õ Ω „ã‘ Î Ö Ë xÜ« ∞ q∞`« ∞ ÅÜÕ ∞ º"å~° ∞ . ~åA‰õ Ω `« Å O@@O, hà◊√§áÈÜ«∞@O, `«_ç X`«Î@O, JÅOHõiOK«@O, J_»Ñ¨O Ѩ@ì@O, áê=ÙHÀà◊§OkOK«@O, `«∞^Œ‰õΩ „ѨHõ¯# HõuΠѨ@∞ìH˘x xÅ|_»@O–Jhfl „ã‘ÎÖË KÕã≤# HÍÅO Jk. J~Ú`Õ Ñ¨Ù~å=ã¨∞Î `«=fiHÍÅÖ’ |Ü«∞@Ѩ_»¤ #QÆ~° x~å‡}ÏÅ∞, HÀ@Å "≥·âßźO WO`«=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ`À JO`«ó Ѩ Ù ~åÅ#fl=x #=∞‡â◊ H õ º O H͉õ Ω O_® KÕ ã ¨ ∞ Î # fl=x Ѩ Ù ~å=㨠∞ Î âß„ã¨Î"Õ`«ÎÅO@∞<åfl~°∞. JO`«óѨÙ~°O֒ѨŠ`«# Éèí=#OÖ’ =ÙO_Õ „ã‘ÎH˜ "å~°ÎÅ∞ H˘*Ï˚Å ^•fi~å, PO`«~°OyHõ ã¨Y∞Å =Å¡ `≥Å∞™êÎ~Ú. P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ â‹·=Ù_≥·# áêO_»º~åA#∞ q+¨µ‚`«`«fi"Õ∞ Q˘Ñ¨Ê^Œx "åkOz ÔQÅ∞™êÎ#x Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞º_»∞ P q+¨Ü«∂xfl Ѩ@ìѨ٠~å}˜H˜ ^Ò"åfii‰õΩ_ç ^•fi~å Hõ|∞~°∞ѨOáê_»∞. P ^Ò"åfii‰õΩ_»∞ #ѨÙO㨉õΩ_Õ J~Ú=ÙO_»=K«∞Û. P ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’<Õ Ü«∂K«‰õΩʼnõΩ Ѩ@ìѨÙ~å}˜ Ѩ#∞ѨÙ# „^Œ=ºO `≥zÛ~ÚKÕÛ ÃÇÏQÆæ_çHÍO„_»∞ =Úã¨e"å~°∞QÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#|_»@O ‰õÄ_® QÆ=∞xOK«=K«∞Û. Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞º_»∞ =∞~åfl\˜ L^ŒÜ«∞O áêO_»º~åA#∞ H˘Å∞=Ùfi# ã¨ÉèíÖ’ Hõeã≤# ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ ~åA ѨHõ¯# J_»Ñ¨O, Ѩ^Œ∞<≥·# Y_»æO ^è Œ i Oz =Ù#fl XHõ „ã‘ Î xÖÁÛx =Ù#fl@∞¡ K≥ Ñ ¨ Ê |_ç O k. (P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ–4–53) #∂ºx*ò "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# P<å\˜ q^ÕjÜ«∂„u‰õΩÅ „"å`«Å‰õΩ Wk ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ™êHõ∆ºO. ~åÜ«∞"åK«HõOÖ’#∂ ~åAQÍi
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

Éèí=<åxfl HÍz=ÙO_Õ '^•^Œ∞Å∞, ÃÇÏQÆæ_çHõ`≥ÎÅ∞, É’#Hõ`≥ÎÅ∞, J}flQÍ~°∞¡— „Ѩ™êÎqOK«|_®¤~∞. J_»ÑO–JO>Ë `åO|∂Å¿Ñ\˜Hõ Ѩ@∞ìH˘x ~åA"≥O@ ° ¨ XHõ Ǩ^•zǨÏflOQÍ ZѨÙÊ_»∂ =ÙO_Õ „ã‘Î ¿ãqHõ „Ѩ™êÎ=# `«~°K«∞ HÍ"åºÅÖ’ HõxÑ≤OKÕ^Õ. „ѨuÜÕ∞_»∞ ~å[„áê™ê^ŒOÖ’ "≥·Éèí"À¿Ñ`«OQÍ [iˆQ #=~å„u L`«û"åÅÖ’ JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ∞ U q^èŒOQÍ áêÖÁæ<Õ"å~À Ѩܫ∞ãπ, #∂ºx*ò `«=∞ „"å`«ÅÖ’ #"≥∂^Œ∞ KÕâß~°∞. D L`«û"åÅÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ XHõ Ǩϟ^•zǨÏflO J#flk "åà◊§ Jaè„áêÜ«∞O. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[ºOÖ’x Jxfl „áêO`åÅ #∞O_ç <å@ºO KÕ¿ã „ã‘ÎÅ∞ JHõ¯_çH˜ =zÛ P `˘q∞‡k ~ÀAÅ∞ <å@º„Ѩ^Œ~°≈#Å∞ Wã¨∂Î<Õ =ÙO\Ï~°∞. ѨQÆÅO`å „ã‘ÎÅ #$`åºÅ∞, ‰õΩã‘Î áÈ\©Å∞ [~°∞QÆ∞`å~Ú. ~å„`«ÜÕ∞ã¨iH˜ náêÅ "≥Å∞QÆ∞`À #QÆ~°O „ѨHÍtã¨∞ÎO@∞Ok. ~åA H˘Å∞=Ùf~°∞`å_»∞. ~°^äŒ|ÅO, Jâ◊fi|ÅO „Ѩ^i≈OK«|_»`å~Ú. P „Ѩ^~≈° #Å `«~∞"å`« W~°"S^Œ∞ ÖËHõ =ÚÃÑÊS^Œ∞ Œ Œ ° ·≥ · =∞Ok „ã‘Î ^•fi~°áêʼnõΩÅ∞ KÕuÖ’ ɡ`«ÎO`À Éèí∞[Og∞^Œ H˘~°_®`À „Ѩ"Õt™êÎ~°∞. "åà◊§#∞ K«∞@∞ìH˘x H˘*Ï˚Å∞–"åi `«~°∞"å`« J<ÕHõ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ∞ `«ÃÑÊ@∞¡, |∂~°Å∞, „_»=Ú‡Å∞ "å~Úã¨∂Î =™êÎ~°∞. "åi "≥#∞Hõ W~°"≥· =∞Ok ^•fi~°áêʼnõΩÅ∞ "≥O_ç `˘_»∞QÆ∞Å Éˇ`åÎÅ`À =™êÎ~°∞. "åà◊§#∞ J#∞ã¨iOz J<ÕHõ=∞Ok #=Ü«∞=fi#=`«∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ ÃÑ·#∞O_ç „H˜Ok=~°‰õΩ J<ÕHõ #QÆÅ∞ ^èŒiOz |OQÍ~°∞ nѨáê„`«Å∞ KÕuÖ’ Ѩ@∞ìH˘x XHõi `«~°∞"å`« XHõ~°∞ =zÛ ~åAQÍi =ÚO^Œ~° uiy z=~°‰õΩ JO`«óѨÙ~°OÖ’H˜ x„+¨¯q∞™êÎ~°∞. "åà◊√§ ~åAQÍi ÉèÏ~°ºÅÖ’ J`«ºO`« ã¨∞O^Œ∞~°∞Öˇ·# "åà◊√§. JÖÏ =zÛ „Ѩ^Œ~°≈#Ö’ áêÖÁæ#fl"åà◊√§ J~°"≥· =∞Ok Jx Ѩܫ∞ãπ =ÚÃÑ·ÊP~°∞ =∞Ok Jx #∂ºx*ò „"åâß~°∞. "åà◊√§ ^èŒiOz# PÉèí~°}ÏÅ qÅ∞= ZO`À Z=fi~°∂ K≥ѨÊÖË~°O\Ï~°∞. ~°`åflÅ∞, =∞}∞Å∞, =∂}˜HͺÅ∞, =Ú`åºÅ∞ á⁄ky# PÉèí~°}ÏÅ∞, "≥∞_»Ö’ =~°∞ã¨Å∞ =~°∞ã¨Å∞QÍ "≥∂HÍà◊§"å~°‰õΩ "ÕÖÏ_Õ Q˘Å∞ã¨∞Å∞ "åà◊√§ "≥∂Ü«∞ÖË#O`« |~°∞=Ù =ÙO\ÏÜ«∞x, P #QÆÅ |~°∞=Ù`À #_»=ÖËHõ #_çKÕ P „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ Pã¨~å WÜ«∞º\ÏxH˜ „Ѩu „ã‘Îx Ô~O_»∞ KÕ`«∞Å∞ Ѩ@∞ìH˘x #_çÑ≤OKÕ ã¨∞O^Œ∞~°∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ "åiH˜ W~°∞"≥·Ñ¨ÙÖÏ =ÙO\Ï~°x "åà◊√§ K≥áêÊ~°∞. gà◊§O`å ~åA‰õΩ Q“~°"å~°÷O JO`«óѨÙ~åxH˜ HÍ#∞HõQÍ DÜ«∞|_ç# „ã‘ÎÅ∞. L`«û"åÅ `˘q∞‡k ~ÀAÅÖ’ XH˘¯Hõ¯~ÀA XH˘¯Hõ¯ ~å}˜ `«# JkèHÍ~° ѨikèÖ’ =Ù#fl JO^Œ"≥∞ÿ# „ã‘ÎÅ#∞ D „Ѩ^Œ~°≈#ÔH· ѨOѨÙ`«∞Ok. `«=∞ ã¨OѨ^ŒÅ „Ѩ^Œ~°≈#‰õΩ, JO^Œ∞Ö’<Õ ã¨O`Àëêxfl á⁄O^Œ\ÏxH˜ JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ∞ „Ѩu~ÀA L`«û"åÅÖ’ áêÖÁæ#\ÏxH˜ =™êÎ~°x "åà◊√§ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞. D q^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# |ǨïÉèÏ~åº`«fi =º=ã¨÷Ö’ „ã‘ÎH˜ Éèí~°Î$¿ãflǨÏO, ã¨∞YO x`åºÅ∞ HÍ=Ù. ~åA `«# ÉèÏ~°ºÅÖ’ U ~ÀA Z=~°∞ HÍ"åÅ#∞H˘O>Ë "åiH˜ H˘*Ï˚^•fi~å Hõ|∞~°∞ ѨOѨÙ`å_»∞. P Hõ|∞~°∞ JO`«óѨÙ~° ~°Hõ∆Hõ „ã‘Î ^•fi~å P ÉèÏ~°º W+¨ìã¨dH˜ KÕ~°∞`«∞Ok. P ã¨d^•fi~å<Õ P ÉèÏ~°º `å#∞ ~åA =Ù#fl ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ "≥à◊§@O HÍh, ~å*Ë P"≥∞ ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ ~å=@O HÍh [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok Jx Ѩܫ∞ãπ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. J^Õ q^èŒOQÍ ~åA‰õΩ ÉèÏ~°ºÅO^Œi Ѩ@¡ ã¨=∞^Œ$+≤ì =ÙO@∞O^Œx ‰õÄ_® Ѩܫ∞ãπ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 11

NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å „Ѩ^è•# ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞ =ÚQÆ∞æi QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÓÎ

"These

three principal wives have each the same one as much as the other, so that there may never be any discord or ill feeling

Jx ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. JO^Œ~°∂ =∞Oz ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞Åx, Z=~°O`«@"åà◊√§ rq™êÎ~°x ‰õÄ_® K≥áêÊ_»∞. HÍh PK«~°}Ö’ W^ŒO`« ™ê^茺=∞ÜÕ∞ºÑ¨xHÍ^Œ∞. P ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùO J<ÕHõ "≥·~°∞^蕺Šã¨$+≤ìH˜, ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬}Å f„=`«‰õΩ HÍ~°}=∞=Ù`«∞O@∞Ok. D „Hõ=∞OÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ Ѩ_Õ Ç≤ÏO㨠WOuO`«#~åxk. ^•xx QÆ∞iÎOKå_»∞ Hõ#∞Hõ<Õ u=∞‡# 'áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}O— „"åÜ«∞QÆeQÍ_»∞.
between them"

#~°HÍã¨∞~°∞x ÔQez# `«~°∞"å`« <å~°^Œ∞_ç =∂@g∞^Œ Ѩ^ŒÇ¨~°∞ "ÕÅ=∞Ok ÅÅ<å=∞}∞Å#∞ NHõ$+¨µ‚_»∞ '™œYº~°Ãã·HõÖ’Å∞_≥·— ÃÑO_®¡_®_»∞ Jx K≥áêÊ_»∞ u=∞‡# (1–37) D ™œYº~°Ãã·HõÖ’Å`« ã¨=∞HÍÅѨ٠~åAÅ ÅHõ∆}O. Wk ZO`À =∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ Jã¨O`«$ѨΠJâßO`« rq`åxH˜ HÍ~°}=∞=Ù`«∞O@∞Ok. WO`«=∞Ok ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞#flѨÙ_»∞ UÜÕ∞ "Õà◊Å<Õ ã¨~À[=Úd ÜÕ∞ ÜÕ∞ bÅÅOQÀ~°∞ñ^• <åÜ«∂"Õà◊Å <å ã¨~À[=Úd <åÜ« ∂ bÅÅO^Õ e Û— (1–40) 㨠O `À+¨ à Ñ@ì @ O U ~åA‰õ Ä ™ê^茺OHÍ^Œ∞. Ѩܫ∞ãπ K≥Ñ≤Ê#@∞¡ ã¨`«∞ÅO^ŒiH˜ Wà◊√¡, ã¨OѨ^ŒÅ∞, ^•ã¨^•ã‘ [#O ã¨=∞OQÍ ã¨=∞‰õÄ~°Û|_»=K«∞Û HÍh–W+¨ìO JO^ŒiѨ\Ï¡ ã¨=∞OQÍ#∂, x~°O`«~°OQÍ#∂, xifiѶ¨∞flOQÍ#∂ H˘#™êˆQ J=HÍâßÅ∞ `«‰õΩ¯=. Hõ$+¨µ‚_»∞ JO`«=∞Ok ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞<åfl JO^ŒiH© Jhfl ã¨=∞OQÍ WzÛ<å ~°∞H˜‡}© ã¨`«ºÉèÏ=∞Å#∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ =∞xflOz, K«#∞qzÛ „Ѩ=iÎOK«@O QÆ∞iOz K≥Ñ≤Ê u=∞‡# NHõ$+¨µ‚_ç ¿ãflǨÏO W^ŒÌiÃÑ·#<Õ ˆHO„nHõ$`«"≥∞ÿ# "åã¨Î"åxfl K≥áêÊ_»∞. P W^ŒÌi =∞^茺<≥·<å U q"å^ŒO, D~嬺k ÉèÏ"åÅ∞ ѨÙ@ì‰õΩO_® =Ù<åflÜ«∂ JO>Ë JnÖË^Œ∞. Ѩܫ∞ãπ K≥Ñ≤Ê#@∞¡ ã¨=`«∞Å∞ =∞Oz ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞Å∞QÍ Z=~°O`«@ "åà◊√§ rqOKÕ Ñ¨iã≤÷u =ÙO_»^Œ∞. ~°∞H˜‡}˜H˜ NHõ$+¨µ‚_»∞ XHõ ѨÙ=Ùfi W=fi@O Jk P"≥∞ Ѩ@¡ J`«x J#∞~åQÍxH˜ QÆ∞~°Î~Ú#ѨÙÊ_»∞ Jk ÅaèOK«x ã¨`«ºÉèÏ=∞‰õΩ D~嬺ã¨∂Ü«∞Å∞ x"åiOѨ~åx"Õ J=Ù`å~Ú. D "åã¨Î= rq`« ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬} =¸ÖÏOâ◊OQÍ 'áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}—O „"åã≤ u=∞‡# XHõ ~ ° H õ O QÍ P<å\˜ |Ǩ ï Éè Ï ~åº`« fi =º=㨠÷ Ö ’x _˘Å¡ ` « < åxfl |Ü«∞@ÃÑ\Ïì_»∞. WHõ ÃÑ^Œ# '=∞#∞K«i„`«— „"åã≤ |ǨïÉèÏ~åº`«fi =º=ã¨<Õ x~°ãOKå_»∞. Ì ÷ ≤ |ǨïÉèÏ~åº`«fi=º=ã¨÷ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ Éè’QÆÖÏÅ㨉õΩ, JkèHÍ~° ^Œ~åÊxH˜ „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤Ïã¨∞Ok `«ÑÊ JO^Œ∞Ö’ „ã‘ΠѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ =∞^躌 J<Àº#º`«‰Ω, Î ¨ õ J=QÍǨÏ#‰õΩ `å=ÙÖË^Œ∞. JÖψQ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ`À ã¨O|O^èŒO =ÙO_Õ Ñ¨Ù~°∞+¨ „Ѩ=$uÎѨ@¡ J`«ºO`« ã¨Ç¨Ï[OQÍ U~°Ê_Õ UǨϺ`« HÍ~°}OQÍ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ XHõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_ç JO`«óѨÙ~åxH˜ K≥Ok# "åà◊√§QÍ =ÙO_»=K«∞ÛHÍh JO`«óHõ~°}OÖ’ J`«xx „¿Ñq∞OK«ÖË~°∞. „¿Ñq∞ã¨∞Î#fl@∞¡ #\˜OK«@O, ã¨OÜ≥∂QÍxH˜ ã¨O`À+¨Ñ¨_»∞`«∞O_»@O Jhfl P`å‡aè=∂<åxfl K«OѨÙH˘x KÕ¿ã Ѩ#∞ÖË. D x+¨µª~°ã¨`åºxfl ÃÑ^ŒÌ# '=∞#∞K«i„`«—Ö’ ǨÏOã¨Å ã¨OÉèÏ+¨} ^•fi~å Pq+¨¯iOKå_»∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

ѨÅ∞=Ù~°Ü«∞O^Œ∞ <˘Hõ¯xH˜ „ÉÏñuÜ«Ú <˘Hõ¯xÜ«∞O^Œ∞ñ E_» # QÆæÅ =∞QÆ∞„¿Ñ=∞ ѨÅ∞fi~°‰õΩñ QÆÅ∞æ@ Ü«∞^Œ∞ƒù`«=∞@∞¡QÍ# x "≥fiÅ ^Œ∞ÅÜ«∞O^Œ∞ ñ QÆ∂i‡ Ѩ㨠gxH˜ <Õq∞Ü«Ú ÖË^Œ∞ gx Ü«∞O ^ŒÅ=_»ñQÆÅæn [Å~°∞Ǩ‰õ∆ΩʼnõΩ<£ „aÜ«∞"≥∞qfi^èŒO|∞#<£—— (6–70) ã¨fi~ÀzH˜ =∞<À~°=∞, HõàÏ=u, qÉèÏ=ã≤ =ÚQÆ∞æ~°∞ ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞. "åà◊√§ J<Àº#ºOQÍ qǨÏiOK«@O K«∂z# P_»∞ǨÏO㨠P_»∞ K«„Hõ"åHõ ѨH˜∆ =∂\Ï¡_»∞H˘#fl =∂@Å ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’n Ѩ^ŒºO. J<ÕHõ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅÃÑ·# XHõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_çH˜, XHõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µx Ü«∞O^Œ∞ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ „¿Ñ=∞ =ÙO_»@O J™ê^茺=∞O@∞Ok K«„Hõ"åH˜. ~åA P =ÚQÆ∞æi ÉèÏ~°ºÅÖ’ U XHõi`À<À ~°q∞OKÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ q∞ye# W^ŒÌ~°∂ Éèí~°Îg∞^Œ JO`Õ „¿Ñ=∞`À =iÎOKÕ J=HÍâ◊O =ÙO^• Jx „Ѩtflã¨∞ÎOk. ã¨=`«∞Å =∞^茺 Pi÷Hõ ã¨=∂#`«fiO =Ù<åfl =∂`«û~°ºO U~°Ê_»\ÏxH˜ XHõiÃÑ· XHõ~°∞ PkèHõº`« á⁄O^Œ\ÏxÔH· P~å@ áÈ~å\ÏÅ∞ KÕÜ«∞\ÏxH˜ =¸ÅO W^Õ. „ã‘ÎÅ ^Œ∞óMÏxH˜, x`«ºÇ≤ÏO㨉õΩ HÍ~°}"≥∞ÿ# |ǨïÉèÏ~åº`«fi =º=ã¨÷ ^Œ∞~å‡~åæxfl ÃÑ^ŒÌ# ã¨iQÍ<Õ QÆ∞iÎOKå_»∞. `«QÆ∞Å<≥=fi ñ_˘Hõ¯ `«~°∞}˜H˜ <˘HõxH˜ "≥∞Å`« =ÅK«∞ #_çÜ«Ú "Õ∞Å#OQÆ =K«∞Û ñ QÍx ÃщõΩ¯ =x`«ÅÃÑ· ñ QÆ∂i‡ QÆÅ∞QÆ∞ ##∞@ ÉÁO‰õΩQÍ^≥ `«~°∞}˜ (6–74) Jx XHõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_çH˜ XHõ „ã‘Î, XHõ „ã‘ÎH˜ XHõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_»∞ =ÙO_Õ ^•OѨ`«º rq`« 㨠∂ „`åxfl P^Œ ~ ° ≈ OQÍ „Ѩ u áêkOKå_» ∞ . Ѩ Ù ~° ∞ +¨ µ _» ∞ ZO`«=∞Ok<≥·<å ÃÑàϧ_»=K«∞Û. JO^Œix ã¨=∞OQÍ „¿Ñq∞OK«QÆÅ_»∞ J#_»O =∂„`«O J|^ŒúO JO@∞Ok K«„Hõ"åH˜. Éè’QÆÖÏÅÃã·Hõ r=#∞Öˇ·# ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ#∞ D J|^ŒúѨ٠„|`«∞‰õΩ #∞O_ç |Ü«∞@Ѩ_»@"Õ∞ rq`« qÅ∞=QÍ Jaè=$kú KÕã¨∞HÀ"åÅx K«„Hõ"åHõ ѨH˜∆ ^•fi~å ÃÇÏK«ÛiOKå_»∞ ÃÑ^ŒÌ#. D ~°HõOQÍ J@∞ u=∞‡# J~Ú<å W@∞ JÅ¡™êx ÃÑ^ŒÌ# J~Ú<å ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆѨ٠|ǨïÉèÏ~åº`«fi =º=ã¨÷ÃÑ· f„="≥∞ÿ# q=∞~°≈QÍ „"åã≤# áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}O, =∞#∞K«i„`« Ѩܫ∞ãπ, #∂ºx*ò =O\˜ K«i„`« HÍ~°∞ezÛ# ã¨=∂Kå~åxfl =∂#=ã¨O|O^è•Å ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬} HÀ}O #∞O_ç Pq+¨¯iOz ™ê~°=O`«O KÕ™ê~Ú.

2. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞–"Õâ◊ºÅ∞ :
=∞`«O ¿Ñ~°∞ g∞^Œ<À, q<À^ŒqÖÏ™êÅ ¿Ñ~°∞ g∞^Œ<À ‰õΩ@∞OÉÏxH˜ J=`« Å Jaè = $kú KÕ Ü « ∞ |_ç # =º=㨠÷ ‰ õ Ω K≥ O k#"åà◊ √ § ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞–"Õâ◊ºÅ∞. „ѨǨÏsQÀ_»Å =∞^茺, |Ü«∞@ „ѨѨOKåxH˜ =¸¿ãã≤# ˆQ@¡‰õΩ ֒ѨŠ|Okè`«∞Å∞ JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ∞ HÍQÍ D ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞–"Õâ◊ºÅ∞ ǨÏ^Œ∞ÌÅ∞ÖËx „ѨѨOK«OÖ’ ¿ãfiKåÛùr=ÙÅ∞. ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ ¿ã=ʼnõΩ JiÊOK«|_ç#"åà◊√§ ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞. |~Àƒ™ê Ѩk ã¨O=`«û~åÅ =Ü«∞ã¨∞Ö’<Õ P_»Ñ≤Å¡Å#∞ ^Õ=ÙxH˜ JOH˜`«O KÕ¿ã PKå~°O q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°~åAÅ HÍÅOÖ’ =Ù#fl@∞¡ K«∂z K≥áêÊ_»∞. ^Õ=ÙxH˜ JOH˜`«O KÕÜ«∞|_ç# P_»Ñ≤šʼnõΩ ã¨Ow`«<å@º q^ŒºÅÖ’ tHõ∆}xzÛ,
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 12

^Õ=Ù_çx JÅiOK«\ÏxH˜ ã≤^ŒúO KÕ¿ã"å~°∞. gà◊§#∞ '_®xûOQ∑QÆ~ü¡û— Jx ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞ Ѩܫ∞ãπ. '_®~åÛ— #QÆ~åxfl QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÓΠѨܫ∞ãπ– P #QÆ~°OÖ’ XˆH ~åu`À QÆ∞O„_»OQÍ xi‡OK«|_ç# XHõ ÃÑ^ŒÌ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞O =Ù#fl^Œx, P ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞OÖ’ QÆ}Ëâ◊√_»∞ =¸Å^≥·==∞x, P ^Õ=ÙxH˜ x`«ºÑ¨Ó[ <≥·"Õ^ŒºO [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞O\ÏÜ«∞x, <≥·"Õ^ŒºO ã¨=∞iÊOKÕ "Õà◊ P QÆ∞_çH˜ K≥Ok# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ P q„QÆǨÏO =ÚO^Œ∞ <å@ºO KÕ™êÎ~°x ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. D „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ ѨÙ\˜ì# P_»Ñ≤Å¡Å∞ ‰õÄ_® P ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂xˆH K≥O^Œ∞`å~°x ‰õÄ_® J`«#∞ K≥áêÊ_»∞. P „ã‘ÎÅk 'Å∂*òHÍÔ~Hõì~ü— JO\Ï_®Ü«∞#. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞ x=ã≤OKÕ g^èŒ∞Å∞ K«Hõ¯\˜ =~°∞ã¨Å∞ fi# Wà◊§`À =ÙO\ÏÜ«∞x, ¿ã<åkèHÍ~°∞Å ÉèÏ~°ºÅ‰õΩ ÅaèOKÕ Q“~°==∞~åº^ŒÅ∞ gà◊§‰õΩ =ÙO\ÏÜ«∞x, U Q“~°=hÜ«∞ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_≥·<å "åà◊§ Wà◊§‰õΩ Ü«∞^èÕK«ÛùQÍ "≥o§ =ã¨∞ÎO\Ï_»x – JO^Œ∞=Å¡ "åà◊§‰õΩ JO>Ë xO^Œ Ug∞ =ÙO_»^Œx K≥áêÊ_»∞. ^Õ=^•ã‘Åk 'Å∂*òHÍÔ~Hõì~ü— J#@O, "åiO_»¡‰õΩ "≥àı§ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ#∞ =∂„`«O Q“~°=hÜ«ÚÅ∞QÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#@O Ñ≤`«$™êfiq∞Hõ Öˇ·OyHõ q=H∆Í Ñ¶¨e`«"≥∞ÿ# "≥·~°∞^茺O. ã¨ÉèÏ~åÜ«∞~°O[HõO J<Õ a~°∞^Œ∞ á⁄Ok# ‰õΩáêÊ~Ú XHõ ^Õ=^•ã≤. <å@º <å@Hõ Hõà◊ÅÖ’ xëê‚`«∞Öˇ·# W@∞=O\˜ ^Õ=^•ã‘Å#∞ ~åA |Ǩ ï =∞`« ∞ Å`À 㨠` « ¯ iOKÕ " å_» x âß㨠< åÅ=Å¡ `≥ Å ∞㨠∞ Î # flk. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°O #∞O_ç ^Õ=^•ã‘Å#∞ u~°∞Ѩu ^Õ=™ê÷<åxH˜, N~°OQÆ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂xH˜ ¿ã=ÅÔH· ѨOÑ≤#@∞¡ âßã¨<åÅ∞ `≥eÜ«∞KÕã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú. ~åAʼnõΩ ~å}∞ʼnõΩ =Öˇ ѨšH©ÅÖ’ Tˆ~ˆQ JkèHÍ~°O, ~å}©"åã¨OÖ’H˜ Ü«∞^èÕK«ÛQÍ "≥o§=KÕÛ J=HÍâ◊O "åà◊§‰õΩ =ÙO@∞Ok. 'ɡ@Öò— J<Õ XHõ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# `åO|∂ÅO "åà‹§Ñ¨ÙÊ_»∂ uO@∞O\Ï~°∞. ~åA =ÚO^Œ∞, ~å}∞Å =ÚO^Œ∞ ‰õÄ_® "åà◊§k u#=K«∞Û. q∞ye# Jxfl=~åæÅ "åiH˜ Jk ~å[ ã¨=ÚYOÖ’ x+≤^ŒúO. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞ ~åAQÍi ã¨ÉèÏ„áêOQÆ}OÖ’ „ѨuÜÕ∞_»∞ [iˆQ ^Œã¨~å #=~å„u L`« û "åÅÖ’ áêÖÁæ O \Ï~° ∞ . qѨ s `« " ≥ ∞ ÿ # 㨠O Ѩ ^ Œ Å ∞, ~° ` « fl =∞}˜ = ∞Ü« ∞ PÉè í ~ ° } ÏÅ∞ "åi^Œ Q Æ æ ~ ° =ÙO\Ï~Ú. H˘O^Œ i H˜ Éèí∂=ÚÅ∞, "åǨÏ<åÅ∞, „ã‘Î ¿ã=‰õΩÅ∞ |Ǩï=∂#OQÍ DÜ«∞|_ç# ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅ∂ L<åfl~Ú. g~°∞ ZO`« ã¨OѨ^ŒfiO`«∞ÅO>Ë #∂~°∞"ÕŠѨ~À_®Å∞#fl"åà◊√§ ‰õÄ_® gà◊§Ö’¡ =Ù<åfl~°x Ѩܫ∞ãπ „"åâß_»∞. Ѩ~À_® J<Õk XHõ |OQÍ~°∞<å}ˇO. XHõ <å}ˇO qÅ∞= 360 iÜ«∂Å qÅ∞=`À ã¨=∂#O. iÜ«∂ áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞"åi <å}ˇO. JO^Œ∞=Å¡<Õ ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞ ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ ^•#^èŒ~å‡Å∞ KÕÜ«∞QÆeQÍ~°∞. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å P™ê÷#OÖ’ #~°ÎH˜QÍ =Ù#fl ‰õΩáêÊ~Ú u~°∞Hõ¯Öˇ·Ö’ "≥OHõ>Ëâ◊fi~°∞x ѨÓ[‰õΩ P"≥∞ ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ u~°∞=∞Öˇ· J=∞‡<£ u~°∞=∞Å "≥OHõ>Ëâ◊√x ѨÓ[‰õΩ, WOHÍ WÖψQ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok J<ÕHõ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂ÅÖ’ ¿ã=ÅÔH· ^•#^èŒ~å‡Å∞ KÕã≤#@∞¡ âßã¨<åÅ =Å¡ `≥Å∞ã¨∞Î#flk. JK«∞º`«~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅOÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞zÛ, ã¨^•t=~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅOÖ’ eOQÆ™êx, â◊OÉÏHõ"≥OQÆ∞, zHõ¯Ü«∞™êx, QÀqO^Œ™êx "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ ¿ãqHõÅ∞ P ~°HõOQÍ ^•#^èŒ~å‡Å∞ KÕã≤#"åàı§. ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ <≥·"Õ^ŒºO #∞O_ç ~ÀA ^Õ=^•ã‘ʼnõΩ ÉèÏQÆO "≥àı§ PKå~°O ‰õÄ_® =ÙOk.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

^Õ=^•ã‘ÅÖ’ – ÉèíQÆ=O`«∞x ã¨O`À+¨Ñ¨~°K«\ÏxH˜ xÜ«∞q∞`«∞Öˇ·# "åà◊√§, ˆH=ÅO #$`«ºO KÕ¿ã"åà◊√§, qO*Ï=∞~°Å∞ gKÕ"åà◊√§, QÍ#O KÕ¿ã"åà◊√§, ¿ã=ʼnõΩ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_Õ"åà◊√§ –WÖÏ S^Œ∞ ~°HÍÅ"åà◊√§#fl@∞¡ P<å\˜ âß㨠< åÅ#∞ |\˜ ì QÆ ∞ iÎ O K« = K« ∞ Û. #$`« º O KÕ ¿ ã"åà◊ § Ö’ ^Õ = #~° Î ‰ õ Ω Å∞, ~å[#~° Î ‰ õ Ω Å∞ Jx Ô ~ O_» ∞ ~° H ÍÅ "å~° ∞ <åfl~° ∞ . P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ ^Õ=#~°Î‰õΩÅ „Ѩ™êÎ=# =ÙOk. ''á⁄ÅÜ«ÚO QÍ_»∞Ê Å∞^ŒV‡Ç¨ÅÜ«∞ =^ŒOÉè’*ÏHõ∆=Hõ∆ã¨∞ÎÅ㨺 ÅÑ¶Ú „ã¨V‡Hõ~O^ŒaO^Œ∞=ÙÅ ñ |}Ϻ~°OѨ٠ñ |∞}ºOѨ٠ñ QÆO ¨ ° ѨÙÅ ñ ^•Ñ¨„`«~Ú g∞\˜ g@ #@# „áÈ^ÀºQÆ ã¨r˚Éèí= Å¡ Å<å=i˚`« ÔH·tHõ Hõ∆i`« HõÖÏ›~åo #ÖÏ¡~°∞ÛK«∞<£—— (1–73) qe¡Ñ¨Ù`«∂Î~°∞Ö’ gKÕQÍÅ∞Å∞ L`«Î~å# =Ù#fl `å=∞~°Å=O\˜ Hõ#∞flÅ∞#fl q+¨µ‚=¸iÎ =Hõ∆ã¨÷ÅOÃÑ· =Ù#fl ѨÓÅǨ~åxfl ã¨Ê$tã¨∂Î P fÑ≤ "åã¨#Å`À, PÜ«∞#‰õΩ <≥·"Õ^ŒºO ÃÑ\˜ì# Ñ≤O_ç=O@Å ã¨∞QÆO^è•Å#∞ Hõ Å ∞Ѩ Ù H˘x JѨ Ù Ê_» H õ ¯ _» <å@ºO KÕ Ü « ∞ \ÏxH˜ ã≤ ^ Œ ú = ∞=Ù`« ∞ #fl ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞„ã‘ÎÅ H˘Ñ¨ÙÊÅÖ’x Z„~°HõÅ∞=Å#∞ x=Ú~°∞`«∂ ™êQÍÜ«∞x Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ KÕã≤# =~°‚# ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂ÅÖ’ <≥·"Õ^Œº ã¨=∞~°Ê}"Õà◊, P ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂xH˜ K≥Ok# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ <å@ºO KÕ™êÎ~°x 'Ѩܫ∞ãπ— „"åã≤# ^•x`À ã¨iáÈ`«∞#flk. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å<Õ 'QÆ∞_çKÕ@∞—Åx ‰õÄ_® J<åfl~°∞. QÆ∞_çH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz# „ã‘Î J#fl=∂@. JK«Û"≥∞ÿ# `≥Å∞QÆ∞=∂@ Wk. qe¡Ñ¨Ù`«∂Î~°∞ =~°‚#Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ QÆ∞_çKÕ@∞Å =~°‚# ‰õÄ_® P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ LOk. "åi Éèí=<åÅ∞ '#$Ѩu "≥eOÜ«∞OuѨÙ~°=Ú—QÍ =Ù#fl^Œx K≥ѨÊ@OÖ’ "åi ã¨OѨ^≥·fiÉèí=O, 'ÉÏã¨QÆ$u ÃãѨÊ=Å`«∞ÅѨÊ^Œ‡=ÚY∞Å∞— Jx K≥ѨÊ@OÖ’ "åi ™êÇ≤Ï`«º HõàÏ"≥·^Œ∞+¨ºO Ô~O_»∂ =ºHõÎ=∞Ü«∂º~Ú. (1–60) J~Ú`Õ ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞, "Õâ◊ºÅ∞, g~°=x`«Å∞, Ѩ}º„ã‘ÎÅ∞, Éè’yhѨ`«∞Å∞ D q^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# =∂@Åhfl `«~°K«∂, Ѩ~åºÜ«∞ Ѩ^•Å∞QÍ<Õ „Ѩã¨HõÎO JÜ«∂º~Ú. =∞^è Œ ∞ ~å#QÆ ~ ° =~° ‚ # 㨠O ^Œ ~ ° ƒ ù O Ö’ "Õ â ◊ º Å =~° ‚ # =Ù#flk. =∞^è Œ ∞ ~å#QÆ ~ ° ~ åA JO`« ó Ѩ Ù ~° O ֒Ѩ Ö Ë =∞~˘Hõ gkè Ö ’ =Ù#fl 'Éè’yhã¨OQÆu— H˜ áÈ`«∞#fl q+¨Ü«∞O (2–75) =i‚OK«|_çOk. =∞^èŒ∞~° ~åA#∞ "å^ŒOÖ’ F_çOz q[Ü«Ú_≥· uiy=zÛ# q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_çH˜ qe¡Ñ¨Ù`«∂Î~°∞Ö’ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ JkèHÍ~°∞Å∞ Éè’QÆO "Õ∞à◊O`À ™êfiQÆ`«O K≥Ñ≤Ê#@∞¡ =Ù#flk. ™ê÷x‰õΩÅ∞ ^Œ#∞‡x k^Œ$ H∆Í#Ok`«∞ÅQÆ∞K«∞ ñ |∞~°=ÚÔQ·¿ãã≤, „Ѩ[ Å`À #_»∞= <åQÆ"åã¨=Ú `À <≥^Œ∞~°∞QÆ<Õñy† ~°O`« `«∂~°º=ÚÅ∞eÜ«∞<£ (2–34) <åQÆ " å㨠O JO>Ë "Õ â ◊ º Å"Õ ∞ à◊ O . "Õ â ◊ º Å`À Z^Œ ∞ ˆ ~ y "≥ o § fã¨∞H˘x~å=@O P =ºH˜Î Ǩϟ^• zǨÏflOQÍ, =∞~åº^•zǨÏflOQÍ =Ù#fl@∞¡ Hõ#|_»∞`«∞#flk. q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_çx #QÆ~°OÖ’H˜ Tˆ~yOѨÙQÍ fã¨∞H˘x=KåÛ~°∞. P Tˆ~yOѨÙÖ’ <å@ºHõ`≥ÎÅ∞<åfl~°∞. #_»∞=∞ #_»∞=∞ Tˆ~yOѨ٠xez#ѨÙÊ_»∞, "åà◊√§ Tˆ~yOѨىõΩ Z^Œ∞~°∞xez <å@ºO
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 13

KÕ™êÎ~°∞. q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_»∞ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ =º=ã¨÷‰õΩ K≥Ok#"å_»∞ Hõ#∞Hõ "≥o§=zÛ#n ^≥·=HÍ~°ºO xq∞`«Î"Õ∞ Hõ#∞Hõ D <å@ºHõ`≥ÎÅ∞ ^Õ=^•ã‘ [#"Õ∞ J~Ú=ÙO_®e. gà◊√§HÍHõ "Õâ◊ºÅ∞ "Õˆ~ P Tˆ~yOѨÙÖ’ =Ù#fl@∞¡<åfl~°∞. U#∞QÆ∞ ÖˇH˜¯=ã¨∞Î#fl ~å‰õΩ=∂~°∞ʼnõΩ #_»z=ã¨∞Î#fl "Õ â ◊ º „ã‘ Î Å ‰õ Ω =∞^è Œ º [iy# 㨠O Éè Ï +¨ } Å∞ 㨠x fl"Õ â ßÅ∞ "Õâߺã¨O|O^è•ÖˇO`« x~åѶ¨∂@OQÍ, U Kå@∂ ÖˉõΩO_® ZÖÏ ™êQÆ∞`«∞<åflÜ≥∂ ã¨∂zã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú. =∞#∞K«i„`« ^ŒQÆæ~°#∞O_ç =∞ˆ~ HÍ"åºÅÖ’#∂ ^Õ=^•ã‘Å „Ѩ™êÎ=# Hõ#|_»^Œ∞. "Õâ◊ºÅ=~°‚# =∂„`«O HÍ=º ã¨=∞Ü«∞O J~ÚOk. #QÆ~° =~°‚#`À „áê~°OÉèí=∞ÜÕ∞º HÍ"åºÅÖ’ Kå`«∞~°fi~°‚=º=ã¨÷#∞ QÆ∞iOz K≥Ñ≤Ê# `«~°∞"å`« #QÆi "Õâ◊ºÅ QÆ∞iOz ^•^•Ñ¨Ù JO^Œ~°∂ K≥áêÊ~°∞. ''JK«\˜ "≥ÅÜ«∂O„_»∞ ~°OÉèÏ^Œ∞Öˇ·# <˘~°Ü«∞ HÍÃãH˘OQÆ∞# "åiOz Hõ_»Ñ¨ñQÆÅ~°∞ <å@ºˆ~MÏ HõàÏ^Œ∞~°O^èŒ~° x~°∂_èç #K«@ |∞\˜ì# zQÆ∞~°∞ ñ Q˘"≥∞ÿ‡# ñ *Ë=—— (1–50) Jx JÅ¡™êx ÃÑ^ŒÌ# J~°∞}Ïã¨Ê^ŒÑ¨Ù~°Ñ¨Ù "Õâ◊ºÅ <å@ºKå`«∞~åºxfl „Ѩâ◊Oã≤OKå_»∞. Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å HÍÅOÖ’ <å@ºHõ`≥ÎÅ∞ Jxfl L`«û= 㨠O ^Œ ~ åƒù Å Ö’#∂ x~° fi Ç≤ Ï Oz# „Ѩ ^ è • #áê„`« # ∞ D q^è Œ O QÍ ã¨∂zOz#@¡~ÚOk. "Õâ◊ºÅ‰õΩ Ü«Ú^Œú ta~åÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® „áê^è•#º`« =ÙOk. x~°O`«~°O Ü« Ú ^•ú Å Ö’ =Úxy=ÙO_Õ Ãã· x ‰õ Ω Å Öˇ · O yHÍ㨠‰ õ Ω Î Å #∞ 㨠O `« $ Ñ≤ ΠѨ~K\ÏxˆH"≥∂ – ^ŒO_»Ü∂„`«ÅѨÙÊ_»∞ Ãã#ºO`À áê@∞ Éè’QÆÑÙ¨ Kå#Å#∞ ° « « · QÆ ∞ OѨ Ù QÍ f㨠∞ H˘x "≥ à ◊ √ Î # fl@∞¡ |~ü É ’™ê (1514) „"åâß_» ∞ . ~åÜ«∞ÅÃã·#ºOÖ’ P~°∞"ÕÅ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ∞<åfl~°x, "åà‹§Ñ¨ÙÊ_»∂ Ãã·#ºO`À<Õ =ÙO\Ï~°x PÜ«∞# ã¨=∂Kå~°q∞KåÛ_»∞. 1521Ö’ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~åxfl ã¨O^Œi≈Oz# =∞~˘Hõ Ü«∂„u‰õΩ_»∞ ÃѶiÜ«∂ _癜*Ï Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å Ãã·#ºOÖ’ W~°"≥·"ÕÅ=∞Ok „ã‘ÎÅ∞#fl@∞¡ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. Ü«Ú^Œú ta~åÅÖ’ W~°"≥·"ÕÅ=∞Ok QÆ}˜HõÅ∞#fl@∞¡ #∂ºx*ò ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl_»∞. QÆ}˜HõÅ∞ ¿ã<åOQÍÅÖ’ XHõ~∞° . Ü«Ú^ŒÉ∂=ÚÅÖ’ "åi ã¨OKå~°O. "å~°∞ ÉèÜ∞« Ѩ_ç ú íè í áêiáȉõΩO_® =ÙO_»\ÏxH˜ ~åA "åi =OâßʼnõΩ =∂<åºÅ∞, ^ŒO_çQÍ r`åÅ∞ WKÕÛ"å_»∞. "åà◊√§ Ãã·x‰õΩÅ#∞ ™êǨϙêʼnõΩ „¿Ñˆ~Ñ≤OKÕ q^èŒOQÍ „Ѩ=iÎã¨∞ÎO\Ï~°∞. D q^èŒOQÍ Ãã·xHõ 㨯O^è•"å~åÅÖ’ L„`ÕÊ~°Hõ â◊‰õΩÎÅ∞QÍ Ñ¨xKÕ¿ã QÆ}˜HõÅ#∞ ã¨~°Ñ¶¨~å KÕ¿ã ÉÏ^茺`« ÃÑ^ŒÌÃÑ^ŒÌ L^ÀºQÆã¨∞ÎÅn JkèHÍ~°∞Åk. XH˘¯Hõ¯~°∞ U_≥xq∞k =∞Ok P_»Ñ≤Å¡Å#∞ z#fl<å@<Õ KÕ~°nã≤ ÃÑOz ÃÑ^ŒÌKÕã≤, `«y# tHõ∆} WzÛ K«„Hõ=iÎ H˘Å∞=Ù‰õΩ HÍ#∞HõQÍ W™êÎ~°x XHõ Hõ^äŒ#O. ''^Õ = ^•ã‘ Å O^Œ ~ ° ∂ ^•^•Ñ¨ Ù =ºaè K åi}∞ÖË . HÍh =ºaè K å~° ∞ ÅO^Œ ~ ° ∂ ^Õ = ^•ã‘ Å ∞ HÍ~° ∞ .—— Wk ^Õ " åÅÜ« ∞ O`À ã¨O|O^èŒOÖËx Éè’QÆO „ã‘ÎÅ#∞, "Õâ◊ºÅ#∞ L^ÕÌtOz# =∂@. J~Ú`Õ "Õâ◊ºÅ∞ "Õâ◊ºÅ∞QÍ rqOK«\ÏxH˜ x~åHõiOK«@O, ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞QÍ H˘O`« P^蕇u‡Hõ Q“~°=O, ™ê=∂lHõ Q“~°=O HõÅ rq`åxfl rqOK«\ÏxH˜
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

W+¨ìѨ_»@O ‰õÄ_® ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆOÖ’ HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. ^èŒ∂~°˚\˜ 'NHÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î =∂ǨÏ`«‡º=Ú—Ö’ D ™ê=∂lHõ ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬}‰õΩ „áêux^茺O =Ç≤ÏOKÕ Hõ^äŒ =ÙOk. =∞^èŒ∞~åѨÙ~°OÖ’ =∂}˜Hõº=e¡ J<Õ "Õâ◊º=ÙOk. P"≥∞‰õΩ W^ŒÌ~°∞ P_»Ñ≤Å¡Å∞ ѨÙ\Ïì~°∞. ~åA‰õΩ H˘_»∞‰õΩÅ∞, QÆ}˜‰õʼnõΩ ‰õÄ`«∞à◊¥§ ѨÙ_ç`Õ ã¨O`À+¨Ñ¨_Õ ™ê=∂lHõ ã≤÷uÖ’ ã¨Ç¨Ï[OQÍ<Õ =∂}˜Hõº=e¡ `«#‰õΩ ‰õÄ`«∞à◊√§ ÃѨÙ\˜ì#O^Œ∞‰õΩ P#O^ŒÑ¨_»¤k. ÉÏźO#∞O_Õ "åà◊§‰õΩ '"å~°^èŒ~°‡ q^•º‰õΩâ◊Å`«fiO— JÅ=~°K«\ÏxH˜ (4–13) P"≥∞ `«y# Ü«∞`åflÅ∞ KÕã≤Ok. Zxfl K≥Ñ≤Ê<å, ZO`« KÕã≤<å "åà◊§‰õΩ Ѩ}º^èŒ~°‡O Ѩ@∞ì|_»ÖË^Œ∞. â‹ · = ^è Œ ~ ° ‡ "Õ ∞ rq`« ^ è Œ ~ ° ‡ OQÍ ÃÑiQÍ~° ∞ . (4–17) =∂}˜ H õ º =e¡ 'q@∞Å㨠O QÆ u —H˜ "åà◊ § <≥ O `« Q Í „áÈ^Œ ƒ ÅO KÕ ã ≤ < å „Ñ¨ Ü ≥ ∂ [#O ÖËHõáÈ~ÚOk. 'HÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î ^≥·==Ú Éèíl~ÚOK«∞ =∂#ã¨=Ú "å~°=^èŒ∂ =∞^Œ ™œYº"≥∞OK«∞<Õ— (4–43) Jx `«e¡ „Ѩܫ∞`åflÅ#∞ x~°ã≤OKå~°∞. D Hõ ^ ä Œ XHõ " ≥ · Ñ ¨ Ù "Õ â ߺ=º=㨠÷ P<å_≥ O `« ã≤ ÷ ~ ° Ñ ¨ _ ç =ÙO^À `≥eÜ«∞KÕÜ«∞@O`Àáê@∞ U HÍ~°}O KÕ`«<≥·`Õ<Õq∞ „ã‘ÎÅÖ’ "Õâ◊ºÅ∞QÍ rqOK«@O Ѩ@¡ U=yOѨ٠HõÅQÆ\Ïxfl ‰õÄ_® ã¨∂zã¨∞Î#flk. JO^ŒiH© JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ =ÙO_ç ™œYºO W=fi@"Õ∞`«Ñ¨Ê Z=fiiH© `å"Õ∞g∞ H͉õΩO_® XO\iQÍ q∞yeáÈÜÕ∞ "Õâ◊ºÅ JO`«~°OQÆ P"Õ^Œ#Å#∞, P ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# rq`«O #∞O_ç q=ÚH˜ÎH˜ ÉèíH˜Îx XHõ ™ê^èŒ#OQÍ KÕã¨∞H˘#\Ïxfl ‰õÄ_® D ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùO #∞O_ç J~°÷O KÕã¨∞H˘#=K«∞Û#∞. ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆѨ٠ã¨=∂[OÖ’ qK«ÛÅq_ç â◊$OQÍ~°O "åºáê~åÅ ¿Ñ~° ∞ g∞^Œ ‰õ Ä _® ™êQÆ @ O Hõ x Ñ≤ ã ¨ ∞ Î O k. Kåi„`« H õ ~° K « # ÅÖ’ „Ѩ™êÎqOK«|_»HõáÈ~Ú<å HÍ=ºOÖ’ HõxÑ≤OKÕ Ñ¨Ù+¨ÊÖÏqHõÅ =~°‚# nx<Õ ã¨∂zã¨∞ÎOk. ѨÙ+¨ÊÖÏqHõÅ∞ JO>Ë Ñ¨ÓÅ|*Ï~°∞Ö’ ѨÓÅ"Õ∞‡„ ã‘ÎÅ∞. P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ =∞^èŒ∞~åѨÙ~° =~°‚#Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ Ñ¨Ù+¨ÊÖÏqHõÅ =$uÎ „Ѩ=$`«∞ÎÅ∞ =i‚OK«|_®¤~Ú. gi ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ ѨÓÅH˘~°‰õΩ =KÕÛ"åà◊√§ ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ q@∞ÖË. "Õâ◊ºÅ =^ŒÌ‰õΩ "≥à◊¥Î "åà◊§H˘~°‰õΩ ѨÓÅ∞ H˘#\ÏxH˜ gà◊§^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ =™êÎ~°∞. ѨÓÅ"Õ∞‡ P_»"åà◊√§ ‰õÄ_® "åà◊§H˘Hõ q<À^Œ"Õ∞. Hõ#∞flÅ qO^Õ. ѨÓÅ∞ H˘#@O <≥ѨO`À "åà◊√§KÕ¿ã ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å∞ ^ŒfiO^•fi~å÷Å`À =ÙO\Ï~Ú. "åà◊§ HÀÔ~¯Å#∞ =ºH©ÎHõiã¨∂Î =ÙO\Ï~Ú. Jk ѨÙ+¨ÊÖÏqHõʼnõΩ J~°÷O J=Ù`«∂<Õ =ÙO@∞Ok. =Úã≤=Úã≤ #=ÙfiÅ∞ #=Ùfi`«∂ Ü«ÚH˜ÎÜ«ÚHõÎOQÍ ["å|∞eã¨∂Î `«=∞ Ѩx `å=Ú KÕã¨∞‰õΩáÈ`«∞O\Ï~°∞. ѨÓÅ∞ =∂ÅÅÅ∞¡`«∂, "å_çáȉõΩO_® "å\˜ÃÑ·# hà◊√§ K«Å∞¡`«∂, `«=∞ ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ =zÛ# ÉË~°O *ÏiáȉõΩO_® K«∂ã¨∂ΠѨÓÅ=Ú‡H˘#@O "åiѨx–ѨÙ+¨ÊÖÏqHõʼnõΩ q@∞ʼnõΩ =∞^茺 [iˆQ ÉË~°™ê~° ~°∂Ѩ"≥∞ÿ# D ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å∞ JHõ¯_ç`À PˆQg HÍ=K«∞Û. JO`«Hõ<åfl =ÚO^Œ∞‰õΩáÈ~Ú "åà◊§=∞^茺 ã¨O|O^è•Å∞ U~°Ê~°KÕ"Õ HÍ=K«∞Û. U"≥∞ÿ<å ѨÙ+¨ÊÖÏqHÍ=º=ã¨÷ "Õâߺ=º=ã¨÷‰õΩ J#∞|O^èŒ"Õ∞##flk "åã¨Î=O. ^Õ = ^•ã‘ =º=㨠÷ J~Ú`Õ < Õ q ∞, "Õ â ߺ=º=㨠÷ J~Ú`Õ < Õ q ∞ ‰õΩ@∞OÉÏxH˜ J=`«Å ѨÙ~°∞+¨µ_ç Éè’QÆÖÏÅ㨠„Ѩ=$uÎx `«$Ñ≤ÎѨ~°K«\ÏxH˜ Jaè=$kú KÕÜ«∞|_ç#"Õ. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ ¿ã=Å∞ KÕã¨∂Î<Õ „ѨÉèí∞`«fi J#∞=∞u`À =$uÎ KÕã¨∞HÀ=K«∞Û. Jã¨Å∞ ^Õ=^•ã‘ÅO>Ë<Õ #QÆ~°
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 14

ÃÑ^ŒÌ=∞#∞+¨µÅO^Œi L=∞‡_ç ™⁄=Ú‡. "åix ã¨O`À+¨ÃÑ\˜ì ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞ á⁄O^Õ P^•Ü«∞OÃÑ· 'ã¨∂ÖË^≥Ô~— J<Õ ¿Ñ~°∞`À Ѩ#∞fl =ã¨∂Å∞ KÕÜ«∞|_Õk. "Õâ◊ºÅ ™œO^Œ~°ºáÈ+¨}Ö’ ÉèÏQÆ"≥∞ÿ# J^•ÌÅÃÑ·# Ѩ#∞fl =ÙOk. ^Õ=^•ã‘ =º=ã¨÷#∞ #_»Ñ¨\ÏxH˜ ^•<åÅ∞ WÜ«∞º|_Õq. ^Õ=^•ã‘Å áÈ+¨} HÀã¨O 'ÅO[ã¨∞OHõO— =ã¨∂Å∞ KÕÜ«∞|_»∞`«∞#fl@∞¡ âßã¨<åÅ∞ ã¨∂zã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú. L`«û"åÅѨÙÊ_»∞ ^èŒ#~°∂ѨOÖ’ „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO D Ѩ#∞fl=ã¨∂Å∞ KÕ¿ãk. ÃÑo§à◊§Ö’¡ <å@ºOKÕ¿ã „ã‘ÎÅ P^•Ü«∞O #∞O_ç ‰õÄ_® J^•ÌÅѨ#∞fl, ѨOkiѨ#∞fl =ã¨∂Å∞ KÕÜ«∞|_Õk. g@xfl\˜x K«∂¿ãÎ ^Õ=^•ã‘, "Õâߺ=º=ã¨÷Å áÈ+¨}‰õΩ, x~°fiǨÏ}‰õΩ „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO „Ѩ[Å #∞O_ç XHõ"≥·Ñ¨Ù Ѩ#∞fl =ã¨∂Å∞ KÕã¨∂Î =∞~˘Hõ"≥·Ñ¨Ù ^Õ=^•ã‘Å, "Õâ◊ºÅ P^•Ü«∞O g∞^Œ Ѩ#∞fl ‰õÄ_® =ã¨∂Å∞ KÕã¨∂Î Ô~q#∂º#∞ ÃÑOK«∞H˘#@O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. P ~°HõOQÍ D =º=ã¨÷ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ Éè’QÆÖÏÅã¨`«‰õΩ ™ê^èŒ#OQÍ#∂, „ѨÉèí∞`«fi P^•Ü«∞ =#~°∞QÍ#∂ =ÙO@∂ =zÛOk.

3. ™ê^è•~°} „ã‘ÎÅ∞ :
~å*ÏO`«óѨÙ~°„ã‘ÎÅ∞, ^Õ=^•ã‘Å∞, "Õâ◊ºÅ∞ HÍHõ ™ê^è•~°} QÆ$ǨÏã¨÷ rq`«O QÆ_ç¿Ñ „ã‘ÎÅ „Ѩ™êÎ=# K«i„`«Ö’ KåÖÏ J~°∞^Œ∞QÍ HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. „ÉÏǨ Ï ‡}∞Å∞ „Ѩ É è í ∞ `åfikè H Í~° ∞ Å∞QÍ, "åºáê~° " Õ ` « Î Å ∞QÍ, =º=™êÜ«∞^•~°∞Å∞QÍ ~°Hõ~°HÍÅ =$`«∞ÎÅÖ’ rqã¨∞Î<åfl ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ ã¨O|O^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# ¿ã=ÅÖ’ =Ù#fl ѨÓ*Ïi =~°æO *Ï˝#∞Åx ѨO_ç`«∞Åx, =∂Oã¨O =Ú@ì~°x K≥|∞`«∂ Ѩܫ∞ãπ "åà◊§O^ŒiH˜ ÃÑo§à◊§Ü«∂ºÜ«∞x, "åà◊§O^ŒiH© JO^Œ"≥∞ÿ# ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞<åfl~°x, "åà◊√§ q„âßO`« rq`«O QÆ_∞ѨÙ`«∞O\Ï~°x J~°∞^Œ∞QÍ Wà◊§#∞ =ke |Ü«∞@‰õΩ =™êÎ~x „"åâß_»∞. » ° P ~°HõOQÍ „ÉÏǨχ} =~°æѨ٠„ã‘ÎÅ QÆ∞iOz# ã¨fiÅÊ ã¨=∂Kå~°O =∂„`«O K«i„`«ÔHH˜¯Ok. K«i„`«Ö’ J~°∞^≥·# ™ê^è•~°}„ã‘Î „Ѩ™êÎ=#, „Ѩ=$uÎ `≥eÜ«∂ÅO>Ë ™êÇ≤Ï`«º"Õ∞ =∞#‰õΩ JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ =Ù#fl =#~°∞. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ qe¡Ñ¨Ù`«∂Î~°∞#∞ =i‚OKÕ ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ ¿Ñ~˘¯#fl „^Œq_®OQÆ#Å∞ „ÉÏǨχ} „ã‘ÎÖË HÍ=K«∞Û. "åà◊§ rq`« q^è•<åxfl ~åÜ«∞Å∞ WO^Œ∞Ö’ #"≥∂^Œ∞ KÕâß_»∞. „^•q_»„ã‘ÎÅ∞ L^•º#=#Ѩ Ù ÉÏ=ÙÅÖ’<À (1–56) WO\˜ P=~° } Ö’x kQÆ∞_»∞ÉÏ=ÙÅÖ’<À (1–64) Ѩã¨∞ѨÙ~åã¨∞H˘x ™êfl<åÅ∞ KÕ™êÎ~°∞. P ÉÏ=ÙÅh~°∞ aO^≥ÅÖ’ xOѨÙH˘x N"åi Jaè¿+HÍxH˜ |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~`å~°∞. ° ÉÏ=ÙÅÖ’ qHõã≤Oz# Z„~°HõÅ∞=Å∞ ѨÓ*Ï~°÷O fã¨∞H˘x"≥à◊`å~°∞. "≥à◊¥Î PàÏfi~°∞Å∞ ~°zOz# k=º„Ѩ|O^è•Å∞ áê_»∞H˘O\Ï~°∞. D „^Œq_»„ã‘ÎʼnõΩ áê@ÖË HÍ^Œ∞, Ѩ#∞Å∂ `≥Å∞ã¨∞. "åà◊√§ =ÚOy\’¡ ZO_»Ö’ P~°É’ã≤# HõÅ=∞Ѩ٠=_»‰Ω HÍѨÖÏQÍ =ÙO\Ï~°∞. ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂xH˜ ¡õ K≥Ok# lOHõÑ≤Å¡ P ^è•#ºO ÉÁHõ¯\ÏxH˜ =ã¨∞ÎO>Ë HõÅ∞= ѨÓÅ^ŒO_»`À JkiOz ^•xx `ÀÅ∞`«∞#fl ^Œ$âߺxfl Hõ$+¨‚~åÜ«∞Å∞ „¿Ñ¶=Ú Hõ\˜ì K«∂áê_»∞ (1–75) WHõ q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_ç ÉèÏ~°º ¿Ñ~°∞ÖËx WÖÏ¡Å∞ =O_ç =_ç¤OK«@OÖ’ x~°O`«~°O x=∞QÆfl"≥∞ÿ =ÙO@∞Ok. HÍÖ’z`«"≥∞ÿ# =O@HÍÅ#∞ `«Ü«∂~°∞ KÕÜ«∞@OÖ’ ѨÓ~°‚„Ѩ[˝ P"≥∞k. q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_»∞ =∞^èŒ∞~°‰õΩ „Ѩܫ∂}=∞=Ù`«∞O>Ë PÜ«∞# Éè’[<åxH˜ P"≥∞ J=∞iÛ# ã¨OÉÏ~åÅ∞ Jhfl Whfl HÍ=Ù. "Õ~ÚOz# aÜ«∞ºÑ¨Ù Ñ≤O_ç ÉˇÅ¡O áêHõOÖ’
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

áÈã≤ KÕã≤# =ÙO_»Å∞, Zã¨~°∞ÃÑ\˜ì áÈã≤ =O_»∞H˘#\ÏxH˜ gÅ∞QÍ â◊√„ÉèíO KÕã≤# áê`«aÜ«∞ºO, â◊√„ÉèíO KÕã≤# rÅHõ„~° ÉˇÅ¡O, zO`«Ñ¨O_»∞ HõeÑ≤ KÕã≤# ã¨OÉÏ~°„^Œ=ºO, ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`À HõeÑ≤ KÕã≤# =_çÜ«∂Å∞, =~°∞QÆ∞Å∞ – "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·#q Z<Àfl ѨOÑ≤Ok. (2–97) q+¨µ‚z`«∞Îx ÉèÏ~°º=Öˇ<Õ ¿Ñ~°∞ÖËx =∞~˘Hõ WÖÏ¡Å∞ =∞#∞K«i„`«Ö’x „Ѩ=~°∞x ÉèÏ~°º. ''=O_»#ÅÜ«∞^Œ∞ "Õ=Ù~°∞ =zÛˆ~x ##flѨÓ~°‚‰õΩ #∞kÌÜ«∞ø#`«x QÆ$Ç≤Ï}˜ #u^äŒ∞ÖË`Õ~° #_çH˜ ˆ~Ü≥ÿ∞# ñ ɡ@∞ì =ÅÜ«ÚÉè’[ºO|∞eO@ # "åfiiQÍñQÆ—— (1–56) P"≥∞k ‰õÄ_® Éèí~°Î PHÍOHõ∆ÅHõ#∞QÆ∞}OQÍ Ju^äŒ∞ʼnõΩ JÅã¨@ ÖˉõΩO_® =O_ç =_ç¤OKÕ „Ѩ=$`ÕÎ. P q^èŒOQÍ „ÉÏǨχ} „ã‘ÎÅ∞ =O@ WO\˜ Ѩ#∞ÅÖ’ ZO`«QÍ =ÚxyáÈÜ«∂~À D Ô~O_»∞ L^ŒO`åÅ∞ `≥eÜ«∞KÕ™êÎ~Ú. =∞m§ `≥<åe ~å=∞eOQÆ_ç 'áêO_»∞~°OQÆ=∂ǨÏ`«‡º=Ú—Ö’ „ÉÏǨχ} „ã‘ÎÅ rq`« „ѨuѶ¨Å<åÅ∞ Hõ#|_»`å~Ú. xQÆ=∞â◊~°‡ JHõ¯. ¿Ñ~°∞ÖËx =∞~˘Hõ„ã‘Î. `«=Ú‡_ç ^Œ∞âıÛ+¨ìÅ =Å¡ áê_»∞|_»¤ QÆ$Ǩxfl XHõ =OHõ‰õΩ `Õ=@O – ^Õ=`å~°Û#, Jukäè ã¨O`«~°Ê}ÏÅ∞ ã¨iQÍ [iˆQ@∞¡ K«∂_»@O. WO\’¡ x 㨠O Ѩ ^ Œ # ∞ Éè í „ ^Œ Ñ ¨ ~ ° K « @ O, Ѩ ٠㨠ΠH õ É è Ï O_®QÍ~åxfl Éè í ~ ° Î ã¨Ç¨Ü«∞O`À K«Hõ¯Éˇ\˜ì HÍáê_»@O, Éèí∂=ÚÅ∞ Ѩل@Å∞ ™êfinè#O KÕã¨∞H˘#@O, á⁄ÖÏÅ#∞ HÍáê_»@O, `«=Ú‡_çH˜ ™êfl#Ѩ٠U~åÊ@∞¡, `«k`«~° ¿ã=Å∞ KÕÜ«∞@O WO\’¡ JO^ŒiH˜ =O_ç =_ç¤OK«@O, `«=Ú‡_çH˜ |∞^Œ ∞ ú Å ∞ K≥ Ñ ≤ Ê ‰õ Ω ^Œ ∞ ~° ∞ QÍ ã¨ O ™ê~° O KÕ ã ¨ ∞ H˘=∞‡x XÑ≤ Ê OK« „Ѩܫ∞uflOK«@O – W=hfl P"≥∞ KÕã≤# Ѩ#∞Å∞. âßs~°Hõ „â◊=∞, "Õ∞^èÀ„â◊=∞ Ô~O_»∂ KÕã≤# „ã‘Î. ÉÁOQÆ~°OÖÏQÍ u~°∞QÆ∞`«∂ WO\˜Ñ¨x, |Ü«∞\˜Ñ¨x, Pi÷Hõ =º=Ǩ~åÅ∞ Jhfl K«Hõ¯Éˇ@ìQÆÅ „ã‘ÎÅ ã¨=∞~°÷`«‰õΩ xQÆ=∞â◊~°‡ JHõ¯ XHõ ã¨OˆH`«O (3–14 #∞O_ç 44). WHõ 'áêO_»∞~°OQÆ=∂Ǩ`«‡ºO—Ö’x =∞~˘Hõ„ã‘Î ã¨∞jÅ. "≥·+¨‚= =x`«. P"≥∞k Hõã≤_çHÀ`«Å HÍѨÙ~°O (4–145) Éèí~°Î ~°∂ѨǑÏ#∞_Õ HÍ^Œ∞ QÆ∞}Ç‘Ï#∞_»∞ ‰õÄ_® HÍ=@O JO^Œ∞‰õΩ HÍ~°}O. ѨÓ@ Éè’[<åxH˜ ‰õÄ_® J`«x ^ŒÜ«∞ÃÑ·# P^è•~°Ñ¨_»¤ „|`«∞HÍ"≥∞k. Éèí~°Î Ö’Éèí`«fiO ÉÏ^è•Hõ~°"Õ∞ J~Ú<å ÉèíiOKÕ „ã‘Î P"≥∞. D ã¨=∂Kå~°=∞O`å ~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅѨ٠™ê^è•~°} „ã‘ÎÅÖ’ „ÉÏǨχ}„ã‘ÎÅ ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞Å QÆ∞iOz# J=QÍǨÏ# Hõeyã¨∞ÎOk. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ ¿Ñ=ÚQÆOѨÅxO_® K≥OQÆÅ∞= ѨÓ^ŒO_»Å∞ `≥ K «∞ ÛH˘O@∞#fl Ѩ Ö ˇ ¡ @∂i Ѩ_ »K«∞ Å#∞ (1–75) "Õã ¨q HÍÅѨ Ù K«e"ÕO„^•ÅÖ’ ^•Ç¨~°∞ÎÖˇ·# ÉÏ@™ê~°∞ʼnõΩ =∞Ozhà◊√§ áÈ¿ã „ã‘ÎÅ#∞ („ѨáêeHõÅ∞) (2–57–59) ѨiK«Ü«∞O KÕâß_»∞. ^•Ç¨ÏO`À JÅã≤ `«∂Å∞`«∂ J=∂‡ JHͯ Wxfl hà◊√§ áÈÜ«∞=∞O@∂ =KÕÛ n#∞Å∞ HÍã¨Î ^ŒÑ≤ÊHõ f~°QÍ<Õ P „ã‘ÎÅ ™œO^Œ~åºxfl Hõà◊§`À `åˆQ¿ã <≥·*Ïxfl „Ѩ^Œi≈™êÎ~°x, K≥ѨÊ@"Õ∞ HÍ^Œ∞, ѨÙ~°∞+¨ „Ѩ=$uÎÖ’x D Öˇ·OyHõ ^Œ$+≤ì
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 15

"≥·z„ux P „ã‘ÎÅ∞ QÆ∞iÎOz#@∞¡ ‰õÄ_® Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ „"åâß_»∞. =~å¬HÍÅOÖ’ ™ê^è•~°} HÍѨ٠Ѩ_∞K«∞Å rq`åÅ∞ ZÖÏ =ÙO\ÏÜ≥∂ » Hõ $ +¨ ‚ ^ Õ = ~åÜ« ∞ Å∞ =i‚ O Kå_» ∞ . =O@KÕ Ü « ∂ ÅO>Ë á⁄~ÚÖ’H˜ xѨÙÊHÍ"åe. "å#‰õΩ `«_çã≤# Hõ>ˇìÅ∞ JO@∞H˘#@O Hõ+¨ìO. á⁄~ÚÖ’H˜ xѨÙÊH˘~°‰õΩ We¡Å∂¡ uiy =O@=O_ç`Õ Jk =ÚO^Œ∞u#fl "åà◊§ˆH ã¨iáÈ~Ú WOHÍ H˘O^Œ~°∞ q∞yÖË=ÙO\Ï~°∞. =∞m§ "åà◊§ H˘~°‰õΩ =O@ „Ѩܫ∞`åflÅ∞. WÖÏ J~°÷~å„u^•HÍ =O@ „Ѩܫ∞`åflÅÖ’<Õ =ÙO@∂ 㨠= ∞Ü« ∂ xH˜ `åq∞O`« J#fl"≥ ∞ ÿ < å u#ÖË x Ѩ i ã≤ ÷ ` « ∞ ÅÖ’ HÍѨÙѨ_»∞K«∞Å∞O\Ï~°∞ (4–127) Ñ≤_»∞QÆ∞ʼnõΩ ÉèíÜ«∞Ѩ_ç „ã‘ÎÅ∞ |Ü«∞@‰õΩ J_»∞QÆ∞ÃÑ@ì‰õΩO_®<Õ ZOyeHõOKåÅ∞ WO\’¡<Õ `˘ez QÆ_»Ñ¨Ö’Ѩe #∞O_Õ P hà◊√§ |Ü«∞@‰õΩ K«Å¡\Ïxfl QÆ∞iOz ‰õÄ_® ~åÜ«∞Å∞ K≥áêÊ_»∞ (4–128) JO`ÕHÍ^Œ∞. HÍѨ٠„ã‘ÎÅ∞ á⁄ÖÏÅ=^ŒÌ QÆ∞_çÃãÖ’¡ HÍѨÙ^ŒÅQÍ =Ù#fl Éèí~°ÎÅ H˘~°‰õΩ "å#Ö’ `«_»=‰õΩO_® [=Ú‡QÆ∂_»Å∞ "Õã¨∞H˘x JO|à◊√§ fã¨∞H˘xáÈ`«∞#fl ^Œ$âߺxfl ‰õÄ_® K«∂Ñ≤OKå_»∞. (4–133). 'NHÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î =∂Ǩ`«‡º=Ú—Ö’ u#flx =$`åÎO`«O ^•fi~å H˜~å`«„ã‘ÎÅ rq`«O ѨiK«Ü«∞=∞=Ù`«∞Ok. '‰õΩÖÏQÆ`« ^èŒ~°‡Hõ~°‡=ÚÅ∞— q_»∞=x â◊|~°HÍO`«Å∞–áê~°∞\ωõΩÅ∞ =„™êÎÅ∞QÍ K«∞@∞ìH˘x, =#º^è•#ºO uO@∂ QÆ∞~°∞"≥O^ŒÖË =∞}˜=∂}˜Hõº Éèí∂+¨}Å∞QÍ JÅOHõiOK«∞H˘O@∂ ѨÓfÔQ =ÙÜ«∂ºÅÖ’ =ÓQÆ∞`«∂ =ÙO\Ï~°∞. (3–6) =º=™êÜ«∞O "åà◊§=$uÎ. =∞OK≥Åg∞kÔHH˜¯ X_çÃãÅ qã¨∞~°∞`«∂ KÕÅÖ’ HõO‰õΩÅg∞^Œ =zÛ"åÖË Ñ¨‰õ∆ΩÅ#∞ ɡ^Œ~°Q˘\˜ì `«i"Õ∞ Ѩx â◊|~°HÍO`«Åk. (3–10) D q^èOQÍ P „ã‘Å∞ „ÉÏǨχ}∞Öˇ<å, HÍѨÙÖˇ<å „â◊"∞Hr=# ™œO^Œ~º° "Õ∞ Œ Î · · ≥ÿ õ Z=i^≥·<å. ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆѨ٠„ã‘ÎÅ ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞Å QÆ∞iOz# D ã¨=∂Kå~åxfl |\˜ì "åi ™ê=∂lHõ Pi÷Hõ Ǩϟ^•#∞ JOK«<å"ÕÜ«∞=K«∞Û. q^•ºq*Ï˝<åÅ∞ „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ U"Õ∞~°‰õΩ JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’H˜ =KåÛ~Ú J#fl^•xx |\˜ì „ã‘ΊǨϟ^• x~å÷iOѨ|_»∞`«∞Ok. P ~°HõOQÍ K«∂¿ãÎ ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆѨ٠„Ѩ^è•# q^ŒºÖˇ·# „ÉÏǨχH∆Í„`« q^ŒºÅÅÖ’ Un P =~°æѨ٠„ã‘ÎʼnõΩ JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ ÖË^Œ∞. „^•q_» „Ѩ|O^è•Å∞ áê_»∞H˘<Õ „ã‘ÎÅ „Ѩ™êÎ=# =ÙOk HÍh "å~°∞ „Ѩ^è•#OQÍ QÆ$Ç≤Ï}∞Å∞. ÉèíH˜Î=∂~°æO "åà◊§k. *Ï˝#=∂~°æOÖ’H˜ "åiH˜ „Ѩ"Õâ◊O ÖË^Œ∞. WHõ Hõ`«∞ÎÅ∞, Hõ\Ï~°∞¡, qÅ∞¡, ÉÏ}ÏÅ∞ Ѩ\˜ì# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ JO`«óѨÙ~° Ѩi~°Hõ∆}Ö’ =Ù#fl=∂@ Kåi„`«Hõ "åã¨Î="Õ∞. J~Ú`Õ P_»"åà◊§ ~°Hõ∆}‰õΩ P_»"åàı§ HÍ=Åã≤ =zÛ# XHõ Jx"å~°º ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ "åà◊§‰õΩ P H∆Í„`« ã¨O|O^èŒ tHõ∆} Åaè O zOk. "åà◊ § â◊ H ˜ Î qxÜ≥ ∂ QÆ O Ѩ i q∞`« ∞ ʼnõ Ω Ö’|_» ¤ k . ã¨=∞~åOQÆ} ™ê~°fiÉè∫=Ú_»∞QÍ K«i„`«Ö’ „ѨãkHH˜¯# NHõ$+¨^=~åÜ«∞Å ≤ Ôú ‚ Õ Ãã·xHõ 㨯O^è•"å~åÅÖ’ QÆ}˜HõÅ∞ "ÕʼnõΩ "ÕÅ∞ Hõ#|_®¤~°∞ HÍh K«i„`«HÍ~°∞ʼnõΩ Ãã·x‰õΩÅ∞QÍ<À, Ü«Ú^Œú`«O„`« xѨÙ}∞Å∞QÍ<À XHõ¯~°∂ Hõ # |_» Ö Ë ^ Œ ∞ . JO>Ë PÜ« Ú ^è Œ q^Œ º Å∞, ã¨ Ê ~° ÷ Å ∞, Jkè H Í~åÅ∞, PkèѨ`«ºáÈ~°∞ Jhfl ѨÙ~°∞+¨ „ѨѨOKåxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz#"Õ `«Ñ¨Ê „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ JO^Œ∞Ö’ ™ê÷#O ÖË^Œ#flk ã¨Ê+¨ìO. =∞Å¡Ü«Ú^Œú Ü≥∂^èŒ∞Å∞QÍ, [_ô˚Å∞QÍ,
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

*’ºu+¨ ѨO_ç`«∞Å∞QÍ „ã‘ÎÅ∞<åfl~°x Ѩܫ∞ãπ =O\˜ K«i„`«HÍ~°∞Å∞ „"åã≤# "å\˜x ‰õÄ_® D HÀ}O #∞OKÕ K«∂_®e. "å~°O`å JO`«óѨÙ~° =º=Ǩ~åÅ∞ K«∂_»\ÏxHÀ, JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ J=ã¨~åÅ∞ f~°Û\ÏxHÀ `«Ü«∂~°∞ KÕÜ«∞|_ç#"åà◊√§. P"Õ∞~°‰õΩ PÜ«∂ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ <≥·Ñ¨Ù}ºO ã¨OáêkOK«\ÏxH˜ J#∞=∞uOK«|_»¤"åàı§ `«Ñ¨Ê „Ѩ^è•# „ã¨=Ou ™ê=∂lHõ q*Ï˝# Jaè=$kúÖ’, ~å[H©Ü«∂Å x~å‡} x~°fiǨÏ}Ö’ J@∞=O\˜"åà◊§ =Ó¿ã q#|_»^Œ∞. JHõ∆~å㨺q^Œº ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ =¿ãÎ ~å[º =º=Ǩ~åÅ∞ #"≥∂^Œ∞ KÕ¿ã ™ê÷~Ú q^Œº, Y~°∞ÛÅ∞ „"åã≤ÃÑ@ìQÆÅ ™ê÷~Ú q^Œº <ÕiÛ#"åà◊√§<åfl~°∞. HÍh "åà◊√§‰õÄ_® JO`«óѨÙ~° ѨikèÖ’ "åàı§. ~å[‰õΩ@∞OÉÏÅÖ’ „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ D JHõ∆~° „ѨѨOK«O H˘O`« ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`«"≥∞ÿO^Õ. ™êÇ≤Ï`åºaè=∂x, ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍHõq J~Ú# NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ "≥∂ǨÏ<åOy '=∂szѨi}Ü«∞O— J<Õ HÍ=º"Õ∞ „"åã≤Ok. "≥∂ǨÏ<åOy ~åÜ«∞ŠѨ@ìѨÙ~å}∞ÅÖ’ XHõÔ~·# u~°∞=∞Å^Õq ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞. ¿Ñ~°∞ u~°∞=∞ÖÏO|. `«O„_ç =Ú^Œ∞ÌQÍ Ñ≤eKÕk "≥∂ǨÏ<åOy J#fl ¿Ñ~°∞`À. ÃÑ^ŒÌ# ^ŒQÆæ~° P"≥∞ Hõq`«fi q^Œº#∞ <ÕiÛOk. ã¨=∞™êºÑ¨Ó~°}ÏÅO>Ë P"≥∞‰õΩ Pã¨H˜Î. ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ ã¨=∞㨺Å#∞ ѨÓiã¨∞ÎO>Ë ~åÜ«∞Å∞ qx =Úiã≤áÈÜÕ∞"å_»∞. P"≥ ∞ 㨠O w`« q^•fiO㨠∞ ~åÅ∞ ‰õ Ä _®. z„`« Ö Ë Y #OÖ’ `« O „_ç "≥∞ѨÙÊá⁄OkOk. ''K«`«∞~°OQÆ |ÅÜ«Ú`« Ãã·#º=ÚÖò #_çÃÑ_»∞ #`«ñ_»∞ <å`À ñ [`«∞~°OQÆ=∂_»∞ QÆOQÍ~°ƒù\˜x <åâ◊√Hõq`« K≥ѨÙÊ #`«O_»∞ <å ã¨=∞™êº ѨÓiÎ HÍã¨ñ*ˇO^Œ∞ k‰õΩ¯_»º=ÚÅ#∞ ã¨f¯iÎ ñ l„uOK«∞ <å `«O_»∞ <å „"åÜ«Ú z„`«=ÚÅ∞ "≥∞K«∞Û ~åQÆ ã¨OÉèíi`åO`«~°OQÆ∞ ñ _Ò<å`«ñ_»∞<Õ ~åQÆ=∂ÅÑ≤OѨ ~°H˜Î QÍOK«∞ ##∞fl =∞<åfl^èŒ∞xO@ =∞#fl #Å`À_» ñ QÆ#∞flÅO QÆѨÙÊH˘x „áÈK≥ñQÍ^≥ Ü«∞\˜ì Ñ≤`«, =∞ǨHÍ=ºHõ~°Î#<£ QÆ$ux QÀÔ~ <å^Œ∞ ÉèÏQƺO|∞ =i‚OѨ ñ QÍñ ^Œ~°Oɡ—— (1–38) Jx "≥∂ǨÏ<åOy K≥Ñ≤Ê# D Ѩ^ŒºO JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ |ǨïHõàÏ "≥·^Œ∞ëêºxfl QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÙ`«∞#flk. J~Ú`Õ D HõàÏKå`«∞~°º=∞O`å JO`«óѨÙ~° ѨikèH˜ Ö’|_»¤^Õ##fl q+¨Ü«∞O q㨇iOK«‰õÄ_»^Œ∞. 㨠∞ 㨠O Ѩ # fl"≥ ∞ ÿ # ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º 㨠$ +≤ ì [iy# ~åÜ« ∞ ÅÜ« Ú QÆ O Ö’ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º~°OQÆOÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ XHõ¯~°∞ ‰õÄ_® „Ѩã≤kúH˜ ~åHõáÈ=@O „ã‘ÎÅ#∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ™ê=∂lHõ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ LáêOfHõiOz# =∞^茺ܫÚQÍÅ Éèí∂™êfi=∞º ~åK«iHõ x~°O‰õΩâ◊ ã¨fiÉèÏ"å<Õfl ã¨∂zã¨∞ÎOk. JHõ∆~å㨺q^Œº HõO>Ë „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ JÉèíºã≤OK«=Åã≤# q^ŒºÅ∞ ã¨Ow`« <å\ϺÖË . Éè í Q Æ = O`« ∞ _ç x 㨠O `À+¨ à Ñ@ì \ ÏxÔ H · < å ÖË ^ • ~åA#∞ ã¨O`À+¨ÃÑ@ì\ÏxÔH·<å, HÍHõáÈ`Õ Éèí~°Î#∞ ã¨O`À+¨ÃÑ@ì\ÏxÔH·<å „ã‘ÎÅ∞
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 16

Jx"å~°ºOQÍ JÉèíºã≤OK«=Åã≤#q ã¨Ow`« <å\ϺÖË. ã¨Ow`« <å\ϺÅÖ’ xëê‚`«∞Öˇ·# "åà◊√§ J@∞ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂Å<À, W@∞ ~å*Ï™ê÷<åÅ<À P„â◊~ÚOz r=#O QÆ_»∞ѨÙH˘O\Ï~°∞. q[Ü«∞=∞Ok~°O ÃÑ·#QÍh, Ǩ Ï *Ï~å~å=∂ÅÜ« ∞ O QÀ_» Å ÃÑ· # QÍh, q[Ü« ∞ #QÆ ~ ° O Ö’x #$`«ºâßÅÖ’QÍh <å@ºO KÕã¨∞Î#fl „ã‘ÎÅ#∞ qq^èŒ ÉèíOy=∞ÅÖ’ K≥H˜¯# tÖÏÊÅ∞ J<ÕHõO =ÙO_»@O „ã‘ÎÅ q^ŒºQÍ <å\ϺxH˜ =Ù#fl „áê^è•#º`«#∞ ã¨∂zã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú. JÖψQ J<ÕHõ [O„`«"å~Ú^•ºÅ∞ "å~ÚOK«QÆÅ „ã‘ÎÅ∞, QÍÜ«∞h=∞}∞Å∞ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok =Ù#fl@∞¡ #∂ºx*ò „"åã≤# q+¨Ü«∞O, ~åA ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞ ‰õÄ_® ã¨Ow`« xѨÙ}∞ÖË#x K≥ѨÊ@O QÆ=∞xOK«^Œy# q+¨Ü«∞O. HõàÏѨÓ~À‚^ŒÜ«∞OÖ’ <å~°^Œ∞_»∞ `«∞O|∞~°∞_çx [~ÚOK«\ÏxH˜ J=ã¨~"∞# ã¨Ow`« q^•º <≥ÑÙ¨ }Ϻxfl–NHõ$+¨µ_ç ÉèÏ~°ºÅ ^ŒQ~° XH˘¯Hõ¯i ° ≥ÿ · ‚ æÆ ^ŒQÆæ~° H˘O`«H˘O`«HÍÅO tHõ∆}á⁄Ok– ã¨OáêkOK«∞H˘#fl@∞¡ ã¨∂~°# „"åÜ«∞@O JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘Å ã¨Ow`« „áêg}Ϻxfl ã¨∂zOKÕkQÍ<Õ =Ù#flk. Î ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆOÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ ~°Hõ~°HÍŠѨ#∞ÅÖ’ x=∞QÆfl"≥∞ÿ =ÙO_»@O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. q„âßO`« rq`«O QÆ_»∞ѨÙ`«∞<åfl~°x U „ÉÏǨχ} „ã‘ÎÅ QÆ∞iOK≥·`Õ Ñ¨Ü«∞ãπ K≥áêÊ_À "åà◊√§ =O\Ï "å~°∞ÊÅ`À, Jukä ã¨O`«~°Ê}Å`À x`«ºO ã¨`«=∞`«=∞ÜÕ∞º"åà◊√§. hà◊√§ `≥K«∞ÛH˘#@O, ^è•#ºO P~°É’ã¨∞H˘#@O =O\˜ QÆ$Ç¨Ï ã¨O|O^èŒ HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÖˇ<Àfl KÕâß~°∞. `«k`«~° „ã‘ÎÅ∞ =O@Å∞ KÕâß~°∞, =_ç¤OKå~°∞, HõOKåÅ∞, y<≥flÅ∞ Hõ_»∞H˘¯<åfl~°∞. =º=™êÜ«∞Ѩ٠Ѩ#∞Å∞ `å=Ú ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ KÕâß~°∞. =º=™êÜ«∞Ѩ٠Ѩ#∞ÅÖ’ =Ù#fl Éèí~°ÎʼnõΩ ã¨Ç¨ÏHÍ~°O JOkOKå~°∞. WO\˜Ñ¨xx ѨxQÍ QÆ∞iÎOK«x ã¨O㨯$uÖ’ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ ѨxKÕÜ«∞x"åà◊√§QÍ<Õ, q„âßOuQÍ rqã¨∞Î#fl"åà◊√§QÍ<Õ K«∂_»|_»`å~°∞. =º=™êÜ«∞Ѩ٠Ѩ#∞Å∞ L`«ÊuÎ~°OQÍxH˜ K≥Ok#"Õ J~Ú<å Jq ‰õÄ_® ‰õΩ@∞OÉÏ=ã¨~åÅÖ’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ KÕÜ«∞|_ÕqQÍ K«∂_»|_»∞`«∞#flѨÙÊ_»∞ Pi÷Hõ „ѨuѶ¨Å#O ÖËx"Õ J=Ù`å~Ú. =O@~Ú<å, ‰õΩ@∞OÉÏxfl #_»Ñ¨@"≥∞ÿ<å, =º=™êÜ«∞Ѩ٠Ѩ#∞ʼnõΩ áÈ=@"≥∞ÿ<å „ã‘ÎÅ∞ KÕ¿ã Jxfl Ѩ#∞Å∞ ¿ã=Å∞ =∂„`«"Õ∞. JO^Œ∞=Å¡ Pi÷HõOQÍ „ã‘ΊǨϟ^•#∞ „ѨÉèÏq`«O KÕÜ«∞QÆÅ ÅHõ∆}O "å\˜H˜ ÖË^Œ∞. =∞Å¡Ü«Ú^•úÅ∞ KÕã≤ JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ q<À^•xfl HõeÊOz# „ã‘ÎÅ∞, "åà◊§ JO`«~°OQÍÅ`À, Pâ◊Å`À ã¨OÉèÏ+≤Oz# ™Èk K≥¿ÑÊ „ã‘ÎÅ∞, P JO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎÅ ~°Hõ∆}‰õΩ, ¿ã=‰õΩ Ü≥∂^èŒ∞Å∞QÍ, K≥eHõ`≥ÎÅ∞QÍ qq^èŒ ~°HÍŠѨ#∞Å∞ KÕã≤ÃÑ>Ëì ^•ã¨∞Å∞QÍ J<ÕHõ J=`å~åÖˇuÎ# „ã‘ÎÅ∞ Hõ#|_»`å~°∞. P ¿ã=Å∞ JOkOz#O^Œ∞‰õΩ "åà◊§‰õΩ Pi÷Hõ „ѨuѶ¨ÅO =ÙO@∞Ok. HÍh "åà◊§ r`åÅg∞^Õ "åà◊§‰õΩ JkèHÍ~°O ÖË^Œ∞. "åà◊√§ JO`«óѨÙ~°OÖ’ ~å}∞Å JkèHÍ~åxH˜ Ö’|_ç rqOK«=Åã≤#"åà◊√§. `«^•fi~å ~åA ã¨OѨ^ŒÖ’ ÉèÏQÆO. Öˇ·OyHõOQÍ ~åA JcèëêìxH˜, J^Œ∞ѨىõΩ Ö’|_»@"Õ∞ JOu=∞OQÍ [iyOk. JO^Œ∞=Å# Pi÷Hõ „ѨuѶ¨ÅO Jk U ~°∂ѨOÖ’, U ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ =ÙO_Õ^À x~°∞Ì+¨ìOQÍ `≥eÜ«∞HõáÈ~Ú<å–ZO`À H˘O`« á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞#fl „ã‘ÎÅ∞ ‰õÄ_® x[OQÍ ã¨fi`«O„`«∞Å∞ HÍ^Œ#flk "åã¨Î=O. WHõ ^Õ = ^•ã‘ Ö ˇ · < å "Õ â ◊ º Å~Ú<å Pi÷ H õ O QÍ Q˘Ñ¨ Ê ™ê÷ ~ ÚÖ’
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

=Ù#fl"åà◊√§. `«=∞ â◊s~åÅ g∞^Õ HÍ^Œ∞ `«=∞ ã¨OѨ^Œg∞^Œ ‰õÄ_® `«=∞‰õΩ ѨÓiÎ JkèHÍ~°O =Ù#fl"åà◊√§. JO^Œ∞=Å¡<Õ "åà◊√§ ^•#^èŒ~å‡Å∞ KÕÜ«∞QÆeQÍ~°∞. P "Õ∞~°‰õΩ âßã¨<åÅ∞ "Õ~ÚOK«QÆeQÍ~°∞. ~å*ÏO`«óѨÙ~° „ã‘ÎʼnõΩQÍh ™ê^è•~°} „ã‘ÎʼnõΩQÍh Éèí~°Î#∞ P#O^ŒÑ¨~°K«@O, Éèí~°Î ™œYº"Õ∞ Ѩ~°=∂~°÷OQÍ rqOK«@O x~°O`«~°O É’kèOK«|_Õ qÅ∞=Å∞. P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ áêO_»º~åA ÉèÏ~°º <≥ѨO`À D q+¨Ü«∂xfl HõO~îÀH˜ÎQÍ K≥Ñ≤ÊOk. áêO_»º~åA Hõ^äŒ#∞ N=∞Ǩq+¨µ‚=Ù ÅH©∆‡^ÕqH˜ K≥áêÊ_»∞. áêO_»º~åA ÉèÏ~°º ‰õÄ_® ¿Ñ~°∞ÖËx WÖÏ¡ÖË. áêO_»º~åA t=Éèí‰õΩÎ_≥·<å P"≥∞ =∂„`«O q+¨µ‚ Ѩ^•~å^èŒ# `«`«Ê~°∞~åÅx "≥∞K«∞ÛH˘O@∂ P"≥∞ Hõ^äŒ K≥áêÎ_»∞ q+¨µ‚=Ù. ''qOQÆ_»O ɡ·#\˜ì =ÚOy@ <≥ÅH˘#fl |$O^•=xH˜ „=ÚQÆ∞æ"≥@∞ì ñ ^•#† ^Œâ◊q∞<å ñ_ÕHõ Éèí∞HõÎ=Ú ¿ãã≤, Ü«∞=e <å ñ _ÀiÛ *ÏQÆ~°=Ú`À #∞O_»∞ x„@∞† ÉÏ~°ã≤ áÈh^Œ∞, ÃÑ· x„^Œ ñ ÉÏé∞@ Hõ¯Å∞ áê_»∞ =∞`«∞Ê}ºHõ^äŒÅ ñ „^ÀÜ«Ú <Õ=∞OѨ٠=¸<åflà◊√§ HÍq∞OѨ^Œkè<å^èŒ∞ =∞é∞<å_»∞ Hõ#∞fl#∞ =∞#ã¨∞ ñ ^ŒxÜ«∞ <å~°[Ѩ٠=<≥fl ñ „aÜ«Ú Ãã[˚Hõ~°∞QÆ∞ ñ QÆ∂i‡ #~°∞QÆ∞KÀ <åaè ñ ^Œ∞_çz HõѨÙÊ~°Ñ¨Ù <åaè ñ ɡ@∞ì† x@∞ìÅ =∞^ŒƒùH˜Î ѨÙ\˜ìÜ«Ú#∞ x *Ëâ◊√ <≥_» ÉèíH˜Î K≥_»^Œ∞ =∞k+¨ì=∞QÆ∞@—— – (4–50) Jx áêO_»º~åA ÉèÏ~°º ^≥·#Ok# „Ѩ=$uÎx N =∞Ǩq+¨µ‚=Ù ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ q=iOKå_»∞. U „ã‘ÎH˜ J~Ú<å x*Ëâ◊√<≥_» ÉèíH˜Î K≥_»~å^Œ∞. ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë x*Ëâ◊√<≥_»ÉèíH˜Î N =∞Ǩq+¨µ‚=Ù‰õΩ W+¨ì"≥∞ÿOk Hõ#∞Hõ. áêO_»º~åA ÉèÏ~°º q+¨µ‚Éèí‰õΩÎ~åÅ∞, Éèí~°Î t=Éèí‰õΩÎ_»∞. Jk P"≥∞‰õΩ ^Œ∞óYHÍ~°}O. JO^Œ∞HÍ"≥∞ Éèí~°Î#∞ ^Õfi+≤OK«=K«∞Û, Éèí~°Î$ã¨OQÆ=∂xfl x~åHõiOz J`«xѨ@¡ `«# x~°ã¨# „ѨHõ\˜OK«=K«∞Û. HÍh JÖÏ KÕÜ«∞^Œ∞. `å<≥O`« q+¨µ‚Éèí‰õΩÎ~åÖˇ·<å Éèí~°Î ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ "≥àı§@ѨÙÊ_»∞ PÜ«∞#‰õΩ W+¨ì"≥∞ÿ# â‹·"åÅOHÍ~åÅ`À>Ë "≥à◊√ÎOk. Éèí~°Î‰õΩ J#∞QÆ∞}OQÍ ÉèÏ~°º =ÙO_»@O N =∞Ǩ  q+¨ µ ‚ = Ù âß㨠# O. q+¨ µ ‚ É è í ‰ õ Ω Î Å ∞ P âß㨠< åxfl B^Œ Å ^èŒiOK«=Åã≤#^Õ. áêO_»º~åA ÉèÏ~°º P HÀ=Ö’^Õ. áêO_»∞~°OQÆ=∂Ǩ`«‡ºOÖ’ ã¨∞jÅ ‰õÄ_® P"≥∞ ZO`« Éèí‰õΩÎ~åÖˇ·<å Éèí~°Î=Å¡ ã¨O™ê~°OÖ’ ZO`«HÀ`« J#∞Éèíqã¨∞Î<åfl qã¨∞HÀ¯ÖË^Œ∞. WÖÏO\˜ Éèí~°Î#∞ ‰õÄ~åÛ_Õq∞\Ï Jx „|Ǩχ#∞ xOkOK«ÖË^Œ∞. `«O„_ç KÕã≤# ÃÑo§H˜ =QÆ K≥O^ŒÖË^Œ∞. (4–145), 'qq^èŒ ‰õΩ\˜ÖÏKå~° K«`«∞~°∞O_»QÆ∞ rq`Õ â ◊ fi ~° ∞ hâ◊ fi ~° ∞ OQÍ— `« Å zOk. J`« x x ¿ãqOK« @ "Õ ∞ WǨÏѨ~°™ê^èŒ#OQÍ #q∞‡ „Ѩ=iÎOzOk (4–150) W^ŒO`å „ã‘ÎH˜ Éèí~°Î<Õ ^≥·=OQÍ KÕã≤ K«∂ã≤# ™ê=∂lHõ ÅHõ∆} Ѩi}Ï=∞O. ^≥·=kèHͯ~°"≥∞ÿ<å KÕÜ«∞=K«∞ÛQÍh ѨukäHͯ~°O =∂„`«O „ã‘Î KÕÜ«∞QÆ∂_»xk. Wk P<å\˜ qÅ∞=. 'ÉèÏ~°º‰õΩ ѨuÉèíH˜Î Ç≤Ï`«=$uΗ Jx Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞ºx =ÚYOQÍ
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 17

=ºH©ÎHõiOK«|_çOk (4–277) ~åÜ«∞Å ~å[huÖ’ ÉèÏQÆO Wk. „ã‘ÎÅ jÅ ã¨O~°Hõ∆} ~å[^èŒ~°‡O. Q“~°=hÜ«∞"≥∞ÿ# =OâßʼnõΩ K≥Ok# „ã‘ÎÅ g∞^Œ, Hõ#ºÅg∞^Œ ^Ò~°˚#ºO KÕã≤# "åà◊§‰õΩ QÆ_»¤O H˜O^Œ Ǩï‰õΩ¯ `«yeOz K«OѨ@"Õ∞ tHõ∆. D ™ê=∂lHõ ã¨O㨯$uH˜ J#∞|O^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# PKå~°O, ÉÏź q"åǨÅ∞. „ã‘ÎÅ Öˇ·OyHõ`«ÃÑ· xÜ«∞O„`«}, „ã‘ΊѨq„`«`« QÆ∞iOz# PHÍOHõÅ∞, POHõÅ∞ W=hfl ã¨ÇÏQÆ=∞<åxH˜ ‰õÄ_® ^•if¿ã"Õ. ∆ ∆ ¨ „ÉÏǨχ}∞ÅÖ’ '`≥Å∞=∞QÆÖˇ— J<Õk XHõ =~°æO. P =~°æO ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ∞ K«xáÈ`Õ "åà◊§ÉèÏ~°ºÅ#∞ ã¨r=OQÍ áêuÃÑ>Ëì PKå~°O QÆ∞iOz K«i„`«HÍ~°∞Å∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞. Ãã·xHÍkèHÍ~°∞Å∞, ~åAÅ∞ K«xáÈ~Ú#ѨÙÊ_»∞ "åà◊§‰õΩ#fl J<ÕHõ=∞Ok ÉèÏ~°ºÅ∞ JyflÖ’ ^Œ∂H˜ =∞~°}˜OKÕ "åà◊§x ‰õ Ä _® K« i „`« K≥ Ñ ¨ Ù Î # flk. #∂ºx*ò „"åã≤ # ^Œ O _» Ü « ∂ „`å =$`åÎO`åÅ∞–Ü«Ú^Œú „áê~°OÉèÏxH˜ =ÚO^Œ∞ ~åAÅ∞ `«=∞ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ â◊ „ `« ∞ =ÙÅ áêÅѨ _ ç <å<åÜ« ∂ `« # Å∞ Ѩ _ » ‰ õ Ω O_® `å"Õ ∞ "åix K«OÑ≤"ÕÜ«∞\Ïxfl K≥ѨÙÎ<åfl~Ú. W=hfl „ã‘ÎÅ rq`«O „ã‘ÎÅ KÕ`«∞ÅÖ’ ÖËHõáÈ=\Ïxfl, "åà◊§ rq`ÕK«Û#∞, r=# â◊‰õΩÎÅ#∞ x~°¡Hõ∆ºO KÕã¨∞Î#fl ™ê=∂lHõ ã¨O㨯$ux „ѨuѶ¨e™êÎ~Ú. „ã‘ÎÅ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆѨ٠™ê=∂lHõ ~å[H©Ü«∞ ^Œ$+≤ì „Ñ¨^è•#OQÍ Éè’QÆ^Œ$+≤ì. ~åà◊§Ñ¨e¡ J#O`«Hõ$+¨‚â◊~°‡QÍ~°∞ K≥Ñ≤Ê#@∞¡ Jk =∞QÆ"åi ^Œ$+≤ì. `å=Ú `«Ñ¨Ê `«H˜¯# ã¨$+≤ì JO`å `«=∞H˘~°ˆH U~°Ê_ç#^Œ#fl PkèѨ`«º ^Œ$+≤ì. =„™êÎÉèí~°}Ï^Œ∞Å`Àáê@∞ Éè’QÆ=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅÖ’ „ã‘Îx ‰õÄ_® [`«Ñ¨iz K«∂_»@O, P „Hõ=∞OÖ’ [iyO^Õ. (u~°∞=∞Å u~°∞Ѩu ^Õ=™ê÷#=ÚÅ∞, N "ÕOHõ>Ëâ◊fi~° L^ÀºQÆ∞Å tHõ∆}Ïã¨Oã¨÷ (âıfi`«) NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞ J^茺ܫ∞# ˆHO„^ŒO, J#O`«Ñ¨Ù~°O "å~°∞ ã¨OÜ«ÚHõÎOQÍ 2009 Ѷ≤„|=i 16, 17 `ÕnÅÖ’ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz# 'NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å [Ü«∞Ou L`«û"åÅ∞— ã¨^Œã¨∞ûÖ’ ã¨=∞iÊOz# Ѩ„`«O.)

LѨܫÚHõÎ „QÆO^ä•Å∞, "庙êÅ∞:
1. J#O`«Hõ$+¨‚â◊~°‡, ~åà◊§Ñ¨e¡ – ™ê~°ã¨fi`åÖ’Hõ=Ú, =∞$^Œ∞ÖÏ „ѨK«∞~°}Å∞, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£, `˘e=Ú„^Œ} 1954, „Ѩã¨∞Î`« =Ú„^Œ} Ѷ≤„|=i 2009. Hõ $ ëê‚ Ô ~ _ç ¤ . Ô H – Éè Ï ~° ` « ^ Õ â ◊ K « i „`« – =∞^è Œ º Ü« Ú QÆ O , FiÜ«∞O\òÖÏV‡<£ ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ `˘e =Ú„^Œ} 1993, „Ѩã¨∞Î`« =Ú„^Œ} 1999. <å~åÜ«∞}ÏKå~°∞ºÅ∞, ѨÙ@ìѨiÎ – q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê=∂lHõ K«i„`«, N~°OQÆ<å^äŒ Ñ¨a¡ˆH+¨<£û, Hõ_»Ñ¨, [#=i 1966. |Å~å=∞=¸iÎ, U@∞‰õÄi – PO„^èŒ∞Å ã¨OH˜∆ѨΠK«i„`«, qâßÖÏO„^èŒ „ѨK«∞~°}ÏÅÜ«∞O, q[Ü«∞"å_», `«$fÜ«∞=Ú„^Œ}, [#=i 1956. "≥OHõ@~°=∞}Ü«∞º –<ÕÅ@∂i ("庙êÅ∞)
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 6.

Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞–ÉèÏ~°u, ã¨~°fi^è•i =∂Ѷ¨∞=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞–ÉèÏ~°u ã¨~°fi^è•i á¶êÅ∞æ}=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞–ÉèÏ~°u, q~Àkè K≥·„`«=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞–ÉèÏ~°u, q~Àkè "≥·âßY=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å^Õ"Õ~°∞Å∞, ÉèÏ~°u–q~Àkè =∂~°æj~°¬=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å HõoOQÆ *ˇ·„`«Ü«∂„`«–ÉèÏ~°u qHõ$u, K≥·„`«=Ú Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å HõoOQÆ *ˇ·„`«Ü«∂„`«, ÉèÏ~°u qHõ$u, JkèHõ Pëê_è»O

WOw¡+¨µ ~°K«#Å∞ :
1. Domingos Paes - Narrative of Domingos Paes (writen in 1520-22) Published as enexure to the book A Forgotten Empire. Fernao Nuniz - Chronicle of Fenao Nuniz published as enexure to the book A Forgotten Empire. Majumdar R.C. (Editor) The Delhi Sultanate, Bharatiya Vidyabhavan, Bombay, Fourth Edition 1990. Robert Sewell - A Forgotten Empire, Vijayanagar National Book Trust, Publication Division, Ministry of information & Broadcasting, Government of India, June 1962.

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ã¨`«º<å~åÜ«∞}, HõOÉèíOáê\˜ – PO„^èŒ∞Å ã¨O㨯$u K«i„`« II q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°Ü«ÚQÆ=Ú (J#∞ : =∞Ç‘Ï^èŒ~° ~å=∞"≥∂ǨÏ#~å=Ù) ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ |∞H± „@ã¨∞ì, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£, =∂iÛ 1982.

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Hõ^äŒH˜ HõÅÊ#, K«i„`«H˜ "åã¨ÎqHõ`« Jx"å~°º"≥∞ÿ# JOâßÅ∞.
J~Ú`Õ =∞# K«i„`« K«∞@∂ì HÍÅÊxHÍOâßÅ∞ KÀ@∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩ#fl ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅ∂ ÖËHõáÈÖË^Œ∞. Jk =∞s Hõ=ÙʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#^Œ~Ú`Õ P Hõ^äŒ JO^ŒOQÍ, JO`«‰õΩ q∞Oz "åã¨Î=OQÍ QÀK«iOK«_»O ‰õÄ_® =∞# J#∞Éèí=OÖ’ =Ù#fl q+¨Ü«∞"Õ∞! Éè’[ HÍo^•ã¨ Hõ^äŒÅ∞, áÈ`«# N<å^äŒ∞Å Hõ^äŒÅ∞, ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~å=∞eOQÆx Hõ^äŒÅ∞ JÖÏO\˜"Õ! Kå@∞ Ѩ^•ºÅ K«∞@∂ì JÅ∞¡‰õΩ#fl Hõ^äŒÅhfl P HÀ=Ö’"Õ! J~Ú`Õ JÖÏ K«=∞`å¯~° ^èÀ~°}˜ H͉õΩO_®, Ǩ㨺ã¨∂ÊùiÎ ÖˉõΩO_® x[OQÍ<Õ [iyO^Œ#flO`« Ü«ÚH˜ÎÜ«ÚHõÎOQÍ Ö’Hõ„ѨKå~°OÖ’ =Ù#fl Hõ^䌖 áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°} HÍ"åº=`«~°} QÍ^äŒ! F<å\˜ ~å„u ~åÜ«∞Å ~åHõ HÀã¨O Z^Œ∞~°∞K«∂ã≤ Z^Œ∞~°∞K«∂ã≤ áêѨO, u~°∞=∞Å^Õq JÖψQ P^Œ=∞iz áê#∞Êg∞^Œ "åeOk. P Ѩ_»∞HÀ=_»O Ѩ_»Hõ g∞^Œ =º`«ºã¨ÎOQÍ–`«ÅQÆ_» "ÕѨÙ# HÍà◊√§ÃÑ\˜ì Ѩ_»∞‰õΩOk. `«fi~°Ö’<Õ x„^ŒÖ’H˜ *Ï~°∞‰õΩOk. P `«~°∞"å`≥ѨÙÊ_À P"≥∞ â◊Ü«∞#=∞Ok~°OÖ’H˜ „Ѩ"ÕtOKå_»∞ ~åÜ«∞Å∞. JÅã≤# =∞#ã¨∞`À, HÍ=º~°™ê™êfi^Œ# áê~°=â◊ºO`À P"≥∞x QÆ=∞xOK«Hõ Ü«∞^䕄ѨHÍ~°O "Õ∞#∞"åÖÏÛ_»∞. ã¨iQÍ P ã¨=∞Ü«∂xH˜ HõkeOk u~°∞=∞Å^Õq. P"≥∞ áê^ŒO ~åÜ«∞Å t~°ã¨∞û#∞ `åH˜Ok. Jk PÜ« ∞ #H˜ J=[˝ Q Í `ÀzOk. z"åÅ∞# áê#∞Êky `« #

=∞Ok~åxH˜ "≥o§áÈÜ«∂_»∞ ~åÜ«∞Å∞. JO`Õ! P "≥à◊§_»O "≥à◊§_»O =∞m§ W@∞ uiy K«∂_»ÖË^Œ∞. `«#ѨÙ\˜ìO\˜ K«∞@ìOÖÏO\˜ J~°}Ѩ٠Hõq`À "≥Ú~°ÃÑ@∞ì‰õΩOk u~° ∞ =∞Å^Õ q .PÖ’zOKå_» ∞ =Ú‰õ Ω ¯u=∞‡#. Hõ q `å„Ñ≤ Ü « Ú _≥ · # ~åÜ«∞Å"åiH˜ HÍO`åã¨q∞‡`«OQÍ<Õ Hõ~°Î"åºxfl É’kèOKåÅ#∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. J#∞‰õÄÅ"≥∞ÿ# Hõ^äŒ#∞ Z#∞fl‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. F ã¨∞=ÚǨ˙~åÎ# xO_»∞ ã¨ÉèíÖ’ HÍ=ºQÍ#O „áê~°OaèOKå_»∞. ã¨`«ºÉèÏ=∞ HÀѨQÆ$Ç¨Ï ã¨xfl"Õâ◊O Z`«∞ΉõΩ<åfl_»∞. Ѩ^ŒºO "≥O@ Ѩ^ŒºOQÍ Ç¨Ï$^ŒºOQÍ K«^Œ∞=Ù`«∞<åfl_»∞. JHõ™ê‡`«∞ÎQÍ ~åÜ«∞Å"åi Hõ#∞ÉÁ=∞Å∞ =Ú_çѨ_®¤~Ú. "≥#∞"≥O@<Õ PÜ«∞# =∞#ã¨∞ûÖ’ L#fl F z‰õΩ¯=Ú_ç g_çOk. F áêi*Ï`«Ñ¨Ù ѨÙ=Ùfi ѨÓã≤Ok ÃÑ^•Åg∞^Œ. ^•x ™œ~°ÉèíO PÜ«∞# =∞#ã¨O`å Hõ=Ú‡‰õΩOk. Hõ$`«[`åÉè~"∞# ^Œ$‰õΩ¯Å∞ u=∞‡#"≥ÑÙ¨ ˝ í ° ≥ÿ · „Ѩã¨iOKå~°∞. u~°∞=∞Å^Õq ~°`åflÅ"Õ∞_»Ö’ =∞m§ "≥O_ç"≥<≥flÅ HÍã≤Ok. D Ѩi}Ï=∂xHõO`«\˜H˜ P HÍ=º ã¨xfl"Õâ◊O HÍ~°}"≥∞ÿ`Õ P ã¨xfl"ÕâßxˆH „áê}O. =ã≤"å_»x áêi*Ï`« „Ѩã¨∂#O D Ѩ^ŒºO. [Å*Ï`åã¨# "åã¨"åk ã¨∞~°Ñ¨Ó*Ï ÉèÏ[#Oɡ· `«# ~°∞Û Å`åO`åÜ«Ú^èŒ∞ Hõ#fl`«O„_ç t~°=∞KÀÛ "å=∞áê^ŒO|∞#<£ `˘ÅQÆO„^ÀK≥ Å`åOy† J@¡Ü«∞QÆ∞† <å^äŒ∞Öò <Õ~°=ÚÖò ¿ãÜ«∞ ¿Ñ ~°Å∞HõO*ˇOk#Ü«∞\˜ì HÍO`« Å∞z`« "åºáê~°=ÚÖò <Õ~°∞Έ~?

z~°∞<å=∂: 23 ÔH#~åÉϺOH± HÍÅh, QÍOnè#QÆ~ü, ™êb „QÍ=∞O, K≥<≥·fl – 600 093. ÃãÖò <≥O. 09444452344. ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 18 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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~°∂ѨÙ=∂i ™ÈkÖ’H˜ ~å‰õΩO_® áÈÜ«∂~Ú. JO^Œ∞Ö’ H˘xfl `«=∞ LxH˜x K«i„`«ÑÙ¨ @Ö’¡ ^•K«∞H˘x Kå@∞H˘O@∞<åfl~Ú. =∞iH˘xfl =∂„`«"Õ∞ K«i„`« ѨÙ@Å∞^•\˜ =∞#∞+¨µÅ Ü≥∞^ŒÖ’¡ Ñ‘~î°"Õ∞ã¨∞H˘x JѨÊ_»Ñ¨Ê_»∂ QÆ∞~°∞ΉõΩ =ã¨∞ÎO\Ï~Ú.
âß`« " åǨ Ï #∞Å∞,q+¨ µ ‚ ‰ õ Ω O_ç # ∞Å∞, Kåà◊ √ ‰õ Ω ºÅ∞, Ѩ Å ¡ = ÙÅ∞ `≥#∞QÆ∞KÀ_»∞Å∞, ~åR‰õÄ@∞Å∞, HÍHõfÜ«ÚÅ∞, Ô~_ç¤~åAÅ∞, q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ~å[ºO, ‰õΩb‰õΩ`«∞ÉϬǑÏÅ∞ =∞iH˘O^Œ~°∞ `«=∞ „áêÉèí=OÖ’ áêÅ<å Ѩ\˜=∞`À =∞#=∞#ã¨∞ûÖ’¡ xezáÈÜ«∂~°∞. JO^Œ∞Ö’ Ô~O_»∞=O^ŒÅ =ÚÃÑ·Ê Uà◊¡qzÛù#flOQÍ `˘e~å[^è•xÖ’<Õ *ËwÜ«∞=∂#OQÍ "≥ey =∞~À #∂@ =ÚѨÊÜÕ∞ºà◊√§ ÃÑ#∞Q˘O_», K«O„^Œy~°∞Ö’¡#∞O_ç `«# =∞#∞QÆ_» ™êyOz „Ѩ*Ï~°Hõ∆}Ö’ áêÅ∞ѨOK«∞H˘#fl q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂*Ϻxfl =∞#"≥∞=fi~°=Ú =∞~°∞=ÖË=ÚQÍHõ =∞~°∞=ÖË=Ú. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂*Ϻxfl `˘Å∞`« ã¨OQÆ=∞, ™êà◊√= =OâßÅ∞ áêeOK«QÍ `«^Œ∞Ѩiq `«∞à◊√=, P~°g\˜ =OâßÅ∞. JO^Œ∞Ö’x `«∞à◊√= =Oâ◊OÖ’<Õ =∞# ™êÇ≤Ïf ã¨=∞~åOQÆ} qÉèí∞_≥·# „j Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ [##=∞O^•_»∞. U=∂„`«O `≥Å∞QÆ∞*Ïux QÆ∞iOz ÉèÏ+¨#∞ QÆ∞iOz ѨiK«Ü«∞=Ú#fl U =ºH˜ÎÔH·<å D „H˜Ok „Ѩâ◊flÅ∞ "ÕÜ«∞O_ç: 1) `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~å[#∞ºÖ’¡ J`«∞º`«Î=∞ „ѨÉèí∞"≥=~°∞? 2) `≥Å∞QÆ∞*Ïu Q˘Ñ¨Ê`«<åxfl g~°ºâ∫~åºefl k‰õΩ¯Å∞ "åºÑ≤OѨ KÕã≤#^≥=~°∞? 3) `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ 㨠O 㨠¯ $u, ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º O, tÅÊHõ à ◊ Å ∞ ^Œ â ◊ k â◊ Ö Ï "≥Å∞Q˘O^Œ_®xH˜ ^ÀǨÏkOz# K«„Hõ=iÎ Z=~°∞? 4) `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ѨOK«HÍ"åºÖ’¡ J`«ºO`« „Ѩâ◊ã≤ÎQÆ#fl „QÆO^ä•xH˜ Hõ~°Î Z=~°∞? 5) K«∞@∂ì=Ù#fl â◊`$« =ÙÅO^Œsfl F_çOz ™ê„=∂*Ϻxfl ã¨∞ã≤~OKÕã≤ ÷° Éè Ï ~° ` « ^ Õ â ◊ O Ö’ P~° ¬ ^è Œ ~ å‡xfl [QÆ * Ë ˚ w Ü« ∞ =∂#OQÍ xeÊ#^≥=~°∞? 6) <å\˜H© <Õ\˜H© U<å\˜H© `≥Å∞QÆ∞ *Ïu U=∂„`«O =∞~°∞=ÖËx ã¨∂H˜Î ''^Õâ◊ÉèÏ+¨ÅO^Œ∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Öˇã¨û——#∞ W`«~° ÉèÏ+¨Å∞ `≥eã≤ K≥Ñ≤Ê#"å_≥=_»∞?
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 19

7) Z=x HÍÖÏxfl PO„^èŒ∞Åáêe\˜ ã¨fi~°‚Ü«ÚQÆOQÍ K«i„`« K≥|∞`ÀOk? D U_»∞ „Ѩâ◊flÅ∂ "≥O@<Õ ~å|>Ëìk XˆH ã¨=∂^è•#O – J^Õ '„jHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞—. J~Ú`Õ P„ѨÉèí∞x ™ê„=∂*º=¸, K«i„`«‰õÄ_» HÍÅQÆ~°ƒùOÖ’ Hõeã≤áÈ~Ú ~å|~üì ã‘"≥Öò (Robert Sewell) J<Õ POQÆ¡ „ѨÉèí∞`åfikèHÍi "A Forgotten Empire" ''=∞~°Ñ¨Ù# |_»¤ =∞Ǩ™ê„=∂[ºO—— ¿Ñi@ "≥eH˜ f¿ã^•Hõ =∞ã≤áê`«Ö’ Hõ\˜ì# =∂}˜HõºOÖÏ LO_çáÈ~ÚOk. `«^Œ∞Ѩi Hõ~å‚@, PO„^èŒ K«i„`«HÍ~°∞Å∞ ^•xfl ™ê#|\Ïì~°∞. J~Ú<å Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å K«i„`« =∞#‰õΩ P=¸ÖÏ„QÆOQÍ <Õ\˜H© ÅaèOK«<Õ ÖË^Œ∞. P<å_»∞ ™ê„=∂*ϺxH˜ "åºáê~°∞Å∞QÍ, ~åÜ«∞ÉÏ~°∞Å∞QÍ =zÛ# áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞"åi „"å`«Å #∞O_ç, PÜ«∞#, PÜ«∞# J#∞Ü«∂Ü«ÚÅ∞ "Õ~ÚOz# âßã¨<åÅ #∞Oz, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ ~°`«flnáêÖÏ¡O\˜ „Ѩ|O^èŒÜ«ÚQÆ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO #∞Oz, ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ PÜ«∞<Õ ~°zOz# 'P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ— „QÆO^äŒO #∞Oz ¿ãHõiOz# q+¨Ü«∂Å`À `«QÆ∞=∂„`«O K«i„`«‰õΩ ~°∂ѨHõÅÊ# KÕâß~°∞ K«i„`« â’^茉õΩÅ∞. PÜ«∞# =Oâ◊, ÉèÏëê, [#‡, „QÆO^äŒ~°K«<å =¸ÖÏÅ QÆ∞iOz J<ÕHõ "å^ÀѨ"å^•Å∞ [iy ã¨∂÷ÅOQÍ D<å\˜H˜ XHõ H˘eH˜¯ =zÛ# q+¨Ü«∂Å∞ Wq. |àϧi „áêO`«OÖ’x =º=™êÜ«∞ ‰õΩ@∞Oc‰õΩÖˇ·# gi ѨÓ~°∞fiÅ∞ `˘e<åà◊§Ö’ ã¨OQÆ=∞~åAÅ`À áê@∞ Ü«Ú^•úÖ’¡ áêÖÁæx `«=∞ â∫~°º „Ѩ^Œ~°≈#‰õΩ |Ǩï=∞uQÍ Ñ¨tÛ=∞ ã¨=Ú„^Œf~° „áêO`åÖ’¡ L^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞QÍ „Ѩu+≤ªOѨ|_ç, `«=∞ „ѨuÉèÏ qâıëêÅ`À K«„Hõ=~°∞ÎʼnõΩ PѨÙÎÖˇ· =ÚM’º^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞QÍ,=∂O_»e‰õΩÅ∞QÍ ~å[ºáêÅ<å HÍ~°ºx~åfiǨωõΩÅ∞QÍ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok<å~°∞. `«~°∞"å`« u=∞‡~åA HÍÅOÖ’ ~å[^è•xH˜ =zÛ `« ∞ à◊ √ „áêO`« O #∞Oz =∞~° e =zÛ#O^Œ ∞ ‰õ Ω `« ∞ à◊ √ ="å~° ∞ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞=|_®¤~°∞. „jHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å `å`« Dâ◊fi~°<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞. PÜ«∞# Éè Ï ~° º |∞Hõ ¯ =∂O|. `« ∞ à◊ √ = #~° ™ ê<åÜ« ∞ ‰õ Ω _» ∞ ™êà◊ √ = #~°ã≤OǨÏ~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ „Ѩ^è•# ^ŒO_»<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_≥· ÃÑ#∞Q˘O_»Ö’ L<åfl_»∞. ™êà◊√= #~°ã≤OǨ~åÜ«∞Å∞ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~åxH˜ ™ê„=∂@∞ìQÍ <åÅ∞ˆQà◊√§
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

áêeOz ã¨fi~°æã¨∞÷_»Ü«∂º_»∞. `«∞à◊√= #~°ã¨<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞ J`«x Ѩل`«∞ʼnõΩ ~å[„ѨuxkèQÍ LO@∂ ã¨=∞ã¨Î áêÅ<å =º=Ǩ~åÅ∂ K«∂ã¨∂Î =KåÛ_»∞. `«∞à◊√= #~°ã¨~åÜ«∞Å =∞~°}O `«~åfi`« J`«x ÃÑ^ŒÌH˘_»∞‰õΩ g~°#~°ã≤OǨ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ™êà◊√= =Oâßxfl ‰õÄÅ„^Àã≤ `å<Õ K«„Hõ=iÎQÍ „ѨHõ\˜OK«∞H˘x ã¨∞=∂~°∞ Pˆ~à◊√¡ áêeOz =∞~°}˜OKå_»∞. PÜ«∞# ‰õ Ω =∂~° ∞ _» ∞ ÉÏÅ∞_» ∞ QÍ LO_» @ O`À „Ѩ ^ è • x u=∞‡~° ∞ 㨠∞ „jHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å#∞ QÆ∞iÎOz J`«}Ë‚ Hõ~å‚@Hõ ã≤OǨã¨<åxH˜ JkèѨuQÍ Ñ¨\Ïìaè+≤‰õΩÎ}˜‚ KÕâß_»∞. Jk „H©IIâ◊II 1509 PQÆã¨∞ì =∂ã¨OÖ’ [iyOk. „jHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å ÉÏźO QÆ∞iOz TǨáÈǨÏÖË HÍx =∞#‰õΩ HõzÛ`«"≥∞ÿ# q+¨Ü«∂Å∞ `≥eÜ«∞=Ù. K«O„^Œyi, ÃÑ#∞Q˘O_»Ö’¡ PÜ«∞# ÉÏźO QÆ_çz =ÙO@∞O^Œ#flk KåÖÏ=∞OkH˜ XÑ≤Ê`«=∞~Ú# q+¨Ü«∞O. ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 16 Uà◊¡ =Ü«∞ã¨∞Ö’ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~åxH˜ KÕ~°∞H˘x LO\Ï_»∞. q^•ºÉèϺã¨O u=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞ Ѩ~°º"ÕHõ∆}Ö’ KåÖÏK«Hõ¯QÍ [iyOk. ~å*’z`åÖˇ·# Ü«Ú^Œúq^ŒºÅ∂, QÆ∞„~°Ñ¨Ù™êfis ÖÏO\˜ ^≥·Ç≤ÏHõ Ѩ@∞`«fi q^Œ º Å`Àáê@∞, ~å[hu, Kå}∞Hõ º hu, q^Œ ∞ ~° h u =Ú#flQÆ ∞ huâß„™êÎÅ∂ ‰õ∆Ω}‚OQÍ PHõoOѨ٠KÕã¨∞H˘<åfl_»∞. ã¨O㨯 $`«=¸ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉÏQÍ Ñ¨@∞ì|_®¤~Ú. H˘O`« =~°‰õÄ Hõ#fl_»=¸, `«q∞à◊=¸ ‰õÄ_® JÉèíºã≤OKå_»∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ã¨O㨯 $`« ™êÇ≤Ï`åºÅÃÑ· J#∞~°H˜Î HõeyOk. =Ü«∞ã¨∞`À áê@∞ ÃÑiyOk. ~åÜ«∞Å"åiH˜ Ñ≤#fl=∞‡ FÉÏOaHõ ^•fi~å W^ŒÌ~°∞ `«=Ú‡à◊√¡O_Õ"å~°∞. JK«∞º`«^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞,~°OQÆ~åÜ«∞Å∞. `«e¡ <åQÆ=∞‡ =¸ÖÏefl QÆ∞iOz Z<Àfl ѨÙH˜¯\˜ ѨÙ~å}ÏÅ∞<åfl~Ú. P"≥∞ z`«∂Î~°∞ lÖÏ¡ <åQÆÖÏѨÙ~åxHÀ, Hõ_»Ñ¨ =∞O_»ÅOÖ’x z>ËfiÅ∞ =∞O_»ÖÏxHÀ K≥Ok# HÍѨÙ"åi P_» Ñ ¨ _ » ∞ K« ∞ J~Ú=ÙO_®Åx Z‰õ Ω ¯==∞Ok Éè Ï =#. J#fl g~°#~°ã≤OǨÏ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~å[ºO KÕã¨∞ÎO_»QÍ PÜ«∞# u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@¡#∞ J}K«_®xH˜ ~å[^è•x#∞O_ç ^Œ∂~°OQÍ L#flѨÊ_»∞ ^Œ∞~°æ° ~°Hõ∆} ÉèÏ~°O =Ç≤ÏOKå_»∞. QÆ[Ѩ`«∞Å∞, QÆ∞Ń~åæ ã¨∞ÖÏÎ#∞Å∞ KÕã≤# ^•_»∞efl P<å_Õ uÑ≤ÊH˘\Ïì_»∞.u~°∞ѨuÖ’ PÜ«∞<Õ "Õ~ÚOz# âßã¨#OÖ’ J#flQÍ~°∂ `å#∂ ~å=∞ÅHõ∆‡}∞ÖÏ¡ LO_Õ"å~°x `≥Å∞Ѩ_»OÖ’ PÜ«∞# ÉèÏ`«$„¿Ñ=∞ =ºHõÎ=∞ø`«∞Ok. Ѩ\Ïìaè+≤‰õΩÎ_»∞ HÍHõ=Ú#∞¿Ñ ~åÜ«∞Å"åiH˜ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°OÖ’x XHõ ^Õ=^•ã≤ ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ g∞^Œ =ÅѨ٠ÉèÏ=# HõeyOk. P `«~°∞"å`« „j~° O QÆ Ñ ¨ @ ì } „áêO`« ™ê=∞O`« ∞ _» ∞ zHõ ¯ ~åÜ« ∞ e ‰õ Ä `« ∞ ~° ∞ u~° ∞ =∞Å^Õ q `À ~åÜ« ∞ Å ÃÑo¡ [iyOk. `å#∞ QÆ # ∞Hõ ~å*ˇ · ` Õ z<åfl^Õqx ~å}˜x KÕ™êÎ##fl ~åÜ«∞Å∞ `«#=∂@#∞ xÅɡ@∞ìH˘<åfl_»∞. z#fl=∂O|, u~°∞=∞ÖÏO| e^ŒÌi`À QÆ^≥Ì<≥Hͯ_»∞. P ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ J<ÕHõ ™ê=∞O`«, ^ŒO_»<åÜ«∞Hõ, áêà‹QÍà◊¡, J=∞~° <åÜ«∞‰õΩÅ ã¨=∞Hõ∆OÖ’ ~°OQÆ~°OQÆ "≥·Éèí=OQÍ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ Hõ~å‚@Hõ ã≤OǨã¨<åxfl Jkè+≤ªOKå_»∞. P QÆ∞~°∞ÎQÍ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ~å[#∞ºÅ ‰õΩÅ^≥·="≥∞ÿ# q~°∂áêHõ∆™êfiq∞ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞OÖ’ XHõ QÀѨÙ~åxfl xi‡Oz HÍ#¯ ÃÑ\Ïì_»∞. ~åÜ« ∞ Å∞ ~å*ϺxH˜ =zÛ#Ѩ Ê _» ∞ ~å[ºOÖ’ QÆ O ^Œ ~ ° Q Àà◊ Ѩiã≤÷`«∞Å∞<åfl~Ú. ~å[^è•xÖ’x Jã≤÷~°`«#∞ QÆ=∞xOz |ÖÏ¡à◊√Å∂, WH©¯i <åÜ«∞‰õΩÅ∂u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞¡ ÖË=nâß~°∞. ™ê„=∂[ºO ã¨∞aèHõ∆OQÍ
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 20

LO_®ÅO>Ë, ֒Ѩe â◊„`«∞=ÙÅ<Õ HõÅ∞ѨÙ"≥ÚHõ¯Å#∞ Ui"Õã≤, HõOK≥Å<Õ ã¨iǨÏ^Œ∞Ì ~å„ëêìÖ’¡ áêÅ##∞ ã¨∞ã≤÷~°Ñ¨~°Kåe. `«~°∞"å`« XHõ<å_»∞ `«=∞"≥· =ÙO_ç, `«=∞ ѨÓ~°∞fiÅ∞ HÀÖ’Ê~Ú# ã‘=∞Å#∞ =∞~°Å ã¨Oáê~ÚOKåe. PÃÑ·# `«=∞ÃÑ· Z=Ô~·<å HÍÅ∞^Œ∞qfi`Õ `«QÆ∞q^èŒOQÍ |∞kÌ K≥áêÊe. <≥Ü«∞º=¸ qÜ«∞º=¸, HõÜ«∞º=¸ ã¨=∞Ü«∂#∞‰õÄÅOQÍ áê\˜OKåe. W=xfl\˜`Àáê@∞ PÜ«∞# ™êà◊√=#~°ã≤OǨÏ~åÜ«∞Å =∞~°}âßã¨#O ‰õÄ_» K«^Œ∞=ÙH˘<åfl_»∞. L^ŒÜ«∞yi, H˘O_»Ñ¨e¡, ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞Å#∞ uiy 㨠O áêkOz#<å_Õ `« # =∞#㨠∞ ‰õ Ω âßOu Hõ Å ∞QÆ ∞ `« ∞ O^Œ h , P HÍ~°º™ê^茉õΩ_Õ `«#‰õΩ x["≥∞ÿ# "å~°ã¨∞_»h JO^Œ∞Ö’ L#flkK«kq ~À=∂Oz`«∞_≥·<å_»∞. "≥∞ÿã¨∂~°∞ „áêO`«OÖ’ |ÖÏ¡à◊√Å∞ Z<Àfl â◊`åÉÏÌÅ∞QÍ ã¨fi`«O„`« áêʼnõΩÅ∞QÍ L<åfl "åiHÍÅO Hõeã≤~åHõ ™ê=∞O`«∞Å∞QÍ LO_»=Åã≤ =zÛO^Œ#fl ^Œ∞QÆ°ú`À ã¨O^Œ∞^˘iH˜`Õ ã¨fi`«O„`«O „ѨHõ\˜OK«∞H˘x HõѨÊO Hõ @ ì _ » O =∂x"Õ ¿ ã"å~° ∞ . g~° # ~° ã ≤ O Ǩ Ï ~åÜ« ∞ Å∞ „Ѩ Ü « ∞ uflOp "åi<˘OK«ÖËHõ áÈÜ«∂_»∞. 18 <≥ÅÅ x~°O`«~° áÈ~å@OÖ’ |ÖÏ¡à◊√_»∞ HÀ@#∞O_ç `«Ñ≤ÊOK«∞H˘x áêiáÈ`«∂ HÍ"Õs#kÖ’ „Ѩ"åǨÏxH˜ |eÜ≥ÿ∞áÈÜ«∂_»∞. WˆH¯i ã¨O‰õΩÅ∞_»∞ =∞~°}≤OK«QÍ, WˆH¯iH˜ `«# J#∞Ü«∂~Ú KÒO_»Ñ¨<åÜ«∞‰õΩ}˜‚, „j~°OQÆѨ@ì}ÏxH˜ `«# =∂=∞ zHõ¯~åÜ«∞efl ™ê=∞O`«∞Å∞QÍ xÜ«∞q∞Oz âßOu <≥ÅH˘ÖÏÊ_»∞. J`«x q[Ü«∂Å∞ QÆ=∞xOz# q∞ye# ™ê=∞O`«∞Öˇ=~°∂ =∞i u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@¡‰õΩ ™êǨÏã≤OK«ÖË^Œ∞. ~åÜ«∞Å"åiH˜ u=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞ =∞O„u ÃÑ@ìx HÀ@ÖÏO\˜"å_»∞. ~åÜ«∞ÖÏÜ«∞##∞ `«O„_ç`À ã¨=∂#OQÍ ÉèÏqOz ''JáêÊr—— Jx Ñ≤ e KÕ " å_» ∞ . u=∞‡~° ∞ 㨠∞ =∞O„uk J™ê^è • ~° } "≥ ∞ ÿ # "Õ ∞ ^ä Œ . â◊`«$=ӺǨÅ#∞ Ѩã≤QÆ\˜ì Z^Œ∞~°∞ ^≥|ƒfÜ«∞_»OÖ’ k@ì. Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å q[Ü« ∂ ÅÖ’ u=∞‡~° ∞ 㨠∞ "Õ ∞ ^ä Œ ZO`« Q Í<À `À_» ∞ QÍ =ÙO_Õ k . u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞¡ J}z# `«~°∞"å`« XHõ<å_»∞ `«=∞kQÍ =ÙO_ç WѨÊ_»∞ QÆ[Ѩ`«∞ÅKÕuÖ’ =Ù#fl L^ŒÜ«∞ѨÙi ^Œ∞~°æOÃÑ· (<≥Å∂¡~°∞lÖÏ¡) PÜ«∞# ^Œ$+≤ì ™êiOKå_»∞. Jk XHõ PÜ«Ú=ÙѨ@ì~Ú# yi^Œ∞~°æO. ã¨∞=∂~°∞ ã¨O=`«û~°OÃÑ·QÍ JHõ¯_Õ =∞lb"Õã≤, HÀ@Ö’xH˜ U ã¨~°O*Ï=∂ JO^Œ‰õΩO_® Hõ@ì_ç KÕã≤ kQƃO^èŒ#O KÕã≤"Õâß_»∞. ^•O`À `«Ñ¨Êxã¨Ô~· áÈ~°∞‰õΩ HÀ@ "≥_»e =zÛ# g~°Éèí„^ŒQÆ[Ѩux J`«x Jâı+¨=∞~Ú# ¿ã<å"åÇ≤Ïxh ~åÜ«∞Å∞ F_çOz |OnÅ∞QÍ Ñ¨@∞ìH˘<åfl_»∞. PÃÑ· ~åÜ«∞Å *ˇ·„`«Ü«∂„`« J_»∂¤ J^Œ∞ѨÓÖˉõΩO_® ™êyOk. H˘O_»g_»∞, H˘O_»Ñ¨e¡, `«OˆQ_»∞, ˆH`«=~°O =~°∞ã¨QÍ `«ÖÁQÍæ~Ú. H˘O_»Ñ¨e¡ =Ú@ì_ç XHõ J^Œ ∞ ƒù ` « q[Ü« ∞ O. ™êǨ Ï ã¨ q[Ü« ∞ O. Hõ @ HÍnè â ◊ √ _» ∞ Hõ Ñ ≤ Ö Ë â ◊ fi ~° Q Æ [ Ѩ u Jxfl k‰õ Ω ¯Å #∞Oz Hõ = Ú‡H˘zÛ<å ~åÜ« ∞ ŠѨ~å„Hõ=∞O =ÚO^Œ∞ xÅ∞=ÖËHõ¨áÈÜ«∂_»∞. L^ŒÜ«∞yi, H˘O_»g_»∞, H˘O_»Ñ¨e¡, =â◊OHÍ=_»O`À ~åÜ«∞Å∞ `«#^Œ$+≤ìx `«∞OQÆÉèí„^•Hõ$+¨‚Å #_çq∞„áêO`«O ^ÀPÉòÖ’x ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ =Ú^ŒæÅ∞¡ÅÃÑ· ™êiOKå_»∞. ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ HõŃiy (<Õ\˜ QÆ∞Ń~åæ) Ö’x |Ǩï=∞hã¨∞ÖÏÎ#∞Å Jnè#OÖ’xk. "å~°∞ Jâ◊fiѨ`«∞Å∞. xѨÙ}∞Öˇ·# qÅ∞HÍO„_»‰õΩ "åi ¿ã# ÃÑ\˜ìOk ¿Ñ~°∞. Ѩk=∞Ok Ç≤ÏO^Œ∂ Ãã·x‰õΩʼnõΩ XHõ =Úã≤¡O
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

Ãã·x‰õΩ_»∞ KåÅ∞ J<Õ ÉèÏ=# P ~ÀAÖ’¡ ÉÏQÍ "åºÑ≤ÎÖ’ LO_ç#k. JO^Œ∞=Å¡<Õ JO`«‰õΩ=ÚO^Œ∞ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ѨÓ~°fi ã¨OQÆ=∞ K«„Hõ=iÎ ^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ =Úã≤¡OÅ#∞ `«#¿ã#Ö’ KÕ~°∞ÛH˘x `«#"åiH˜ J^Œ#°OQÍ qÅ∞q^Œ º Ö’ `« i Ѷ ‘ k Ñ≤ Ê Oz =ÚQÆ ∞ æ i H˘Hõ ~ ° ∞ QÍ =∂~° Û QÆ e QÍ_» ∞ . Jâ◊fiѨ`«∞Å |Å"Õ∞q∞\’ „QÆÇ≤ÏOz# ~åÜ«∞Å"å~°∞ áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞"åi`À X_»O|_çHõ ‰õΩ^Œ∞~°∞ÛH˘x, QÆ∞„~åÅhfl`«<Õ H˘<Õ U~åÊ@∞ KÕã¨∞H˘x, `«# Jâ◊fi|ÖÏxfl ÉÏQÍ ÃÑOá⁄OkOK«∞H˘<åfl_»∞. ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ g∞^Œ ^ŒO_»∞ "≥_»e# ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ PÜ«∞# ¿ã<å"åÇ≤Ïx Wk: 1100 U#∞QÆ∞Å∞, ÅH∆Í W~°"·≥ S^Œ∞"ÕÅ QÆ∞„~åÅ∞, 7 ÅHõÅ HÍŃÅO, ∆ WHõ ¿ã<åã¨Ç¨Ü«∞Hõ |$O^ŒO ã¨OYº K≥ѨÊ#Hõ¯~°ÖË^Œ∞. "ÕÖÏk Z^Œ∞ÌÅ|à◊√¡, =O@"å~°∞, ^Œ∞ã¨∞ÎÅ"å~°∞, HõuÎ Hõ\Ï~°∞Å∞ `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕ¿ã"å~°∞, "≥·^Œ∞ºÅ∞, q<À^Œ HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å"å~°∞, ™êx[#O, XHõ =∞Ǩ#QÆ~°"Õ∞ ^ŒO_»∞`À `«~°e"≥o¡Ok. ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ =Ú@ì_ç cèHõ~°"≥∞ÿ#k, JkfifÜ«∞"≥∞ÿ#k. UsuQÍ K«∂z<å K«i„`«Ö’ JѨÓ~°fi"≥∞ÿ#k. `«=∞#∞ ZkiOKÕ â◊H˜Î Éèí∂Ö’HõOÖ’ =∞Ô ~ Hõ ¯ _® ÖË ^ Œ # fl nè = ∂, ÉÏQÍ |ÅOQÍ =ÙO_ç U^•_ç < ≥ · < å `«@∞ìHÀQÆey# HÀ@ QÀ_»Å∞, |∞~°∞AÅÃÑ· Ѷ≤~°OQÆ∞Å`À ã¨~°fiã¨#fl^ŒúOQÍ HÍѨÙ#fl Ãã·#ºO. HÀ@Ö’<≥·`Õ Z<Õflà◊¡~Ú<å `«@∞ìH˘x xÅ∞=QÆÅ ™ê=∞„y xÅfiÅ∞. QÆ∞O_≥Å∞ fã≤# |O@¡ÖÏO\˜ PtfiHõ^Œà◊O ÅHõ∆#fl~°, HÍŃÅO =¸_»∞ÅHõ∆ʼnõΩ ÃÑ·QÍ, JO`«‰õΩq∞Oz ™ê÷#|ÅO. Ü«Ú^ŒúO „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿ# H˘xfl ~ÀAÅÖ’<Õ ã¨∞ÖÏÎ#∞ŠѶ≤~°OQÆ∞ʼnõΩ q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°¿ã#Ö’ ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 5 "ÕÅ =∞Ok XˆH™êi <ÕÅH˘iQÍ~°∞. Ãã· # ºO ɡ ^ Œ i áÈ~Ú gѨ Ù K« ∂ Ѩ < å~° O aè O zOk. „|u‰õ Ω O>Ë |Å∞™ê‰õΩux =ÙO_»=K«Û<Õ ÉèÏ=#. J~Ú`Õ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ `«# ¿ã##∞ D q^èŒOQÍ P*Ï˝Ñ≤OKå_»@: ''Ü«Ú^ŒúO KÕã¨∂Î=ÙO>Ë Kå==K«∞Û ÖË^• ÔQÅ∞==K«∞Û. Ô~O\˜H© P™ê¯~°=ÚOk. HÍh gѨ٠K«∂Ñ≤#"åiH˜ =∞~°}"Õ∞ tHõ∆. =∞# ¿ã<å"åÇ≤Ï<Õ q∞=∞‡efl =∞@∞ìÃÑ_»∞`«∞Ok. „ѨѨOK«OÖ’<Õ WO`«\˜ K«„Hõ=iÎx K«Oáê_»#fl H©iÎ P ã¨∞ÖÏÎ#∞ʼnõΩ XHõ"Õà◊ ^ŒHõ¯=K«∞Û<Õ"≥∂ QÍx, ~åÜ«∞Å#∞ F_çOKå_»#fl „Ѩ^äŒ =∂„`«O q#|_»‰õÄ_»^Œ∞——.WÖÏ K≥|∞`«∂<Õ KÕ~°∞=#∞#fl XHõ Ãã·x‰õΩ}˜‚ WÖÏ P*Ï˝Ñ≤OKå_»∞. ''D LOQÆ~°O fã¨∞ÔHo¡ ~å}˜"å™êxH˜ ã¨=∞iÊOK«∞. Kå=Ù Hõ|∞~°∞=¿ãÎ P`å‡Ç¨ïuH˜ ã≤^ŒúO Hõ=∞‡#∞. JÖÏ H͉õΩO_® q[Ü«ÚÅ"≥∞ÿ uiy=KåÛ=∂ Ǩ~°`«∞Å#∞ ã≤^ŒúO KÕÜ«∞=∞#∞—— P =∂@ʼnõΩ L`ÕÎl`«∞Öˇ·# ~åÜ«∞Å¿ã# g~å"Õâ◊O`À áÈ~å\˜ ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞#∞ Ѩ@∞ìH˘<åfl~°∞. ã¨∞ÖÏÎ<£ =∞ǨÏ=∞‡^£ „áê}ÏÅ∞ HÀÖ’ÊÜ«∂_»∞. HÀ@"åH˜à◊√¡ `≥~°∞K«∞H˘x ~åÜ«∞ÅH˜ ™êfiQÆ`«=∞<åfl~Ú. ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ''#QÆ~°OÖ’x áœ~°∞ʼnõΩ U W|ƒOk HõeyOK«~å^Œh, Z=Ô~·<å #QÆ~°O g_ç "≥à◊§^ŒÅK«∞H˘O>Ë U=∂„`«O P@OHõO HõeyOK«õ‰õÄ_»^Œh—— `«# ¿ã#‰õΩ Hõ@ì_çKÕã≤ #QÆ~°"åã¨∞ʼnõΩ ã¨∞ÖÏÎ#∞Å JkèHÍ~°∞ʼnõÄ JÉèíÜ«∞ „Ѩ^•#O KÕâß_»∞. „ã‘ÎÅ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ =∞~åº^Œ áê\˜OK«=∞<åfl_»∞. `«~°∞"å`« ~åÜ«∞Å ¿ã# F„_è» QÆ[Ѩ`«∞ÅÃÑ·H˜ ™êy# ^•iá⁄_»∞QÆ∞<å h~å[<åÅ∞ Z^Œ∞~°Ü∂º~Ú. Z^Œ∞~°∞ xez# p`åѶMÏ<£ L~°Ñπ¶ ã‘`åѨu « π kâ◊Å∞ Ѩ\˜ìáÈÜ«∂_»∞. ~å[=∞O„_ç, Ñ≤~îåѨÙ~°O *’Ǩ~°<åfl~Ú,
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 21

ã≤OǨK«ÅO JѨÊ#fl (ã≤OǨK«ÖËâ◊fi~°∞_»∞) ~åÜ«∞}˜‚ Pj~°fikOKå_»∞. J<ÕHõ #"åºÉèí~°}ÏÅ`À ã≤OǨK«Å#~°ã≤OǨϙêfiq∞x JÅOHõ$`«∞}˜‚ KÕã≤ á⁄@∂fl~°∞Ö’ q[Ü«∞ã¨ÎOÉèíO <å\˜ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ QÆ[ѨuH˜ Ü«Ú^•úǨfi#O ѨOáê_»∞. D J^Œ#∞Ez c*ÏѨÓ~ü PkÖϬ ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ =Ú^ŒæÅ∞¡efl `«# =â◊O KÕã¨∞H˘<åfl_»∞. P„QƫǨϟ^Œ„QÆ∞_»~Ú# ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~åÜ«∞K«∂~üÃÑ· ^ŒO_≥uÎ, áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞Å `«∞áê‰õΩÅ Ãã·#ºO`À "≥∂ǨÏiOKå_»∞. ÃÑ=∞‡™êx ~å=∞eOQÆ<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»<Õ ~åÜ«∞Å¿ã<åx. PkÖϬ 㨯O^•"å~°OÖ’H˜ K˘K«∞ÛÔHo¡ ã¨∞ÖÏÎ<£ _Õ~å „`åà◊√¡ HÀã≤ ‰õÄeÛ =KåÛ_»∞. ɡ^Œi ɡOÉËÖˇuÎ# PkÖϬ áÈ~°∞‰õΩ ã≤^"∞<å Ãã#ºO ã¨ÇÏHõiOK«Ö^∞.c*ÏѨÓ~ü Ããx‰õΩÅ`À úŒ ≥ ÿ · ¨ Ë Œ · ~°HõÎO`ÀxO_ç áê~°∞`«∞#fl Hõ$ëê‚#kx K«∂z ~åÜ«∞Å∞ Ü«Ú^Œú=∂Ñ≤Oz "åiH˜ „|`«∞‰õΩxKåÛ_»∞. „|`«∞‰õΩ r=Ù_® Jx PkÖϬ áêiáÈÜ«∂_»∞. JO`«\˜`À Hõ^äŒ =ÚyÜ«∞ÖË^Œ∞. QÀÖÁ¯O_» ‰õΩ`«∞ÉϬ JǨχ^£#QÆ~ü x*ÏOëê, c~å~ü JǨχ^£ëêÅ∞ =ÚQÆ∞æ~°∂ ~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ c*ÏѨÓ~ü `«=∞"åi ~å[ºÉèÏQÆ=∞h, Jk ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ÔQÅ∞K«∞HÀ=_»O `«Ñ¨Êh, =∞~°e W=fiHõáÈ`Õ `å=Ú =ÚQÆ∞æ~°∂ PkÖϬ`Àã¨Ç¨ =zÛ ^•_çKÕ™êÎ=∞x XHõ ~åÜ«∞ÉÏi^•fi~å Hõ|∞~°∞ ѨOáê~°∞. ~åÜ«∞Å∞ P ~åÜ«∞ÉÏi`À WÖÏ Hõ|∞~°∞ÃÑ\Ïì_»∞. ''JO`« „â◊=∞ g∞ÔHO^Œ∞‰õΩ g∞‰õΩ =∂~åæÜ«∂ã¨O ÖˉõΩO_® <Õ<Õ g∞ HÀ@Å =^ŒÌ‰õΩ =™êÎ#∞ Jx. J#_»"Õ∞HÍ^Œ∞ ¿ã<å"åÇ≤Ïx`À "≥o¡ =ÚQÆ∞æsfl "åi #QÆ~°∞Ö’¡<Õ z`«∞ÎKÕã≤ JO^Œ~°∂ ã¨OkèH˜ „áêi÷OK«QÍ, ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ WHõÃÑ· q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°O "åi^Õ#x XѨÊO^ŒO ‰õΩ^Œ∞~°∞ÛH˘<åfl_»∞. DÖ’QÍ QÆ[Ѩu `«# ™ê=∞O`«∞Öˇ·# Ѩ^ŒÇ¨~°∞QÆ∞~°∞ áê„`«∞Å ã¨Ç¨ÏHÍ~°O`À `«=∞ÃÑ· Ü«Ú^•úxH˜ ã≤^Œú=∞ø`«∞<åfl_»#fl "å~°Î~åQÍ, u=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞ Ü«ÚH˜Î ^•fi~å QÆ[Ѩu qâßfiã¨áê„`«∞Å∂ =∞Ǩg~°∞Å∂ J~Ú# áê„`«∞ÅO^Œih QÆ[ѨuKÕ`«<Õ ã¨=∞~ÚOѨKÕâß_»∞. Hõ@HõO =^Œe ã≤OǨK«ÅO áêiáÈ~Ú# QÆ[ѨuH˜˜ JÉèíÜ«∞q∞zÛ PÜ«∞# ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞#∞ ÃÑàÏ¡_ç, `å#∞ ÔQÅ∞ÛH˘#fl QÀ^•=iHÍ=ef~°Ñ¨Ù „áêO`«=∞O`å =∂=∞‰õΩ uiyKÕÛâß_»∞. ~åÜ«∞Å z=i ~ÀAÖ’¡ XѨÊO^•xH˜ `«Ñ≤Ê c*ÏѨÓ~ü PkÖϬ =∞~À=∂~°∞ ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ÃÑ· ^•_ç KÕâß_»∞. P ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ‰õΩ=∂~°∞x =∞~°}O`À ÉÏQÍ Hõ#e=Ù<åfl_»∞. "å~°Î q#fl^Õ`_=ÙQÍ L„QÆ∞_≥· « » QÆ∞„~°OÃÑ· ~åÜ«∞K«∂~°∞ KÕ~å_»∞. PkÖϬ _Õ~å=ÚO^Œ∞ xeÛ, PkÖϬ =OK«H``åfixfl ZO_»Q\ì˜ Ü«Ú^•úxH˜, ã¨#fl^ŒO Hõ=∞‡x K≥áêÊ_»∞. ɡ^i# õ « Æ ú Œ QÆ∞O_≥`À PkÖϬ "≥#∞kiy K«∂_»‰Ωõ O_® "≥#∞fl K«∂áê_»∞. UÅ∞|_ç Ö ’x `˘e Ѩ k 㨠O =`« û ~åÅ∂ WOK« ∞ q∞OK« ∞ QÍ ~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅO Ü«Ú^•úÅ`À q[Ü«∂Å`À ™êyáÈ~ÚOk. ã¨Ç¨Ï[OQÍ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ âßOuHÍ=Ú‰õΩ_»∞. ~å[º qã¨Î~°} QÆ∞iOz Pã¨H˜Î `«‰õΩ¯=, Ѩ~°~å*ϺÅ∞ ÔQÅ∞K«∞H˘<åfl ™ê=∞O`«OQÍ "åiˆH ^Œ`«ÎO KÕ¿ã"å_»∞. `å#∞ ÔQÅ∞K«∞H˘#fl `«q∞à◊, Hõ~å‚@, ˆH~°à◊ Éèí∂ÉèÏQÍÖ’¡ `«# `«~°Ñ¶¨Ù# J<ÕHõ=∞Ok `≥Å∞QÆ∞ <åÜ«∞‰õΩefl `«# „Ѩux^èŒ∞Å∞QÍ xÜ«∞q∞OKå_»∞. "≥·Ü«∞H˜ÎHõOQÍ ~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ Jáê~°"≥∞ÿ# ^≥·=ÉèíH˜Î =ÙO_Õk. `å#∞
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

"≥·+¨‚=Ù_≥·<å J^Õ"≥∂ѨÙ# W`«~° â‹·=, â߈HÎÜ«∞, g~°â‹·"åk âßYefl P^ŒiOK«_»"Õ∞ HÍHõ W™ê¡O, „H©ã¨∞Î=∞`åefl ã¨Ç≤Ï`«O P^Œ~°OQÍ K«∂âß_»∞. QÀѨÙ~åÅ∞, QÆ∞à◊√¡, HõàϺ} =∞O@áêÅ`Àáê@∞ =∞ã‘^Œ∞Å∞, K«iÛÅ∞ ‰õÄ_» xi‡Oz ~ÚzÛ `«# ã¨~°fi=∞`« ã¨=∞ÉèÏ=##∞ Kå@∞H˘<åfl_»∞. "≥ · + ¨ ‚ = ÙÅ#∞ `å`åKå~° ∞ ºÅ`Àáê@∞ ^≥ · fi `« " åk "åºã¨ ~ åÜ« ∞ Å#∂, "≥ · + ¨ ‚ = OÖ’x L`« Î ~ åk âßMÏ „Ѩ = ~° Î ‰ õ Ω _» ∞ =Å¡ É è Ï Kå~° ∞ ºÅ#∂, g~° â ‹ · " åKå~° ∞ º_≥ · # QÆ ∞ aƒ=∞Å¡ } Ï~° ∞ }˜ ‚ , W™ê¡ O QÆ ∞ ~° ∞ =ÙÅ#∂ Hõ # HÍaè ¿ +HÍÅ`À 㨠< å‡<åÅ`À Q“~° q OK« _ » O XHõ ¯ ~åÜ« ∞ ÖË KÕÜ«∞QÆeQÍ_»∞. tÅÊ Hõà◊ʼnõΩ HÍ}ÏzÜ≥ÿ∞# <Õ\˜ ǨÏOÑ‘Ö’x ~°OQÆ<å^äŒ, „jHõ$+¨‚, #~°ã≤OǨÏ, ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂Å∂, JǨϟaÅO, J~°∞}yi, „j~°OQÆO, =∞^èŒ∞~°, z^ŒO|~° HÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î, „jâ‹·ÅO =Ú#flQÆ∞ ˆH∆„`åÅÖ’ `å#∞ J_»∞QÆ∞ ÃÑ\˜ì# „Ѩu ^Õ=àÏxH© QÀѨÙ~° x~å‡}"≥∂, =∞O_»Ñ¨"≥∂, PYiH˜ PÉèí~°}ÏÖ’ HÍ#¯eKåÛ_» ∞ . JO^Œ ∞ ˆ H <Õ \ ˜ ~åÜ« Ú _ç QÀѨ Ù ~° O ÖË x ^Œ H ˜ ∆ } Ïk ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂ÖË ÖË=x MϺu =zÛOk. WHõ u~°∞Ѩu q+¨Ü«∞O K≥ѨÊ<Õ JHõ¯~°ÖË^Œ∞. `«# rq`«HÍÅOÖ’ U_»∞=∂~°∞¡ ™êfiq∞x ^Œi≈OK«∞H˘x ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞ q=∂<åxH˜ |OQÍ~°∞ `åѨ_»O KÕ~ÚOz ÖˇHõ¯ÖË#xfl #=~°`åflÉèí~°}ÏÅ∂ ã¨=∞iÊOK«∞H˘<åfl_»∞. ™êfiq∞H˜ xÅ∞Ѩ٠^ÀÑ≤_çxzÛ ~å}∞Å`Àáê@∞ ֒Ѩ e `« Å ∞Ѩ Ù "≥ # ∞Hõ KÕ ` « ∞ Å∞ *’_ç O z xÅ∞K«∞H˘<åfl_»∞ tÅÊ=¸iÎQÍ. `«=∞ ã¨O`å<åxH˜ u~°∞=∞ÖËâ◊√x ¿Ñ~°∞¡ ÃÑ@∞ìH˘<åfl_»∞. JOQÆ~°OQÆ"≥·Éèí= ѨÓ[ʼnõΩ „Ѩ™ê^•Å‰õΩ J„QÆǨ~åÅ∞ ^•#q∞KåÛ_»∞. z=iH˜ PO„^èŒ^Õ=Ù_»∞ P^ÕtOѨQÍ P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ J#fl `≥Å∞QÆ∞ HÍ=ºOÖ’–ѨÙ@O ÃÑ\˜ì# Ѩã≤_ç HõÅâ◊O ÖÏO\˜ Hõ$ux „jx"åã¨∞xˆH JOH˜`«q∞KåÛ_»∞. ~å[huÖ’ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ |Ǩï<Õ~°Êi. JO^Œ∞‰õΩ PÜ«∞# ~°∂ѨO, `Õ[O ZO`«QÍ<À `À_»∞Ѩ_®¤~Ú. JO`≥`«Îi HÍHõáÈ~Ú# Kå=∞#KåÜ«∞ ~°OQÆ∞Ö’, ZÅ¡"Õà◊ÖÏ z~°∞#=Ùfi "≥ÚǨÏO`À, "≥∞i¿ã g∞™êÅ`À, u~°∞K«∂~°‚ <å=∞O`À, XHõ „Ѩã¨#fl`å=¸iÎQÍ QÀK«iOKÕ"å_»h, `å=Ú ã¨=∞iÊOK«∞H˘#fl #∂`«# ã¨Ow`« ѨiHõ~åxfl `«$\˜Ö’ J=bÅQÍ "å~ÚOK«QÆeQÍ_»h áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞ ~å`«QÍà◊√§ „"åã≤<å~°∞. q^ÕjÜ«Úefl P^Œ~°O`À K«∂ã≤ "åi =∞#∞QÆ_»‰õΩ ^ÀǨÏ^ŒO KÕ¿ã"å_»h, ~åÜ«∞ÉÏ~°∞efl Q“~°qã¨∂<Õ qà◊O|OKÕã≤ "åi ~åHõÖ’x =∞~å‡Å∞ „QÆÇÏOz, J=ã¨~"∞# Î ≤ ° ≥ÿ Hõ@ì_»∞Å∞ KÕã≤, "åiH˜ ^Œ~°≈# q∞zÛ Q“~°qOKÕ"å_»h K«i„`« K≥|∞`ÀOk. PÜ«∞# =∂@ â◊„`«∞=ÙÅ∞ ‰õÄ_» [=^•>Ë"å~°∞HÍ~°#fl ÃÑ~Úãπ ~å`« ~åÜ«∞Å =ºH˜Î`åfixH˜, `«`åfixH˜ J^ŒÌOѨ_»∞`ÀOk. ~åÜ«∞Å ~å[H©Ü«∞ K«`«∞~°`«‰õΩ qâ◊fi<å^äŒ<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_Õ „Ѩ^è•# L^•Ç¨Ï~°}. KÀà◊, áêO_»º ™ê=∞O`«~å*ϺŠ`«QÆ=Ùf~°Û_®xH˜ ѨOÑ≤# <åQÆ=∞<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞ P Ѩx Ѩ Ó iÎ K Õ ã ≤ uiy ~å‰õ Ω O_® JHõ ¯ _Õ Jkè H Í~° O K« Ö Ï~Ú㨠∂ Î (ã¨fi`«O„`å¿ÑHõ∆`À) LO_çáÈÜ«∂_»∞. "≥Ú~°ÃÑ@∞ìH˘#fl áêO_»∞ºxH˜ ÉÏã¨@QÍ Hõ$+¨‚~åÜ«∞Å∞ ÉÏQÍ PÖ’zOz <åQÆ=∞<åÜ«∞‰õΩx ‰õΩ=∂~°∞_≥·# qâ◊fi<å^äŒ∞}˜‚ ¿ã#`À <åQÆ=∞<åÜ«∞‰õΩxÃÑ·H˜ ѨOáê_»∞. <åQÆ=∞<åÜ«∞‰õΩ}˜‚ `«O„_ç Jx‰õÄ_» K«∂_»‰õΩO_® qâ◊fi<å^äŒ<åÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞ Mˇ·nQÍ `≥zÛ ~åÜ«∞Åáê^•ÅÃÑ· Ѩ_»"Õâß_»∞. P Ѷ¨∞@#`À ^ŒH˜∆}ÏO„^èŒ<åÜ«∞Hõ ~åAÅáêÅ#‰õΩ c*ÏÅ∞Ѩ_®¤~Ú.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 22

~åÜ«∞Å∞ ѨiáêÅ<å^Œ‰õ∆Ω_Õ HÍ^Œ∞ =∞Oz =ÚO^Œ∞K«∂Ѩ٠HõÅ"å_»∞ ‰õÄ_®. =º=™êÜ«∂xH˜ ~å[ºOÖ’ ÃÑ^ŒÌÑ‘@"Õã≤ Ô~·`«∞ʼnõΩ =#~°∞Å∞ ã¨=∞‰õÄiÛ, Hõ~°∞=Ù"Õà◊Ö’¡ Ѩ#∞fl fã≤"Õã≤, gÖˇ·# KÀ>ˇ¡ÖÏ¡ h\˜=ã¨u U~åÊ@∞ KÕâß_»∞. ~åÜ«∞Åã‘=∞ „áêO`«OÖ’ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ „`«qfiOz# K≥~∞° =ÙʼnõΩ ÖˇH¯ÖË^∞Œ . WHõ „H˘`«"å\˜H˜ J=HÍâ◊"∞Õ ÖË^h ѨÓ_»∞‰õΩáÈ~Ú# ˆ Î Œ "å\˜x =∞~°=∞‡`«∞Î KÕã¨∞H˘O>Ë KåÅx POˆQ¡Ü«ÚÅ WO[h~°∞¡ "≥∞HõOrH˜ iáÈ~° ∞ ì KÕ â ß~° O >Ë ~åÜ« ∞ Å HÍ~° º ^Œ H õ ∆ ` « ‰ õ Ω JO`« ‰ õ Ω q∞Oz# „Ѩâ◊O™êѨ„`«q∞OˆH=ÚO@∞Ok. =∞O„`«∞Å∞QÍ HÍã¨Î =Ü«∞ã¨∞=∞o§# „ÉÏǨχ}∞Å<Õ xÜ«∞q∞OKåÅh, PÜ« ∂ „áêO`åÅ J=∞~° < åÜ« ∞ ‰õ Ω efl =¸_Õ à ◊ ¡ H À™êi 㨠÷ Å O =∂iÊOKåÅh, „Ѩ[ U ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ "≥Ú~°ÃÑ@∞ìH˘<åfl PeOz "≥`«Å∞ f~åÛÅh `«# ã≤^•úO`åÅ∞QÍ U~åÊ@∞ KÕã¨∞H˘<åfl_»∞. „ѨÉèí∞=Ù `˘O^Œ~°Ñ¨_ç =∂@x=fi~å^Œh, WKåÛHõ ZO`«=∂„`«=Ú "≥#∞kiy K«∂_»~å^Œh K≥Ñ≤Ê Pq^èŒOQÍ #_»∞K«∞H˘<åfl_»∞. Ü«Ú^ŒúOÖ’ â◊„`«∞=Ù#∞ ÔQÅ=_»O =~°ˆHHÍx "åi Q“~°==∞~åº^ŒÅ‰õΩ ÉèíOQÆO HõÅ∞QƉõΩO_® „Ѩ=iÎOKÕ"å_»∞. PÜ«∞# HÍÅOÖ’ xi‡OѨ|_ç# J<ÕHõ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∂Å∞ ^•H˜∆}Ï`«º tÅÊHõà◊‰õΩ Ѩ~°=∂=kèQÍ "≥Å∞QÆ∞b<å~Ú. ã¨Ñ¨Îã¨fi~åÅ∞ ѨeˆH ã¨ÎOÉèÏÅ`À ~°OQÆ<å^äŒ ^Õ"åÅÜ«∞O „ѨѨOK« qO`«Ö’¡ XHõ\˜QÍ =ÙOk. JHõ¯_ç ~åu~°^äŒO, UHõtÅ`À =∞Åz# L„QÆ#~°ã≤OǨï_»∞ `å_çѨ„u, HÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î „jâ‹·ÅO ZHõ¯_» K«∂z<å q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° tÅÊHõà◊ *ËwÜ«∞=∂#OQÍ "≥Å∞Q˘O^Œ∞`«∞Ok. WHõ Éèí∞=#q[Ü«∞O =∂@ K≥ѨÊ#Hõ¯~°<Õ ÖË^Œ∞. P#"åà◊√¡QÍ q∞ye# Ѩ ^ Œ Ñ ‘ ~ î ° " Õ ∞ ZO`À =∞<ÀǨ Ï ~° O QÍ =ÙO>Ë =∞i Éè í = #"≥ ∞ O`« â’Éè Ï Ü« ∞ =∂#OQÍ =ÙO_Õ ^ À TǨ Ï ˆ H JO^Œ _ » O ÖË ^ Œ ∞ . ã¨O=`«û~åxH˘Hõ™êi `«#|~°∞=Ù `«∂K«∞H˘x JO`« ^èŒ<åxfl ¿Ñ^ŒÅ‰õΩ, ѨO_ç`«∞ʼnõÄ Ñ¨Oz# B^•~°ºO ~åÜ«∞ŠǨÏ$^ŒÜ«∞ ã¨OѨ#fl`«‰õΩ `å~å¯}O. ~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅOÖ’ ֒ǨÏѨi„â◊=∞Å∞ ÉÏQÍ qã¨ÎiOKå~Ú.z„`«^Œ∞~°æ =^ŒÌ ~åyQÆ#∞Å∞, ™⁄O_»∂~° „áêO`«Ñ¨Ù W#∞ѨQÆ#∞Å∞, =„[Hõ~°∂~°∞Ö’ ^˘iˆ H =„*ÏÅ`À Ǩ Ï uÎ ~ å#∞y~° ∞ ÅÖ’ |OQÍ~° ∞ QÆ # ∞Å∞ Ü«Ú^ÀúѨHõ~°}ÏÅ`«Ü«∂sH˜, #QÆÅ`«Ü«∂sH˜ =∞Oz J=HÍâ◊O HõeÊOz ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å`À ~å*Ϻ^•Ü«∞O W|ƒ_ç=Ú|ƒ_çQÍ ÃÑiyOk. =¸_»∞ 㨠= Ú„^•Å #∞Oz =ÚYº"≥ ∞ ÿ # ˆ ~ =ÙÅ ^•fi~å [~° ∞ QÆ ∞ `« ∞ #fl q^Õj"åºáê~°O ‰õÄ_® ~å*ϺxH˜ =∞Oz P^•Ü«∞O KÕ‰õĈ~Ûk. D q^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# =#~°∞Å`À, ~å[º=∞O`å =∞Oz ÃÑ·~°∞ ѨO@Å`À „Ѩ[Å∞ =∞Oz rq`å<Õfl QÆ_ç¿Ñ"å~°x áÈ~°∞Ûwã¨∞Å∞ „"åâß~°∞. ~åÜ« ∞ Å |Ǩ ï =ÚY =ºH˜ Î ` « fi OÖ’ â∫~° º =¸, áêÅ<å^Œ H õ ∆ ` « , ~å[hu[˝`« =¸_»∞áê~å≈fiÅ~Ú`Õ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ã¨=∂~å^èŒ#O =∞~˘Hõ =ÚYº=ÚYO. ™êÇ≤Ï`«º q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#O`« =~° ‰ õ Ä `« H ˜ ¯ # ~åAÅ#∞ PÜ« ∞ #`À áÈÅÛ\ÏxH˜ 㨠ˆ ~ Hõ h 㨠O TÇ≤ÏOK«∞HÀ=_®xH© ^Œi^•Ñ¨ÙÖ’¡ Z=~°∂ÖË#O`« WOÔH=~°∂~å#O`« L#fl`« Ñ‘ ~ î ° O PÜ« ∞ #k. q+¨ µ ‚ z `« ∞ Î x kyfi[Ü« ∞ Ü« ∂ „`« Ö ’ PO„^è"åºáê~°∞Å∞ ‰õÄ_® áêÖÁæ#fl "≥#O ^Œ∂~åÛ_»∞. PÜ«∞# XHõ ™ê\˜Öx Œ · Ë
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

HõàÏHÍ~°∞_»∞. L`«Î=∞ „H©_®HÍ~°∞_»∞ =ÚYºOQÍ =∞Å¡Ü«Ú^Œú „Ѩg}∞_»∞. g}Ï"å^Œ# xѨÙ}∞_»∞. ã¨O㨯 $`«OÖ’ PÜ«∞# =∞^•Åã¨K«i„`«, ã¨`åº=^Œ∂„Ñ‘}#O, ã¨HõÅHõ^ä•™ê~°ã¨O„QÆǨÏO, *Ï˝#zO`å=∞}˜, JÅOHÍ~°âß„ã¨Î"≥∞ÿ# ~°ã¨=∞O[i "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# HÍ"åºÅ`À áê@∞ *ÏO|=uѨi}Ü«∞=∞<Õ <å@HÍxfl ~°zOKå_»∞. qkè KÕã# qHõ\Ï@ìÇã¨OÖ’ *ÏO|=uѨi}Ü«∞ ≤ ¨ <å@Hõ O `« Ñ ¨ Ê q∞ye#=hfl WO`« = ~° ‰ õ Ä ‰õ Ä _» JÅÉè Ï ºÅ∞QÍ q∞yeáÈÜ«∂~Ú. "å\˜x QÆ∞iOz U q=~åÅ∂ `≥eÜ«∞Hõ áÈ=@O J`«ºO`« ^Œ∞~°^Œ$+¨ìHõ~°O. ^˘iH˜# *ÏO|=uѨi}Ü«∞OÖ’ ~åÜ«∞Å ã¨O㨯 $`« áêO_çf „ѨHõ~°¬ `≥Å∞ã¨∂Î<Õ=ÙOk. z#flz#fl ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å`À, „Ѩ^Œ~°≈<Àz`«"≥∞ÿ# JOHõqÉèí[#`À ѨO_ç`«„Ѩâ◊Oã¨ÅO^Œ∞H˘#flk. „jHõ $ +¨ ‚ ^ Õ = ~åÜ« ∞ Å∞ Ô ~ O_» = ™êi Hõ @ Hõ O ÃÑ· ^Œ O _≥ u Î # Ѩ Ù _» ∞ =∂~°æ=∞^茺OÖ’ kqã‘=∞Ö’x „jH͉õΩà◊ PO„^èŒ^Õ=Ù}˜‚ ^Œi≈OK«∞H˘x P~ÀA JHõ¯_Õ q„â◊q∞OKå_»∞. PO„^èŒ=∞Ǩq+¨µ‚=Ù PÜ«∞#‰õΩ HõÅÖ’ HõxÑ≤Oz, J<ÕHõ HÍ"åºÅ`À ã¨O㨯 $`«ÉèÏ+¨#∞ "≥∞ѨCá⁄O^•=Ù. PO„^èŒÉèÏ+¨Ö’ XHõ Hõ$ux qxi‡OK«=∞x K≥Ñ≤Ê, `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ZO^Œ∞Hõx `å<Õ „ѨtflOz ^Õâ◊O `≥Å∞QÆ∞^Õâ◊O HÍ=@O=Å¡, `å#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ''=Å¡Éèí∞_»∞—— (PO„^èŒ=∞Ǩq+¨µ‚=Ù) HÍ|\˜ì, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ HõO_»QÆey# ÉèÏ+¨ Hõ#∞Hõ#∂ =ÚYºOQÍ ZO^Œ~À #$Ѩ`«∞Å`À Hõ$+¨‚~åÜ«∞ÖË ''^Õâ◊ÉèÏ+¨ÅO^Œ∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Öˇã¨û—— Jx ÉÏã¨KÕã≤ =ÙO_»@OKÕ`å `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’<Õ ~°zOK«=∞x HÀi „j~°OQÆOÖ’ `å=Ú_çz# =∂Å#∞ `«#`À ^èŒiOѨ KÕã≤# QÀ^•^Õq`À `«# q"åǨxfl Hõ^ä•=ã¨∞Î=ÙQÍ ‰õÄ_» ã¨∂zOKå_»∞. HÍ"åºxfl ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ZO`À „¿Ñ=∞`À H˘ÖËÛ "ÕOHõ@ѨuH˜=∞‡x K≥áêÊ_»∞. ~åÜ«∞Å∞ x„^Œ #∞O_ç "Õ∞ÖÁ¯x HÍÅHõ$`åºÅ∞ fiÛ JHõ¯_Õ =Ù#fl =∞O@ѨOÖ’ P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ ÖËHõ q+¨µ‚zfÎÜ«∞=Ú J<Õ „Ѩ|O^èŒ~°K«#‰õΩ LѨ„Hõq∞OKå_»∞. P HÍ=ºO J<ÕHõ HÍ~°}ÏÅ∞QÍ qt+¨ì"≥∞ÿ#k. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ XHõ =∞ǨK«„Hõ=iÎ ã¨O`«iOz# HÍ=ºq∞k. q+¨µ‚áê~°=∂ºxfl ã¨∂zOKÕ ÃÑiÜ«∂àÏfi~°∞QÍ Ñ≤Å∞=|_ç# q+¨µ‚z`«∞Î_»<Õ Ç¨ÏiÉèí‰õΩÎx Hõ^äŒ, J`«xH˜ JÜ«∂z`«OQÍ ÅaèOz# ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ QÀ^•^Õq ǨÏix =Åz, =ÅÑ≤OѨKÕã¨∞H˘x ÃÑO_®¡_ç# Hõ^äŒ. WO^Œ∞Ö’ q+¨µ‚z`«∞Îx =ÚQÆúÉèíH˜Î, QÀ^•^Õq =∞^èŒ∞~°â◊$OQÍ~°ÉèíH˜Î, MÏO_çHõº ˆHt^èŒfiAÅ P^蕺u‡HõÉèíH˜Î, Ü«∂=Ú<åKå~°∞ºx *Ï˝#ÉèíH˜Î, =∂Å^•ã¨i ^•ã¨ºÉèÏ=<å ã¨OHõe`«"≥∞ÿ# J##º xëêªÉèíH˜Î ã¨O^Œ~Àƒùz`«OQÍ J`«º^Œ∞ƒù`«suÖ’ ~°zOѨ|_®¤~Ú.PÜ«∂ ã¨O^Œ~åƒùʼnõΩ, ã¨OѶ¨∞@#ʼnõΩ J#∞ã¨O^è•xfl HõeÊã¨∂Î Hõ^äŒÅe¡# f~°∞ JkfifÜ«∞=∞xÑ≤™ÈÎOk. JHõ¯_»Hõ¯_» =KÕÛ#QÆ~°Œ, „QÍg∞}r=# "≥·z„u „ѨHõ$u =~°‚#Å∞,~å[ã¨ÉèíÅ∞, ~åAÅ qÖÏ™êÅ∞, q^•ºQÀ+¨µªÅ∂, ѨO_ç`«∞Å D~嬺ã¨∂Ü«∞Å∞, "≥ÅÜ«∂O„_» qâıëêÅ∞, |∞∞`«∞=ÙÅ q<庙êÅ∞, ZO`« =∞<À[˝OQÍ L<åfl~Ú. =ÚYºOQÍ „Ѩ*Ï r=#OÃÑ,· PÜ«∞#‰õΩ#fl ã¨^=QÍǨÏ#, ~`∞Å "≥É"åÅ∞, „ѨH$õ uÖ’ Œ Ô · « · íè QÀK«iOKÕ ™ê^è•~°} =ã¨∞Î=ÙÖ’¡x J™ê^è•~°}"≥∞ÿ# JO^•Å∞ ~åÜ«∞Å ã¨∞xt`« ѨijÅ<å^Œ$+≤ìH˜, =∞kÖ’ "≥∞kÖË=ÓǨÏʼnõΩ, PÜ«∞# ~°∂ѨO‰õÄ~Û â‹e, Jx`«~™ê^躌 "≥∞# HõÅÊ<å K«=∞`«¯ $uH˜ `å~å¯}ÏÅ∞QÍ ˆ · ° ÿ xÅ∞™êÎ~Ú.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 23

WHõ QÀ^•^Õq =∞^èŒ∞~°ÉèíH˜Î P"≥∞ =ÚQÆú`«fiOÖ’x QÆ_»∞ã¨∞^Œ#O, "Õ∞Å∞H˘Å∞ѨÙÅ∞ ~°ã¨=`Ϋ~°OQÍ LO\Ï~Ú. PÜ«∂ HÍÖÏÖ’¡ „Ѩ[Å PǨ~° q=~°}Å∞, áê„`«z„`«}Å∞ =∞#efl J^Œ∞ƒù`«Ñ¨~°∞™êÎ~Ú. WHõ ~å[hux qâ◊nHõiOz# HÍ"åºÖ’¡ PÜ«∞# ~°K# PÜ«∞# P`«‡Hõ^QÍ „Ѩ`º« Hõ"∞Ok. « Œä ∆ ≥ÿ Jáê~°"≥∞ÿ# ~å[hu qâı+¨`åqA˝_≥·# ~åÜ«∞Å∞ `«# J#∞Éèí"å#flO`å ~°OQÆiOz ~°zOKå_»∞. K«i„`«Ö’ HÍ"åºÖ’¡ <åÜ«∞‰õΩÅ∞ ™ê=∂#ºOQÍ nè~À^•`«∞ÎÅ∞, =∞Ǩ#∞ÉèÏ=ÙÅ∞ J~ÚLO\Ï~°∞. JO`ÕHÍ^Œ∞, P<å\˜ ã≤÷uQÆ`«∞Å ^Œ$ëêìº XHõ =∂Å^•ã¨ix XHõ Hõ^䌉õΩ <åÜ«∞‰õΩxQÍ Z#∞flH˘x, ÉèíH˜Î QÍ<åxfl x~°fizOz# f~°∞ P Ѷ¨∞\Ïìxfl Zxfl™ê~°∞¡ K«kqã¨∞ÎO^À K≥ѨÊÖËO. PÜ«∞# ã¨O㨯 $`«~°K«#Å∞ J~Ú^Œ∂ ^˘~°Hõ¯ áÈ~Ú<å PÜ«∞# ~°zOz# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ „QÆO^äŒO P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ XHõ¯\˜ KåÅ∞ PÜ«∞#∞fl ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ™ê~°fiÉè∫=Ú}˜‚ KÕÜ«∞_®xH˜. Jk =∞#‰õΩ ÅaèOK«_»O x[OQÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi J^Œ$+¨ìO. JO^Œ∞ˆH Jk `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åà◊√¡ ã¨∂÷ÅOQÍ ZxflHõKÕã≤# ѨOK«HÍ"åºÖ’¡ (P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^Œ, â◊$OQÍ~°<≥·+¨^èŒO, =∞#∞K«i„`«, =ã¨∞K«i„`«, áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}O) `«Å=∂xHõ"≥∞ÿ ÉèÏã≤ã¨∞Î#flk. „jHõ $ +¨ ‚ ^ Õ = ~åÜ« ∞ Å „¿Ñ~° } `À „Ѩ | O^è Œ ™ êÇ≤ Ï `« º OÖ’ P<å_» ∞ ã¨∞QÆO^èŒÑ¨Ó`«=ÚÖˇ·# Z<Àfl HÍ=º‰õΩã¨∞=∂Å∞ qHõã≤Oz `≥Å∞QÆ∞`«e¡ ã≤QÆѨÓ=ÙÅ∞QÍ "åã≤ÔHHͯ~Ú. PÜ«∞# ˆH=ÅO `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏëê Hõ=ÙÅ<ÕHÍHõ J<Õ H õ 㨠O 㨠¯ $`« . Hõ # fl_» , `« q ∞à◊ , =∞ÅÜ« ∂ à◊ Hõ = Ùefl ‰õ Ä _» „áÈ`«ûÇ≤ÏOKå_»∞. u=∞‡}‚Hõq q~°z`« JëÈì`«Î~° ÉèÏ~°`«Hõ$u Hõ#fl_»OÖ’ "≥Å∞=_çOk. g~°Œâ‹·= =∞ǨѨÙ~å}Hõ~°Î QÆ∞aƒ=∞Å¡}Ï~°∞º_»∞ ~åAQÍiKÕ |Ǩï^è• ã¨<å‡xOѨ|_®¤_»∞. ã¨Ow`« HõàÏâß„ã¨ÎO WÖÏ J<ÕHõ âß„™êÎÅÖ’ Hõ$`«∞Å∞ "≥Å∞=_ç H©iÎÔHHͯ~Ú. =∞O[iáêÊ J<Õ `«q∞à◊HÍ=ºOÖ’#∞ W~°∞ã¨#∞Ü«∞ qà◊Hõ¯O J<Õ HÍ=ºOÖ’#∞ PÜ«∞# J#ºÉèÏëê™êÇ≤Ï`«º „Ñ≤Ü«∞OÉèÏ=ÙHõ`«fiO, É’^èŒÑ¨_»∞`«∞Ok. „jHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å HÍÅOÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ „Ѩ|O^èŒ ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º OÖψ Q Hõ # fl_» É è Ï +¨ Ö ’ ^•ã¨ ™ êÇ≤ Ï `« º O J<Õ „Ѩ „ H˜ Ü « ∞ J`«∞ºK«Ûù^Œâ◊‰õΩ KÕ~°∞H˘Ok. P^蕺u‡Hõ QÆ∞~°∞=Ù "åºã¨~åÜ«∞Å∞, Hõ~å‚@Hõ ã¨Ow`« Ñ≤`å=∞Ǩï_»∞ ѨÙ~°O^Œ~°^•ã¨∞, qѨ¡="åkQÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#^Œy# Hõ#Hõ^•ã¨∞ ~åÜ«∞Å Jaè=∂<å^Œ~åÅ∞ á⁄Ok#"åˆ~. WHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ ~åÜ«∞ÅÜ«ÚQÆO K«i„`«Ö’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞*ÏuH˜ ã¨fi~°‚Ü«ÚQÆO. Éè’Ax P™ê÷#OÖ’ #=~°`åflÅÖÏQÍ ~åÜ«∞Åã¨Éèí J+¨ìkQÆæ*ÏÅ`À Hõà◊Hõà◊ÖÏ_Õk. JÅ¡™êx ÃÑ^ŒÌ# "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# Hõ=ÙÅ∞ J+¨ìkQÆæ[Hõ=ÙÅ∞QÍ „Ѩã≤kúá⁄O^•~°∞. PÜ«∞#`À ã¨<å‡<åÅO^Œ∞ H˘#fl"å~°∞ =∞Ô~O^Œ~À. P<å_»∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º=~°æO K«∂ѨO`å ~åÜ«∞Å q[Ü«∞#QÆ~°ŒO"≥·¿Ñ LO_Õk. `å=∞~° `«OѨ~°QÍ =zÛ `«=∞ „ѨuÉèÏqâıëêÅ`À „ѨÉèí∞=Ù#ÅiOz HÍ#∞HõÅ∞ JO^Œ∞H˘x =∞s "≥#∞kiy# "åÔ~O^Œ~À. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO =¸_»∞ѨÙ=ÙfiÅ∞ =ÚÃѶ·Ê HÍÜ«∞Å∞QÍ ~å}˜OK«_»O QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨCH˘<åflO. ~åÜ«∞Å „¿Ñ~°}`À<Õ ts+¨‰õΩã¨∞=∞¿Ñâ◊Å"≥∞ÿ# â‹·e`À „^•Hõ∆QÆ∞K«Ûù ã¨∞^è•^è•~° J~Ú# ''=∞#∞K«i„`«—— JÅ¡™êx "åi
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

lyay Je¡ H õ ` À `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ 㨠~ ° ã ¨ fi u =∞}˜ Ç ¨  ~° " ≥ ∞ ÿ XáêÊiOk. =∂^èŒ∞~åºxH˜, =∞OAÅ`åfixH˜ =Ú^Œ∞ÌѨÅ∞‰õΩʼnõÄ ¿ÑÔ~xflHõQÆ#fl ''áêi*Ï`åѨǨÏ~°}O—— "≥Å∞=_ç `«`å¯=º<å~ÚHõ ã¨`«ºÉèÏ=∂^Õq, PO„^è∞Å WO\˜ P_»Ñ_∞K«∞ÖÏ =∞#fl#ÅOkOk. ''HÍà◊ÇÏã≤Î =∂Ǩ`‡«ºO—— Œ ¨ » ¨ ÖÏO\˜ ÉèíH˜Î HÍ=ºO ''~å[âıY~°K«i„`«—— ÖÏO\˜ Hõq`«‰õΩ x~°fiK«#O ÖÏO\˜ „QÆO^ä=¸, ~å=∂Ü«∞}ÏO`«~`« Hõ^• HÍ=ºO ~å=∂Éèí∞º^ŒÜ«∞=¸, Œ æ° ä âı¡+¨‰õΩ P`«‡ã¨fi~°∂ѨOQÍ, ã¨Ow`«=∞Ü«∞ HÍ=ºOQÍ ''=ã¨∞K«i„`«—— z„`«qz„`« HõÅÊ#Å ã¨=∂Ǩ~°OQÍ ''HõàÏѨÓ~À‚^ŒÜ«∞O—— „Ѩã≤kúQÍOz# ''áêO_»∞~°OQÆ =∂Ǩ`«‡º=¸—— ~åÜ«∞Å Ü«ÚQÆOÖ’<Õ "≥Å∞QÆ∞ K«∂z `≥Å∞QÆ∞`«e¡H˜ `˘_»∞=ÙÖˇ·, *ÏuH˜ JO`«∞ÖËx ã≤iã¨OѨ^ŒÖˇ· QÆ}uÔHHͯ~Ú. ~åÜ«∞Å ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºQÀ+¨µªÅ‰õΩ "ÕkHõ <å\˜ ''Éèí∞=#q[Ü«∞O—— J<Õ Éè í = #~å[O. J#O`« Ô " · É è í = O`À qÅã≤ Ö Ë ¡ k , 㨠= ∞™êºÑ¨ Ó ~° } O, HÍ=º"å^Œ#Å∞, Ѩ~°^ÕâßÅ #∞Oz =zÛ# "åi Z^Œ∞~°∞ ã¨"åà◊√¡, "åà◊¡‰õΩ n>ˇÿ# ["å|∞Å∞, Pâ◊√=ÙÅ∞, =~°‚#Å∞, ~åÜ«∞Å"åi ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºÑ≤áê㨉õΩ H˘# ZHõ¯_». PÜ«∞# ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºQÀ+¨µªÅ∞ ˆH=ÅO Éèí∞=#q[Ü«∂xˆH Ѩiq∞`«O HÍÖË^Œ∞. ZHõ¯_»‰õΩ "≥o§<å PO„^èŒHõq |$O^ŒO "åix "≥#flO>Ë =ÙO_Õk. Ü«Ú^ŒúÉèËsÅ∞ x~°O`«~åÜ«∞OQÍ „"≥∂QÆ∞`«∞O_ç# ~°}Éèí∂q∞Ö’ Ãã·`«O Ü«Ú^Œú=∂y# Ñ≤^ŒÑ¨ JÅ¡™êxÃÑ^ŒÌ#, =∂^ŒÜ«∞QÍi =∞Å¡#, =Ú‰õΩ¯u=∞‡# "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# Hõq=~°∞Å`À Hõq`å~°™ê=∞$`«áê#O KÕ¿ã"å_»∞. PÜ«∞# ~°K«# P=ÚHõÎ=∂ź^ŒÖ’ Pâßfi™êO`« Ѩ^•ºÅÖ’ PÜ«∞# JѨC_Õ q[Ü«∞O ™êkèOz# Ü«Ú^Œú <ÕѨ^䕺xfl Hõà◊¡‰õΩ Hõ_»`å~Ú. D ™êÇ≤Ï`åºaè=∂#O =ÚYºOQÍ PO„^èŒ ™ê~°ã¨fi`åaè=∂#O PÜ«∞#ˆH Ѩ i q∞`« O HÍHõ PÜ« ∞ # =∞O„`« ∞ Å∂ J=∞~° < åÜ« ∞ ‰õ Ω Å∂ ‰õ Ä _® Jaè=∂xOK«_»O qâı+¨O. z=iH˜ ~åÜ«∞ʼnõΩ=∂Ô~Î "≥∂ǨÏ<åOy (u~°∞=∞ÖÏO|) ‰õÄ_» `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ''=∞szHÍѨi}Ü«∞=∞—— <Õ ã¨~°ã¨HÍ=º ~°K«# KÕã≤ P<å\˜ |∞^è•oÖ’ ¿ÑÔ~xflHõQÆ#fl ~°K«~Ú„u ‰õΩ=∞‡i"≥ÚÅ¡ ã¨~°ã¨# KÕiOk. `≥Å∞QÆ∞*ÏuH˜ ~åÜ«∞ÅHÍÅO ѨÙ#~°∞H˜QÍ<Õ J~Ú<å Jk ã¨fi~°ÜÚQÆO. Î ‚ « ~åÜ«∞Å∞Ö’ j„Ѷ∞¨ HÀѨ=∞<Õ z#fl ^À+¨O ÖËHáÈÖË^∞Œ . PÜ«∞# ~°ã‰Ωõ _»∞. õ ≤ ''~å[ºO`Õ #~°HO ^è$Œ =O—— Hõ#∞Hõ „|uH˜#<åflà◊¥¡ ÉÏQÍ „|`«HÍÅ<Õ"å_»∞. õ PÜ«∞#HÍÅOÖ’ P#"å~ÚfQÍ [iˆQ #=~å„u L`«û"åÅ∞ J`«ºO`« "≥É=OQÍ [iˆQq. „H©_®HÍ~°∞Å, HõàÏHÍ~°∞Å, =∞Å¡ Ü«Ú^Œú „Ѩg}∞Å, · íè ‰õÄzѨÓ_ç =Ú#flQÆ∞ #$`«º ã¨=∂~å^èŒ#Å`À ~å[ [<åÉèÏ JO`å q[Ü«∞#QÆ~O KÕiO^• JxÑ≤OKÕk. ѨkÅHõÅ Ãã#ºO JOK≥Å"åsQÍ ° ∆ · Hõ"å`«∞KÕ¿ãk. g~°∞ʼnõÄ, ѨO_ç`«∞ʼnõÄ, L`«Î=∞ „H©_®HÍ~°∞ʼnõÄ, HõàÏHÍ~°∞ʼnõÄ Ñ¨Ù~°™ê¯~åÅ∞ JO^Õq. q^Õj ~åÜ«∞ÉÏ~°∞ʼnõΩ „Ѩ`ºÕ HõOQÍ Q“~°==∞~åº^ŒÅ∞ JO^Õq. ‰õΩÅ=∞`« qK«Hõ∆} ÖˉõΩO_® JO^Œ~°∂ ã¨=∞`ÒźOQÍ ã¨O`À+¨OQÍ ã¨O|~åÅ∞ KÕãH˘<Õ"å~°∞. ≤ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ =∂#=Ù_»∞. J~°∞}À^ŒÜ«∂xH˜ ѨÓ~°fi"Õ∞ ÖËz HÍÅHõ$`åºÅ Ñ≤^ŒÑ¨ #∞=ÙfiÅ#∂<≥ `åy J^ŒO`å |Ü«∞@‰õΩ =KÕÛÖÏ =∞Å¡ q ^Œ º "åºÜ« ∂ =∞O, QÆ ∞ „~° Ñ ¨ Ù ™êfis KÕ ¿ ã"å_» ∞ . „ÉÏǨ Ï ‡}∞Å ã¨fiã≤Î=K«<åÅ`À Ѩhfl\˜ ™êfl#O KÕ¿ã "Õà◊Ö’ ‰õÄ_» ~åÜ«∞Å∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ HÍ"åºÅÖ’x H˘xfl Ѷ ¨ ∞ \Ïì Å ∞ K« k qOK« ∞ H˘<Õ " å_» ∞ . PÜ« ∞ #‰õ Ω

`≥Å∞ѨÙ~°OQÆO>Ë ÉÏQÍ W+¨ìOQÍ =ÙO_Õk. "≥O_ç, |OQÍ~°∞ fÔQÅ [sJe¡# ѨÅÛ\˜ á⁄~°Å `≥Å¡x JOQÆ~°MÏ, ѨOK≥ PÜ«∞# PǨ~°ºO. `˘ÅQÆx z~°∞#=Ùfi =ÚYOÖ’ ZѨC_»∂ "≥Å∞QÆ=Åã≤O^Õ. H˘Å∞=Ùfi „Ѩ[Å DuÉÏ^èŒÅ∞ `«`å¯Å Ѩiã≤ú`«∞Å∂ =∞O„u=∞O_»e`À K«iÛOz# `«~°∞"å`«<Õ =∞^蕺ǨÏflÉè’[#O. HÍã¨Î q„âßOu `«~°∞"å`« ™êÜ«∞O„`«O ~å[ºO Ü≥ÚHõ¯ P^•Ü«∞=ºÜ«∂Å ÖˇHõ¯Å ѨijÅ#, =∞O„u=∞O_»e =ÚYºOQÍ =∞Ǩ=∞O„u u=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞QÍi ã¨∂K«#Å "Õ∞~°‰õΩ `«^Œ∞Ѩi HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å x~åú~°}, PÃÑ· Hõq`å~°ã¨áê#âßÖÏ „Ѩ"Õâ◊O, WHõ JHõ¯_» ã¨=∞Ü«∞ x|O^èŒ#Å∞ ÖË=Ù. „Ѩu~ÀE =¸_»∞, <åÅ∞QÆ∞ QÆO@Å ™ê~°ã¨fi`«Ñ¨Ó[, #$`åºÅ∞, ^Œ$â◊ºHÍ"åºÅ∞. `«~°∞"å`Õ ~å„u Éè’[#O ~å}∞Å`À ã¨O`À+¨OQÍ ^•OѨ`«º r=#O QÆ_çÑ≤ â◊Ü«∞xOK«_»O. qëê^Œ"Õ∞=∞O>Ë ~åÜ«∞Å"åi z=i~ÀAÅ∞ JO`« ã¨∞YHõ~°OQÍ ™êQÆÖË^Œ∞. Pˆ~_Õà◊¡ =Ü«∞ã¨∞Ö’ Ü«Ú=~åA =∞~°}˜OK«_»O PÜ«∞xfl HõÅz"Õã≤Ok. u=∞‡~°∞ã¨∞ ‰õΩ=∂~°∞_»∞ u=∞‡~åA =ºuˆ~Hõ`«#∞ K«qK«∂_»=Åã≤ =zÛOk. JO^Œ∞H PÜ«∞# z=i ~ÀAÅÖ’ `«=Ú‡_»∞ ˆ JK«∞º`«^=~åÜ«∞Å#∞ `«# "å~°ã∞¨ _»∞QÍ xÜ«∞q∞OKå_»∞. q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° Õ ~åAÖ’¡ KåÖÏ=∞Okx ÉÏkèOz# ~åK«Ñ¨ÙO_»∞‰õΩ ~åÜ«∞Å∞ ‰õÄ_» QÆ∞iÜ≥ÿ∞<å_»∞. ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 1530 ã¨O=`«û~°Ñ¨Ù `˘e<åà◊§Ö’<Õ PÜ«∞# Hõ$+¨~åÜ«∂=`å~°O KåeOz "≥‰Ωõ O~î#QÆ~åxH˜ uiy „Ѩܫ∂}=∞Ü«∂º_»∞. ‚ · ° â∫~°º™êǨϙêÅ∂, ^èŒ~å‡^èŒ~°‡ qK«Hõ∆}Ï, B^•~°ºÑ¨Ói`« âßOu– HÍ=ÚHõ ǨÏ$^ŒÜ«∞O, Jáê~°"≥∞ÿ# ™êÇ≤Ï`«º HõàÏaè~°∞p, ~å[H©Ü«∞ K«`«∞~°`å ~åÜ«∞Å#∞ „ѨѨOK«OÖ’ #Å∞QÆ∞~°∞ L`«¯ $+¨ª K«„Hõ=~°∞ÎÅÖ’ XHõxQÆ xeÑ≤Ok. ã‘[~ü, JÖˇQÍ˚O_»~ü, <≥áÈeÜ«∞<£ q∞QÆ`å=Ú=Ùfi~°x Kåi„`«‰õΩÅ x~°‚Ü«∞O. K«i„`«Ö’ ZO^Œ~À ~å[#∞ºÅ∞ ѨÙ\˜ìy\Ïì~°∞. HÍh XHõ ~å=∞~å*Ϻxfl =∞#O Jaè Å +≤ ™ êÎ O . Jk Ѩ Ù ~å}QÍ^ä Œ . <å\˜ H © <Õ \ ˜ H © =∞m¡ Hõ$+¨‚~åÜ≥∂^ŒÜ«∞O HÍ"åÅx ~åÜ«∞~å[ºO ѨÙ#ó „Ѩu+¨ªOѨÉ_®Åx `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åàı§ HÍ^Œ∞ Hõ~å‚@`«q∞à◊√Å∞ =Ú#flQÆ∞ ^ŒH˜∆}ÉèÏ~°fÜ«ÚÖË HÀ~°∞H˘O\Ï~°O>Ë PÜ«∞# „ѨÉèÏ"åxfl =∞#O J~°÷O KÕã¨∞HÀ=K«∞Û#∞. JO^Œ∞ˆH <˘H˜¯ =∞s K≥|∞`«∞<åfl#∞. Hõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å =O\˜ „ѨÉèí∞=Ù PÜ«∞<˘Hõ¯_Õ. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ ã¨∞ã≤÷~° `Õ[ q∞zÛ HÀ\˜ HÀ@∞ÅH˘Hõ¯x áÈ\˜ ÔQez "≥ÅÜ«Ú Hõ$+¨‚~åÜ«∞x H©iÎ `«ÅK«∞H˘#QÆ PkÜ«Ú#flk QÍx JO`«=Ú ÖË^Œ∞.
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LѨܫÚHõÎ „QÆO^ä•Å∞:
1. 'NHõ$+¨^=~åÜ«∞Å∞— N <ÕÅ@∂i "≥OHõ„\Ï=∞Ü«∞º, 1972. ‚ Õ 2. 'NHõ$+¨^=~åÜ«∞Å∞— H˜àÏOa ~åѶ∞¨ "åKå~°∞ºÅ∞, 1960. ‚ Õ 3. 'q[Ü«∞#QÆ~° ™ê„=∂[º=Ú— Ñ≤ã∞áê\˜ N~å=∞â◊~‡° , 1994 ¨ 4. 6th centennary commemoration volume - Article by G.S. Dixit, 1926.
5. Poet Emperor 'Sri Krishnadeva Raya by GSP Rao, 2004

z~°∞<å=∂ : #O. 15, Ѷ¨ãπì¿Ñ*ò, *ˇ.Ñ≤. #QÆ~ü, =Ü«∂ q∞Ü«∂ѨÓ~ü, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ – 500 050. ÃãÖò #O. 9177945559, 9963222549 ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 24 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 28

g\˜Ö’ 83 „QÆO^äŒ Ñ¨i+¨¯~°}"庙êÅ∞. qq^èŒ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∂Å∞, ã¨Oã¨÷Å#∞Oz Z<Àfl J"å~°∞¤Å∞ JO^Œ∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞. *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO QÆ∞iOKÕ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ P~°∞, WOw¡+¨µÖ’ <åÅ∞QÆ∞ L`«Î=∞ Ѩiâ’^èŒ# „QÆO^ä•Å∞ ~°zOKå~°∞. JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞OQÍ#∞, *ÏfÜ«∞™ê÷~ÚÖ’#∞ 14 q^•ºã¨^Œã¨∞ûʼnõΩ J^茺Hõ∆`« =Ç≤ÏOz áêÖÁæ<åfl~°∞. „áêp# ã¨O㨯$`åO„^è•ÅÖ’ Hõ$+≤KÕã≤ ã¨O㨯$`« ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxH˜ PO„^èŒ∞Å =i=㨺 (ConŒ Œ Œ ≥ tribution) J<Õ =∞øeHõ Ѩiâ’^è# „QÆO^äO ~°zOKå~°∞. PO„^èÜ∂QÆ∞Å QÆ∞iOz ~°zOz# 6 ã¨OѨÙ\ÏÅ „QÆO^äŒOÖ’ ^ŒH˜∆} ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊OÖ’x Ü≥∂QÆ∞Å QÆ∞iOz *Ï#Ѩ^Œ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO #∞Oz ‰õÄ_® ã¨=∂Kå~°O qâı¡+≤Oz ~°zOKå~°∞. ™êÇ≤Ï`«º JHÍ_»g∞, ÉèÏ~°fÜ«∞ *Ï˝#Ñ‘~î° ã¨ Å Ç¨  㨠O Ѷ ¨ ∞ O, yfi<£ H õ g ∞+¨ < £ =O\˜ 㨠∞ =∂~° ∞ 40 ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º , ™êO㨯$uHõ, =∞`«ã¨O|O^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# „Ѩuëêª`«‡Hõ ã¨Oã¨÷ÅÖ’ J<ÕHõ Ѩ^Œ=ÙÅ∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOKå~°∞. PO„^èŒ=∞ǨÉèÏ~°`«O „áê*ˇ‰õΩì, á¶ÈH±Ö’~ü 㨈~fi PѶπ `≥ÅOQÍ}Ï „áê*ˇ‰õΩì‰õΩ ã¨OKåʼnõΩÅ∞QÍ ¿ã=ÅOkOKå~°∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ =∞ǨÉèÏ~°`åxH˜ P^èŒ∞xHõ q=∞~°≈ ~°zOKÕ „áê*ˇ‰õΩì P~°OaèOKå~°∞. =~° O QÆ Ö ò Ö ’#∞, <åQÍ~° ∞ ˚ # H˘O_» Ö ’#∞ Ô ~ O_» ∞ ^Õ " åÅÜ« ∂ Å∞ ѨÙ#~°∞^ŒúiOKå~°∞. KÕѨ\˜ì# U Ѩx<≥·<å x|^Œú`«`À, x=∞QÆfl`«`À L`«Î=∞™ê÷~ÚÖ’ KÕÜ«∞@O PÜ«∞# =ºH˜Î`«fiOÖ’ „Ѩ^è•<åOâ◊O. PÜ«∞# =∞#ã≤fi. =∂#=㨠O |O^è • ÅÖ’x L`« ¯ $ëêì O âßÅ∞ PÜ« ∞ ##∞ xÅ∞=Ù<å Hõke™êÎ~Ú. QÆ∞~°∞ÉèH,Θ t+¨º"å`«ûźO Jáê~°O. PKå~°º ~å=∞~åAQÍ~°∞ í W\©=Å ã≤.Ñ≤. „É∫<£ JHÍ_»g∞ '`≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ~°u— ѨÙ~°™ê¯~°O JO^Œ∞H˘#fl ã¨O^Œ~ƒ° OQÍ Wk PÜ«∞#`À [iÑ≤# ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}: ù
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

„Ѩ. g∞ z#fl`«#OÖ’ g∞~°∞ L~°∂Ì =∂^茺=∞OÖ’ K«k"å~°∞ Hõ^•? [. J=Ù#∞. =¸_À `« ~ ° Q Æ u #∞Oz WO@s‡_ç Ü « ∞ \ò ^•HÍ Ç¨Ï#∞=∞H˘O_»Ö’ L~°∂=∂^躌 =∞OÖ’<Õ K«kq<å#∞. a.Z. =∂„`«O Ì x*ÏO HõàÏâßÅÖ’ WOw¡+¨µ =∂^茺=∞OÖ’ K«kq<å#∞. „Ѩ. =∞i `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ WO`« „ѨuÉèí ZÖÏ ™ê^茺=∞~ÚOk? [. `≥ÅOQÍ}ÏÖ’ P<å_»∞ formal education JO`å L~°∂ÌÖ’<Õ LO_ç<å, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞O, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ "å`å=~°}O =∂„`«O `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åà◊√§ ÉÏQÍ áÈ+≤OK«∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞. J\Ï¡ <å „áê~°OÉèíq^Õº `≥Å∞QÆ∞ J~ÚOk. „Ѩ. g∞ ã¨fi„QÍ=∞O Uk? [. ^Õ=Ù#∂~°∞ <å [#‡™ê÷#O. ǨÏ#∞=∞H˘O_»‰õΩ 6 HÀã¨∞Å ^Œ∂~°OÖ’ LO_Õ z#fl „QÍ=∞O Jk. „áêÔQuǨã≤Hõ =∂#=ÙʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# · J=âıëêÅ∞QÆÅ T~°∞. H~Ú~°<Å∞, ^•Öˇ‡<£Å∞, ã≤ãÅ∞ LO_Õq. P Ô £ Îπ TiH˜ ~O_»∞ HÀã¨∞Å ^Œ∂~°OÖ’ ^è~‡° ™êQÆ~O, ^•xH˜ ~O_»∞ HÀã¨∞Å Ô Œ ° Ô ^Œ∂~°OÖ’ =∞_çH˘O_» „QÍ=∞O LO_Õq. =∞_çH˘O_», ǨÏ#∞=∞H˘O_»‰Ωõ ^ŒQ~QÍ L#fl ÃÑ^Œ„Ì QÍ=∞O. D „QÍ=∂Åhfl <å ã¨fi„QÍ=∂ÖË.=∂k æÆ ° ã¨=∞+≤ì ‰õΩ@∞O|O. D =¸_»∞ „QÍ=∂Ö’¡#∂ =∂ ÃÑ^Œ<åÜ«∞#Å∞, J=∞‡, <åÜ«∞#Å∞, áêe"åO_»∞¡ LO_Õ"å~°∞. D =¸_»∞ „QÍ=∂Ö’¡<Õ HÍHõ, eOQÆOѨe,¡ Hõ_ÑH˘O_», =∞_çÑe,¡ =∞ǨeOQÆOѨe¡ „QÍ=∂Ö’¡ ç ≤ ¨ =∂‰õΩ =º=™êÜ«∞O LO_Õk. „Ѩ. g∞ `«O„_»∞Å∞ ‰õÄ_® K«^Œ∞=Ù‰õΩ#fl"åˆ~<å? [. =∂ ÃÑ^Œ<åÜ«∞# ~åѶ∞¨ =~åAQÍ~°∞ =~°OQÆÖò `åÅ∂HÍ JO`«\Ï ¿Ñ~°∞#fl Q˘Ñ¨Ê =º=Ǩ~°^Œ‰õ∆Ω_»∞. z<åflÜ«∞# H˘O_»=∞~åAQÍ~°∞ =H©Å∞. PÜ«∞# H˘O_® "≥OHõ@~_çQÍi ã¨Ç^蕺~Ú. =∂<åÜ«∞# Ô ¤ ¨ <å~åÜ«∞}~åAQÍ~°∞ Hõ$+‘=Å∞_»∞, ~å„`«∞Å∞ ÉèÏQÆ=`« QÀ+‘„ª Ñ≤ÜÚ_»∞. « =∂ ÃÑ^Œ < åÜ« ∞ #Q͈ ~ `« = Ú‡Å#∂, `« = ڇŠ㨠O `å<åhfl Ѩل`«xifiâı+OQÍ „Hõ=∞tHõ}Ö’ ÃÑOz q^•º|∞^Œ∞Å∞ <ÕiÊOz<å~°∞. ¨ ∆ ú „Ѩ. g∞~°∞ ѨÙ\˜ì# ã¨O=`«û~°O? [. âße"åǨÏ# â◊HõO 1847 „HÀ^äŒ# ã¨O=`«û~°O K≥·„`« |Ǩïà◊ ã¨Ñ¨Îq∞. JO>Ë 1925 U„Ñ≤Öò 16= `Õn. „Ѩ. =∞i Ô~O_Õà◊√§ =ÚO^Õ Ñ¨^Œg q~°=∞} KÕâ߈~O? [. J=Ù#∞ 1985 ã¨OII i>ˇÿ~°∞ HÍ=Åã≤#"å_çx 1983Ö’<Õ Ñ¨^Œg q~°=∞} KÕã≤<å#∞. ǨÏ#∞=∞H˘O_» Å+¨¯~ü |*Ï~ü =∞+‘ö q∞_çÖò ã¨∂¯Ö’¡ KÕi#ѨÙÊ_»∞ JHõ¯_ç Láê^蕺ܫÚ_»∞ ##∞fl ZQÍkQÍ K«∂ã≤ U=∞#∞H˘<åfl~À 1923QÍ <å ѨÙ\˜ì# `Õn J_ç‡+¨<£á¶ê~°OÖ’ ~åã≤<å~°∞. J^Õ PkèHÍiHõOQÍ <å ѨÙ\˜ì# ~À[~ÚáÈ~ÚOk. Jk ^≥·"ÕK«Ûù. „Ѩ. q^•º„áê~°OÉèíO `≥Å∞ˆQ#<åfl~°∞. q=~åÅ∞ K≥ѨÊO_ç? [. =∂ "Õ∞#=∂=∞QÍi "Õ∞#=∂=∞ „ѨuHõO~î°O ~å=∞K«O„^Œ~åAQÍ~°∞ ǨÏã¨Î"åã≤QÆÅ "≥·^Œ∞ºÅ∞. ^Õ=Ù#∂~°∞ „Ѩ[ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® "≥·^ŒºO KÕ¿ã"å~°∞. PÜ«∞# ã¨Ow`« ã¨~°ã¨ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ@ìÉèí„^Œ∞Å∞. PÜ«∞<Õ <å‰õΩ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ JHõ∆~åÉèϺã¨O KÕã≤<å~°∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 29

„Ѩ. P `«~°∞"å`« g∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ q^Œº ZÖÏ [iyOk? [. ^Õ=Ù#∂~°∞ gkè|_çÖ’ <å~åÜ«∞}™êfiq∞QÍi =^ŒÌ QÆ∞}˜O`«O, Hõ~°_®Å∞, ZHͯÅ∞, ÉÁ>ˇ¡~°∞ã¨∞, y^≥ÌÖˇ~°∞ã¨∞, =∂_≥`«∞Î Öˇ~°∞ã¨∞, #~°ã≤OÇ¨Ï ÉèÏ㨯~åk â◊`«HÍÅ∞, lÅ∞QÆ∞ „"å`« *Ï|∞Å∞, K«qu ѨO_»∞QÆ q<åÜ«∞Hõ™êfiq∞ Ѩ^•ºÅ∞, ^Œã¨~åѨO_»∞QÆ QÆ_»Å Ѩ^•ºÅ∞ <Õ~°∞Û‰õΩ<åfl#∞. WO\˜=^ŒÌ QÆ*ËO„^Œ"≥∂Hõ∆O, ~°∞H˜‡}©HõàϺ}O, PO„^è<å=∞ ã¨O„QÆÇÏO, 'ã¨ÉÏHõÅÊ`«~∞O=O^Õ— 'hu âß„ã¨â’¡HÍÅ∞—— Œ ¨ è ° Î <ÕiÛ<å#∞. =∂ <åÜ«∞#QÍi "Õ∞#`«Î <åQÆ=∞‡QÍ~°∞, =∂ <åÜ«∞#=∞‡ |∞K«Û=∞‡QÍ~°∞. „^•q_»áêâ◊√~åÅ∞, „ã‘ÎÅáê@Å∞, ~å=∂Ü«∞} ÉèÏ~°`« ÉèÏQÆ=`« ã¨O|Okè`«áê@Å∞ áê_»∞`«∞O>Ë Pã¨H˜ÎQÍ q<Õ"å_çx. "åi=^ÕÌ `ÕÅ∞=∞O„`«O, Ѩâ◊√=ÙʼnõΩ"Õ¿ã =∞O„`åÅ∞ W`åº^Œ∞Å∞ <ÕiÛ<å#∞. „Ѩ. P<å\˜ `≥ÅOQÍ}ÏÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åià◊§Ö’x `≥Å∞QÆ∞ K«^Œ∞=Ù "å`å=~°}O Hõà◊§‰õΩ Hõ\˜ìOKå~°∞. P `«~°∞"å`« K«^Œ∞=Ù ZÖÏ ™êyOk? [. ^Õ=Ù#∂i gkè|_ç K«^Œ∞=٠ѨÓiÎHÍQÍ<Õ, =∞_çH˘O_»‰õΩ =∂ ÃÑ^Œ<åÜ«∞#QÍ~°∞ ~°Ñ≤ÊOK«∞H˘x „ѨÉèí∞`«fi „áê^äŒq∞Hõ áê~î°âßÅÖ’ KÕiÊOz<å~°∞. <å `≥Å∞QÆ∞ K«^Œ∞=ÙÖ’ J^˘Hõ =∞Å∞ѨÙ. ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë =∞_çH˘O_» KåÖÏÃÑ^ŒÌ„QÍ=∞O. Hõ=ÙÅ∞, ѨO_ç`«∞Å∞, áœ~å}˜‰õΩÅ∞, "Õ^Œ"Õ^•OQÆHÀq^Œ∞Å∞, â◊`å=^è•#∞Å∞, #@q\© q@QÍÜ«∞‰õΩÅ∞#fl „QÍ=∞O. P Tà’§<Õ Náê^Œ Hõ$+¨‚=¸iÎâß„ã≤ÎQÍiH˜ 'ÉÏÅã¨~°ã¨fiu— a~°∞^Œ∞xzÛ, ã¨<å‡#O KÕâß~°∞. P Ti áœ~å}˜‰õΩÖË "å#=∂=∞Öˇ· |Hõ¯Ü«∞ºâß„ã≤ÎQÍ~°∞. "åi #Å∞QÆ∞~°∞ ‰õΩ=∂~°∞Å∂ `≥Å∞QÆ∞, ã¨O㨯$`åÖ’¡ Q˘Ñ¨Ê q^•fiOã¨∞ÖË. "åi ‰õΩ=∂~°∞_Õ "å#=∂=∞Öˇ· =~°^•Kå~°∞ºÅ∞. „Ѩ=ÚY `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõq HÍà’rQÍi `«O„_ç ~° O QÍ~å=ÙQÍ~° ∂ JHõ ¯ _Õ LO_Õ " å~° ∞ , PÜ« ∞ # "Õ ^ Œ H ÍÅѨ Ù |∞∞+≤=O\˜ ã¨^Œ∞æ~°∞=Ù. ѨÖÏ¡ ^Œ∞~°æÜ«∞ºQÍi `«O„_ç áêѨܫ∞ºQÍ~°∞ ã¨Ow`« q^•fiOã¨∞Å∞. J#∞=ÚÅ qâ◊fi<å^äŒâß„ã≤ÎQÍ~°∞ `«# H˘_»∞‰õΩ J#∞=ÚÅ Hõ$+¨‚=¸iÎH˜ J=∞~°O, Jyflã¨∂HõÎO <Õ~°∞Ê`«∞O>Ë, qx <Õ#∂ <Õ~∞Û‰õΩ<åfl#∞. =∂ á⁄~°∞yO\˜ `«O|oáêѨÜ∞º ‰õΩ=∂~°∞_»∞ ° « =ÚuÎeOQÆO QÍÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞. "åo§O\’¡ Jxfl ã¨Ow`« "å^•ºÅ∂ LO_Õq. JHõ¯_» ã¨Ow`«™ê^èŒ#, Éèí[#Å∞, ǨÏiHõ^äŒÅ∂ [iˆQq. ѨÖÏ¡^Œ∞~°æÜ«∞º, "å#=∂=∞Öˇ· ™È^Œ~°∞Å∂ <å@HÍÅ∞ iǨ~°ûÖòû KÕã¨∞ÎO>Ë <Õ#∞ „áêOÑ≤ìOQ∑ K≥¿ÑÊ"å_çx. ÉÏѨ@¡ #∞Oz =zÛ# =Å∂¡i |ã¨=~åAQÍ~°∞ Ñ≤šʼnõΩ WOw¡+¨µ @∂º+¨<£ K≥¿ÑÊ"å~°∞. JO`ÕHÍHõ P Tà’§ „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^Œ PO„^茄QÆO^ä•ÅÜ«∞O LOk. D "å`å=~°}OÖ’ WO^Œi q^•fiOã¨∞Å=∞^茺 =¸_À`«~°QÆu =~°‰õΩ K«kq<å#∞. „Ѩ. P `«~°∞"å`« K«^Œ∞=Ù ZÖÏ ™êyOk? [. =∞_çH˘O_» #∞Oz ǨÏ#∞=∞H˘O_»‰õΩ <å =∞HÍO =∂iOk. =∂ WO\˜ K«∞@∞ì ѨHõ¯ÖË P<å_»∞ W.q. ~åq∞Ô~_ç¤ (`«~°∞"å`« SZZãπ JkèHÍi), a. ÅH©∆‡HÍO`«~å=Ù ™È^Œ~°∞Å∞ (QÍOnèÉèí=<£ HÍ~°º^Œi≈), PÜ«∞# ÉÏ= Ñ≤.q. #~°ã≤OǨ~å=Ù (`«~°∞"å`« ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊ „Ѩ^è•x) LO_Õ"å~°∞. ^ŒQÆæ~°Ö’<Õ 1904Ö’ ™ê÷Ñ≤`«"≥∞ÿ# ~å[~å[#ˆ~O„^Œ
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

ã≤.Ñ≤. „É∫<£ JHÍ_»g∞ '`≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ~°u— ѨÙ~°™ê¯~åxfl PO„^è„Œ Ѩ^âò QÆ=~°fl~ü =∂#ºN <å~åÜ«∞}ü ^Œ`ü u"ås #∞Oz JO^Œ∞H˘O@∞#fl Õ
PKå~°º a~°∞^Œ∞~åA ~å=∞~åAQÍ~°∞. ã¨ÉÏ^躌 ‰õΩ∆ Å∞ PKå~°º S.q. K«ÅѨu~å=Ù, =∂r QÆ=~°fl~ü N=∞u q.Zãπ. ~°=∂^Õq è `«k`«~∞° Å∞.

PO„^èŒÉèÏëêxÅÜ«∞O LO_Õk. <Õ#∞ ~ÀE JHõ¯_çH˜ "≥o§ J<ÕHõ „QÆ O ^ä • Å∞ K« k "Õ " å_ç x . âı ë ê„k ~° = ∞}Hõ = ÙÅ∞, XkÌ ~ åA âı+¨yi~å=Ù, HÍà’r ™È^Œ~°∞Å∞ =O\˜"å~°∞ ZO`À =∞Ok Hõ=ÙÅ∞, ѨO_ç`«∞Å∞ „Ѩuk#O JHõ¯_Õ ã¨=∂"Õâ◊=∞ÜÕ∞º"å~°∞. PO„^茄áêO`«O #∞O_ç =zÛ# Hõq ѨO_ç`«∞Å „Ѩã¨OQÍÅ∞, J=^è•<åÅ∞ JHõ¯_Õ [iˆQq. <Õ#∞ ~ÀE Hõ^äŒÅ∞, #=ÅÅ∞, <å@HõO, Ѩ„uHõÅ∞ K«k"Õ"å_çx, J^ŒO`å XHõ áê~°≈fiO. P~°ºã¨=∂[O, PO„^èŒ=∞Ǩã¨Éèí, ¿ãì\òHÍO„ÔQãπ HÍ~°ºHõ~°ÎÅ∞, „Ѩ=ÚY∞Å∞ JHõ¯_Õ Hõ#|_Õ"å~°∞. ~å[H©Ü«∞OQÍ "åi „ѨÉèÏ==¸ LO_Õk. „Ѩ. g∞ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ ~°K«# KÕã≤Ok JHõ¯_Õ Hõ^•? q=~åÅ∞ K≥ѨÊO_ç. [. U_» = `« ~ ° Q Æ u Ö’ LO_» Q Í ~ÀE XHõ #=Å K« k q JѨ~å^èŒÑ¨iâ’^èŒHõ #=Å ~åã≤<å#∞. Ѩ^Œ= HÍ¡ã¨∞Ö’ LO_»QÍ =ã¨∞K«i„`«‰õΩ =K«#O ~åã≤<å#∞. Jq "≥Ú^Œ\˜ ~°K«#Å∞. P ÜÕ∞_»∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz# PO„^èŒ"å~À`«û"åÅ Hõq∞\©H˜ <Õ<Õ HÍ~°º^Œi≈x. P L`«û"åÅH˜ x*ÏO `«=Ú‡_»∞ |™êÅ`ü[OQ∑, JѨÊ\˜ q^•º=∞O„u JÜ«∞ºOQÍ~°∞, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âßMÏkèѨu ~åÜ«∞„áÈÅ∞ ã¨∞Éσ~å=ÙQÍ~°∞ ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ #∞Oz =zÛ<å~°∞. JѨÙÊ_Õ Hõq ã¨"Õ∞‡à◊#OÖ’ áêÖÁæx 'PO„^èŒ∞_® F PO„^èŒ∞_®— J<Õ ˆQÜ«∞O ~°zOz K«kq<å#∞. ÃÑ^ŒÌÅ „Ѩâ◊Oã¨ÅOk<å#∞. J^Õ ÜÕ∞_»∞ [iy# PO„^èŒ =∞Ǩã¨ÉèíʼnõΩ
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 30

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<Õ#∞ =ÅO\©ifl, QÍOnèQÍ~°∞ =~°OQÆÖò =zÛ<å~°∞. P ã¨Éèí‰õΩ ‰õÄ_® =ÅO\©ifl <Õ<Õ. g~°O^Œi ѨiK«Ü«∞O`À ~å[H©Ü«∞ K≥·`«#ºO HõeyO^Œ#fl=∂@? JO`«‰õΩ=ÚO^Õ =∂ J#fl Nx"åã¨~åA UÅ∂~°∞ "≥o§, QÍOnè 㨠∂ ¯Ö’¡ K« k q 㨠| ~° ‡ uÖ’ QÍOnè Q Íix ¿ãqOz, [Ü«∞„ѨHÍâò<å~åÜ«∞}ü J#∞K«~°∞_≥·<å_»∞. PÜ«∞# =¸ÅOQÍ =∂ WO\’¡ ~å[H©Ü«∞ K≥·`«#ºO "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·Ok. `«~°∞"å`« K«^Œ∞=Ù ZHõ¯_» ™êyOk? WO@s‡_çÜ«∞\ò ѨsHõ∆ʼnõΩ ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ =∞HÍO =∂iÛ<å#∞. J^Õ *Ï"£∞ÉÏQÆ∞ ^Õâ◊Éèí‰õΩÎÖˇ·# =O^Õ=∂`«~°O g~°Éèí„^Œ~å=Ù, ~å=∞K«O„^Œ~å=Ù ™È^Œ~°∞ʼnõΩ HÍ~°º™ê÷#O. "å~°∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOKÕ HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅÖ’ áêÖÁæO@∂ P<å\˜ „ѨMϺ`« "Õ∞^è•=ÙÅ∞ Z<£.ÔH. ~å=ÙQÍi =^ŒÌ 'ÖÏ— K«kq<å#∞. ã¨g∞ѨOÖ’<Õ HõѨÊQÆO`«∞Å ÅHõ ∆ ‡ }âß„ã≤ Î , 㨠∞ ~° = ~° O „Ѩ ` åѨ Ô ~ _ç ¤ , =∞O^Œ ∞ =ÚÅ ~å=∞K« O „^Œ ~ å=ÙQÍ~° ∞ ¡ O _Õ " å~° ∞ . "åi 㨠x flÇ≤ Ï `« Ñ ¨ i K« Ü « ∞ O HõeyOk. =∂ ÃÑ^Œ<åÜ«∞# ##∞fl qÖÏÜ«∞`ü ѨO¿Ñ L^ÕÌâ◊ºO`À x*ÏO HÍÖËrÖ’ WOw¡+¨µ g∞_çÜ«∞OÖ’ KÕ~°=∞<åfl~°∞. 1947–49 㨠O II =∞^è Œ º Ö’ WOw¡ + ¨ µ g∞_ç Ü « ∞ OÖ’ a.Z. KÕ ã ≤ < å#∞. ‰õ Ω @∞O|OÖ’ Hõ e y# H˘xfl Jx"å~° º Ѩ i }Ï=∂Å =Å¡ , <åÜ«∞#QÍ~°∞, ÃÑ^ŒÌÅ∞ k=OQÆ`«∞Å∞ HÍ=@O =Å¡ ã¨O™ê~°
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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ÉÏ^è Œ º `« Å ∞ g∞^Œ Ñ ¨ _ ®¤ ~ Ú. qÖÏÜ« ∞ `ü Hõ Å Hõ i yáÈ~ÚOk. 1949–51Ö’ L™ê‡xÜ«∂ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞OÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ZO.Z. K«kq<å#∞. ѨÖÏ¡ ^Œ∞~°æÜ«∞ºQÍ~°∞ ZO.Z. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ÉϺKü. <Õ#∞ Ѩ^Œ=ÉϺKü q^•ºi÷x. JѨÊ\˜^•HÍ ZO.Z. „Ѩ^äŒ=∞ „âı}˜Ö’ LfÎ~°‚`« á⁄Ok# q^•ºi÷x <Õ<Õ. x*ÏO HõàÏâßÅÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ q^•ºi÷ Ѩ„uHõ#∞ #_çáê~°∞ Hõ^•? J=Ù#∞. "≥O@<Õ L^ÀºQÆѨ~°fiO „áê~°OaèOKå~°∞ Hõ^•? 1951Ö’<Õ áê~üì>ˇÿ"£∞ ÖˇHõÛ~°~üQÍ Ãã·á¶êÉÏ^£ HõàÏâßÅÖ’ KÕi<å#∞. 1952Ö’ Ѷ¨ÙÖò>ˇÿ"£∞ ÖˇHõÛ~°~ü#∞ J~Ú<å#∞. g∞ ~å[H©Ü«∞ J#∞Éèí"åÅ∞ K≥ѨÊO_ç? =∂ J#flQÍi ^•fi~å "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ ~å[H©Ü«∞ K≥·`«#ºO HõeyOk. P `«~°∞"å`« z#fl`«#OÖ’<Õ q^•ºi÷QÍ L#flѨÙÊ_Õ =O^Õ=∂`«~°O ™È^Œ~°∞Å∞ "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# ^Õâ◊Éèí‰õΩΊѨiK«Ü«∞O L`ÕÎ[O HõeyOzOk. P HÍÅO x*ÏO ~åROÖ’ pHõ\˜ Ü«ÚQÆO. x*ÏO x~°O‰õΩâ◊ áêÅ# ~°*ÏHÍ~°∞Å q[$OÉèí} [g∞O^•~°∞Å ^Ò~°˚<åºÅ=Å¡ [#O (=ÚYºOQÍ Ç≤ÏO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞) KåÖÏ HõëêìÅáêÅ~Ú<å~°∞. ǨÏ`«ºÅ∞, ^ÀÑ≤_ôÅ∞, „ã‘ÎÅ =∂#„áê}ÏÅ∞ ǨÏiOK«@O qK«ÛÅq_çQÍ [iQÍ~Ú. q^•ºÅÜ« ∂ ÅÖ’ D ~å[H© Ü « ∂ Å „Ѩ u Ѷ ¨ Å #O LO_Õk. q^•º~°∞÷Å∞QÍ "Õ∞=Ú "å\˜x Z^Œ∞~˘¯<åflO. <å\˜ P~°º ã¨=∂[O, ¿ãì\ò HÍO„ÔQãπ, PO„^èŒ=∞Ǩã¨Éèí, Ç≤ÏO^Œ∂=∞Ǩã¨Éèí x*ÏO x~°O‰õΩâ◊`åfixfl Z^Œ∞iOKÕq. "åi`À <Õ#∞ ™êxflÇ≤Ï`«ºO ÃÑOK«∞‰õΩ<åfl#∞. "åi HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂ÅÖ’ xsƒùuQÍ áêÖÁæ<Õ"å_çx. g∞~°∞ q^•ºi÷QÍ KåÖÏ™ê~°∞¡ „ѨuѶ¨∞@#Å∞ [iáê~°∞ Hõ^•? J=Ù#∞. JO^Œ∞ˆH ##∞fl x*ÏO HÍÖËr Ǩã¨ìÖò #∞Oz ‰õÄ_® `˘ÅyOKå~°∞. `«~°∞"åu ~ÀAÖ’¡ ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú ÃÇ·ÏHÀ~°∞ì [_ô˚QÍ, B~°OQÍÉÏ^£ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O "≥·ãπKèå<£ûÅ~üQÍ KÕã≤# 'HÍ#_Õ—`À Hõeã≤ x*ÏO „ѨÉèí∞`åfixH˜ =ºuˆ~HõOQÍ ~°Ç¨Ï㨺 HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÖÖ’ áêÖÁæ<åfl#∞. PÜ«∞# ~å=∂#O^Œf~°÷, [Ü«∞„ѨHÍâò<å~åÜ«∞}ü QÍ~°¡‰õΩ ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞. x*ÏO „ѨÉèí∞`«fi =ºuˆ~HõOQÍ ÃÑ^ŒÌÅ∞ K≥Ñ≤Ê# Ѩ#∞Åhfl KÕ¿ã"å_çx. g∞~°∞ 'g∞*Ï<£— Ѩ„uHõ#∞ W+¨ìѨ_Õ"å~°∞ HÍ^Œ∞ ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ? P Ѩ„uHõ XHõ HõÅHõ`åÎ"åÖÏ ™ê÷Ñ≤Oz# x*ÏO „ѨÉèí∞`«fi J#∞‰õÄŠѨ„uHõ. JO^Œ∞ˆH W+¨ìO LO_ÕkHÍ^Œ∞. P ~ÀAÖ’¡ P Ѩ„uHõÖ’ ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º K« i „`« Ö ’ ÃÑ^Œ Ì Å ∞ JxÑ≤ O K« ∞ ‰õ Ω #fl"å~° ∞ `« ~ ° K « ∂ ~å¿ã"å~°∞. P q^èŒOQÍ x*ÏO~åR „Ѩ[ʼnõΩ "å~°<åºÜ«∞O KÕã≤<å~°x <Õ#∞ ÉèÏqOKÕ"å_çx. x*ÏO =ºuˆ~Hõ ~å[H©Ü«∂Ö’¡ *ˇ·Å∞‰õΩ ‰õÄ_® "≥àϧ~°∞ Hõ^•? 1947Ö’ q^•ºi÷QÍ Q“bQÆ∂_» ã¨`庄QÆÇÏOÖ’ áêÖÁæ<åfl#∞. P ¨ k<åÖ’¡ <Õ#∞ ™êÜ«Ú^èŒ∞_çQÍ LO_Õ"å_çx. KåÖÏ qÅ∞"≥·# U#∞QÆ∞^ŒO`«O Ñ≤_ÉωõΩ ÉÁ_À¡ ^èiOKÕ"å_çx. <å ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞ HÍ#_Õ ç Œ xˆ~âOÃÑ· ã¨`庄QÆÇÏ ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ ^•xfl `«ºlOK«=Åã≤ =zÛOk. Ì◊ ¨
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 31

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^Õâ◊Éèí‰õΩÎÖˇ·# ã≤‰õΩ¯ÅÔH·<å Jk JOk`Õ ã¨O`À+¨=∞x Q“bQÆ∂_» QÆ∞~°∞^•fi~åÖ’ ^•xfl =ke<å#∞. JѨÙÊ_Õ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fiO *ˇÖ’¡ "ÕãOk. · ≤ JHõ¯_» HÍ#_Õ `À_ç MˇnÅ∞ ™È+¨e[O áê~îåÅ∞ K≥a`Õ, <Õ#∞ ÉèQ=næ`« · íÆ ™êOYºÜ≥∂QÆO áê~îåÅ∞ K≥ÑÊ≤ <å#∞. JO`«‰õΩ=ÚO^Õ x*ÏO áêÅ#‰õΩ =ºuˆ~HõOQÍ Lˆ~yOѨ٠#_çáê~°∞ Hõ^•? J=Ù#∞. ~°*ÏHÍ~°∞Å ^Œ∞~°O`åʼnõΩ =ºuˆ~HõOQÍ #_çÑ≤# P Tˆ~yOѨÙÖ’ HÍ#_Õ`À áê@∞ <Õ#∞ J„QÆÉèÏQÍ# #_çKå#∞. ÖÏsîKås˚H˜QÆ∞Ô~· QÀ_»^Œ∂H˜ x*ÏO HÍÖËrÖ’H˜ ^Œ∂i<å=Ú. áÈbã¨∞Å∞ J=∂#∞+¨OQÍ H˜O^ŒÑ¨_»^Àã≤ H˘\˜ì<å~°∞. <å`«ÅÃÑ· HÍÅ∞ÃÑ\˜<å~°∞. ã¨~Àlh<åÜ«Ú_»∞QÍi ‰õΩ=∂Ô~Î bÖÏ=∞}˜<åÜ«Ú_»∞ ì =∂ ZkäHû± \©K~. P"≥∞ áÈbã¨∞#∞ K≥OѨ^≥|ƒH˘\˜ì ##∞fl ÃÑ·H˜ «ü ÖË=nã≤<å~°∞. =∂ WOw¡+¨µ Öˇ~°Û~°~ü Ѷ¨[ÖòǨÏMòQÍ~°∞ <å‰õΩ ã¨Ñ¨~°º KÕã≤<å~°∞. <Õ#∞ =∞~°záÈÖËx ã¨OѶ¨∞@# Jk. P `«~°∞"å`« 1948Ö’ áÈbã¨∞ Ü«∂Hõ∆<£ [iÑ≤, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ „Ѩ[ʼnõΩ q=ÚH˜Î HõeyOz# [#~°Öò *ˇ.Z<£. KÒ^èŒiQÍix q^•º~°∞÷ŠѨH∆Í# PǨfixOz x*ÏO HõàÏâßÅÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ ã¨=∂"Õâ◊O <Õ<Õ U~åÊ@∞ KÕã≤<å#∞. P ã¨ÉèíÖ’ =O^Õ=∂`«~°O w`åÖÏѨ#, ™êfiQÆ`«=K«<åÅ∞ ã¨O`À+¨OQÍ Ñ¨eH˜<å#∞. q^•ºi÷ ã¨OѶ¨∞O ™ê÷Ñ≤OKå~°∞ Hõ^•? x*ÏO ~åROÖ’ [<åÉèÏÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åˆ~ JkèHõOQÍx, ™ê=∂lHõ, q^•º"≥ · * Ï˝ x Hõ ~° O QÍÅÖ’ =∞Ǩ  ~å„+¨ µ ì Å ∞, Hõ # fl_ç Q Æ Å ∂ =ÚO^Œ∞O_Õ"å~°∞. q^•ºi÷Ö’HõOÖ’ ‰õÄ_® JO`Õ. `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi P`å‡aè=∂#OHÀã¨O P ~ÀAÖ’¡ PO„^èŒ=∞Ǩã¨Éèí „áê~°OaèOz#>Ë¡, q^•º~°∞÷Å=∞~Ú# "Õ∞O q^•ºi÷ã¨OѶ¨∞O „áê~°OaèOz<å=Ú. <Õ#∞ J^茺‰õ∆Ω_çx. NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∂O„^èŒ ÉèÏëêxÅÜ«∞OÖ’ zÅ∞‰õÄi <å~åÜ«∞}~å=ÙQÍiKÕ`« D ã¨OѶ¨∞O „áê~°OaèOѨKÕã≤<å=Ú. áÈbã¨∞ K«~°º `«~°∞"å`« g∞ ~å[H©Ü«∞ HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂ÖËq∞\˜? ¿ã\ò HÍO„ÔQãπ‰Ω ã¨O|OkèOz# ã≤\© HÍO„ÔQãπ Hõq∞\©Ö’ HÍ~°ºHõ~QÍ ì õ ΰ ѨxKÕã≤<å#∞. P<å\˜ ã≤\© HÍO„ÔQãπ „ÃÑã≤_≥O\òH˜ ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`«OQÍ LO_ç =ÚYº HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å∞ KÕ¿ã"å_çx. áÈ~å@ ~å[H©Ü«∂Ö’¡ áêÖÁæ#fl g∞~°∞ ^Õâ◊™êfi`«O„`åº#O`«~°O ZO^Œ∞=Å# ~å[H©Ü«∞q~°=∞} KÕâß~°∞? <Õ#∞ ZO.Z.Ö’ LO_»QÍ PO„^èŒ ™ê~°ã¨fi`« Ѩi+¨`«∞Î P~°= =∞Ǩã¨ÉèíÅ∞ [iy#q. P ã¨ÉèíÅÖ’ <Õ<˘Hõ "åºã¨O K«kq<å#∞. Jk q#fl ã¨∞~°=~°O „Ѩ`åѨÔ~_ç¤QÍ~°∞ =∞~°Å ^•xfl K«kqOK«∞H˘x qx, ##∞fl Ѩiâ’^èŒ# KÕÜ«∞=∞x, =∞Oz Éèíq+¨º`ü LO@∞O^Œx nqOz<å~°∞. "åi`À „Ѩ`«ºHõ∆OQÍ =∂\Ï¡_»@O J^Õ "≥Ú^Œ\˜™êi. ##∞fl ~å[H©Ü«∂Å #∞O_ç `«Ñ≤ÊOz `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Ѩiâ’^èŒ#"≥·Ñ¨Ù <≥\˜ì#"å~°∞ "åˆ~. <å rq`åxfl =∞Å∞ѨÙuÑ≤Ê# JѨ~ÀHõ∆ QÆ∞~°∞=Ù. <Õ#∞ ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ ã≤qÖò ѨsHõ∆ ~åã≤ „Ѩ„Ѩ^äŒ=Ú_»∞QÍ LfÎ~°∞‚_»<≥· Ѩ O KåÜ« ∞ f PѶ ‘ ã ¨ ~ ü Q Í KÕ i <å#∞. JѨ Ù Ê_» ∞ 㨠∞ ~° = ~° O „Ѩ`åѨÔ~_ç¤QÍ~°∞ QÀÅH˘O_» Ѩ„uHõ #∞O_ç "≥·^˘Åy „Ѩ*Ï"å}˜
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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Ѩ„uHõ #_»∞ѨÙ`«∞<åfl~°∞. "åi Ѩ„uHõÖ’<Õ <Õ#ѨÙÊ_»∞ „ѨÓѶπ s_»~üQÍ ‰õÄ_® H˘kÌ~ÀAÅ∞ KÕã≤<å#∞. "å~°∞ ã≤qÖò L^ÀºQÍxH˜ áÈ=^Œ∞Ì. qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞OÖ’ J^蕺Ѩ‰õΩ_çQÍ KÕ~°=∞x P^ÕtOz<å~°∞. "åi =∂@ t~°™ê=Ç≤ÏOz<å#∞. âßã¨# ã¨Éèí‰õΩ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ ™ê~°fi„uHõ ZxflHõÖ’¡ áÈ\© KÕÜ«∞_®xH˜ J=HÍâ◊O =zÛ<å, ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ áÈ\© K≥Ü«∞ºÖË^Œ∞? q^•ºi÷ <åÜ«∞‰õΩ_çQÍ ##∞fl K«∂ã≤# |∂~°∞æÅ ~å=∞Hõ$ëê‚~å=ÙQÍ~°∞ 1952Ö’ ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ ~å[ºOÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ ™ê~°fi„uHõ ZxflHõÖ’¡ âßã¨#ã¨Éèí‰õΩ HÍO„ÔQãπ \˜ÔH\ò WÑ≤ÊOz<å~°∞. HÍx ã¨∞~°=~°O"å~°∞ <å‰õ Ω Ç≤ Ï `« É ’^è Œ KÕ ã ≤ ##∞fl `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º ~° O QÍxH˜ =Ú_ç"Õã≤<å~°∞. JѨÙÊ_Õ ~å[H©Ü«∞~°OQÆO#∞Oz âßâ◊fi`«OQÍ `˘Åy<å#∞. g∞~°∞ ~å[H©Ü«∞~°OQÆOÖ’ H˘#™êy LO>Ë, ÃÑ^Œ Ì Ñ ¨ ^ Œ = ÙÅ∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOKÕ"å~°∞† ÃÑ^ŒÌ <åÜ«∞‰õΩÅÜÕ∞º"å~°∞–HÍx `≥Å∞QÆ∞™ê~°ãfi`« ¨ ~°OQÆO =∂„`«O KåÖÏ HÀÖ’Ê~Ú LO_Õk. g∞ Ѩiâ’^è# QÆ∞iOz Œ K≥Ñʨ O_ç. 1952Ö’ <Õ#∞ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ Ѩiâ’^èŒ#‰õΩ ^Œ~°MÏã¨∞Î KÕã∞H˘<åfl#∞. P ~ÀAÖ’¡ Ñ≤ÃÇÏKü._ç. J_ç‡+¨<£ Hõq∞\©Ö’ `≥Å∞ˆQ`«~° ¨ âßMÏ^茺‰õ∆ΩÅ∞ ‰õÄ_® LO_»@O =Å¡ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO ‰õÄ_® XHõ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º=∂ Jx x~åHõiOK«_»O [iyOk. =∞m¡ 1953Ö’ ^Œ ~ ° M Ï㨠∞ Î KÕ ã ≤ 㨠∞ ~° = ~° O QÍi`À#∞, =∂ QÆ ∞ ~° ∞ =ÙÅ∞ ÅH©∆‡~°O[#OQÍi`À#∞ K≥Ñ≤ÊOK«@O =Å¡ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’<Õ Ñ≤ à ÇÏKü . _ç . K≥ Ü « ∞ º_®xH˜ J#∞=∞u ^˘iH˜ O k. XHõ ™ êi „áê~°OaèOz# `«~°∞"å`« Ѩiâ’^èŒ# HÍOHõ∆ ##∞fl ѨÓiÎQÍ P=Ç≤ÏOz =â◊O KÕã¨∞‰õΩOk. ^•x =¸ÅOQÍ HõÅO =º=™êÜ«∞O ÉÏQÍ [iy<å, ǨÏÅO =º=™êÜ«∞O K≥_çáÈ~ÚOk. Ѩiâ’^èŒ# HÀã¨O ZHõ¯_≥Hõ¯_», ZѨÙÊ_»∞ ã¨=∂Kå~°O ¿ãHõiOKå~°∞? Jxfl ÃãÅ=Ù k<åÖ’¡#∂ Pk"å~åÖ’¡#∂ uiˆQ"å_çx. `≥ÅOQÍ}Ï lÖÏ¡ Å xfl uiy =O^Œ Å ∞ "Õ Å ∞ z#flq ÃÑ^Œ Ì q ˆ Q Ü« ∂ Å∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. qâßYѨ@flO, ~å[=∞¿ÇÏO„^Œ=~°O, UÅ∂~°∞, ɡ["å_», =∞„^•ã¨∞ÅÖ’ ѨÙã¨ÎHÍÅ H˘@¡Ö’ ÅaèOz# =Ú„k`« ã¨=∂Kå~°=∞O`å ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. =∞„^•ã¨∞Ö’ "Õã¨q ÃãÅ=ÙÖ’¡ <≥ Å ~ÀAÅ∞ QÆ _ ç Ñ ≤ Náê^Œ Q ÀáêÅHõ $ +¨ ‚ = ¸iÎ , =∞Å¡ O Ѩ e ¡ ™È=∞âıY~°â~‡° QÍ~°Å ã¨ÇÜ«∞O`À „áêK«º ѨÙã¨Hõ ÉèÏO_®QÍ~°OÖ’x ◊ ¨ Î J=Ú„k`« QÍ^䕈QÜ«∂Å∞, ѨÖÏfl\˜g~°∞Å K«i„`«Å∞, HÍ@=∞~åA Hõ^äŒÅ∞ =O\˜q K«kq <À\òû ~åã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl#∞. AÖˇ· 1955Ö’ 29= `Õn# näã≤ãπ ã¨Éòq∞\ò KÕã≤<å#∞. qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O"åi x~°¡Hõ∆º"≥·Yi =Å¡ 1956 PQÆã¨∞ìÖ’QÍx Ѷ¨e`«O „ѨHõ\˜OK«ÖË^Œ∞. J~Ú<å L™ê‡xÜ«∂ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âßYÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ Ñ≤ÃÇÏKü._ç g∞^Õ Hõ^•? J=Ù#∞. JO`ÕHÍ^Œ∞. ^•H˜∆}å`«ºÉèÏ+¨Ö’¡ *Ï#Ѩ^ŒO QÆ∞iOz ~åã≤# "≥Ú^Œ\˜ Ñ≤ÃÇÏKü._ç ‰õÄ_® <å^Õ. J~Ú<å *Ï#Ѩ^ŒO JO>Ë =∞# ѨO_ç`«∞ňH HÍ^Œ∞, JkèHÍ~°∞ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® z#flK«∂¿Ñ.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 32

„Ѩ. g∞~°∞ *Ï#Ѩ^•xH˜ =∂„`«"Õ∞ Ѩiq∞`«O HÍ^Œ∞Hõ^•? [. J=Ù#∞. P z#flK«∂ѨÙ#∞ JkèQÆq∞OKåÅ<Õ x~°O`«~° „â◊=∞ KÕã≤<å#∞. „áêp# ã¨O㨯$`åO„^茙êÇ≤Ï`«º~°OQÍÅÖ’ KåÖÏ Hõ$+≤ KÕ ã ≤ < å#∞. J<Õ H õ Ѩ i â’^è Œ # "庙êÅ∞ „Ѩ K « ∞ iOz<å#∞. ã¨O㨯$`«OÖ’ ‰õÄ_® P `«~°∞"å`« ZO.Z. KÕã≤<å#∞. 1955–68 =~°‰õΩ =∞ǨѨO_ç`«∞Å∞ N=∞^•Kå~°º ~°Ñ¶¨Ú<å^äŒ K«„Hõ=iÎQÍix =∂ WO\˜=^ÕÌ LOK«∞H˘x "åi=^ŒÌ ã¨O㨯$`å^茺ܫ∞#O KÕã≤<å#∞. g~°∞ qâ◊fi<å^äŒ ã¨`«º<å~åÜ«∞}QÍi '=∂™êfiq∞— Hõ$uÉèí~°Î. „Ѩ. gi Hõ$`«∞Å∞ g∞~°∞ „ѨHõ\˜OKå~°∞ Hõ^•? [. "åi +¨+¨ìºaÌѨÓ~°∞κ`«û"åÅ∞ KÕã≤ P ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOQÍ "åi Hõ$`«∞Å∞ „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. „Ѩ. ã¨O㨯$`«OÖ’ Ñ≤ÃÇÏKü._ç. KÕâß~°∞ Hõ^•? [. ã¨O㨯$`« ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxH˜ PO„^èŒ∞Å =i=㨺 (HÍO„\˜|∂º+¨<£ PѶπ PO„^èŒ @∞ ã¨O㨯$`ü e@ˆ~K«~ü) J<Õ q+¨Ü«∞OÃÑ· Ѩiâ’^èŒ# „áê~°OaèOz H˘#™êyOz<å#∞. „Ѩ. *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’#∞, Jã¨Å∞ Ѩiâ’^èŒ#Ö’#∞ g∞iO`« Hõ$+≤ KÕÜ«∞_®xH˜ g∞‰õΩ „¿Ñ~°} Uq∞\˜? [. <Õ#∞ ÃÇ·Ïã¨∂¯Öò q^•ºi÷QÍ L#flѨÙÊ_Õ ÉèÏ~°u `«k`«~° Ѩ„uHõÅÖ’ =∂#=e¡, "Õ@∂i „ѨÉèÏHõ~°âß„ã≤Î, x_»^Œ"ÀÅ∞, =∞Å¡OѨe¡ =O\˜ Ѩiâ’^茉õΩÅ "庙êÅ∞, "å~°∞ ã¨OáêkOz# „QÆO^ä•Å Ñ‘iîHõÅ∞ K«^Œ=@"Õ∞ <å‰õΩ ÃÑ^ŒÌ „¿Ñ~°}. "åi=Öˇ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºÖ’HÍxH˜ `≥eÜ«∞x „H˘`«Î q+¨Ü«∂Å∞ K≥ѨÊ=Öˇ#<Õ xâ◊ÛÜ«∞O`À Ѩiâ’^èŒ#Ö’ J_»∞QÆ∞ÃÑ\˜ì<å#∞. „Ѩ. *Ï#Ѩ^•xH˜ WOHÍ g∞~°∞ KÕã≤# Hõ$+≤ `≥ÅѨO_ç? [. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’#∞, WOw¡+¨µÖ’#∞ *ÏfÜ«∞ JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ ã¨^Œã¨∞ûÅÖ’ Ѩ^Œ∞ÅH˘nÌ Ñ¨iâ’^èŒ# Ѩ„`åÅ∞ K«kq<å#∞. „Ѩ. WOw¡+¨µÖ’ „QÆO^ä•Å∞ ~°zOKå~°∞ Hõ^•! J"Õq∞\˜? [. 'á¶ÈH±>ËÖòû PѶπ ZÑ≤—, 'á¶ÈH±Ö’~ü PѶπ ZÑ≤—, '™œ`ü WO_çÜ«∞<£ á¶ÈH±™êOQ∑û—, 'y¡OÃÑûãπ W<£@∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ á¶ÈH±Ö’~ü— „QÆO^ä•Å∞ „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. „Ѩ. qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O ™ê÷~Ú Ñ¨iâ’^èŒ#‰õΩ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ˆ Q Ü« ∂ Å∞ "≥ Ú @ì " ≥ Ú ^Œ @ ¿ãHõ i Oz P ~° O QÆ O Ö’ ÉÏ@Å∞ "Õã≤#"å~°∞ g∞ˆ~. WѨÊ\˜H© D ¿ãHõ~°} ã¨∞Å∞=ÙHÍ^Œ∞† g∞Ô~O`À „â◊=∞HÀiÛ LO_®e. J#∞Éèí"åÅ∞ K≥ѨÊO_ç? [. `≥ÅOQÍ}=∞O`«\Ï 1953–55 =∞^茺uiy *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ˆQÜ«∂Å∞, `åà◊Ѩ„`«„QÆO^ä•Å∞ tÖÏâßã¨<åÅ∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. P ~ÀAÖ’¡ Ñ¨Öˇ¡@∂à◊§‰õΩ |ã¨∞ûÅ∞ÖË=Ù. lÖÏ¡ `åÅ∂HÍ ˆHO„^•Å#∞O_ç H˘xfl KÀ@¡ ‰ õ Ω #_» z , H˘xflKÀ@¡ ‰ õ Ω Ãã· H ˜ Å ∞g∞^Œ , H˘xflKÀ@¡ ‰ õ Ω Z_»¡|O_çÃÑ·# „Ѩܫ∂}˜Oz ˆQÜ«∂Å∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ ~°qHõ Hõ}∞=ÚÅ∞, ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ‰õΩ c_ôÅ∞, K«∞@ìÅ∞, HõÅ∞¡‰õΩ ÃÑ·ã¨Å∞ WzÛ ˆQÜ«∂Å∞ áê_çOz „"åã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl#∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

„Ѩ. JxflKÀ@¡ JO^Œ~°∂ g∞‰õΩ ã¨Ç¨ÏHõiOKÕ"å~å? [. H˘xflKÀ@¡ „|u=∂e<å, _»aƒ=fiEÑ≤<å ã¨Ç¨ÏHõiOKÕ"å~°∞ HÍ^Œ∞. #Å¡Q˘O_» lÖÏ¡ #H˜ˆ~HõÅ∞¡Ö’ HÀÖÏ@O áê@Å∞ áê_Õ"å~°∞<åfl~°x JHõ¯_çH˜ "≥o`Õ, JHõ¯_ç Ü«Ú=‰õΩÅ∞ ã¨Ç¨ÏHõiOK«ÖË^Œ∞. <å‰õΩ `≥eã≤# áÈb㨠∞ Jkè H ÍiH˜ K≥ a `Õ , PÜ« ∞ # |Å=O`å# "åà◊ § #∞ ~°Ñ≤ÊOz<å_»∞. J~°ú~å„u HÀÖÏ@O "Õ~ÚOz<å_»∞. W^ŒÌ~°∞ Ü«Ú=‰õΩÅ∞ Z^Œ∞~°∞ uiy`Õ "åix áÈbã¨∞Å∞ H˘\˜ì<å~°∞. `≥Å¡"åi "åi WO\˜H˜"≥o§ Hõ∆=∂Ѩ}"Õ_ç, _»|∞ƒKÕuÖ’ LOz =zÛ<å#∞. |Å=O`å# "åiKÕ`« áê_çOz#O^Œ∞‰õΩ ÉÏ^èŒÑ¨_®¤#∞. „Ѩ. QÍÜ«∞‰õΩÅ á¶È\’Å∞ ‰õÄ_® g∞~°∞ „ѨHõ\˜OKå~°∞ Hõ^•? [. QÍÜ«∞HõaH‰ΩÅ∞ _»|∞ƒÅ∞, áê`«Q∞_»Å∞ W¿ãÎ ã¨O`À+¨OQÍ QÜ«∞QÍ^äÅ∞ è ∆õ õ Æ ¤ ˆ Œ áê_Õ"å~°∞ HÍx, á¶È\’ fÜ«∞xKÕÛ"å~°∞ HÍ^Œ∞. á¶È\’Å∞ f¿ãÎ QÍ#=∂^èŒ∞~°ºO `«QÆ∞æ`«∞O^Œx P J=∂Ü«∞‰õΩÅ #=∞‡HõO. "åiH˜ #K«Û*ˇÑ≤Ê „|u=∂e á¶È\’Å∞ f~ÚOKÕ"å_çx. „Ѩ. =O^ŒÅH˘nÌ `åà◊Ѩ„`«„QÆO^ä•Å∞ ¿ãHõiOKå~°∞ Hõ^•! q=~åÅ∞ `≥ÅÊO_ç? [. `≥ Å OQÍ}=∞O`« \ Ï uiy =O^Œ Å H˘kÌ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ , 㨠O 㨠¯ $`« `åà◊Ñ„¨ `«„QÆO^ä•Å∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. J=Ú„k`«OQÍ Ñ¨_=Ù#fl `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ç 㨠O 㨠¯ $`« Hõ $ `« ∞ Å∞ 㨠∞ =∂~° ∞ XHõ = O^Œ "≥ Ú ^Œ \ ˜ ™ êiQÍ ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º „Ѩ Ñ ¨ O KåxH˜ „Ѩ H õ \ ˜ O z<å#∞. <Õ # ∞ „Ѩ H õ \ ˜ O z# '=∞~°∞QÆ∞Ѩ_ç# =∂}˜HͺÅ∞—, 'K«i„`«ÔHHõ¯x K«i`å~°∞÷Å∞—, W`«~° „Ѩ`ÕºHõ ã¨OzHõÅÖ’ „ѨHõ\˜Oz# "庙êÅ∞ g\˜ QÆ∞iOKÕ. „Ѩ. ã¨O㨯$`« Hõ$`«∞Å∞ U"Õq? [. Z#flx K≥ѨÊ#∞? H˘xfl =ÚYº"≥∞ÿ#q =∂„`«O K≥|∞`å#∞. HÍà◊ǨÏã≤Î Hõq ~°zOz# =ã¨∞K«i„`«O, =∞^èŒ∞~°"å}˜ ~°zOz# ~å=∂Ü«∞} ™ê~°uÅHõO, Jaè#=HÍo^•ã¨∞ "≥ÖÏ¡Å L=∂=∞¿ÇÏâ◊fi~°∞Å∞ ~°zOz# â◊$OQÍ~°âıY~°ÉèÏ}O, =ÚYºOQÍ NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∞Å∞ ~°zOz# *ÏO|=u Ѩi}Ü«∞O "≥Ú^Œ\˜™êiQÍ <Õ<Õ Ñ¨i+¨¯iOz „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. WqHÍHõ, HÍHõu „Ѩ`åѨ~°∞„^ŒK«„Hõ=iÎ ~°zOz# Lëê~åQÀ^ŒÜ«∞O, ÉˇÅ¡OH˘O_» ~å=∂~å=ÙQÍi ~°∞H˜‡}©HõàϺ}O, u~°∞=∞Å |∞Hõ¯Ñ¨@ì}O J}‚Ü«∂Kå~°∞ºÅ ~°™È^•~° ÉèÏ}O, ÉèÏ~°^•fi[ ~å=∂Kå~°∞ºÅ Éèí„^Œyi K«OѨÓ, Ѩ~°â◊√~å=∞ѨO`«∞Å J#O`«~å=∞Ü«∞º ã‘`åq[Ü«∞K«OÑ¨Ó "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# ã¨O㨯$`« Hõ$`«∞Å∞ Ѩi+¨¯iOz<å#∞. F~°∞QÆO\˜ ÅHõ∆‡}Ü«∞[fi ã‘`å~å=∞qǨ~°O Ѩ i +¨ ¯ iOz QÆ ∞ ~° ∞ `« ∞ Å∞ºÅ∞ Pˆ ~ ºO„^Œ â◊ ~ ° ‡ QÍi ¿Ñ~° ∞ `À „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. „Ѩ. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ U"Õq „ѨHõ\˜OKå~°∞? [. Jhfl K≥ÑÊ_»O WHõ¯_» J™ê^躌 O. =ÚYº"≥∞#q K≥|∞`å#∞. ÉÁ_»∞K~¡° ¨ ÿ ¤ ≥ z#u=∞‡Hõ q „Ѩ ã ¨ # fl~åѶ ¨ ∞ =<å@º „Ѩ | O^è Œ O , zO`« ŠѨ e ¡ KèåÜ«∂Ѩu ~åѶ¨∞"åÉèí∞º^ŒÜ«∞O, ™êÜ«∞Ѩ "≥OHõ\Ï„k <åÜ«∞‰õΩx 㨠H õ Å r= 㨠O r=#O, =ÚYºOQÍ áêÅ∞¯iH˜ ™È=∞<å^ä Œ ∞ x Ѩ O _ç ` å~å^è À º^•Ç¨ Ï ~° } O "≥ Ú ^Œ \ ˜ ™ êi <Õ < Õ Ñ¨ i +¨ ¯ iOz „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. N<å^äŒ∞x t=~å„u=∂Ǩ`«‡ºO ã¨OѨÓ~°‚„QÆO^äŒO
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 33

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<Õ<Õ Ñ¨i+¨¯iOz „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. <Õ#∞ Ѩi+¨¯iOz# "å\˜Ö’ Wq H˘xfl =∂„`«"Õ∞. WqHÍHõ, Ô~O_»∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ$`«∞ÅÖ’ `«Ñ¨ÙÊ_»∞ áê~îåÅ∞ LO>Ë "å\˜x ã¨=iOz „ѨHõ\˜OKå~°∞ Hõ^•! Jq Uq? =∞_çH˜ ã≤OQÆ# Ѩ^Œ‡Ñ¨Ù~å}O, áêÅ"ÕHõi HõksѨu~åA â◊√Hõã¨Ñ¨Îu „QÆO^ä•ÅÖ’ =O^ŒÅH˘Ån `«Ñ¨ÙÊ_»∞ áê~îåÅ∞ ã¨=iOz K«∂Ñ≤<å#∞. "å\˜ ã¨Oâ’kè`« =Ú„^Œ}Å∞ qѨÙÅ"≥∞# Ñ‘iHÅ`À „ѨH\Oz<å#∞. ÿ îõ õ ˜ WqHÍHõ, `«H˜¯# ™êÇ≤Ï`«º¿ã"åHÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÊO_ç? N ™ê~ÚÉÏÉÏ"åi Éèí‰õΩÎ_»<≥· ÉÏÉÏ"åi ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO P~°∞ „QÆO^ä•Å∞ ã¨Oáê^ŒHõ`«fiO =Ç≤ÏOz „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. PO„^èŒ^Õâßxfl ѨÙh`«O KÕã# PO„^èÜ∂QÆ∞Å K«i„`«Å∞ WѨÙÊ_»∞ ã¨O„QÆÇÏOQÍ „ѨH\ã∞¨ <åfl#∞. ≤ Œ ≥ ¨ õ ˜ Î qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O `«~°Ñ¶¨Ù#HÍHõ, W`«~°„`å KÕã≤# ™êÇ≤Ï`«º¿ã"å HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å∞ q=iOK«O_ç? ^•â◊~°kä`ÀÉÏ@∞ HÍà’r, <Õ#∂, <å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç¤ ™ê~°ã¨fi`« Ѩi+¨`«∞Î #∞Oz |Ü«∞\˜H˜ =zÛ 1954Ö’ `≥ÅOQÍ}Ï ~°K«~Ú`«Å ã¨OѶ¨∞O ™ê÷Ñ≤Oz<å=Ú. PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò U~°Ê_ç# `«~°∞"å`« nxfl PO„^è~K~Ú`«Å ã¨OѶ∞OQÍ =∂iÛ<å=Ú. D ~O\˜H© <Õ<Õ "≥Ú^Œ\˜ Œ° « ¨ Ô HÍ~°º^Œi≈x. D ã¨Oã¨÷‰õΩ `≥ÅOQÍ}OÖ’x Jxfl lÖÏ¡ÅÖ’#∂ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºQÀ+¨µªÅ∞, Hõq ã¨"Õ∞‡à◊<åÅ∞, ѨÙã¨ÎHõ „ѨK«∞~°}Å∞, "åi¬HÀ`«û"åÅ∞, HõqѨO_ç`« ã¨<å‡<åÅ∞ KÕ¿ã"åà◊§O. <Õ#∞ 1956 #∞Oz NHõ$+¨‚^Õ=~åÜ«∂O„^èŒ ÉèÏëêxÅÜ«∞O HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ, Láê^茺‰õ∆Ω_çQÍ LO_ç J<ÕHõ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ™êO㨯$uHõ ã¨ÉèíÅ∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. =Úx=∂}˜HõºO #~°ã≤OǨ~å=Ù, <åÜ«∞x 㨠∞ Éσ~å=Ù, ^Œ ∂ áê\˜ "≥ O Hõ @ ~° = ∞}ÏKå~° ∞ ºÅ∞, 㨠i Ѩ e ¡ qâ◊fi<å^äŒâß„ã≤Î, Pk~åA g~°Éèí„^Œ~å=Ù, |∂~°∞æÅ ~å=∞Hõ$ëê‚~å=Ù, YO_» = e¡ ÅH© ∆ ‡ ~° O [#O =O\˜ ™êÇ≤ Ï f=¸~° ∞ Î Å +¨ + ¨ ì º aÌ Ñ¨Ó~°∞κ`«û"åÅ HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ Hõ$+≤ KÕ¿ã J=HÍâ◊O HõeyOk. PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò ™êÇ≤Ï`«º JHÍ_»g∞, PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò ã¨Ow`«<å@Hõ JHÍ_»g∞, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ JHÍ_»g∞ʼnõΩ <åã¨Ç¨Ü«∞ ã¨Ç¨ÏHÍ~åÅOkOz <å#∞. 1954 #∞O_ç Hõ$ëê‚Ѩ„uHõÖ’ `≥ÅOQÍ} Hõqq∞„`«∞Å∞ ^•â◊~°kä, HÍà’r, ã≤<åÔ~, "å#=∂=∞Öˇ·, XkÌ~åA "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# "åi ѨiK«Ü«∞"庙êÅ∞ „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. 'PO„^èŒ ™êO㨯 $uHõ "≥·Éèí=O— HÍ~°º„Hõ=∞O q=~åÅ∞ `≥Å∞ѨO_ç? ɡOQÆ∞à◊¥~°∞ S.a.ÃÇÏKü "åiH˜ PO„^èŒ ™êO㨯 $uHõ"≥·Éèí=O ¿Ñ~°∞`À 500 „QÆO^ä•Å „ѨK«∞~°}‰õΩ |∂¡„Ñ≤O\ò `«Ü«∂~°∞ KÕã≤ WzÛ<å#∞. ^•xÖ’ 16 „QÆO^ä•Å∞ <Õ<Õ `«Ü«∂~°∞ KÕ~ÚOz<å#∞. qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞OÖ’ KÕã≤# q^•ºHÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÊO_ç? PO„^èŒ=∞ǨÉèÏ~°`«O ã¨Oâ’kè`« „Ѩu =Ú„^Œ}O „áê*ˇH±ìÖ’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ ÉèÏ~°`åxH˜ ã¨∞ÅÉèí"åºYº „"å~ÚOK«_®xH˜ 1967Ö’ XHõ „áê*ˇH±ì „áê~°OaèOz =∂ki"åºYº ‰õÄ_® „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å#∞. 1981Ö’ Ü«Ú.l.ã≤ <Õ+¨#Öò ÖˇHõÛ~°~üQÍ ^Õâ◊OÖ’x S^Œ∞ „Ѩ=ÚY qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∂Ö’¡ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO QÆ∞iOz „Ѩã¨OQÍÅ∞ KÕã≤<å#∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

„Ѩ: *Ï#Ѩ^Œ 㨈~fi KÕ~ÚOKå~°∞ Hõ^•! [: Ѩ^Œg q~°=∞}Ï#O`«~°O Ü«Ú.l.ã≤ Zq∞i@ãπ „á⁄ÃѶã¨~üQÍ 'á¶ÈH±Ö’~ü 㨈~fi PѶπ `≥ÅOQÍ}— „áê*ˇH±ì x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz F~°∞QÆÅ∞¡ =∞O_»ÅO *Ï#Ѩ^Œ ã¨~fiHõ}O KÕ~ÚOz<å#∞. ã¨sfiãπÖ’ LO_»QÍ<Õ ¨ ˆ ∆ *Ï#Ѩ^Œ q*Ï˝#OÖ’ ^•H˜∆}Ï`«º qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∂Ö’¡ "≥Ú^Œ\˜™êi ã¨=∞‡~ü HÀ~°∞û x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. JdÅ ÉèÏ~°`« *Ï#Ѩ^Œq*Ï˝# ã¨^Œã¨∞û `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âßY ѨH∆Í# x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. „Ѩ: `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âßY^躌 ‰õΩÅ∞QÍ âßMÏaè=$kúH˜ g∞~°∞ KÕÑ\# HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å∞ ∆ ¨ ì˜ K≥ѨÊO_ç? [: `≥Å∞QÆ∞ J^茺ܫ∞# É’^èŒ# „Ѩ=∂}ÏÅ∞ ÃÑ~°QÆ_®xH˜ qq^èŒ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ PKå~°∞ºÅ#∞ PǨÏfixOz Hõ@∞ìk@ì"≥∞ÿ# áê~î°º „Ѩ}ÏoHõ ã≤^ŒúO KÕã≤<å#∞. J^蕺Ѩ‰õΩʼnõΩ ѨÙ#â◊Û~°} `«~°QÆ`«∞Å∞ "Õã¨q tHõ∆} ta~°O "≥Ú^Œ\˜™êi x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ã¨ì_ô ã¨i¯Öò x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. =~°OQÆÖò ™êfl`«HÀ`«Î~° ˆHO„^ŒOÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âßYÖ’ 'q=∞i≈x— ¿Ñ~°∞`À#∞, L™ê‡xÜ«∂ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ âßYÖ’ 'q"Õ K « # — ¿Ñ~° ∞ `À Ѩ i â’^è Œ # [~° fl Öò û „áê~°OaèOz<å#∞. Ѩ: `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’HÍHõ, `≥Å∞QÆ∞‰õΩ ÉèÏëêѨ~°OQÍ g∞~°∞ KÕã≤# ¿ã"å HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂ÖËq∞\˜? [: Ç≤ÏOn #∞O_ç, WOw¡+¨µ #∞O_ç J#∞"å^•Å∞ KÕã≤<å#∞. WO@~ü =~°‰õΩ K«kq# L~°∂̉õΩ ™ê~°÷Hõ`« HÀã¨O L~°∂Ì `≥Å∞QÆ∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù ‰õÄiÛ<å#∞. qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O =„*’`«û"åÅ ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOQÍ 'É’^èŒ# ÉèÏ+¨QÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞— ã¨^Œã¨∞û x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz<å#∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ JHÍ_»g∞ ™ê÷ Ñ ¨ # HÍÅOÖ’ â߄㨠Πɒ^è Œ # `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Ö’ [~° Q Æ = Öˇ # #fl ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’, áê~Ѩ~î°hÜ«∞ „QÆO^ä•ÅÖ’ P^èŒ∞xHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏëê â‹·e Uq^èŒOQÍ LO_®Å<Õ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ kâß xˆ~Ìâ◊#OQÍqOz# "åiÖ’ <Õ#∂ XHõ_çx. „Ѩ. =∞m§ "≥#H˜¯ "≥o§ J_»∞QÆ∞`«∞<åfl#∞. `≥ÅOQÍ}Ï q"≥∂K«# áÈ~å@ ~å[H©Ü∂^Œº=∂Ö’¡ xsƒùuQÍ x|^Œ``À áêÖÁæ<åfl~°∞. g∞ Éèq`«#∂ ≥ ú « í iãπ¯Ö’ ÃÑ\Ïì~∞° . f~å Ѩ^=ÙÅ∞ KÕÑ>ìË J=HÍâ◊O =KÕÛ ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ Œ ¨ ~å[H©Ü∂Ö’¡Oz |Ü«∞\˜H˜ =KÕÛâß~°∞. ZO^Œ∞=Å¡? « [: P L^Œ º =∂Ö’¡ áêÖÁæ # flѨ Ù Ê_» ∞ Ѩ ^ Œ = ÙÖÏtOz, ~å[H© Ü « ∞ Éèíq`«<åtOz áêÖÁæ#ÖË^Œ∞. <å ^èŒ~°‡OQÍ ÉèÏqOz<å#∞. „Ѩ. U ~å[H©Ü«∞ ^Œ~°≈#O q∞=∞‡efl PHõi¬OzOk? [: z#flѨÊ\˜#∞Op ^Õâ◊ÉèíH˜Î ÉèÏ"åÅ∞ „áÈkKÕã¨∞H˘<åfl#∞. JѨÙÊ_»∂ WѨÙÊ_»∂ ‰õÄ_® <Õ#∞ JÇ≤ÏO™ê ã≤^•úO`åxfl, P~ü.Zãπ.Zãπ. "åi ^Õâ◊ÉèíH˜Îh Jaè=∂x™êÎ#∞. qâ◊fiÇ≤ÏO^Œ∂ Ѩi+¨`«∞Î ~å„ëêì^茺‰õ∆Ω_çQÍ, H˘O`« H ÍÅO, ˆ H O„^Œ Láê^è Œ º ‰õ ∆ Ω _ç Q Í H˘O`« H ÍÅO <Õ # ∞ ¿ã=ÅOkOz<å#∞. „Ѩ. J<ÕHõ tÖÏâßã¨<åÅ∞ g∞~°∞ ¿ãHõiOKå~°∞. "å\˜Ö’ g∞ J#∞Éè"åÅ∞ í K≥ѨÊO_ç? [: JѨÊ\˜ P~°¬âßY ã¨OKåʼnõΩÅ=^ŒÌ âßã¨#eѨÙÅ∞ K«^Œ=_»O Z\Ï¡QÀ <Õ ~ ° ∞ ÛHÀ=_» O „áê~° O aè O z<å#∞. P `« ~ ° ∞ "å`« Pk~åA g~°Éèí„^Œ~å=ÙQÍ~°∞ âßã¨#eÑ≤ É’kèOK«_»"Õ∞HÍHõ, âßã¨<åÅ∞ f¿ã
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 34

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Ѩ^Œúu <ÕiÊ<å~°∞. H˘xfl ™ê^èŒ<åÅ∞ ‰õÄ_® WzÛ<å~°∞. "å\˜ ã¨Ç¨Ü«∞O`À =¸_»∞ âßã¨<åÅ∞ fã≤<å#∞. g∞~°∞ Hõ#∞Q˘#fl âßã¨<åÖ’¡ =ÚYº"≥∞ÿ#q K≥ѨÊO_ç? QÆ O cè ~ å=Ù¿Ñ@ K≥ ~ ° ∞ =ÙHõ @ ì g ∞^Œ Hõ # ∞Q˘#fl HÍHõ f Ü« Ú Å HÍÅѨ Ù âß㨠# O XHõ \ ˜ . Jk 㨠O |Okè ` « „Ѩ É è í ∞ `« fi âßY‰õ Ω JѨÊyOz<å#∞. HõsO#QÆ~ü lÖÏ¡ QÆOQÍ^èŒ~° „QÍ=∞OÖ’ XHõ QÆ∞@ìg∞^Œ <Õ#∞ Hõ#∞Q˘#fl âßã¨#O Q˘Ñ¨Êk. ^•xfl QÆ∞iOz Ѩiâ’^茉õΩʼnõΩ `≥eÑ≤<å#∞. J~Ú`Õ, Jk‰õÄ_® "≥∞ÿã¨∂~°∞ Ç≤ Ï ã¨ ì s HÍO„Ô Q ãπ Ö ’ <å‰õ Ω `≥ e Ü« ∞ ‰õ Ω O_®, <å ¿Ñ~° ~ Ú<å „Ñ¨™êÎqOK«‰ΩO_® Ѩiâ’^è‰ΩÅ∞ ^•xfl "≥Å∞=iOz<å~°∞. `«~∞"å`« õ Œõ ° <Õ#∞ =~°OQÆÖò Ñ≤.r. ÃãO@~üÖ’ LO_»QÍ, K≥~°∞=ÙHõ@ìg∞^Œ QÆ } Ѩ u ^Õ = K« „ Hõ = iÎ = ∞O„u âß㨠# O 㨠Q Æ O qiy# =ÚHõ ¯ Hõ#∞Q˘<åfl#∞. ^•xfl ã¨O|Okè`« âßY‰õΩ `≥eÑ≤, `≥Å∞QÆ∞âßY =ÚO^Œ∞ „Ѩu+≤ªOz<å#∞. q^•º~°∞÷ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® ^•x P^è•~°OQÍ âßã¨#eÑ≤, âßã¨#O f¿ã q^è•#O <ÕiÊ<å#∞. Ѩiâ’^èŒ# qÅ∞= Hõey# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞ ‰õÄ_® g∞~°∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å~°∞ Hõ^•! *Ï#Ѩ^Œ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz <Õ#∞ ¿ãHõiOz# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞, ѨÙã¨ÎHÍÅ∞ H˘xfl `≥Å∞QÆ∞ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O *Ï#Ѩ^ŒÑ‘~îåxH˜ WzÛ"Õã≤<å#∞. =∞e¡<å^äŒã¨∂i Ѷ¨∞O\ÏÅ∞ g∞~°∞ ¿ãHõiOKå~°∞ Hõ^•! `≥Å∞QÆ∞*Ïu QÆ~°fiHÍ~°}O HÀÖÏK«ÅO =∞e¡<å^äŒã¨∂i. PÜ«∞# [#‡„QÍ=∞O "≥∞^ŒH± lÖÏ¡Ö’x H˘eK≥Å=∞. WѨÊ\˜H© JHõ¯_» x"å㨠= Ú#fl PÜ« ∞ # =Oj‰õ Ω Å∞ H˘eK≥ Å =∞ "åiO\’¡ J=¸Åº"≥∞# `åà◊Ñ„¨ `« „QÆO^ä•Å∞ ¿ãHõiOz<å#∞. P ã¨O^Œ~ƒOÖ’ ÿ °ù "åi Ѩ Ó *ÏQÆ $ Ǩ Ï OÖ’ =∞e¡ < å^ä Œ ã ¨ ∂ i Ѷ ¨ ∞ O\ÏÅ∞ K« ∂ z, P#O^ŒO`À Hõ#∞ÅHõ^Œ∞ÌH˘<åfl#∞. P `«~°∞"å`« ZO`À „Ѩܫ∞`«flO g∞^Œ H˘O`« HÍÖÏxH˜ Ô~O_»∞ Ѷ¨∞O\ÏÅ∞ "å~°∞ <åH˜zÛ<å~°∞. g\˜x <Õ#∞ HÍj‡~°∞Ö’x N#QÆ~°O, HÍj, JbѶ¨∞~ü, ^è•~åfi_»ÅÖ’ [iy# JYÅÉèÏ~°`« ã¨^Œã¨∞ûÅÖ’ ѨO_ç`«∞ʼnõΩ K«∂Ñ≤Oz<å#∞. Ѩ^Œ‡qÉèí∂+¨}ü P~ü.Z<£. ^•O_ÕHõ~ü g\˜x K«∂_»\ÏxH˜ XHõ™êi =∂~ÚO\˜H˜ =zÛ<å~°∞. g\˜<ÕO KÕ^•Ì=∞#∞‰õΩO@∞<åfl~°∞? Wk J=¸Åºã¨OѨ^Œ. `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi^Õ. HÍx g\˜x HÍáê_Õã¨Oã¨÷ Uk? |~À_® „áêK«ºã¨Oã¨÷ "åiHÀ ѨÓ<å„áêK«ºã¨Oã¨÷ "åiHÀ W¿ãÎ HÍáê_»`å~°#∞‰õΩO@∞<åfl#∞. `«^Œ∞Ѩi HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂ÖËq∞\˜? PO„^èŒÜ≥∂QÆ∞Å K«i„`«, PO„^èŒ∞Å ã¨O㨯$`«™êÇ≤Ï`«º =i=㨺 ѨÓiÎ K≥Ü«∂ºe. <Õ#∞, <å™ê~Ú ~°K«# ѨÓiÎ K≥Ü«∂ºe. g∞ ‰õΩ@∞O|O QÆ∞iOz K≥ѨÊO_ç? <å‰õΩ P~°∞QÆ∞~°∞ ã¨O`å#O. XHõ H˘_»∞‰õΩ, S^Œ∞QÆ∞~°∞ a_»¤Å∞. <å ÉÏ^茺`«Åhfl fi<å~Ú. JO^Œ~°∂ ÉÏQÆ∞<åfl~°∞. <å‰õΩ J^Õ XHõ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤Î.

P=ÙÅ =∞OAÅ`«
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

❖ JÅ<å\˜ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º"åºã¨O

<Õ\˜ `≥#∞QÆ∞ Hõq`« : H˘`«Î áÈHõ_»Å∞
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„á¶ê~Ú_£ =∞#ã¨Î`«fi Ѩiâ’^èŒ#Å∞ QÍOnè JÇ≤ÏOã¨, ÃãÊ~Ú<£Ö’, p<åÖ’ ™êfi`«O„`«º ã¨=∞~°O – P^è∞Œ xHõ rq`«O Zxfl k‰õΩ¯Å #∞O_ç =Úã¨∞~°∞H˘x =ã¨∞#flk : h "≥∞^Œ_∞» HO„^ŒOQÍ qq^èŒ Ñ¨i^è∞Œ ÅÖ’ Î ˆ qã¨Îie¡# ã¨∞_»∞Å∞ HÍ=Ó Wq? h\˜Ö’ qã¨i# ~å~Ú K«∞@∂ì =ÅÜ«∂Å∞QÍ |Ü«∞Å∞^Õˆ~ ÔH~°\ÏÅ∞ W^Õ P=~°ÎO (Vortex) tÅÊOÖ’ W@∞=O\˜ ã¨∞_çQÆ∞O_®Å#∞ ã¨∞ÊùiOѨ *ˇÜ«∞º_»"Õ∞ P=~°Î<å^ŒO
(Vorticism).

HõàÏ „ѨÑOK«OÖ’ W@∞=O\˜ qѨ"å<Õfl W@b#∞O_ç ã‘<å~ü =∂i<≥\ì˜ ¨ ¡ (Signor F.T. Marinetti), ÉèÏqHõà◊ (Futurism) J<Õ ¿Ñ~°∞`À É’kèOKå_»∞. Jq Ü«¸~°ÑπÖ’ =∞Ǩã¨O„QÍ=∞O f„=OQÍ ™êQÆ∞`«∞#fl ~ÀAÅ∞. ^Õâ◊^ÕâßÅ =∞^茺 K≥ň~y# ^ÕfiëêyflH˜ Ѩq„`«"≥∞ÿ# =ã¨∞Î"Õn Hõ x Ñ≤ O K« Ö Ë ^ Œ ∞ . „QÆ O ^ä • ÅÜ« ∂ Å∞, "≥ · ^ Œ º âßÅÅ∞, q*Ï˝#Ѩiâ’^èŒ<åÅÜ«∂Å∞, z„`« =ã¨∞ÎâßÅÅ∞, =∂#= <åQÆiHõ`å zǨflÅhfl D^•"å#ÅOÖ’ ^ŒQÆúѨ@ÅO J~ÚáÈ`«∞#flq =∂i<≥\˜ì ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl <åâ◊#O K≥Ü«∞º_®xH˜ xâ◊Û~ÚOKå_»∞. D tkäÖÏÅ #∞O_ç #∂`«# tÅÊO |Ü«∞Å∞ ^Õ~°∞`«∞O^Œh J^Õ ÉèÏqHõà◊ (Futurist Art) Jh L^•…\˜OKå_»∞. W`«_® k<åÅÖ’ „ѨHõ\˜Oz# Hõ~°Ñ¨„`åÅ∞, KÕã≤# LѨ<庙êÅ∞ ÖˇHõ¯‰õΩ q∞H˜¯eQÍ LO\Ï~Ú. SuǨã≤‰õΩÅ#∞, „¿Ñ=∞w`« ~° K « ~ Ú`« Å #∞, qâ◊ fi q^•ºÅÜ« ∞ Ѩ O _ç ` « ∞ Å#∞, q=∞~° ≈ ‰õ Ω Å#∞, "åºHõ~°}ÏÅ#∞, xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ#∞, <å@Hõ âßÅÅ#∞, tÖÏÊÅÜ«∂Å#∞ x~°∂‡eOK«=∞<åfl_»∞. ÖˇOѨHÍÜ«∞Å#∞, Ñ≤e¡"≥ÚQÆæÅ#∞ „Ѩâ◊Oã≤OKå_»∞. #∂`«# ã¨$+≤ì K≥Ü«∞º_®xH˜ #∂`«# q^è•#O HÍ"åe. Ü«∞O„`åÅ #∞O_ç, K«Å# z„`åÅ #∞O_ç, "å~åΠѨ„uHõÅ ji¬HõÅ #∞O_ç, HÍ=º=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞ ã‘fiHõiOK«=∞<åfl_»∞. ^èŒfi#∞ÖË ã¨Ow`«O, =∂@ÖË Hõq`«fiO, ~°OQÆ∞ÖË tÅÊ z„`åÅ∞ J<åfl_»∞. W`«_»∞ „"åã≤# ''„\˜áÈb Ü«Ú^ŒúO—— ˆH=ÅO ^èŒfi#º#∞Hõ~°}ÅÖ’ xO_ç LO@∞Ok. D ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’<Õ „á¶ê#∞ûÖ’ ‰õĺa[O (Cubism), [~°‡hÖ’ ZH±û „ÃÑ+¨x[O (Expressionism), J"≥∞iHÍÖ’ W"Õ∞l[O (Imagism) |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~å~Ú. Éèí∂QÀà◊O =¸Å =¸ÅÅ #∞O_ç L^Œº=∂Å∞, HÍ~°º„Hõ=∂Å∞, „ѨÜ≥∂QÍÅ∞ K≥ň~y#q. "≥∂@~ü HÍ~°∞, „QÍ=∞á¶È#∞, ã≤h=∂, ~_çÜ∂, "åÜ«Úq=∂#O =O\˜ #g# Ü«∞O„`åÅ Ü«ÚQÆO – ˆ ≥ ‰õĺa[O, ѶӺK«i[O, ZH±û„ÃÑ+¨x[O =O\˜ L^Œº=∂Å#∞ „ѨãqOzOk. ¨ ¨ J<ÕHõ q^è•Å Hõ∆}Hõ∆} Ѩi}Ï=∞O á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞#fl „ѨѨOKåxH˜
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 35

HõàÏâßÅ∞ˆ~ ѨÙ~ÀQÆ=∂Å∞. gi ^Œ∂~°^Œ$+≤ìÖ’ „Ѩ[fiie¡# P^Œ~°≈Ö’Hõ"Õ∞ HÍÅ„Hõ=∂# Éè∫uHõ Ö’HõOÖ’ ~°∂Ѩ٠Hõ_»∞`«∞Ok. x["≥∞ÿ# u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞ HõàÏ „ѨѨOK«OÖ’<Õ =ã¨∞ÎOk. ~å[H©Ü«∞"å^Œ∞Å∞ `«~åfi`« g\˜<Õ „ѨKå~°O KÕã≤ #∂`«#~å[ºO ™ê÷Ñ≤OKå=∞O\Ï~°∞. ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∂Å#∞ ^èŒfiOã¨O KÕÜ«∞_»O HõàÏâßeH˘Hõ „H©_»HÍ^Œ∞. ZO`À J=ã¨~°O HõeyOk, g\˜ q<åâ◊#O =Å¡<Õ Ö’HÍxfl =ÚO^Œ∞‰õΩ fã¨∞‰õΩ"≥à◊§=Åã≤ LO@∞O^Œ#flѨÙÊ_Õ J`«_çO^Œ∞‰õΩ^Œºq∞™êÎ_»∞. `«# „Ѩ*Ï˝uâ◊Ü«∞O =Å¡ #∂`«# ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∂Å#∞ qkè™êÎ_»∞. ‰õĺaã¨∞ì z„`«HÍ~°∞Å∞ ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∂Å∞ ^èŒfiã≤OK«_»OÖ’x ~°Ç¨Ï㨺O W^Õ! ã¨=∞HÍe‰õΩÅ Jaè~°∞K«∞Å g∞^Œ u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞ ÖË=<≥uÎ `«=∞ ÉÏ¿ÇϺO„kÜ«∂ʼnõΩ, JO`«iO„kÜ«∂ʼnõΩ QÀK«iOz# Ѩ~°=∞ ã¨`åºÅ#∞ JѨÓ~°fi Ѩ^Œú`«∞ÅÖ’ „Ѩ^Œi≈OKå~°∞. ‰õĺa[O ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’xH˜ ‰õÄ_® „Ѩ"ÕtOz ~°K«<å q^è•<åÅ#∞ ã¨=¸ÅOQÍ L„~°∂`«Å∂Ñ≤"Õã≤Ok. D ~°K«~Ú`«Å∞ J#fiÜ«∞O, JÅOHÍ~°O, "åºHõ~°}O, Kè«O^Œã¨∞û Jxfl\˜h JkèQÆq∞Oz „H˘`«Î„H˘`«Î QÆ=∞<åÅ∞, ÅÜ«∞Å∞ ã¨OQÆ`«∞Å∞ x~°∂Ñ≤OKå~°∞. Ü«Ú^ŒúO ~ÀAÅÖ’#∂, Ü«Ú^ŒúO QÆ_»z# „H˘`«Î k<åÅÖ’#∞ |Ü«∞Å∞^Õi# L^Œº=∞O _®_®~Ú["£∞ (Dadaism). Wk ˆH=ÅO q^èŒfiOã¨#"Õ∞, x~°ã¨#"Õ∞. x~åHõ~°}"Õ∞ ѨxQÍ HõÅk. Uk „"åã≤<å x+¨ÊÅO Jh, =∂@ʼnõΩ J~°÷O ÖË^Œh, U =∂@ÔH·<å, U J~°÷OÖ’<≥·<å LѨÜ≥∂yOK«=K«∞Û#h D =~°æO "å~°∞ É’kè™êÎ~°∞. U^À XHõ JHõ∆~°O fã¨∞H˘x ^•x`À „áê~°OaèOKÕ =∂@Å`À XHõ ~°OQÆ=e¡Hõ `«Ü«∂~°∞ K≥Ü«∞º_»O, XH˘¯Hõ¯ =∂@ #∞O_ç Z<Àfl q^è•Å Z<Àfl J~å÷Å∞ ™êkèOK«_»O, "å~åÎѨ„uHõÅÖ’ =∂@Å∞ HõuÎiOz uiy "å\˜x W+¨ìO =zÛ# „Hõ=∞OÖ’ ¿ÑiÛ Ñ¨^ŒºO JÅ¡_»O ! ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ J~å[Hõ`åfixH˜ Jk Ѩ~°=∂=kè J#=K«∞Û#∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

D Ü«Ú=HÀ^Œº=∂xfl „á¶ê#∞ûÖ’x ÃÑ^ŒÌÅÖ’ „Ѩ=ÚY∞Å<Õ‰õΩÅ∞ P^ŒiOKå~°∞. Hõ~°_»∞ QÆ\˜ì# JÅ"å@¡#∞ Hõ~°QÆQ˘>Ëì =∞O^Œ∞QÍ#∞, Hõq`å ™ê=∂„yx U~°∞H˘#_®xH˜ teÊH˜ ^˘iH˜# #∂`«# ™êfi`«O„`«ºOQÍ#∞ nxx JOwHõiOKå~°∞. HÍx ã¨OǨ~°"Õ∞ „Ѩ^è•#OQÍ QÆÅ _®_®. #∂`«# ã¨$+≤ì Un K≥Ü«∞ºÖËHõáÈ~ÚOk. Wk PiáÈ`«∂#fl ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ nxÖ’ #∞O_ç „Hõ=∞tHõ∆}`À ã¨∞fHõ∆} `Õ[ã¨∞û`À |Ü«∞Å∞^Õi# =∞Ǩϟ^Œº=∞"Õ∞ 㨄iÜ«∞e[O. _®_® =Å¡ q_»∞^ŒÅá⁄Ok# Ѩ^Œ*ÏÅO D L^Œº=∞OÖ’ =∞m§ „áê}„Ѩu+¨ì á⁄Ok#k, nxH˜`À_»∞ „á¶ê~Ú_£ ™êyOz# =∞#ã¨Î`«fi Ѩiâ’^èŒ#Å∞ 㨄iÜ«∞e[=Ú‰õΩ J=¸Åº"≥∞ÿ# `À_®Ê@∞ HõeyOKå~Ú† D L^Œº=∞ „Ѩ=HõÎ PO„_Õ „ɡ@<£ (Andre Breton) =∞<Àq*Ï˝#OÖ’ Hõ $ +≤ K Õ ã ≤ LO_» _ » O XHõ qâı + ¨ O . W`« x ~° K « # Å∞, q=~° } Å∞, "åºMϺ<åÅ=Å¡ 㨄iÜ«∞e[O J"≥∂Ѷ∞¨ |ÅO ã¨OáêkOzOk. JѨ™ê‡~°Hõ =∞#ã¨∞û #∞O_ç ã¨fiѨflÖ’Hõ ~°Ç¨Ï™êºÅ#∞ ã¨O„QÆÇ≤ÏOK«_®xH˜ Kտ㠄Ѩܫ∞`«fl=∞x 㨄iÜ«∞e[=Ú#∞ x~°fizOK«=K«∞Û#∞. XHõ¯ Hõq`«fiOÖ’<Õ HÍ^Œ∞ tÅÊ, z„`«ÖËY#O, K«Å# z„`åÅ∞, rq`« "åºáê~åÅxflO\˜Ö’#∞ nxx =iÎOѨ*Ü∞=K«∞Û#∞. ^•b (Dali) ÉÁ=∞‡Å∞, ZÖÏfi~ü (Elvard) Ë « w`åÅ∞, =∂<£ ˆ~ (Man Ray) á¶È\’„QÍѨÙÅ∞, |∂º<≥fiÖò (Bunvel) K«Å#z„`åÅ∞. PO„_Õ„Éˇ@<£ q=∞~°≈Å∞ Hõ=#O D L^Œº=∂xH˜ âıY~°"≥∞ÿ#q. HÍx nx<˘Hõ ''q^Õâ◊ã¨~°∞‰õΩ—QÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}˜Oz u~°ã¨¯iOK«_®xH˜ gÅ∞ÖË^Œ∞. ~å[H©Ü«∂ÅÖ’ <å<å*Ïuã¨q∞u Z@∞=O\˜^À HõàÏ „ѨѨOK«OÖ’ 㨄iÜ«∞e["£∞ (Surrealism) J\˜ì^Œx K≥áêÊe. Wk „ѨѨOK«=∞O`«\Ï J<ÕHõ âßM’ѨâßYÅ`À =iúÅ∞¡`«∞#flk. 1924Ö’ "≥ Ú @ì " ≥ Ú ^Œ @ „áê~° O Éè í = ∞~Ú#Ѩ Ê \˜ #∞O_ç Wk <Õ \ ˜ ^•HÍ J"åºÇ¨Ï`«OQÍ ™êyáÈ`«∞#flk.
***

JOK«∞Å#∞ ^•>Ë „Ѩܫ∞`åflÅ`À <å<å=ÚMÏÅ g~°∞ Ѩ~°∞ÔQ`«∞Î`«∞<åfl~°∞. `å=Ú x~åHõ i Oz "≥ # ∞Hõ =^Œ e # 㨠O „Ѩ ^ •Ü« ∂ Å x[ã≤ ÷ u x, JO`«ã¨Î`«fiO giH˜ `≥eÜ«∞xkHÍ^Œ∞. "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨ É’kèOz# y_»∞QÆ∞ ~å=∞=¸iΠѨO_ç`∞x HõO>Ë „QÍOkäHÍO„^è•xfl K«∞à◊√H˜`O KÕã∞H˘#fl"å~°∞ « « ¨ ÖË~°∞. =ÚO^Œ∞HÍÅѨ٠J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ QÆ∞iÎOz W`«_»∞, â◊$OYÖÏÅ#∞ `≥QÆQ˘\˜ì "Õâß_»∞. P =∂~°æO #∞O_ç QÆ∞~°*Ï_» JáêÊ~å=Ù „Ѩ"ÕtOz "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ HÍ=º Q“~°=O PáêkOKå_»∞. P^èŒ∞xHÀ^Œº=∂xH˜ =¸Åq~å@∞ìQÍ W`«xH˜ #g# Hõ=ÙÅ∞ x"åo W™êÎ~°∞. QÆ^ŒºOÖ’ W`«x <åÜ«∞Hõ`«fiO JO^Œ∞H˘x J<Õ‰õΩÅ∞ „Ѩ^äŒ=∞ „âı}˜Ö’xH˜ ~åQÆÅ „QÆO^ä•Å∞ „"åâß~°∞ HÍx Ѩ^ŒºOÖ’ "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨ q[$OaèOK«_®xH˜ XHõ ѨÙ~°∞ëêO`«~°O Ѩ\˜ìOk. D ֒ѨÙ# JK«OK«ÅOQÍ "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨Ö’ Hõ=#O K≥Ñ≤Ê#"å_»∞ |ã¨=~åA JáêÊ~å=Ù =∂„`«"Õ∞. D „âı}˜Ö’xˆH Ü≥∞OH˜ áê@Å∞ ‰õÄ_® =™êÎ~Ú. HÍx Ü≥∞OH˜ áê@Å K«∞@∂ì ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºO Un ÃÑ~°QÆÖË^Œ∞. JO^Œ∞‰õΩ HÍ~°}O ã¨OѶ¨∞OÖ’ ~å=Åã≤# u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞ WOHÍ ~åHõáÈ=@"Õ∞. WѨÙÊ_çѨÙÊ_»∞ #g#∞Å∞ „QÍOkäHÍO„^èŒO =^Œe "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨ ã‘fiHõiOz#>Ë¡ ѨÙ~å`«# K«ÛùO^Œã¨∞ûÅ∞ =^Œe =Ú`åºÅã¨~åÅ∞, ~°QÆ_»Å∞, "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# ˆQÜ«∞K«ÛùO^Œã¨∞ûÅÖ’ ~°K«#Å∞ ™êyã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. ˆQÜ«∂ÅÖ’<Õ "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨ rq`åxH˜ ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`«OQÍ =zÛ „áêp#s`«∞ÅÖ’x Hõ $ „u=∞`åfixfl 㨠= ∞~ÚOz #g#s`« ∞ Š㨠fi K« Û ù O ^Œ QÆ = ∞<åÅ#∞ „Ѩ^Œi≈ã¨∞Î#flk. JHõ¯~°Å∞, kfiѨ^ŒÅ∞, =Ú`åºÅã¨~åÅ∞ =∂„`«"Õ∞ QÍHõ Éèí∞[OQÆ „Ѩܫ∂`«O =O\˜ =$`åÎxfl 20 UO_»¡ „H˜`«"Õ∞ J|∂ƒi ~å=∞Hõ$+¨‚~å=Ù QÍ~°∞ `«=∞ TǨQÍ#OÖ’ LѨÜ≥∂yOKå~°∞. JO`ÕHÍHõ PÜ«∞# D Kè«O^Œã¨∞ûÖ’ ã¨fi`«O„uOz <åÅ∞QÆ∞HõO>ˇ Z‰õΩ¯= áê^•Å#∞ Ô~O_Õã≤ áê^•ÅˆH „áêã¨Å#∂ áê\˜Oz nx ˆQÜ«∞ QÆ∞}O W#∞=∞_çOѨ *Ëâß_»∞. Wk TǨQÍ#OÖ’x ''™ê^èŒ∞wu——. Å`åO`å„~°Ì ~åQÆO|∞Å<£ ÉÏ_»∞ `Õ@∞Öò =ã¨O`«=Ú HÍOu „Ѩ"åǨÏ=Ú‡ ÅO^Œ∞<£ xã¨~åæѨΠâ’ÉèÏ qhuO „aÜ«∞"≥∞ÿ‡ Hõ#∞Å∞æ@∞ì K«O^•# HÍxÊOK«∞ ѨÓ=ÙÖò Hõ#∞OQ˘#flKÀ "Õ_ç Hõhflà◊√§ ~åÅ∞<£ JÅOHÍ~°=ÚÖË¡x P ѨÓÅ=ÚQÀú ‰õΩÎÅ<£ b#"≥∞ÿ áÈÜ≥∞^À ™ê^èŒ∞wu! ˆQÜ«∂ÅÖ’ =∞ǨHÍ=º ÅHõ∆}ÏÅ∞ K«∂Ñ≤Oz#"å~°∞ qâ◊fi<å^äŒ (H˜<≥fl~°™êx áê@Å∞), #O_»∂i (Ü≥∞OH˜áê@Å∞), HõqH˘O_»Å (t=~å„u „ѨÉ), Hõ$+¨âß„ã≤,Î (UˆQÜ«∞"≥∞<å ã¨~), w`«Ñ^ºŒ O g∞^Œ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ „ѨÉ∞èí `«fiO íè ‚ ÿ ˆ ¨ QÆÅ Hõ$+¨‚âß„ã≤Î W\©=Å "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨Ö’ D Kè«O^Œã¨∞û#∞ J`«º^Œ∞ƒù`«OQÍ =∞Åz K«∂Ñ≤OKå~°∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

qq^èŒ ^ÕâßÅ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºˆH∆„`åÅÖ’ q[$Oaèã¨∂Î#fl Wxfl~Úxfl #g<À^Œº=∂Å∞, Wxfl ~Úxfl ÉèÏ=Ѩi}Ï=∂Å∞ ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊OÖ’#∞, PO„^èŒÉèí∂q∞Ö’#∞ `«=∞ „Ѩu^èŒfi#∞Å#∞ „Ѩã¨iã¨∞Î#flq. P^èŒ∞xHÍO„^èŒ Hõ=ÙÅ ~°K«#Å#∞ ã¨iQÍ J~°÷O KÕã¨∞HÀ=_®xH˜ "å\˜ "≥#∞Hõ ÉÏã¨@QÍ xez# W`«~° ^ÕâßÅ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º =º=™êÜ«∂Å#∞ QÆ=∞xOK«Hõ `«Ñ¨Ê^Œ∞. <Õ\˜ ~°K«#Å#∞ qâ◊fiѨ~åºÑ¨Î"≥∞ÿ# qâßÅ rq`«OÖ’ ã¨=∞#fi~ÚOz x["≥∞ÿ# Hõq`«fi"Õ∞^À, ˆH=ÅO xs˚= â◊√ëê¯#∞Hõ~°}O U^À QÆ∞iÎOKåe. XHõ\˜ =∂„`«O xâ◊ÛÜ«∞O. <Õ\˜ Hõ=ÙÅ∞ Jã¨=∞~°÷`« =Å¡ ѨÓ~°fi ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∂Å#∞ x~°ã≤OK«ÖË^Œ∞. XHõ JâßOu, Jã¨O`«$Ñ≤Î „Ѩ|e
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 36

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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 37

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AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

J#fl kfiÉèÏëê xѶ∞O@∞=Ù#∞ ‰õÄiÛ „ѨH\OKå_»∞. W`«_∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åix ¨ õ ˜ » *ˇO@∂Å<Õ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ_»∞2. J~Ú`Õ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åà◊§ Ѩ@¡ W`«xH˜ Jq∞`«"≥∞ÿ# Jaè=∂#O. qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ ã¨O㨯$`«Ñ¨^•Å∞ qiqQÍ L#flO`« =∂„`å# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ ã¨O㨯$`«"Õ∞ `«e¡ Jx K≥ѨʉõÄ_»^Œx YzÛ`«OQÍ „ѨHõ\˜OKå_»∞. áê~°ã‘Hõ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ WѨÙÊ_»∞ HÀH˘Å¡Å∞QÍ J~°aH± Ѩ^•Å∞ L<åfl~ÚQÍx Ѷ≤~°^Òã≤ ëê<å=∂ ~åã≤#ѨÙÊ_»∞ á¶ê~°ã‘ ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞ÿOk HÍ^•? `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ‰õÄ_® XHõѨÙÊ_»∞ JO`Õ#x "åkOKå_»∞3. J~°cƒHõuÎ á¶ê~°ã‘Hõ ÉèÏ+¨#∞ ZÖÏÔQ·`Õ áê^•„HÍO`«O KÕã¨∞‰õΩO^À ã¨O㨯$`«O ‰õÄ_® `≥Å∞QÆ∞#∞ JÖψQ ÉÏxã¨#∞ KÕã¨∞‰õΩO^Œx qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ „ѨHõ\˜OKå_»∞. =∞ǨÏ=∞‡^£ „Ѩ=HõÎ KÕuÖ’x Ѩ\ÏìHõuÎÖψQ „ÉÏǨχ}∞Å â◊H˜Î `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ „Ѩ[ÅÉèÏ+¨#∞ =∂ˆ~Ûã≤O^Œx "åáÈÜ«∂_»∞. ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ ‰õÄiÛ# xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ JHÍ~åk„Hõ=∞OÖ’ xi‡Oz# "≥Ú@ì"≥Ú^Œ\˜ kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙQÍ QÆ∞iΙêÎ~°∞. W^Õ P `«~åfi`« =zÛ# ã≤.Ñ≤.„É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙʼnõΩ =∂~°æ^Œ~°≈Hõ"≥∞ÿ#@∞¡ y_»∞QÆ∞ ã‘`åѨu ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞4. qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù 378 ¿ÑrÅ`À, ^•^•Ñ¨Ù <åÅ∞QÆ∞"ÕÅ P~ÀáêÅ`À ~°∂ѨÙk^Œ∞̉õΩOk. ã¨=∞HÍb# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ „Ѩ[Å =º=Ǩ~°O #∞Oz Ѩ^•Å#∞ ¿ãHõiOK«_»O [iyOk. qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ "≥Ú^Œ@ "åºHõ ~ ° } O, Ѩ ^ Œ * ÏÅO, Ô ~ O_» ∂ Hõ e Ñ≤ „Ѩ H õ \ ˜ O KåÅx Ѩ ^ ä Œ H õ O ÃÑ@∞ì ‰ õ Ω <åfl, `« ~ åfi`« xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=Ù#∞ q_ç Q Í „Ѩ H õ \ ˜ O KåÅx x~°‚~ÚOK«∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞. qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’x P~ÀáêÅ#∞ Ѩije¿ãÎ JO^Œ∞Ö’ J=¸~°ÎѨ^Œ*ÏÅO KåÖÏ `«‰õΩ¯=QÍ#∂, =¸~°Î Ѩ^Œ*ÏÅO JkèHõOQÍ#∂ HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. "åºáê~°, <åºÜ«∞™ê÷#, Ô~q#∂º, =º=™êÜ«∞, [O`«∞, =$Hõ∆ ã¨O|O^èŒ Ñ¨^Œ*ÏÅO WO^Œ∞Ö’ KÀ@∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩOk. g\˜`Àáê@∞ ™ê=∂#º Ѩ ^ Œ * ÏÅO, QÆ $ Ǩ Ï ã¨ O |O^è Œ , |O^è Œ ∞ `« fi É’^è Œ H õ Ñ ¨ ^ •Å∞ ‰õ Ä ~° Û |_®¤ ~ Ú. D Ѩ ^ Œ * ÏÅO`Àáê@∞ H˘xfl „Ѩ ` « º Ü« ∂ Å∂ KÀ@∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl~Ú. P~ÀáêÅ∞QÍ L#fl Ѩ^•ÅÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞, ã¨O㨯$`«, POQÆ¡, Ѩi¬Ü«∞<£ Ѩ^•Å∞ L<åfl~Ú. P~ÀѨ x~å‡}OÖ’ P Ѩ^ŒO U ÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ K≥Ok#^À W=fiÖË^Œ∞ HÍh, H˘xflKÀ@¡ J~°÷q=~°}Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ P Ѩ^ŒO Ѷ¨ÖÏ<åÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ K≥Ok#^Œx ¿Ñ~˘¯#_»O [iyOk. WOHÍ qeÜ«∞O „É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’x „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«Å#∞ H˜Okq^èŒOQÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#=K«∞Û. 1. JHÍ~åk„Hõ=∞O áê\˜OK«_OÖ’ D xѶ∞O@∞=Ù XHõ „Ѩ`ºÕ HõÑ^ux » ¨ ¨ úŒ J#∞ã¨iOzOk. JPÅ `«~åfi`« HõHÍ~åkQÍ P~ÀáêÅ∞ W=fi_»O [iyOk. WDÅ∞ "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ XFÅ =~°‰õΩ L#fl Ѩ^•Å#∞ ~Ú, ~¸, "˘, "ÀÅ =∂kiQÍ P~ÀáêÅ#∞ K«∂Ѩ_»O [iyOk. Wk P<å\˜ ÉèÏëêÅHõ}Ïxfl, LKåÛ~°}Ï q^è•<åxfl `≥Å∞ã¨∞HÀ_®xH˜ ∆ `À_»Ê_»∞`«∞Ok.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 39

2. ÉèÏëê ÉèÏQÍÅ#∞ POQÆ¡OÖ’ ã¨∂zOK«_»O [iyOk. 3. „H˜Ü«∂ Ѩ^•Å P~ÀáêÅx=fi_»OÖ’ â◊„`«~°÷Hõ ~°∂áêÅ∂, HÍÎfi~°÷Hõ ~°∂áêÅ∂ K«∂Ѩ_»O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : HõHõ¯_»O, Hõ‰õΩ¯`«∂, HõH¯˜ . 4. <å=∞"åK«Hõ P~ÀáêÅ`Àáê@∞ BѨqÉèíH˜ÎHõ ~°∂áêÅ∂/ |Ǩï=K«# ~°∂áêÅ∂ W=fi_»O XHõ Ѩ^ŒúuQÍ áê\˜OѨ|_çOk. L^• : PÜ«Ú^èŒO, PÜ«Ú^èŒÑ¨Ù/ PÜ«Ú^è•Å∞. |Ǩï=K«#O ÖËxKÀ@ No plural Jh, UHõ=K«#O ™ê^茺OHÍxKÀ@ No singular Jh ã¨∂zOKå_»∞. 5. POQÆ¡ ã¨=∂<å~°÷HÍÅ∞ W=fi_»OÖ’ „É∫<£ K«∂Ñ≤# „â◊^Œú „Ѩâ◊Oã≤OѨ ^ŒQÆæk. J=ã¨~°=Ú#flKÀ@ Ô~O_»∞ =¸_»∞ ã¨=∂<å~°÷HÍÅ#∞ W=fi_»O [iyOk. XˆH P~ÀѨOÖ’ "å\˜ Ѩ~åºÜ«∞Ѩ^•Å∞, <å<å~å÷Å∞ ‰õÄ~°Û_»O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. „ѨÜ≥∂QÆ"åHͺÅ∞ PÜ«∂ J~å÷ Å ‰õ Ω 㨠O |Okè O z#q L^•Ç¨ Ï iOKå~° ∞ . Wq [# =º=Ǩ~åxH˜ ^ŒQÆæ~°QÍ, ^≥·#Ok# =º=Ǩ~°OÖ’ `«@ã≤÷OKÕqQÍ L<åfl~Ú. WÖÏO\˜ L^•Ç¨Ï~°} "åHͺÅ=Å¡ P<å\˜ ™êOѶ≤∞Hõ r=#O „ѨuaOaOKÕ J=HÍâ◊O U~°Ê_çOk. g\˜x J~°÷=O`«OQÍ ‰õÄ~°Û_»OÖ’ „É∫<£ Hõ$+≤ "≥Å¡_»=Ù`«∞Ok. 6. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ WzÛ# L^•Ç¨Ï~°} "åHͺÅ#xflO\˜x „É∫<£ WOw¡+¨µ Ö’H˜ J#∞=kOKå_»∞. D J#∞"å^•Ö’¡ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åHõºOÖ’x J~å÷hfl, x~å‡}Ïhfl ™ê^茺"≥∞ÿ#O`«=~°‰õΩ WOw¡+¨µÖ’H˜ fã¨∞‰õΩ ~å=_®xH˜ „Ѩܫ∞uflOKå_»∞. L^• : u~°QÆ_»O... <å‰õΩ D"Õà◊ ÃÑ·`«ºO KÕ¿ã@ѨÊ\˜H˜ `«Å uiyOk. I was seized with bile today, till my head went round. aè#fl P~ÀáêÅ =∞^茺 J~°÷`«∞ź`«#∞ ã¨∂zOK«_®xH˜ Vide J#fl ã¨OˆH`«O ^•fi~å cross reference WzÛ, P~ÀáêÅ =∞^è Œ º 㨠O |O^è • xfl J=QÆ ` « O KÕã¨∞‰õΩ<ÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ gÅ∞ HõeÊOK«_»O [iyOk. Ѩ~åºÜ«∞Ѩ^•Å∞ WzÛ#KÀ@ item J#fl ã¨OˆH`«O ^•fi~å ã¨∂zOK«_»"≥∞ÿ#k. 7. ™êO㨠¯ $uHõ Ñ ¨ ~ ° " ≥ ∞ ÿ # P~Àáêʼnõ Ω `« y #O`« J~° ÷ q =~° } ã¨=∞‰õÄ~°Û_»O [iyOk. L^• : Ü«∞[˝=Ú... This is the name
given to a particular festival held by the Brahmins, at which sheep are killed by being smothered, so that no blood by split in the action. The meat is afterwards prepared and given in the smallest quantity by the officiating priests to those who engage in cermony. A person who has gone through this cermony, gets the appellation of somiaazooloo. The cermony was performed by the Ratsa. Vaars and Banians, as well as by the Brahmins about two or three hundred years ago, but it is now only customary with Brahmins.

AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

8. H˘xfl P~ÀáêʼnõΩ J~°÷q=~°}Å∞ xiÌ+¨ìOQÍ ÖËx ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅ∂ D

xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ HõxÑ≤™êÎ~Ú. L^• : JÅ∞¡_»∞... "Õ∞#Å∞¡_»∞ sisters or brothers son. D P~ÀѨOÖ’ brother's son J<Õ J~°÷O "Õ∞#Å∞¡_»∞‰õΩ WKåÛ~°∞. HÍx J@∞=O\˜ J~°÷O `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ ÖË^Œ∞. [|∞ƒ ... negligence, carlessness ÉÏx㨠... A female Servant. 9. ™êfi=∂º~°÷OÖ’ =KÕÛ <å 'my', h 'your', g∞ 'your' J#fl P~ÀáêÅ#∞ Nominative forms QÍ W=fi_»O [iyOk. L^• : <å ... Nominative Singular of the personal pronoun. My, <åk Mine. h ... Nominative case; personal pronoun, thy. g∞ ... Nominative case; plural of the personal pronoun <å, h, =∂Å#∞ Genative formsQÍ WzÛ LO>Ë ÉÏQÆ∞O_Õk. 10. H˘xfl P~ÀáêÅ z=~° ã¨~°~Ú# Ѩ^•Åx ~°∂áêO`«~åÅ∞QÍ WKåÛ_»∞. "å\˜<Õ „Ѩ^è•# P~ÀáêÅ∞QÍ WzÛ LO>Ë ÉÏQÆ∞O_Õk. L^• : HõOK« ... This word ought properly to be written as HõOK≥, HõOzÜ«∞. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ P<å\˜ "åº=ǨiHõ ÉèÏ+¨ #∞O_ç „Ñ¨Ü≥∂QÍÅ#∞ L^•Ç¨Ï~°}Å∞QÍ K«∂Ñ≤#O^Œ∞=Å¡ P<å\˜ ÉèÏëêã¨fi~°∂ѨO =∞#‰õΩ J=QÆ`«=∞=Ù`«∞Ok.

HÍOɡÖò „ѨuÉèÏqâıëêÅ∞ QÆ∞iÎOz# HÍÖËl É’~°∞¤"å~°∞ J`«}˜‚ XHõ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù ‰õÄ_® ~°zOK«=∞x ѨÙ~°=∂~ÚOKå~°∞. 1820Ö’ HÍOɡÖò ÉàϧiÖ’ HõÖˇHõì~üQÍ, "≥∞l„¿ãì@∞QÍ LO_Õ"å_»∞. JHõ¯_» LO@∂<Õ xѶ¨∞O@∞ ~°K«# KÕÜ«∞_®xH˜ HÍ=Åã≤# ã¨^Œ∞áêÜ«∂Å#∞ ã¨~å¯~°∞"å~°∞ HõeÊOKå~°∞. =∂q∞_ç "≥OHõÜ«∞º QÍi PO„^èŒ nÑ≤Hõ#∞ „áêuѨkHõQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx, H˘`«ÎѨ^•Å#∞ HõÅ∞ѨÙH˘O@∂, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ WOw¡+¨µ J~å÷Å#∞ Wã¨∂Î HÍOɡÖò `«# xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ ѨÓiÎKÕâß_»∞. Wk 1821Ö’ HÍÖËr „ÃÑã¨∞ûÖ’ =Ú„kOK«|_çOk. Wk HÍfi~Àì Ãã·AÖ’ 601 ѨÙ@Å`À LOk. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù 1848Ö’ =∞~˘Hõ =Ú„^Œ} á⁄OkOk. KåÖÏHÍÅO =~°‰õÄ q^•º~°∞÷ʼnõΩ D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù KåÖÏ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_çOk. HÍOɡÖò KåÖÏ ã¨Ç¨Ï$^ŒÜ«Ú_»∞. W`«xx `À\˜ `≥Å¡"åˆ~HÍHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ѨO_ç`«∞Å∞ ‰õÄ_® KåÖÏ Q“~°qOKÕ"å~°∞. ~åqáê\˜ QÆ∞~°∞=¸iÎ âß„ã≤ÎQÍ~°∞ XHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ "åºHõ~°}Ïxfl HÍOɡÖò L`«Î~°∞fi "Õ∞~°‰õΩ ~°zOKå~°∞. HÍOɡÖò WOHÍ PO„^èŒÉèÏëê K«i„`«#∞, PO„^èŒ^ÕjÜ«∞ K«i„`«#∞ ã¨OH˜∆ѨÎOQÍ<Õ HÍ=K«∞ÛQÍh 㨄Ѩ=∂}OQÍ ~° z OKå_» ∞ . W`« x "åºHõ ~ ° } OQÍh, xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=Ù QÍh, K« i „`« „QÆO^ä•Å∞QÍh W"åà◊ =∞#‰õΩ J>Ëì LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»HõáÈ=K«∞Û HÍx PÜ«∞# K«∂Ñ≤# =∂~°æO ZѨÊ\˜H© =∂~°æ^Œ~°≈Hõ"Õ∞.

KåÔ~¡ãπ Ѷ≤eÑπ „É∫<£ (1798–1884) :
KèåÔ~¡ãπ Ѷ≤eÑπ „É∫<£ `«# ã¨~°fiã¨OѨ^ŒÅ#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëêaè=$kúH˜ "≥zÛOz# `åºQÆ^èŒ#∞_»∞. DÜ«∞# ÉèÏëêaè=∂#O "≥∞O_»∞QÍ L#fl _Õq_£ „É∫<£, H“ÖË ^ŒOѨ`«∞ʼnõΩ Ô~O_»= ‰õΩ=∂~°∞_»∞QÍ „H©.â◊. 1798, #=O|~ü 10# HõÅHõ`åÎÖ’ „ѨÉqOKå_»∞. _Õq_£ „É∫<£ HõÅHõ`åÎÖ’x á¶È~üì qeÜ«∞O íè HÍÖËrÖ’ „á⁄"ÀãπìQÍ Ñ¨xKÕ¿ã"å_»∞. DÜ«∞# =∞Oz „QÆO^ä•ÅÜ«∞O ‰õ Ä _® 㨠fi O`« O QÍ #_ç ¿ Ñ"å_» ∞ . ã≤ . Ñ≤ . „É∫<£ WO_ç Ü « ∂ Ö’#∂, WOQÍ¡O_»∞Ö’#∂ K«^Œ∞=Ù =ÚyOK«∞H˘x 1817Ö’ ã≤qÖò ã¨Ô~fiO\òQÍ =∞„^•ã¨∞ KÕ~∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. P `«~åfi`« "≥∞l„¿ã@∞QÍ, áÈãπ=∂ã¨~ü [#~°ÖòQÍ ° ì ì ì ѨÅ∞ Ѩ^À#fl`«∞Å∞ á⁄O^•_»∞. DÜ«∞# 12 Uà◊§‰õΩ ÃÑ·QÍ Hõ_»Ñ¨Ö’ ѨxKÕÜ«∞_»O =Å¡ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨#∞ ÉÏQÍ <Õ~°∞Û‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. W`«xH˜ WOw¡+¨µ`Àáê@∞ „w‰õΩ, ÖÏ\˜<£, Ç‘Ï„|∂, ã≤iÜ«∞<£, J~°cƒ, á¶ê~°ã‘, ã¨O㨯$`«O, ɡOQÍb, =∞~åsî, `«q∞à◊ ÉèÏ+¨Å∞ ‰õÄ_® ÉÏQÍ=K«∞Û. „ÔH·ã¨Î= q∞+¨#sÅÖ’ Wxfl ÉèÏ+¨Å∞ `≥eã≤#"å~°∞ =∞~˘Hõ~°∞ ÖË~°O>Ë Juâ◊Ü≥∂H˜Î HÍ^Œ∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ W`«xx '„É∫<£ ^˘~°— Jx Jaè=∂#O`À Ñ≤eKÕ"å~°∞. P~ÀAÖ’¡ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨ q∞}∞‰õΩq∞}∞‰õΩ=∞O@∂ PiáÈÜÕ∞nѨOÖÏ LO_»QÍ „É∫<£ ^•x L^Œú~°}‰õΩ ѨÓ#∞H˘x Jk *∫[fiź=∂#OQÍ "≥eˆQÖÏ KÕâß_»∞. JO^Œ∞Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ "≥Ú^Œ@ "Õ=∞# Ѩ^•ºÅ#∞ 㨠O 㨠¯ iOz Ѩ ٠㨠ΠH õ ~ ° ∂ Ѩ O Ö’ „Ѩ H õ \ ˜ O Kå_» ∞ . `« ~ åfi`« `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ HÍ"åºÅ<≥xflO\˜<À áêâßÛ`«º Ѩ^ŒúuÖ’ Ѩi+¨¯iOz, „ѨK«∞iOz, „ѨKå~°OÖ’H˜ `≥KåÛ_»∞. JÖψQ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨‰õΩ "åºHõ~°}O ã¨O`«iOz JO^Œi =∞##flÅO^Œ∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. P `«~åfi`« DÜ«∞# XHõ¯KÕug∞^Œ∞QÍ =¸_»∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ xi‡Oz J[~å=∞~°∞_»Ü«∂º_»∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

JÖˇQÍ˚O_»~ü _»OHõ<£ HÍOɡÖò :
DÜ«∞# „H©.â◊. 1807Ö’ Ô~·@~°∞QÍ K≥#flѨ@ì}ÏxH˜ =KåÛ_»∞. L^Œ Ü « ∞ yi <å~åÜ« ∞ }Ü« ∞ º QÍi =^Œ Ì PO„^è Œ â◊ | Ì z O`å=∞}˜ x P=¸ÖÏ„QÆOQÍ K«^∞=Ù‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. qѨÙÅOQÍ <À\òû fã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. PO„^èŒ Œ H“=Úk, JǨϟ|ÅѨO_çfÜ«∞O, =∂q∞_ç "≥OHõÜ«∞ºQÍi PO„^èŒnÑ≤Hõ Ñ‘iHõ "≥Ú^ŒÖ#"å\˜x KåÖÏ ‰õÄÅOHõ+OQÍ Ñ¨iOKå_»∞. `«#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl î ·ˇ ¨ î <À@∞û `À\˜"åà◊§‰õΩ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_®Åx P~°∞ „ѨHõ~°}ÏÅÖ’ 519 ã¨∂„`åÅ`À PO„^èŒ "åºHõ~°}Ïxfl WOw¡+¨µÖ’ ~åâß_»∞. '"å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨‰õÄ, HÍ=ºÉèÏ+¨‰õÄ KåÖÏ `Õ_® LOk. x`«º=º=Ǩ~åxH˜ ѨxH˜~åHõáÈ~Ú<å XHõ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’x "åºHõ~°} ã¨∂„`åÅ#∞ P ÉèÏëê"Õ`«ÎÅ∞ ZÖÏ K≥áêÎ~À JÖψQ qâ◊^ŒÑ¨~°z qѨ~åºÅ∞ U"≥∞ÿ<å LO>Ë "å\˜x K«∂Ñ≤OK«_»"Õ∞ `«# qkè— Jx HÍOɡÖò ÉèÏqOKå_»∞. J#∞=∂<åÅ∞ =zÛ# KÀ@ Ѩ\Ïìaè~å=∞âß„ã¨∞ÎÅ"åi ã¨ÅǨÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. WOw¡+¨µ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ „"åã≤# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ "åºHõ~°}ÏÅÖ’ HõÖÏ¡ W^Õ JѨÊ\˜H˜ „áê=∂}˜Hõ"≥∞ÿ#k. JO`«™êkèHÍ~°"≥∞ÿ# ~°K«# HÍ|\˜ì HÍOɡÖò "åºHõ~°} HÍÑ‘Ô~·@∞#∞ HÍÖËl É’~°∞¤"å~°∞ H˘#∞‰õΩ¯<åfl~°∞. 1816Ö’ HÍÖËl „ÃÑã¨∞ûÖ’ JK«∞Û "Õâß~°∞. HÍÖËr É’~°∞¤`À HÍOɡÖò‰õΩ#fl ã¨O|O^è•Å =Å¡ ^Õâ◊ÉèÏ+¨Å J^茺ܫ∞# ã¨OѶ¨∂xH˜ HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ, `«~åfi`« É’~°∞¤ HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ 1812 #∞O_ç 1820 ^•HÍ Zxq∞^Õà◊√§ ѨxKÕâß_»∞. q^•º~°∞÷Å Hõ+¨ìã¨∞MÏÅ∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞‰õΩx "åà◊§‰õΩ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_Õ@@∞ì "åºHõ~°} ~°K«# KÕâß_»∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 40

"≥Å∞=_ç# ã≤.Ñ≤.„É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ „ѨѨ^äŒ=∞"≥∞ÿ#q HÍHõáÈ~Ú<å J`«∞º#fl`« „Ѩ=∂}ÏÅ`À <Õ\˜H© LѨܫÚHõÎ=∞=Ù`«∞<åfl~Ú. „É∫#∞ „áêp# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º „QÆO^ä•Å#∞ Ѩi~°H˜∆OK«_»O, Ѩi+¨¯iOz „ѨK«∞iOK«_»O XHõ Z`≥ÎÂ`Õ =¸_»∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ xi‡OK«_»O =∞~À Z`«∞Î. „É∫#∞ÖÏQÍ Ju qã¨Î$`« ѨikèÖ’ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ùefl ~°∂á⁄OkOz# =∞~À áêâßÛ`«∞º_»∞ QÍh, `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å_»∞ QÍh ÖË_»∞. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ WOw¡+¨µ"åi `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëê^茺ܫ∞<åxH˜ ÉÏQÍ `À_»Ê_»∞`å~Ú. „É∫<£ J#º^Õâ◊º xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ ‰õ Ä _® `« Ü « ∂ ~° ∞ KÕ Ü « ∞ _» O qâı + ¨ O . DÜ« ∞ # 㨠= ∞HÍb# xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ<≥xflO\˜<À K«∂ã≤ JO^Œ∞Ö’x Ѩ^Œ*ÏÖÏxfl =∂„`«"Õ∞HÍHõ, "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨#∞O_ç ‰õÄ_® Ѩ^Œ*ÏÖÏxfl ¿ãHõiOKå_»∞. JO`ÕQÍHõ `å#∞ ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ L„^ŒæO^ä•Å∞ K«kq, "å\˜Ö’x qq^èŒ Ñ¨^•Å#∞ ZuÎ ~å㨠∞ ‰õ Ω x `« # xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=Ùʼnõ Ω `« y # ™ê=∂„yx ã¨=∞‰õÄ~°∞Û‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. „É∫<£ ‰õÄiÛ# `≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù 1844Ö’#∂, WOw¡ + ¨ µ –`≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=Ù 1853Ö’#∂ =Ú„kOѨ|_®¤~Ú. DÜ«∞# ‰õÄiÛ# `≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ #∂~°∞HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯==∞Ok– „QÆO^äŒHõ~°ÎÅ∞ L^•Ç¨ÏiOѨ|_®¤~°∞. `«~åfiu HÍÅOÖ’ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Ö’ =zÛ# â◊ | Ì ~ ° ` åflHõ ~ ° O , 㨠∂ ~° º ~åÜ« ∂ O„^è Œ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙʼnõΩ „É∫<£ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖË =¸Å=∞x y_»∞QÆ∞ ~å=∞=¸iÎ Jaè„áêÜ«∞O.

=∞$^Œ∞=ÙQÍ^•#fl=Ú—— JuÎ adj. ''JuÎ=∂#∞ ѨÓz#@∞ì 'denotes' about as likely as milk from a stone——. 5. POQÆ¡ ã¨=∂<å~°÷HÍÅ∞ gÖˇ·#xfl Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ W=fi|_®¤~Ú. L^• : |OQÍ~°∞ adj. golden, The names of gold are used to denote fine, noble, beautiful, admirable. Thus - |OQÍ~°∞ H˘O_» ´ pet darling† gracious lord; |OQÍ~°∞ Ñ≤@ì ´ sweet bird† |OQÍ~°∞ =∞~åº^Œ ´ vastly polite† |OQÍ~°∞ ÉÏÅ∞_»∞ ´ hopeful lad "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q. 6. H˜¡+¨ì"≥∞ÿ#KÀ@¡ ‰õÄ_® J~°÷q=~°} W=fi_®xH˜ „Ѩܫ∞uflOK«_»O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : J\˜ÔH=∂q∞_ç ´ a spreading plant called
hog weed.

„É∫<£ `≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù :
D xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}OÖ’ „É∫<£ D<å_»∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ áê\˜OKÕ Ñ¨^Œúux J#∞ã¨iOK«ÖË^Œ∞. J#∞<åã≤HÍHõ∆~åÅ∞ `«Ñ¨Ê q∞ye# JHõ∆~åÅ#∞ JHÍ~åk JK«∞ÛÅ „Hõ=∞OÖ’ XHõKÀ@ WKåÛ_»∞. JO>Ë HÀ`«, QÀ„`«=Ú, Ѷ¨∞’\˜, âß`«=Ú, ëê_»|=Ú, ™ê`åx J<Õ Ñ¨^ŒúuÖ’ ‰õÄ~åÛ_»∞. WÖÏ KÕÜ«∞@O =Å¡ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ#∞ LѨÜ≥∂yOK«_»O ã¨∞ÅÉèí=∞=Ù`«∞O^Œx PÜ«∞# Jaè„áêÜ«∞Ѩ_®¤_»∞. HÍx Jk J#∞ã¨~°}©Ü«∞ Ѩ^Œúu HÍ^Œ∞. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’x qâıëêÅ#∞ H˜Okq^èŒOQÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯#=K«∞Û. 1. „QÆO^äŒã¨÷"≥∞ÿ# Ѩ^•Å`Àáê@∞ "å_»∞HõÖ’x Ѩ^•Å#∞ ‰õÄ_® P~ÀáêÅ∞QÍ Z#∞flHÀ=_»O [iyOk. L^• : HõbHõ (HõeÜ«∞Hõ)† a_≥=Ú (a_çÜ«∞=Ú)† Ãã|ƒ~° (â◊|ƒ~°, â◊|) ´ evil ´ K≥_»∞ѨÙ. 2. J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ#KÀ@ P~ÀáêʼnõΩ ѨÓ~°fiHõq „ѨÜ≥∂QÍe=fi_»O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : as# (a~å#) – a~åÅ∞# ´ rapidly ''`«Å∞Ê a~åÅ∞# =¸ã≤ Hõ$+¨µ‚x<£—— (~å^è•. 1–98) ѨÙ@.64. 3. P~ÀáêʼnõΩ J~å÷Å∞ x~°‚~ÚOK«@OÖ’ „QÆO^ä•Å #∞OKÕ HÍHõ =º=Ǩ~°ÉèÏ+¨ #∞Oz ‰õÄ_® fã¨∞HÀ=_»O [iyOk. L^• : ѨÔH¯ (KÕѨ) as ÉË_çÃã (KÕѨ) n.s. a sort of carp or Spart with forked bones, some species are called |∞_»¤ ѨÔH¯, =∞OQÆÅO ѨÔH¯, "≥∂~°Ñ¨ÔH¯, =∂K«#ѨÔH¯, K«O^Œ=∂=∞ ѨÔH¯, ÉÁO^ŒÑ¨ÔH¯. 4. J~°÷q=~°}HÀã¨O Ö’HÀ‰õΩÎÅ#∞, *ÏfÜ«∂Å#∞ ‰õÄ_® KÕ~°Û_»O HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : "≥∞~°∞QÆ∞ ´ <≥~Úº ''"≥∞~°∞QÆ∞ "≥Ü«∞ºHõQÍx
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 41

7. Xˆ H Ѩ ^ •xH˜ qaè # fl „Ѩ Ü ≥ ∂ QÍÅÖ’ L#fl qq^è • ~å÷ Å #∞ „Ѩ^Œi≈OK«_»O K«∂_»=K«∞Û. L^• : <À~°∞ ´ mouth† <À~°∞=Ú~Úº ´ hold your tongue† <À~°∞ÖËx"å_»∞ ´ simpleton† <À~°∞Hõ@∞ì@ ´ to silence† <À~°∞QÍK«∞@ ´ to watch his life† <ÀÔ~`«∞Î@ ´ to raise the voice, cry, speak "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q. 8. J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ#KÀ@¡ JHõ∆~åʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® q=~°} W=fi_»O [iyOk. L^• : O = the sunna, anuswara or circle used for }, #, =∞ as JO_»=Ú, ã¨O`å#=Ú, HõO|∞ "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q. ó (qã¨~°æ) : The silent 'H' as in the words ^Œ∞óY=Ú (dukhamu) "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q.

„É∫<£ WOw¡+¨µ–`≥Å∞QÆ∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù :
Wk „É∫<£ `«#‰õΩ `å#∞‰õΩ `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕã≤ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜ WzÛ# JѨÙ~°∂Ѩ"≥∞ÿ# HÍ#∞Hõ. Wk `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ POQÆ¡O JÉèíºã≤OK«_®xH˜ ZO`«QÍ<À LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»∞`«∞O^Œx „É∫<£ q=iOKå_»∞. PÜ«∞# `«# LáÈ^•…`«OÖ’ WOw¡+¨µ <Õ~°∞ÛHÀ=_»OÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ Z^Œ∞~˘¯<Õ ã¨=∞㨺Å#∞ H˘xfl\˜x ã¨∂zOKå~°∞. ÉèÏ~°fÜ«ÚÅ∞ Ѩk"ÕÅ =∞OkÖ’ XHõ¯iH˜ ‰õÄ_® WOw¡+¨µ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’x A, An, the J<Õ articlesx ã¨iQÍ LѨÜ≥∂yOK«_»O ~å^Œx J<åfl_»∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’#∂, ÉèÏ~°fÜ«∞ÉèÏ+¨Ö’¡#∂ W@∞=O\˜ Ѩ^•Å∞ ÖËHõáÈ=_»"Õ∞ nxH˜ „Ѩ^è•# HÍ~°}=∞x ‰õÄ_® PÜ«∞<Õ K≥áêÊ_»∞. WOw¡+¨µ "åºHõ~°}ÏÅÖ’ articles ÃÑ· Z‰õΩ¯= K«~°ÛÖËHõáÈ=_»O XHõ ֒Ѩ=∞x QÆ∞iÎOz, "å\˜ „ѨÜ≥∂QÆ q+¨Ü«∞"≥∞ÿ H˘xfl ã¨∂„`åÅ∞ L^•Ç¨Ï~°}ÏÅ`Àáê@∞ WKåÛ_»∞. Wk `«# ã¨fiO`« Ѩiâ’^èŒ<å Ѷ¨e`«=∞x ã¨∂zOKå_»∞. D q+¨Ü«∞"≥∞ÿ PÜ«∞# K«∂Ñ≤# "åHͺÅ∞ JO^Œ~°∂ QÆ∞iÎOK«^Œy#q. "å\˜Ö’ H˘xfl\˜x WHõ¯_» K«∂^•ÌO:
Carpenter is here The carpenter is here

HÍÔ~ÊO@~ü J<Õ =ºH˜Î =KåÛ_»∞
He went to prison

=„_»Oy =KåÛ_»∞.
He went to the prison

Mˇ·^Œ∞Ö’ Ѩ_®¤_»∞

K≥é™êʼnõΩ U^ÀѨxg∞^Œ "≥àϧ_»∞
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

He went to bed

He went to the bed

He has translated it word for word He kept his word

´ â◊|Ì`«ó ÉèÏëêO`«~°O KÕã≤<å_»∞

Ѩ_»∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞ =∞OK«O ^ŒQÆæiH˜ "≥àϧ_»∞ D ^Œ$+≤ì`À „É∫<£ ã¨∂Hõ∆‡Ñ¨ijÅ#`À xi‡Oz# D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù ZO`À „áê=∂}˜Hõ`«#∞ ã¨O`«iOK«∞‰õΩOk. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’x =∞iH˘xfl „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«efl K«∂^•ÌO : 1. POQÆ¡ Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ L#fl ã¨=∂<å~°÷HÍÅxflO\˜h K«∂Ѩ_»O. L^• : Fatigue JÅ∞ѨÙ, PÜ«∂ã¨O, QÍ¡x, „â◊=∞ Best ã¨~Àfi`«Î=∞"≥∞ÿ#, „âı+¨ª"≥∞ÿ#, =ÚYº"≥∞ÿ# 2. q=~°}eKÕÛ ã¨O^Œ~°ƒùOÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëêã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∂Å#∞ áê\˜OK«_»O. L^• : The English Language abounds with idioms ´ WOw¡+¨µ ÉèÏ+¨ *ÏfÜ«∞"åHõº=ÚŠѨÙ@ì She aboondoned herself to grief ´ Jk =ºã¨#=Ú#‰õΩ áêÖˇ·#k He abondoned her ´ ^•x KÕ~Ú q_çz<å_»∞. 3. XHõ Ѩ^ŒO LѨܫÚHõÎ=∞ÜÕ∞º *ÏfÜ«∂Å#∞ (idioms) Jxfl\˜x WzÛ "å\˜H˜ ã¨=∂#"≥∞ÿ# "åHͺÅ#∞ W=fi_»O. L^• : He is gone to the dogs ´ "å_»∞ K≥_çáÈÜ«∂_»∞ (ѨÙ.325) They threw the regulation to the dogs ´ K«@ì=Ú#∞ JÅHõ∆ºO KÕã≤#"å~°∞, `˘H˜¯áê~°"Õã≤#"å~°∞. (ѨÙ.235) They played the devil with the accounts ´ "åO_»∞¡ D ÖˇHõ¯Å#∞ `«Å„H˜O^Œ∞Å∞ KÕã≤<å~°∞, QÆO^Œ~°QÀà◊O KÕã≤<å~°∞. He did it under my nose ´ ##∞fl ÅHõ∆ºÃÑ@ìHõKÕã≤<å_»∞. 4. Ѩ^•Å‰õΩO_Õ J~“÷z`åºxfl q=iOK«_»O. L^• : Stargazer ´ *’u+¨µº_»∞ (Wk ZQÆ`åo=∂@) (ѨÙ.1100) Doctoring ´ "≥^º=Ú, zH˜`û (Wk J#~åx=∂@) (ѨÙ.324) · Œ « Flowers ´ ~°[ã¨∞û, =Ú@∞ì (Wk J#~åx=∂@) (ѨÙ. 447) 5. Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ#fl J~å÷Å#∞ W=fi_»"Õ∞QÍHõ "å\˜ J~°÷KèåÜ«∞ʼnõΩ `«y# q=~°}Å∞ W=fi_»O. L^• : Strike, beat J<Õ „H˜Ü«∂ „ѨÜ≥∂QÍefl q=iã¨∂Î ^≥|ƒÅ ã¨OYº#∞ ã¨∂zOKÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ strike, W`«~°„`å beat, "å_®Åx ã¨∂zOKå_»∞ (ѨÙ.80). Heathen (ѨÙ.541) Jã¨É∞º_»∞, „‰õÄ~°∞_»∞, íè J#º=∞`«ã¨∞÷_»∞, nxH˜ W`«~°∞Å∞ WzÛ# J*Ï˝x, K«O_®Å∞_»∞, "Õ∞¡K«∞Ûù_»∞ J<Õ J~å÷Å∞ ã¨Ô~·#q HÍ=x ZuÎK«∂áê_»∞. 6. ™ê^è•~°}"≥∞ÿ# =∂@ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® „ѨÜ≥∂QÆ "≥·q^蕺xfl |\˜ì J~°÷q=~°} W=fi_»O. L^• : Word = Talk, Message ´ =^ŒOu, ã¨=∂Kå~°=Ú, =~°=∂#=Ú. Î
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 42

He read the paper word by word ´ "˘H˘¯Hõ¯=∂@QÍ q_çq_çQÍ K«kq<å_»∞

´ "å_»∞ P_ç#=∂@ `«Ñ¨ÊÖË^Œ∞ He broke his word ´ =∂@ `«Ñ≤Ê<å_»∞ Dq^èŒOQÍ D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOK«_»OÖ’ PÜ«∞# L^ÕÌâ◊O JO^ŒiH© ã¨Ê+¨ì=∞ÜÕ∞ºq^èŒOQÍ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ fiÛk^•ÌÅ<Õk J~Ú LO@∞O^Œx K≥ѨÊ=K«∞Û. „É∫<£ 150 Uà◊§‰õΩ =ÚO^Õ WÖÏO\˜ xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=Ù#∞ `« Ü « ∂ ~° ∞ KÕ Ü « ∞ _» O Ö’ PÜ« ∞ # Hõ $ +≤ , <≥ · t `« º O ã¨Ê+¨ì=∞=Ù`å~Ú. WOw¡+¨µ ÉèÏ+¨ P=â◊ºHõ`« Z‰õΩ¯==Ù`«∞#fl D~ÀAÖ’¡ nxfl ã¨O㨯iOz =Ú„k¿ãÎ Jk q^•º~°∞÷ʼnõΩ =∞ǨϟѨHÍ~°O J=Ù`«∞Ok. nxfl ã¨O㨯iOK«_»OÖ’ QÆ=∞xOK«=Åã≤# JOâßefl PKå~°º Ñ≤.Ü«∞ãπ. ã¨∞„|Ǩχ}ºOQÍ~°∞ 'kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞–„É∫<£ K«∂Ñ≤# X~°=_ç— J#fl "åºã¨OÖ’ D H˜Okq^èŒOQÍ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞5. 1. Ѩ^•Åx WѨÙÊ_»∞ JOwHÍ~°Ü≥∂Qƺ"≥∞ÿ# q^èŒOQÍ ~åÜ«∞_»O. L^• : =Hõ – XHõ† KÕt<å_»∞ – KÕã≤<å_»∞/ KÕâß_»∞. 2. H˘xfl Ѩ^•ÅH˜ W\©=Å „áêK«∞~°ºOÖ’H˜ =zÛ# ã¨=∂<å~°÷HÍÅ∞ W"åfie. L^• : experiment 'ѨsHõ∆, â’^èŒ#—‰õΩ |^Œ∞Å∞ '„ѨÜ≥∂QÆO—† News paper 'ã¨=∂Kå~° Ѩ„uHõ—‰õΩ |^Œ∞Å∞ '"å~åÎѨ„uHõ—. 3. qq^èŒ âß„™êÎÅÖ’ H˘`«ÎQÍ =zÛ# Ѩ^•Å∞ KÕ~°∞ÛHÀ"åe. 4. H˘xfl Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ H˘`«Î J~å÷Å∞ KÕ~°∞ÛHÀ"åe. L^• : Monumental nxH˜ 'QÀsã¨O|O^èŒ"≥∞ÿ#— J<Õ J~°÷O =∂„`« " Õ ∞ xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=ÙÖ’ LOk. nxH˜ 'KåÖÏQ˘Ñ¨ Ê , âßâ◊fi`«™ê÷#OQÍ, KåÖÏ ÃÑ^ŒÌ— J<Õ J~å÷Å∞ KÕ~°∞ÛHÀ"åe. wizard J<Õ Ñ¨^•xH˜ '=∞O„`«QÍ_»∞, ^ŒÜ«∂ºÅ∞ `ÀÖË"å_»∞— J<Õ J~å÷Å`Àáê@∞, 'J™ê^è•~°}"≥∞ÿ# `≥eq`Õ@Å∞ QÆÅ =ºH˜Î— J<Õ J~°÷O ‰õÄ_® KÕ~°∞ÛHÀ"åe. 5. H˘xfl Ѩ^•Å J~å÷Å∞ ã¨=iOKåe. L^• : nostalgia 'ã¨fi^Õâ◊„ÉèÏOu— ã¨iHÍ^Œ∞ '[iyáÈ~Ú# q+¨Ü«∂ÅÃÑ· „Ñ‘u— Jx ã¨=iOKåe. doctor âß„ã≤Î, ѨO_ç`«∞_»∞– D J~å÷Å∞ fã≤"Õã≤ "≥·^Œ∞º_»∞ Jx W"åfie. 6. `«q∞à◊<å_»∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ =∂„`«"Õ∞ q#|_Õ `«q∞à◊Ѩ^•Å#∞ ѨiǨÏiOKåe. L^• : Ñ¨Öˇ¡‰õÄ@=Ú–|_ç† Ñ≤_ç"å^ŒO ´ Ѩ@∞ì^ŒÅ, xO_® (q^•fiOã¨∞_»∞), xO_® (QÆifi) "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q. 7. Jã¨Å∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞^Œ#O Hõ#Ѩ_»x "åHͺÅx ѨÓiÎQÍ =∂iÛ"ÕÜ«∂e. L^• : The guilt of his death does not be with the doctor '"å_»∞ K«zÛ#^À+¨=Ú D "≥·^Œ∞ºx g∞^Œ ÖË^Œ∞— (ѨÙ. 521) "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞#q. „É∫<£ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ZO`«\˜ ѨO_ç`«∞_≥·#ѨÊ\˜H© W@∞=O\˜KÀ@¡ =∂`« $ Éè Ï ëê „Ñ¨ É è Ï "åxfl Jkè Q Æ q ∞OK« Ö Ë H õ á ÈÜ« ∂ _» ∞ . Wk
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

Ѩ~°ÉèÏëê^茺ܫ∞#OÖ’ =∂#==∂„`«∞ÅO`å KÕ¿ã á⁄~°áê@∞ HÍ|\˜ì „É∫<£ áêO_ç`«ºOÖ’ Wk Hõà◊OHõO U=∂„`«=¸ HÍ^Œ∞.

„É∫<£ q∞„â◊ÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù :
Wk „É∫<£ „ѨuÉèí‰õΩ `å~å¯}O. WO^Œ∞Ö’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞, Ѩi¬Ü«∞<£, WOw¡+¨µ eѨÙÅ∞ =¸_»∂ "å_»|_ç<å~Ú. P~ÀѨѨ^ŒO `≥Å∞QÆ∞ eÑ≤Ö’#∂, ^•x ~å`« Ѩi¬Ü«∞<£ eÑ≤Ö’#∂, LKåÛ~°} WOw¡+¨µ eÑ≤Ö’#∂, J~°÷O WOw¡+¨µ, `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’#∂ L<åfl~Ú. Wk 1854Ö’ =Ú„kOѨ|_çOk. WO^Œ∞Ö’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ JHõ∆~åÅ QÆ∂iÛ# n~°…"≥∞ÿ#"åºã¨O XHõ\˜ LOk. D xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}OÖ’ `å#∞ ¿ãHõiOz# *Ï|∞Å∂, ™ê÷xHõ K«i„`«Å∂ ÉÏQÍ `À_»Ê_®¤Ü«∞@. J~Ú`Õ J=ã¨~°O ÖË#ѨÙÊ_»∞ =∂@ÅÖ’HÍh, ~å`«ÅÖ’ HÍh 'q∞„â◊ÉèÏ+¨—#∞ LѨÜ≥∂yOK«@O =∞OzkHÍ^Œx, ™ê^茺"≥∞ÿ#O`«=~°‰õΩ ^•xfl ѨiǨÏiOKåÅx „É∫<£ Jaè„áêÜ«∞Ѩ_®¤_»∞. Wk ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞ÿ# `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨Ñ¨@¡ PÜ«∞#‰õΩ#fl Jaè=∂<åxfl `≥eÜ«∞*Ëã¨∞ÎOk. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖË HÍHõ „É∫<£ lÖÏ¡ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù (1852) ÖÏO\˜q ZxflO\˜<À `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕâß_»∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞x~å‡}OÖ’ „É∫<£ „Ѩ`ÕºHõ Ѩ ^ Œ ú ` « ∞ Å#∞ J#∞㨠i Oz xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞Hõ ~ ° Î Å Ö’ XHõ qt+¨ ì ™ ê÷ < åxfl Jkè+≤ìOKå_»∞.

*Ï<£ ã≤. =∂iãπ (1798–1858) :
DÜ«∞# 1818Ö’ Ô~·@~°∞QÍ K≥#flѨ@ì}ÏxH˜ =KåÛ_»∞. HÀ@Ö’x HõàÏâߊѨsHõ∆Ö’ LfÎ~°∞‚_≥· ã¨~å¯~°∞"åi „Ѩ^è•#HÍ~°º^Œi≈ ^ŒQÆæ~° ã¨Ç¨Ü«∞‰õΩxQÍ Ñ¨xKÕâß_»∞. ã¨~å¯~°∞ "åi `≥Å∞QÆ∞ „\Ï<£ûÖË@~üQÍ, HÍÖËr É’~°∞¤ HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ xÜ«∞q∞`«∞_»Ü«∂º_»∞. *Ï<£ =∂iãπH˜ HÍÖËr É’~°∞¤"åi P^Œ~°} ÉÏQÍ ^˘iH˜Ok. q^•º~°∞÷Å HÀã¨O '`≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÃãÅHõ∆<£û— J<Õ áê~î°º„QÆO^ä•xfl ~°zOKå_»∞. W`«xH˜ HÍÖËr É’~°∞¤ "åi`À ÉÏQÍ Ñ¨Å∞‰õΩ|_ç LO_»_»O=Å¡ `«# xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ HÍÖËr É’~°∞¤"åˆ~ H˘x 1855Ö’ „ѨK«∞iOKå~°∞. JѨÊ\˜H˜ É’~°∞¤ "åi Pâ◊Ü«∂Å∞ =∂~å~Ú. ѨÓ~°fiO `≥Å¡"åà◊§‰õΩ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ <Õ~°Ê_»"Õ∞ "åà◊§ L^ÕÌâ◊O. WѨÙÊ_»∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åà◊§‰õΩ WOw¡+¨µ <Õ~°Ê_»O ‰õÄ_® J=ã¨~°=∞~ÚOk. JO^Œ∞ˆH ã¨∞ÅÉèíOQÍ L#fl =∂iãπ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ P"≥∂kOKå~°∞. WO^Œ∞Ö’ ˆH=ÅO Ü«¸~ÀÑ≤Ü«∞<£ ^ÕâßʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# Ѷ¨Å, =$Hõ∆<å=∂Å∞, W`« ~ ° âß„ã‘ Î Ü « ∞ â◊ É ÏÌ Å ∞ =^Œ e "Õ â ß~° ∞ . JO^Œ ∞ =Å¡ ~åtÖ’QÍx "åã≤Ö’QÍx "≥∂ã¨O ÖË^Œx =∂iãπ ÉèÏ=#. =∂iãπ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù P~ÀAÖ’¡<Õ ÉÏQÍ Ys^Œ∞QÍ LO_Õk. ("≥Å ~°∂. 35/–). *Ï<£ =∂iãπ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù, "åK«HÍÅ∞ ~åâß~°∞ QÍx "åºHõ~°}O *’eH˜ áÈÖË^Œ∞. W`«x xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù <Õ_»ÅÉèíºO.

Z. HÍ_çÖÏH± _ç ÔQÅ\© :
[#‡`«ó ÔQÅ\© W\ÏeÜ«∞<£ J~Ú<å „a\˜+π ã≤qÖò ã¨sfiã¨∞Ö’ KÕi L^ÀºQÆs`åº L=∞‡_ç =∞„^•ã¨∞ ~åROÖ’ KåÖÏHÍÅO HõÖˇHõì~°∞QÍ Ñ¨xKÕâß_»∞. JO^Œ∞Ö’ Z‰õΩ¯= ÉèÏQÆO `≥Å∞QÆ∞^Õâ◊OÖ’ HÍ=_»O`À `≥Å∞QÆ∞ÉèÏ+¨ <Õ~°∞ÛHÀ=@"Õ∞QÍHõ JO^Œ∞Ö’ `«#ÔH^Œ∞~°~Ú# ã¨=∞㨺Å#∞
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 43

ѨÓiÎQÍ J~°÷OKÕã¨∞H˘x D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕâß_»∞. Wk `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH©, WOw¡+¨µ"åiH© W^ŒÌiH© ÉÏQÍ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»∞`«∞Ok. Wk ÔQÅ\© rq`«HÍÅOÖ’ =Ú„^Œ} ÉèÏQͺxH˜ <ÀK«∞HÀÖË^Œ∞. J#O`«~°O J^Õ Ñ¨^Œq KÕѨ\˜ì# J`«x H˘_»∞‰õΩ nxfl 1935Ö’ =Ú„kOÑ≤OKå_»∞. J`«<Õ qѨÙÅ"≥∞ÿ# Ñ‘iîHõ#∞ ‰õÄ_® ~åâß_»∞. ÔQÅ\© D xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ ѨÓiÎQÍ "åº=ǨiHõÉèÏ+¨ÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ¨_®¤_»∞. JO^Œ∞ˆH nx LѨÜ≥∂QÆO W#∞=∞_çOѨ*Ëã≤Ok. JO`ÕQÍHõ W`«_»∞ J<ÕHõKÀ@¡ W`«~° ÉèÏ+¨Å#∞Oz L^•Ç¨Ï~°}eKåÛ_»∞. H˘xfl Ѩ^•Å ѨÙ@∞ìHõ QÆ∞iOz q=iOKå_»∞. ÃÑ·QÍ `«# L^•Ç¨Ï~°}ÏÅÖ’ "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏëê#∞_»∞Å∞, ™ê"≥∞`«Å∞, ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å∞, á⁄\˜ ì Hõ ^ ä Œ Å ∞ K˘Ñ≤ Ê OKå_» ∞ . WOHÍ D xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=ÙÖ’ J<Õ H õ „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«Å∞<åfl~Ú. "å\˜x K«∂^•ÌO : 1. P<å\˜ 㨠O „Ѩ ^ •Ü« ∞ O „Ѩ H Í~° O Ô Q Å\˜ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Ѩ ^ •Å#∞ WOw¡+¨µÖ’ eѨºO`«sHõ~°} KÕâß_»∞. J~Ú`Õ Wk JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ ã¨fi~°=∂ÖÏ HÍ^Œ∞. |Ǩïà◊„ѨKå~°OÖ’ L#fl ~À=∞<£eÑ≤ HÍ^Œ∞. `«#^≥·# XHõ H˘`«Î Ѩ^Œúux LѨÜ≥∂yOKå_»∞. L^• : (C) ´ Hõ† (ts) K«† (d ) or (Z) ´ [† (ch) ´ K«† (j) ´ [† (t) `«† (s) ´ â◊†or (sh) ´ +¨† (l) ´ n~°…O† (rii) ´ |∞∞/ $. ÔQÅ\©H˜ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëê Ѩi*Ï˝#O ÉÏQÍ<Õ LOk. â◊|ÌѨi}Ï=∂Å∞, ã¨Okè, ã¨=∂ã¨O "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·#"å\˜x âß„ã‘ÎÜ«∞OQÍ Ñ¨ijeOKå_»∞. JK«∞ÛÖ’ HõxÑ≤OK«x =~°‚qÉèË^•xfl Ѩã≤QÆ\Ïì_»∞. J~Ú`Õ ^•x q=~°} PÜ«∞# KÕÜ«∞ÖËHõáÈÜ«∂_»∞. L^• : "Õ∞Hõ { LOk/ "Õ∞‰õΩ { LOk ´ "Õ∞‰õΩOk. 2. =∞#O <Õ_»∞ "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨ ÖË^• "åº=ǨiHõ ÉèÏ+¨ Jx Ñ≤eKÕ ÉèÏ+¨#∞ ÔQÅ\© „QÍ=∞ºO J<åfl_»∞. `«#∞ q#flq^èŒOQÍ „Ѩ[Å∞ "å_ç# f~°∞QÍ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’Oz L^•Ç¨Ï~°}eKåÛ_»∞. Wk J`«x x|^Œú`«‰õΩ XHõ x^Œ~°≈#O. L^• : 'g_»=∞‡ Hõ_»∞Ѩ٠QÍÅ!—, 'QÆ~åƒùÖ’¡ Ñ≤ O _®Åkˆ ~ q—, 'Tà’§"åà◊ § O`å Ѩ O K« Ö ’¡ JÖÏÊK« = ∂#O KÕã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞—, 'Hõã¨∞û=∞x HÍ@¡‰õΩHõ¯ÖÏ Hõ~°∞= =zÛOk—, 'Hõ\˜Hõ =ÚO_®"å_»∞—, 'H˘OѨQÆ∞O_»"Õ∞ã¨∞‰õΩáÈ~ÚOk—. '"å_»∞ HÀ\˜H˜ Ѩ_»ÔQ`åÎ_»∞—, '_˘Hõ¯ |^ŒÌÅ∞ KÕ™êÎ#∞—, '~°∂. 300 ^˘aƒ<å_»∞— "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·#q. H˘`«ÎQÍ ÉèÏ+¨ <Õ~°∞Û‰õΩ<Õ"åà◊§H˜ ѨÅ∞‰õΩ|_ç`À ‰õÄ_ç# L^•Ç¨Ï~°} "åHͺÅ∞ ã¨O^Œ~Àƒùz`«OQÍ LO\Ï~Ú. 3. QÅ\© WzÛ# L^•Ç¨Ï~°}Å∞ P<å\˜ ™êOѶ∞Hõ, ~å[H©Ü∞, Kåi„`«Hõ Ô ≤ « qâıëêÅ#∞ `≥eÜ«∞*Ë¿ãqQÍ L<åfl~Ú. L^•Ç¨Ï~°}H˜ : K«O„^Œyi HÀ@Ö’ ã¨Okè Ѩ„`åÅÃÑ· ã¨O`«HÍÅ∞ [iQÍ~Ú—. '^•x „ѨHÍ~°O =∞„^•ã¨∞Ö’x á¶È~°∞¤Ãã~ÚO\ò *Ïi˚ „a\˜+π"åà◊§ ™⁄`«Î~ÚOk—, '|∂z— J<Õ Ñ¨^ŒO „ÃѶOz ¿Ñ~°∞ |∞ã‘û #∞Oz =zÛOk—, '„\˜ " åO‰õ Ä ~° ∞ =∞Ǩ  ~å*Ï ã¨ = ∂O`« ~ ° áÈ㨠∞ ì ŠѨ ^ Œ ú u x „Ѩ"Õâ◊ÃÑ\Ïì_»∞—, '=∞Ǩ`å‡QÍOnè ^Œ~°≈#=Ú =∞ǨÉèÏQƺ=∞x „Ѩ[Å∞ ÉèÏqOKÕ"åà◊√§—, '|~å‡ Ü«Ú^ŒúOÖ’ ã¨Ô~·# |ńѨÜ≥∂QÆO KÕÜ«∞ÖËHõáÈ|\˜ì „a\˜+π"å~°∞ F_ç<å~°∞—, 'PO„^èŒ∞Å∞ "Õˆ~ ~åRO HÍ"åÅx HÀ~°∞`«∞<åfl~°∞—, 'HÍO„ÔQã¨∞ Jã¨Ê$â◊º`«x =ºuˆ~H˜ã¨∂Î
2

AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

L^Œº=∂Å∞ #_çÑ≤Ok— "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·#q. 4. H˘xflKÀ@¡ Ѩ^•Å =Ùº`«ÊuÎÖ’ á⁄~°|_»‰ΩO_® LO_»\ÏxH˜ =¸ÅO õ L@OH˜OK«_»O, H˘xfl ã¨O㨯$`«Ñ¨^•ÅH˜ `«∞ź"≥∞ÿ# Ü«Ú~ÀÑ≤Ü«∞<£ Ѩ^•Å∞ W=fi_»O, Ѩ^Œ„ѨÜ≥∂QÍʼnõΩ H˘xflKÀ@¡ P^è•~åÅ∞ K« ∂ Ѩ _ » O Ô Q Å\© H ˜ Éè Ï +¨ # ∞ <Õ ~ ° Ê _» O Ö’QÆ Å PHÍOHõ ∆ x `≥eÜ«∞*Ë™êÎ~Ú. L^• : 'H©Å∞KåѨ— J<Õ^•O\’¡ H©Å∞ 'joint' J#fl Ѩ^ŒO #∞Oz ~åÖË^Œx, Jk 'mixture of tar' J<Õ ^•O\’¡#∞Oz =zÛO^Œx q=iOKå_»∞. JÖψQ '#=— J<Õ Ñ¨^•xH˜ `«∞ź"≥∞ÿ# Ü«Ú~ÀÑ≤Ü«∞<£ Ѩ^•eKåÛ_»∞. 'JQÆ_»Î— J<Õ Ñ¨^ŒO Kåi„`«Hõ #=ÅÖ’ =∂„`«"Õ∞ QÀK«iã¨∞ÎO^Œx ã¨∂z™êÎ_»∞. 5. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™ê"≥∞`«efl q™êÎ~°OQÍ `«# xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ W=fi_»O ÔQÅ\© =∞~À „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«. L^• : 'H˘O_»q∞OˆQ"åxH˜ QÀѨÙ~°O J_»¤=∂—, 'JOQÆ\’¡ Jhfl L<åfl~Ú, JÅ∞¡_»∞ <À\’¡ â◊x—, 'KÕâıq t=ѨÓ[Å∞ K≥¿ÑÊq J|^•úÅ∞—, 'Hõ_»∞ѨÙ`À L#fl=∞‡ Hõ#Hõ=∂#∞`«∞O^•, =O_ç#=∞‡ u#Hõ =∂#∞`«∞O^•—, 'J`«Î XH˜O\˜ HÀ_»ÖË—, 'J`«ÎÖËx HÀ_»Å∞ L`«Î=Ú~åÅ∞, HÀ_»Å∞ ÖËx J`«Î QÆ∞}=O`«∞~åÅ∞—, 'J`«Î K«¿ãÎ HÀ_»Å∞ U_çÛ#@∞¡—, 'á⁄@ì ‰õÄ\˜H˜ U_ç¿ãÎ H˘Ñ¨ÙÊ Ñ¨ÓÅH˜ U_çÛ#@∞¡—, 'Hõ_»∞ѨÙÖ’ ÖËxk H“yeOK«∞H˘O>Ë =ã¨∞ÎO^•!—, '"å_»∞ Hõ_»∞ѨÙÖ’ K«Å¡ Hõ^ŒÅ‰õΩO_® L<åfl_»∞—. ÔQÅ\©Ö’ Ǩ㨺^èÀ~°}˜ ‰õÄ_® HõxÊã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ã¨∂~°∞º_»∞ ѨÙOeOQÆO, HÍx [~°‡hÖ’ „ã‘ÎeOQÆO. ZO^Œ∞HõO>Ë [~°‡hÖ’ ã¨∂~°∞º_çH˜ JO`« "Õ_çq∞ LO_»^Œ∞. 6. xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å∞ „Ѩ"Õâ◊ÃÑ@ì_»=∞<Õk ÔQÅ\© ã¨$+≤ìOz# =∞~À J^Œ ∞ ƒù ` « „Ѩ Ü ≥ ∂ QÆ O . Éè Ï +¨ # ∞ <Õ ˆ ~ Ê@Ѩ Ù Ê_» ∞ "åi ǨÏ$^ŒÜ«∂ʼnõΩ ǨÏ`«∞ΉõΩáÈÜÕ∞ÖÏ K≥ѨÊ_»O W`«x „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«. L^•Ç¨Ï~°}‰õΩ H˘xfl ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}Å∞ K«∂^•ÌO. #@∞_»∞ : <Õ#∞ <å@HõOÖ’ K«zÛáÈ`«∞#flѨÙ_»∞ „¿ÑHõ∆‰õΩÅ∞ Z\Ï¡ U_®Û~À K«∂âß"å? ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞ : ^•xH˜ HÍ~°}O Uq∞\’ `≥Å∞ã¨∞<å? #@∞_»∞ : K≥ѨÙÊ ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞_»∞ : #∞=Ùfi x[OQÍ Kå=ÖË^Œx.

XHõ_»∞ : D H˘O_» ZHõ¯_®xH˜ ^Œyæ~°^•i U^≥·<å LO^•? „QÍ=∞ã¨∞÷_»∞ : JHõ¯_» HõxÑ≤OKÕ _˘OHõ^•i LOk. QÍ_ç^ŒÅ∞ P ^•i<Õ H˘O_» Z‰õΩ¯`å~Ú.

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ÅHõ∆‡Ü«∞º : D "≥∂\Ï~°∞ HÍ~°∞ g∞‰õΩ Z\Ï¡ =zÛOk? "≥OHõÜ«∞º : ÖÏ@sÖ’ ÅHõ∆‡Ü«∞º : ÖÏ@sÖ’ g∞ #O|~°∞ ÔQeÛOk HÍÉ’Å∞. "≥ O Hõ Ü « ∞ º : <Õ # ∞ ÖÏ@sÖ’ _» | ∞ƒ ÃÑ@ì Ö Ë ^ Œ ∞ . ÖÏ@s U~åÊ@∞KÕã≤Ok <Õ<Õ. 7. ÔQÅ\© U=∂„`«O ã¨OHÀzOK«‰õΩO_® u@¡#∞ ‰õÄ_® xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ „Ѩ"Õâ◊ÃÑ\˜ì `«# „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«#∞ =∞~À™êi Kå@∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. ÔQÅ\© ^Œ$+≤ìÖ’ xѶ¨∞O@∞=<Õk H˘Ü«∞ºQÆ∞é]O HÍ^Œ∞. Hõ^Œ#∞ `˘ˆH¯ ѨOK«HõàϺ}˜ QÆ∞é]O. K«k"ÕH˘nÌ K«^Œ"åÅxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : 'Q˘Å¡"å_®! ^è•#ºO ZHõ¯_»∞Ok? JO>Ë Q˘„Ô~ =Ú_ç¤Ö’ LO^Œ<åfl_»∞—. 'D =ÚO_» ##∞fl QÆ~°ƒù^•#O <å_≥·<å ÃÑ·# K≥~Úº "≥Ü«∞ºxzÛOk HÍ^Œ∞—, '`«xfl# `«~åfi`« h J|ƒ`À K≥ѨÙÊHÀ—. ÔQÅ\© xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù q∞ye# xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ HõO>Ë qѨÙÅ"≥∞ÿ#k, ‰õÄÅOHõ+¨"≥∞ÿ#k HÍHõáÈ~Ú<å q∞H˜¯e PHõ~°¬}©Ü«∞"≥∞ÿ#^Œx =∂„`«O K≥ѨÊ=K«∞Û.

*ˇ.Ñ≤.Ü«∞Öò. yfi<£ :
DÜ«∞# 1939Ö’ WO_çÜ«∞<£ ã≤qÖò ã¨sfiã¨∞Ö’ „Ѩ"ÕtOz PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò „ѨÉèí∞`«fiO #∞O_ç 1967Ö’ Ѩ^Œg q~°=∞} KÕâß_»∞. PO„^è„Œ Ѩ^âò „ѨÉ∞`«fiOÖ’ ѨxKÕã∂Î J<ÕHõ ÉèÏëê ã¨OѶ∂Ö’¡ J^躌 ‰õΩÅ∞QÍ Õ íè ¨ ¨ ∆ H˘#™êQÍ~°∞. =ÚYºOQÍ "å_»∞HõÉèÏ+¨#∞ J=∞Å∞[~°Ñ¨_»OÖ’ „Ѩ^è•# Éèí∂q∞Hõ#∞ áÈ+≤OKå_»∞. DÜ«∞# Ô~O_»∞ ^ŒâßÉÏÌÅáê@∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨#∞ JÉèíºã≤Oz, P `«~åfi`« Z<Àfl Hõ+¨ì#ëêìÅHÀiÛ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏ+¨#∞ <Õ~°∞Û‰õΩ<Õ"åiH˜ XHõ JѨÙ~°∂Ѩ"≥∞ÿ# HÍ#∞HõQÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ JOkOKå_»∞. D xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù 1991Ö’ PH±ûѶ¨~ü¤ Ü«¸x=iû\© „ÃÑãπ ^•fi~å „Ñ¨K«∞iOѨ|_çOk. JO`ÕQÍHõ „ѨѨOK« „ѨMϺ`« ÉèÏëêâß„ã¨Î"Õ`«Î PKå~°º Éèí„k~åA Hõ$+¨‚=¸iÎQÍi`À Hõeã≤ „áê=∂}˜Hõ"≥∞ÿ# P^èŒ∞xHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëê "åºHõ~°}O ‰õÄ_® ~°zOKå_»∞. yfi<£ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Éè Ï +¨ # ∞ JÉè í º ã≤ ã ¨ ∂ Î ™êÇ≤ Ï `« º O K« ^ Œ = \ÏxH˜ „Ѩܫ∞uflOKÕ"å_»∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ѨO_ç`«∞Å ^•fi~å `«=∞ ã¨O^ÕǨÅ#∞ x=$uÎ KÕã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ"å_»∞. P^èŒ∞xHõ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏëê™êÇ≤Ï`åºÅ#∞ J^茺ܫ∞#O KÕÜ«∞\ÏxH˜ JѨÊ\˜H˜ "å_»∞HõÖ’ L#fl xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ ѨÓiÎQÍ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_Õq HÍ=Ù. JO^Œ∞=Å¡ H˘O`« J™œHõ~åºxH˜ QÆ∞iHÍ=Åã≤ =zÛOk. DÜ«∞# Ѩ^Œg q~°=∞} `«~åfi`« WO_çÜ«∂ =^ŒeÃÑ\˜ì "≥ à ◊ § \ÏxH˜ =ÚO^Õ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ –WOw¡ + ¨ µ xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞ „Ѩ } ÏoHõ # ∞ ã≤^OKÕã∞¨ ‰õΩ#fl@∞ì `≥Å∞ã¨∞Ok. JѨÊ\˜H <åÅ∞QÆ∞ ã¨OѨÙ\ÏÅ ~å`«„Ѩ`∞« efl úŒ Î ˆ `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. PÜ«∞# WO_çÜ«∂H˜ JѨÙÊ_»Ñ¨ÙÊ_»∞ =zÛáÈ`«∂ xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙH˜ HÍ=Åã≤# ™ê=∂„y#O`«\˜x ã¨=∞‰õÄ~°∞ÛH˘<åfl_»∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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ÅHõ∆‡Ü«∞º : <å‰õΩ z#flѨÊ\˜#∞Oz [|∞ƒQÍ LOk. "≥OHõÜ«∞º : "≥·^Œ∞º_çx Ñ≤eÑ≤OKË^•? ÅHõ∆‡Ü«∞º : [O`«∞"≥·^Œ∞º_çx Ñ≤eÑ≤OK«∞. "≥OHõÜ«∞º : ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ? ÅHõ∆‡Ü«∞º : [O`«∞=ÙÅ∞ ["å|∞ K≥ѨÊ=Ù HÍ|>Ëì [O`«∞"≥·^Œ∞ºÅ∞ „Ѩâ◊flÅ∞ J_»‰õΩ¯O_® ~ÀQÆO HõxÃÑ@ìQÆÅ~°∞.

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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 44

1984–85Ö’ DÜ«∞# „Ѩ=ÚY ÉèÏëêâß„ã¨Î"Õ`«Î J~Ú# *Á#flÅQÆ_»¤ "≥OHõ>Ëâ◊fi~°âß„ã≤Î QÍi ã¨Ç¨Ü«∂xfl fã¨∞‰õΩx 1991Ö’ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ Jxflq^è•Å ѨÓiÎKÕã≤ „ѨHõ\˜OKå_»∞. D xѶ¨∞O@∞ „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«efl K«∂^•ÌO: 1. xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙH˜ „áê}„Ѩ^Œ"≥∞ÿ# Ѩ^Œ*ÏÖÏxfl JѨÊ\˜ˆH JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ L#fl UHõÉèÏëê, kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ #∞Oz, ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩ^Œ*ÏÖÏxfl PÜ«∂ Ѩ^ŒHÀâßÅ #∞Oz, ™êÇ≤Ï`«º „QÆO^ä•Å #∞Oz ¿ãHõiOKå_»∞. JO`ÕQÍHõ ^≥·#Ok# "å_»∞Hõ ÉèÏ+¨#∞Oz ‰õÄ_® Ѩ^Œ¿ãHõ~°} QÍqOz ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÎHõ~°"≥∞ÿ# xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù#∞ P^èŒ∞xHõ Ѩ^ŒúuÖ’ xi‡OKå_»∞. 2. J=ã¨~°=Ú#flKÀ@¡ WOw¡+¨µÖ’ Ѩ^Œ„ѨÜ≥∂QÍefl `≥e¿Ñ ã¨OˆH`åÅ∞ ã¨OH˜∆ѨÎOQÍ WKåÛ_»∞. L^•Ç¨Ï~°}H˜ : class (classical), dial. (dia·ˇ lectal), Ling. (Liguistic), phys. (physics), Sci. (Science), "≥Ú^ŒÖ# ã¨OˆH`åÅ`À ã¨∂zOK«_»O [iyOk. 3. P~Àáêxfl ~À=∞<£eÑ≤Ö’ eѨºO`«sHõ~°} KÕÜ«∞_»O âß„ã‘ÎÜ«∞Ѩ^Œúu. P Ѩ^ux yfi<£ `«# xѶ∞O@∞=ÙÖ’ KåÖÏ HõzÛ`«OQÍ áê\˜OKå_»∞. úŒ ¨ L^• : JkèHÍ~°O adhikaaram J#∞|O^èŒO anubandham 4. J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ#KÀ@¡ J~°÷™œÅÉèíºO HÀã¨O L^•Ç¨Ï~°} "åHͺÅxzÛ "å\˜ J#∞"å^•xfl WOw¡+¨µÖ’ W=fi_»O [iyOk. L^• : QÆO*Ï~Ú ganjaayi n. ganja, Indian hemp, cannabis;
- dammu koTTu to smoke ganja.

8. P~ÀáêxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz# qq^èŒ „ѨÜ≥∂QÍÅ#∞ ~À=∞<£ eÑ≤Ö’ eѨºO`«sHõ~°}O KÕã≤ "å\˜ J~å÷efl WOw¡+¨µÖ’H˜ JO>Ë ÅHõ∆º Éè Ï +¨ Ö ’H˜ J#∞=kOz W=fi_» O [iyOk. „Ѩ Ü ≥ ∂ QÍÅÖ’ P~ÀѨѨ^ŒO ѨÙ#~å=$`«O HÍÖË^Œ∞. L^• : ZO`≥·<å entaynaa I. det.n.ever somuch, any amount;
miiru-ceppaNDi neenu oppukoonu say ever you like (or however much you say) I will not agree Dabbu-saree istaanu what ever the cost may be, I will pay it II det.adj. ever so(much, great, etc.) - baagundi it is ever so good. -peddawaLLu they are ever such great people. III. adv. however that may be, any how, anyway, after all; - waaDu mii tammuDu after all, he is your younger brother.

9. P~ÀѨ Ѩ ^ Œ x+¨ Ê #fl ~° ∂ áêÅ∂, ^•x qq^è Œ ~° ∂ áêÅ∂ P~ÀáêÅ∞QÍ W=fi|_®¤~Ú. L^• : ZO_» enDa n. sunshine, sun light, sun's heat; kaastunnappuDu when the sun is hot; enDaawaana anakuNDaa tirigeeDu he wandered about not caring if it was wet or fine; kannerugani sukumaari person who leads a pampered and sheltered life.

ZO_»Hõ@∞ì

endakaTTu v.t. to dry up or dry out by stopping

supply of water. 2. to put an end to, put a stop to.

QÆO_»O ganDam

1

n. 1. evil hour lit. baleful influence

of a star. - gaDicindi the evil hour has passed. 2. serious danger; koddipaaTilo - tappindi a serious danger has just been averted.

5. P~Àáêx‰õΩ#fl J~°÷O`Àáê@∞ J~°÷KèåÜ«∞Å#∞ ‰õÄ_® ÅHõ∆ºÉèÏ+¨Ö’ W=fi_»O=Å¡ Ѩ^Œ„ѨÜ≥∂QÆ qã¨Î$u ÉÏQÍ `≥Å∞ã¨∞ÎOk. L^• : J^èÀQÆu adhoogati n.1. downward path, degeneration.
degradation 2. Low state, disastrous condition, state of perdiction.

6. P~ÀѨ ™ê÷ # OÖ’ P~ÀáêÅ ~° ∂ áêO`« ~ åÅ`Àáê@∞ qq^è Œ ~°∂áêÅ#∞ ‰õÄ_® W=fi_»O [iyOk. L^• : J<å^ä Œ â ◊ ~ ° } ÏÅÜ« ∞ O, J<å^è • „â◊ = ∞O anaatha
`saraNaalayam, anathaa`sramam n.orphanage.

ZHõ~°O, ZHõ~å ekaram, ekaraa n. acre. 7. P~ÀáêÅxfl\˜H© "åºHõ~°} ã¨OˆH`åÅ∞ W=fi_»O =Å¡ XHõѨHõ¯ "åºHõ~°}O ‰õÄ_® É’kèOz#@¡~ÚOk. L^• : ZO(^Œ∞) KÕ`« en(du)ceeta interrog. and det. why, for
what reason (interrog = interrogative, det. = determinative)

ZO_»^≥|ƒ enDadebba n. sunstorke. P^Œ∞H˘#∞ aadukonu v.t. 1 to come to the rescue, relieve, aid,
assist. 2 to treat kindly, care for, look after. 3 to backup, support.

ZO_»HÍÅO enDakaalam n. hot weather, summer. WÖψ Q ZO_» H ˘@∞ì , ZO_» ^ ≥ | ƒ, ZO_» à Ñ@∞ì / ZO_» " Õ Ü « Ú , ZO_»áÈÜ«Ú, ZO_»=∂q, ZO_»∞, ZO_»∞HõÜ«∞º, ZO_»∞QÆ∞Å∞ J<Õq P~ÀѨ ™ê÷#O á⁄O^•~Ú. 10. D xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞=ÙÖ’ J#º^Õ â ◊ º Ѩ ^ •Å∞ Z‰õ Ω ¯=QÍ KÀ@∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl~Ú. L^• : _»[#∞ Dajanu n. dozen. ÔH·Ñ¶≤Ü«∞º`ü kayphiyyat n. statement in writing Ѩbì palTii n. 1. SomerSault 2. a fall in Wrestling. Dq^èŒOQÍ Wk J<ÕHõ „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«Å`À ÉèÏëêâß„ã¨Î ^Œ$+≤ì`À#∂, xѶ ¨ ∞ O@∞ x~å‡} ^Œ $ +≤ ì ` À#∂ Ѩ ~ ° = ∞ „áê=∂}˜ H õ O QÍ ~°∂á⁄OkOK«|_çOk. ÃÑ·# ¿Ñ~˘¯#fl"åˆ~ HÍHõ Ñ‘@~ü ÃÑiû=Öò (`≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù, 1862), Ǩ~°¡~üû (`≥Å∞QÆ∞–WOw¡+¨µ xѶ¨∞O@∞=Ù (1900) "≥Ú^ŒÖˇ·# "åÔ~O^Œ~À `≥Å∞QÆ∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}ÏxH˜ `«=∞=O`«∞ Hõ$+≤ KÕã≤ ^èŒ#ºr=ÙÖˇ·<å~°∞. =ÚyOѨ٠: U ÉèÏ+¨Ö’<≥·<å xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}O J<Õk JkèHõ„â◊=∞`À ‰õÄ_»∞H˘#fl Ѩx. J~Ú<å P „â◊=∞HÀiÛ áêâßÛ`«º q^•fiOã¨∞Å∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ `«y# ã¨^Œ∞áêÜ«∂Å∞ ÖËx HÍÅOÖ’ J<ÕHÍ<ÕHõ kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOKå~°∞. Wq =ÚYºOQÍ "åiHÀã¨"Õ∞ ~°∂á⁄Okz#"≥·#ѨÊ\˜H© `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜ ‰õÄ_® ZO`«QÍ<À LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»∞`«∞<åfl~Ú. "åi
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ

45

=∂~°æ^Œ~°≈#OÖ’ `«~åfi`« ZO`À=∞Ok `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ qq^èŒ kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞ xi‡OKå~°∞. xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ<Õq ˆH=ÅO Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ J~å÷Å#∞ =∂„`«"Õ∞ ã¨∂zOKÕ „QÆO^ä•Å∞ HÍ=Ù. ã¨=∞HÍb# ™ê=∂lHõ r=# Ѩiã≤÷`«∞efl, ™êO㨯$uHõ "≥·Éèí"åxfl Kå\˜K≥¿ÑÊ J=¸Åº"≥∞ÿ# "å~°ã¨`«fi ã¨OѨ^Œ. P ã¨OѨ^Œ#∞ qxÜ≥∂yOK«∞H˘x `«~åfiu `«~°O ѨÙ#s˚=O á⁄O^Œ∞`«∂ q*Ï˝# qHÍ™êÅ#∞ J‰õΩ¯# KÕ~°∞ÛH˘O@∂ =Ú#∞‡O^Œ∞‰õΩ ™êyáÈ`«∞Ok. JÖÏO\˜ "å~°ã¨`«fi ã¨OѨ^Œ#∞ JOkOz# áêâßÛ`«∞ºÅO^Œ~°∂ x[OQÍ „áê`«ó㨇~°}©Ü«ÚÅ∞. J^èÀ *Ï˝Ñ≤HõÅ∞ : 1. "This dictionaire Telugu-Francois... was written in or about the
year 1794 ... I bought this volume in London for 25 shillings. It

5. K«∂. Ñ≤.Ü«∞ãπ. ã¨∞„|Ǩχ}ºO 'kfiÉèÏëê xѶ¨∞O@∞=ÙÅ∞–„É∫<£ K«∂Ñ≤# X~°=_ç—. D "åºã¨O 1995, Ѷ≤„|=i 15, 16 `ÕnÅÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞OÖ’x xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}âßY"å~°∞ '`≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ xѶ¨∞O@∞ x~å‡}O–ã¨∂„`åÅ∂, Ѩ^Œú`«∞Å∂— J#fl *ÏfÜ«∞ ã¨^Œã¨∞ûÖ’ ã¨=∞iÊOK«|_ç#k. P^è•~° „QÆO^ä•Å∞ : 1. P~°∞„^Œ (1990) : ã¨=∞„QÆ PO„^茙êÇ≤Ï`«ºO–‰õΩOÑ≤}©Ü«ÚQÆO– Vol–9. „Ѩ*Ïâ◊H˜Î |∞H±Ç¨Ï∫ãπ, q[Ü«∞"å_». 2. =∞OQÆ=∞‡, *’Öˇáêà◊O (2001) : `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ JK«Û~Ú# `˘e Ѩ ٠㨠ΠH ÍÅ∞ (1746–1856), á⁄\˜ ì N~å=ÚÅ∞ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^Œ∞. 3. ~å^è•Hõ$+¨‚â◊~°‡, K«ÖÏ¡ (1975) : ã≤.Ñ≤. „É∫<£ ™êÇ≤Ïf¿ã=, ã≤.Ü«∞Öò.Ü«∞ãπ. |∞H±ëêÑπ, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^Œ∞. 4. "≥OHõ@ѨÊÜ«∞º "≥ÅQÍ (1975) : `≥Å∞QÆ∞ xѶ¨∞O@∞ qHÍã¨O, PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò ™êÇ≤Ï`«º JHÍ_»g∞, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£. 5. ǨÏit=‰õΩ=∂~ü (1995) : ~°`«fl=∂eHõ, l.q. ~°`«flO Jaè#O^Œ# ™êÇ≤Ïf ã¨OzHõ „ѨK«∞~°} ã¨q∞u, =~°OQÆÖò. 6. Anjaneyulu. D. (1985) : 'C.P. Brown : A Telugu Lexicographer' in Glimpses of Telugu Literature, A writer's workshop publication, Calcutta.

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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 47

<≥Å~ÀAÅ „H˜`O *’QÆÜ∞º=∂=∞ ÉèÏ~°º‰õΩ [|∞ƒKÕã≤ „áê}O g∞^Œ‰Ω « « õ =zÛOk. JѨÊ\˜H˜ Ѩk~ÀAÅ#∞Op P"≥∞ =Ú‰õΩ¯`«∂ =¸Å∞QÆ∞`«∂ =ÙO^ÕQÍx, *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ J>Ëì Ѩ\˜ìOK«∞HÀÖË^Œ∞. P q+¨Ü«∞O WO\’¡"åà◊√§ Z=à◊√§ HõkeOz<å, ''~ÀQÍÅ∞ =∞#∞+¨µºÅ‰õΩ ~åHõ =∂#∞ʼnõΩ =™êÎÜ∂?—— JO@∂ "≥à§ı "å_»∞. ^Œ=Ú‡KÕ¿ã ~ÀAÅq J`«xH˜ « fˆ~kHÍ^Œ∞. U^≥·<å [|∞ƒ JO`« `˘O^Œ~°QÍ =¸ã¨∞H˘ã¨∞ÎO^Œ#∞HÀÖË^Œ∞. J`«#∞ ''#∞qfiO\’¡=ÙO_»∞ J=∞‡x HõxÃÑ@∞ìH˘x† <Õ#∞ KÕ#∞ `«_çÑ≤Oz =™êÎ # ∞—— JxÃÑ^Œ Ì H ˘_» ∞ Hõ < åfl_Õ Q Íx *’QÆ Ü « ∞ º=∂q∞O\˜ ^ Œ Q Æ æ ~ ° =ÙO_»ÖËHõáÈÜ«∂_»∞. Jã¨ÖË h\˜H˜ Z^ŒÌ_çQÍ =ÙOk. Z=~°∞J_»¤O"Õ™êÎ~À! `«#ÃÑ^ŒÌH˘_»∞‰õΩ |∞kÌ=∞O`«∞_Õ HÍx "˘\˜ì J~°ƒù‰õΩ_»∞. P=e"åà◊√§ <À~°∞KÕã¨∞‰õΩO>Ë "≥#‰õΩ¯ `«QÆ∞æ`å_»∞. f~å á⁄ÅO `«_»=HõáÈ`Õ, `«~°∞"å`« ÜÕ∞=∞#∞‰õΩ<ÕO ÖÏÉèíO? JO^Œ∞Hõx =Óà’§ "≥·^Œ∞º_çKÕ`« ÉèÏ~°º‰õΩ <åÅ∞QÆ∞ =∂„`«Å∞ ~ÚÑ≤ÊOz, HÍã≤x hà◊√§ `åyOz ''Hõà◊√§ =¸ã¨∞‰õΩѨ_»∞HÀ ‰õΩ#∞‰õΩ Ѩ_»∞`«∞Ok—— Jx K≥Ñ≤Ê á⁄ÅO |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~å_»∞. Tiz=~° zO`«K≥@∞ì ^ŒQÆæiH˜ =KÕÛã¨iH˜ H˘_»∞‰õΩѨOÑ≤# =∞x+≤ Z^Œ∞~°∞QÆ∞O_® =KåÛ_»∞. ''J=`«Å"åà◊√§ Hõ„~°Å∂, |ÖÏ¡Å∂ ѨÙK«∞ÛH˘x ã≤^OQÍ=Ù<åfl~°∞. úŒ #~°ã¨Ü«∞ºH˜ HÍÅ∂, K≥~Úº P@ìOÖË^Œ∞—— Jx K≥áêÊ_»∞. *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ QÆ| QÆÉÏ á⁄ÖÏxˆHã≤ #_çKå_»∞. HÍÅ=‰õΩ "Õã≤# J_»∞¤ `≥Oz hà◊§x `«# KÕÖ’H˜ =∞eáê_»∞. J=`«e"åà◊√§ Hõ„~°Å∂, |ÖÏ¡Å∂ Ѩ@∞ìH˘x K«∂ã¨∂Î #∞OK«∞<åflˆ~QÍx Ug∞ J#ÖËHõáÈÜ«∂~°∞. `«# KÕÖ’H˜ #_»∞ã¨∞Î#fl h\˜ QÆÅQÆÅ qO@∂ ã¨~°fiO =∞~°z #∞OK«∞<åfl_»∞ KÕ#∞ QÆ@∞ì g∞^Œ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. ''J=∞‡ ÔH\Ï¡=ÙOk—— J_çQÍ_»∞ #~°ã¨Ü«∞º. ''LOk—— J<åfl_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. ''`«yæO^•?—— J_çQÍ_»∞ #~°ã¨Ü«∞º. ''`«QÆæˆHO*Ëã¨∞ÎOk?—— J<åfl_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. ''WHõ =∞#O "≥ à ÏÌ O —— J<åfl_» ∞ #~° ã ¨ Ü « ∞ º. D =∂@‰õ Ω *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ LeH˜¯Ñ¨_®¤_»∞. ''KÕ#O`å `«_»=Hõ=ÚO^Õ q_çz "≥à◊§_»"Õ∞?—— J<åfl_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. ''WO\˜Ö’ Ü≥∞=~°∂ ÖË~°∞ =∞OzÔH·<å, K≥_»∞ÔH·<å—— J<åfl_»∞ #~°ã¨Ü«∞º P^Œ∞~åÌQÍ. ''#∞=Ùfi "≥à√. <ÕxHõ¯_»=ÙO\Ï—— J<åfl_»∞ *’QÆÜ∞« º. #~°ãÜ∞« º‰õΩ ◊¡ ¨
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

`≥Å∞ã¨∞–`«#`«O„_ç Ѩx =∞^茺֒ q_çz~å_»x, W+¨ìOÖËHõáÈ~Ú<å, Ug∞ J#ÖËHõ `«# `«O„_çx KÕ#∞QÆ@∞ìg∞^Œ q_çzÃÑ\˜ì ~ÚO\˜H˜ "≥àϧ_»∞ #~°ã¨Ü«∞º. H͉õΩÅ∞ ‰õÄã¨∂ÎO>Ë Hõ|∞~°∞ =zÛOk.– *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞#∞ `«Hõ∆}O ~°=∞‡x. J`«xH˜ `≥Å∞ã¨∞–`«#‰õÄ, `«# ÉèÏ~°º‰õÄ |∞∞}Ï#∞|O^èŒO fiáÈ`«∂ =ÙO^Œx. HÍx KÕ#∞ ~ÚOHÍ XHõH˘ã¨ `«_"åeû=ÙOk. K«∂ã¨∂Î » K«∂ã¨∂ÎѨx =∞^茺# "≥à◊§ÖËHõáÈÜ«∂_»∞. hà◊√§ <≥=∞‡kQÍ áê~°∞`«∂ <≥„Ô~bfl, ÉÁiÜ«∞bfl xOѨÙ`«∂ P H˘ã¨q `«_çÑ≤Ok. JѨC_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ QÆ|QÆÉÏ ~ÚO\˜H˜ |Ü«∞Å∞ ^Õ~å_»∞ ÉèÏ~°ºx K«∂^•Ì=∞x. J`«#∞ "≥àı§@ѨÊ\˜H˜ P"≥∞ J=™ê#^Œâ◊Ö’=ÙOk. P J=ã¨÷Ö’ ‰õÄ_® P"≥∞ WO\˜ã¨OQÆ`«∞ÖË =∂\Ï¡_»∞`«∂=ÙOk. ''=¸_À"å_çH˜ =Ú_ç "≥Ü«∞º=∞O>Ë <å=∂@q<åfl~°∞HÍ^Œ∞—— Jx Éèí~°Îx x+¨Øª~åÖÏ_çOk. Ô~O_À HÀ_»Å∞ `«#=∂@ q#@OÖË^Œx JHõ¯#∞ "≥à◊§É’ã¨∞‰õΩOk. ''ZÅ∞HõÅ∞ ѨلÔ~efl H˘\˜áÈã¨∞<åflÜü∞. HÍã¨=∞\˜ì ~å~ÚOK«=∞O>Ë ~å~ÚOK«HáÈui—— ì Î Î õ J#flk. ''|@ìÅH˜ ÉÏQÍ QÆOl ÃÑ@ì_»OÖË—— ^Œx KåHõe^•xg∞^Œ ˆHHõÅ∞ "Õ ã ≤ O k. `« < Õ =∞l˚ Q Æ K≥ Ü « ∂ ºÅx Hõ = fiOHÀ㨠O ÖË = É’~ÚOk. ''ÃÑ^ŒÌHÀ_»eH˜ "≥#fl uÜ«∞º@"Õ∞ KÕ`«HÍ^Œ∞. ã¨QÍxH˜ ã¨QÆO =∞l˚QÆÖ’<Õ q_çzÃÑ_»∞`«∞Ok—— Jx K≥Ñ≤ÊOk. `å#∞ QÆ∞@∞‰õΩ¯=∞#fl `«~åfi`« ~¸ HÍѨÙ~°O U=∞=Ù`«∞O^À Jx "Õ^Œ#Ѩ_»¤k. ''P =∂@Åhfl WѨC_≥O^Œ∞‰õΩ? XHõ¯ Hõ∆}O xâ◊ÛÅOQÍ =ÙO_»∞—— J<åfl_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. HÍx P"≥∞<À\˜H˜ =¸`«Ñ¨_»ÖË^Œ∞. PYi xq∞+¨O=~°‰õÄ =∂\Ï¡_»∞ `« ∂ <Õ = ÙOk. JO^Œ i H© U^À XHõ \ ˜ K ≥ | ∞`« ∂ <Õ = ÙOk. Ѩ # ∞Å∞ ѨÙ~°=∂~Úã¨∂Î =ÙOk. z=iH˜ 'JÉ’ƒ JÉ’ƒ— JO@∂ ÉÏ^èŒÑ¨_»∞`«∂ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ K≥~Úº QÆ\˜ìQÍ Ñ¨@∞ì‰õΩOk. J`«x K≥~Úº Ѩ@∞ì‰õΩ<Õ ~¸Ö’HÍxfl q_çzOk. ã¨sQÍ WѨÊ\˜H˜ <≥Å, P"≥∞ D Ö’HÍxfl q_çz. ÉèÏ~°º [|∞ƒÖˇHõ¯ K≥Ü«∞º‰õΩO_®, „áê}ÏÅ#∞ ÖˇHõ¯K≥Ü«∞º‰õΩO_® JO`« Hõ+¨ìѨ_ç h~°∞ ÃÑ\˜ì# KÕ#∞ =¸ã¨uiyOk. ‰õÄe"åà◊√§ HõÅ∞Ѩ٠fã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞, Ǩïëê~°∞QÍ áê_»∞`«∞<åfl~°∞ P_»"åà◊¥§ "≥ÚQÆ"åà◊¥§ Hõeã≤. *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ J\Ï¡ˆQ<Õˆ~_»∞ K≥@∞ì<å#∞‰õΩx ‰õÄ~°∞Û<åfl_»∞. J`«x =∞#㨠∞ û ~Úk=~° H õ O `« ã≤ ÷ ~ ° O QÍ =ÙO_» @ OÖË ^ Œ ∞ . `« # Éè Ï ~° º K«xáÈÜÕ∞@ѨC_® Ѩ_ç# `åѨ„`«Ü«∞O J`«#∞=∞~°záÈÖËHõ áÈ`«∞<åfl_»∞. P"≥∞‰õΩ `≥Å∞ã¨∞ `«#∞ áÈ`«∞<åfl#x. HÍx XHõ¯x„^Œ¨áÈ~Ú ÖËKÕ ^•xH˜=∞ÖË¡ =∂\Ï¡_çOk. áÈÜÕ∞^•xH˜ `«# ÔHO^Œ∞H˜=hfl? XHõà◊§‰õΩ=∂„`«O ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ? JO`å áÈÜÕ∞ "åàı§, J~Ú`Õ ~ÚHõ HÍ=Åã≤O^≥=iH˜? á⁄ÅOÖ’ #∞Oz áê@ qxÑ≤OzOk. XHõ ¯ ™êi Hõ # ∞fl `≥ ~ ° z `« # á⁄ÅO JO`å áê~° E âß_» ∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. P =∞^茺 `«# =∞#=∞_»∞ `«#`À á⁄ÅO =KåÛ_»∞. ''`å`« Ü « ∂ º, =∞# á⁄ÅO Uk?—— Jx J_ç Q Í_» ∞ . ''h‰õ Ω Hõ#|_»∞`«∞#fl^ŒO`å=∞O^Õ~å—— J<åfl_»∞. =O^Œ ZHõ~åÅ UHõ HõO„_çHõ
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 48

`« # =∞#=∞_ç H ˜ J=`« Å `« @ ∞ì Hõ # |_» ‰ õ Ω O_® 㨠= Ú„^Œ O ÖÏ=Ù#fl á⁄ÅOK«∂Ñ≤ã¨∂Î 'W^ŒO`å =∞O^Õ~å— J#flѨC_»∞ J`«x =∞#ã¨∞û P#O^ŒO`À xO_çOk. "≥Ú@ì "≥Ú^Œ@ `åh =Ó~°∞ Z_»¡ÉË~åxH˜ =KåÛ_»∞. `å<≥=iHõ~Ú`Õ Z_»¡x J=∂‡_À, P P™êq∞ˆH WÅ¡iHõѨÙ@Å∞¡_»Ü«∂º_»∞. `«# #_»=_çHõ K«∂z, `«# =º=Ǩ~° *Ï˝#O K«∂z P P™êg∞ "≥∂AѨ_ç ‰õÄ`«∞ifl `«#H˜zÛ KÕã≤ ~ÚO\˜Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì‰õΩ<åfl_»∞. P<å\˜#∞Op =à◊√§ ^•K«∞HÀ‰õΩO_® `å#∞ ѨxKÕâß_»∞. `«#∞ J_»∞QÆ∞ ÃÑ\˜ì#ѨC_»∞ `«# =∂=∞H˜ J~Ú^≥Hõ~åÅ∞ =ÙO_Õk. `«# K≥=∞@`À `«_çÑ≤, ѨO_çOz Ѩ k 㨠O =`« û ~åÅ∞ uiQ˘KÕ Û @Ѩ Ê \˜ H ˜ P J~Ú^≥ H õ ~ åÅH© =∞~À J~Ú^≥Hõ~åÅ∞ [`«KÕâß_»∞. `«# =∂=∞H˜ `«#g∞^Œ QÆ∞i U~°Ê_»¤k. PÜ«∞# áÈ`«∂ áÈ`«∂ ''x#∞fl ^ŒyæiH˜ fã≤#O^Œ∞‰õΩ <å Ѩ~°∞=Ù xÖÏÊ=Ù—— J<åfl_»∞. `«#∞ Ѩ_ç# Hõ+¨ì=∞O`å P XHõ¯=∂@`À<Õ fiáÈ~ÚOk. `« # =∂=∞ K« x áÈ~Ú#Ѩ Ê \˜ H ˜ =O^≥ H õ ~ åÅ∞ KÕ â ß_» ∞ . HÍx=$kúKÕã¨∞Î#flѨC_»∞ `«#‰õΩ Hõey# P#O^ŒO ~ÚѨC_»∞ HõÅæ@OÖË^Œ∞. ~ÀE á⁄ÅO ~å=_»O, á⁄ÖÏ#flO`å XHõ¯™êi K«∂K«∞HÀ=_»O, áêÖËà§◊ #∞ QÆ^Œ=∂~ÚOK«_»O–WO`« =~°ˆH q∞yeOk. JO>Ë P P#O^ŒOáÈ~Ú JÅ"å>Ë q∞yeOk. *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ <Õˆ~_»∞K≥@∞ìHÍ#∞H˘x J\ÏìˆQ‰õÄ~°∞Û<åfl_»∞. á⁄^Œ∞Ì<≥uÎ g∞^Œ H ˘zÛOk. <Õ ˆ ~ _» ∞ K≥ @ ∞ì P‰õ Ω Ö’¡ O z ZO_» *’QÆ Ü « ∞ º=∂=∞ =ÚYOg∞^Œ Ѩ_»ìk. P "Õ_çH˜ PÜ«∞# <≥=∞‡kQÍ Hõ#∞fl`≥~°z K«∂âß_»∞. á⁄ÅOÖ’ ‰õÄbÅ∞ ÖË~°∞. ã¨~°∞ÌH˘x QÆ|∞‰õΩ¯# ÖË=É’Ü«∂_»∞. HõkÖÏ_»∞ Z^Œ ∞ ~° ∞ QÍ K≥ @ ¡ ‰ õ Ω Hõ \ ˜ ì # =¸@Å∞ qѨ C H˘x ‰õ Ä bÅ∞ |∞=fiu#@OK«∂âß_»∞. H˘O`«=∞Ok J#flO=Ú^ŒÌÅ∞ q∞OQÆ∞`«∞<åfl~°∞. H˘O^Œ~°∞ `«ÅQÆ∞_»¤Å∞ qѨCH˘x Ѩ_»∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞. 'ÖË=O_»„~å— Jx ˆHHõÖËâß_»∞ *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞. ''WO`«=Ü«∞ã¨∞ûÖ’ ^˘~°ÔHO`« Ü«∂=—— Jx #=Ùfi‰õΩ<åfl~°O`å. ''WѨC_ÕQÍ ^˘~å, ‰õÄ\˜ H˘zÛOk—— J<åfl_˘Hõ_»∞ ˆHiO`«Å∞ H˘_»∞`«∂. XH˘¯Hõ¯à◊¥§ =∞m§ KÕÖ’H˜ kQÍ~°∞. *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ XHõ¯™êi =Ói"≥·Ñ¨Ù K«∂âß_»∞. =∞^蕺ǨÏflO ѨÓ@ P <Õˆ~_»∞K≥@∞ìH˜O^Œ J#flO u#@O *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞‰õΩ JÅ"å@∞. WѨÊ\˜H˜ PÜ«∞# =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞ ~ÀE J#flO `≥zÛÃÑ_»∞`«∞Ok. ^Œ∂~°OQÍ J#flO y<≥fl <≥uÎ g∞^Œ ÃÑ@∞ìH˘x =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞ ~å=@O K«∂âß_»∞. =∞|∞ƒ ÉÏQÍ "Õã≤Ok. =~°¬O ‰õΩ~°∞ã¨∞ÎO^Õ"≥∂ `å#∞ `«_ç¿ãΠѨ~°"åÖË^Œ∞HÍx, `«# =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞ `«_»∞ã¨∞ÎO^Õ"≥∂! =~°¬O Z‰õΩ¯"≥·`Õ Ñ¨#ã¨K@∞ì„H˜O^Œ QÆ∞_çâÖ’H˜ "≥àϧe. ZѨÊ\˜ QÆ∞_çâ? ZO_»‰Ω ZO_»∞`«∂, ≥ ◊ ◊ õ "å#‰õΩ `«_»∞ã¨∂Î J\Ï¡ˆQ xÅ|_ç=ÙOk. ''`å`å J#flO `≥KåÛ—— Jx =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞ y<≥fl H˜O^ŒÉˇ\˜ì y<≥fl‰õΩ Hõ\˜ì# QÆ∞_»¤ qÑ≤ÊOk. XHõѨHõ¯ QÀOQÆ∂~°Ñ¨K«Û_ç ѨK«ÛQÍ xQÆxQÆ ÖÏ_»∞`«∂Ok? XHõ ѨH¯õ P=HÍÜ«∞ѨKÛ_ç Z„~°QÍ <≥`∞~∞=Ú^ŒÖÏ =ÙOk. « «Î ° Ì Ô~O\˜ =∞^蕺 `≥Å¡\˜ J#flO. ''#∞=Ùfi uO@∂=ÙO_»∞ `å`«Ü«∂º, <Õ#∞ KÕÖ’H˜ "≥o§=™êÎ#∞ JO@∂ i=Ùfi# Ѩ~°∞ÔQuÎOk =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞, *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ <≥=∞‡kQÍ ÖËKå_»∞. |@ìÅ∞ ^Œ∞Å∞ѨÙH˘x `«ÅQÆ∞_»¤K«∞@∞ìH˘x Hõ„~°áÈ@∞ "Õã¨∞‰õΩO@∞ QÆ@∞ì
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

kQÍ_»∞. HÍÅ=Ö’ hà◊√§ ^ÀÃã_»∞ fã¨∞H˘x <˘\’¡ áÈã¨∞H˘x ѨÙH˜¯e =Óâß_»∞. <≥=∞‡kQÍ =∞m§ <Õˆ~_»∞ K≥@∞ì ^ŒQÆæ~°H˘zÛ ‰õÄ~°∞Û<åfl_»∞. Hõ„~° Ѩ¨Hõ¯# ÃÑ@∞ìH˘x J#flO y<≥fl=ÚO^Œ∞‰õΩ ÖωõΩ¯<åfl_»∞. XHõ ÖÁ@ì "Õâß_»∞. ^èŒfix HõÅQÆÖË^Œ∞. JÅ"å@∞ „ѨHÍ~°O P=HÍÜ«∞ѨK«Û_ç <åeH˜¯ ~åã¨∞H˘x, JÅ"å@∞ „ѨHÍ~°O ÖÁ@ì"Õâß##∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞ ÉÏQÆ∞O^Œ#∞H˘x. KÕÖ’ ‰õÄb"åà◊√§ HõÅ∞Ѩ٠fã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. *’QÆÜ«∞º=∂=∞ =∞#∞=∞~åÅ∞ HÍ¿ãѨ٠QÆ@∞ìg∞^Œ #∞OK«∞x K«∂ã≤Ok. ‰õÄe"åà◊√§ 'z#fl ^˘~°™êx "˘zÛO—^Œx ѨiÜ«∂ã¨HÍÖÏ_®~°∞. ѨiH˜}˜ HÍà◊§‰õΩ `«QÆʼnõΩO_® KÕ`ÀΠѨ@∞ìH˘x KÕ#∞ QÆ@∞ìg∞^Œ∞QÍ `å`« ^ŒQ~‰Ω ѨiQ`«_O "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ ÃÑ\˜Ok. æÆ ° õ Ô Î » ì ^•iÖ’ `«O„_ç HõxÑ≤OKå_»∞. ''*ˇsѨiH˜}© "Õã¨∞H˘KåÛ"ÕO J=∂‡, KÕÖ’H˜? |∞~°^Œ HÍ^Œ∂?—— Jx J_çQÍ_»∞. ''`å`« "Õã¨∞‰õΩ~°=∞‡<åfl_»∞ <å<åfl! ~¸ ѨiH˜}© Hõ@∞ì H˘¿ãÎ K«∂_®Å<åfl_»∞—— J#flk. ''K«∂âß_®?—— ''=∞~°záÈÜ«∂_»∞—— ''`å`« J#flO u<åfl_® J=∂‡?—— ''ÃÑ\ÁìKåÛ#∞—— ''ZHõ¯_»∞<åfl_»∞?—— ''J^ÕO, P <Õˆ~_»∞ K≥@∞ìH˜O^Õ—— W^ŒÌ~°∂ <Õˆ~_»∞ K≥@∞ì ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~å~°∞. PHÍâ◊O =∞É˃ã≤Ok. =~°¬"Úã¨∞O^Õ"∂ J#∞‰õΩ<åfl_»∞ #~°ûÜ«∞º. J~°=~ÚUà◊√§ xO_ç<å `«O„_ç ≥ Î ≥

á⁄ÅO ~å=@O #~° û Ü« ∞ ºH˜ ~Ú+¨ ì O ÖË ^ Œ ∞ . á⁄ÖÏxH˜ J#flO `≥Ñ≤ÊOK«∞HÀ=@O Jã¨Å∞ ~Ú+¨ìOÖË^Œ∞. J`«#∞ Tà’¡ ѨOKå~ÚfÉ’~°∞¤ „ÃÑã≤_≥O@∞. H˘OK≥O Ѩ~°∞=ÙQÍ „|`«HÍÅO\Ï_»∞. HÍx UO ÖÏÉèíO? `«O„_ç `«# =∂@ q#_»∞. KÕ#∞ QÆ@∞ìg∞^Œ J#flOuO>Ë Ñ¨~°∞=ÙáÈ`«∞O^• JO\Ï_»∞. ZHõ¯_À Liq∞Ok. "≥∞~°∞ѨىõÄ_®#∞. z@Ѩ@ z#∞‰õΩÅ∞. z\˜ì <åÅ∞Hõ ™êz z#∞‰õΩÅ∞ ~°∞z K«∂™ÈÎOk. #_»∞ã¨∂Î QÆ|QÆÉÏ #~°ûÜ«∞º <Õˆ~_»∞ K≥@∞ì ^ŒQÆæ~°‰õΩ #_çKå_»∞. K≥@∞ì <å#∞‰õΩx ‰õÄ~˘Ûx =Ù<åfl_»∞ `«O„_ç. KÕu Hõ„~°, `«ÅáêQÍ XHõѨHõ¯# Ѩ_ç=Ù<åfl~Ú. Hõà◊√§=¸ã¨∞H˘x Uq∞\˜ PÖ’zã¨∞Î<åfl_»∞? J=ã¨~°O =Ù<åfl ÖËHõáÈ~Ú<å PÖ’zOK«_»O `«Ñ¨Ê^Œ∞. QÆ∞Ñ≤Ê_ç =Ú‰õΩ¯H˜ PxOK«∞H˘x U^À "åã¨# K«∂ã¨∞Î<åfl_»∞. QÆ∞ÃÑÊ@Ö’ U=ÚOk? ѨÙ"åfi? HÍ^Œ∞. á⁄QÍHÍ? HÍ^Œ∞. =∞#∞fl....=\˜ì =∞#∞fl!– <Õˆ~_çK≥@∞ì „H˜O^Œ ˆ~QÆ_ç =∞#∞fl. ''JÜ«∂º, JÜ«∂º—— Jx Ñ≤eKå_»∞ H˘_»∞‰õΩ–=∞àϧ Ñ≤eKå_»∞. 'JÉσÜü∞— h~°ã¨OQÍ `«O„_ç=∂@. QÆ∞Ñ≤Ê_ç ã¨_»e K≥~Úº „H˜OkH˜ "åeáÈ~ÚOk. =∞#∞fl ^è•~°QÍ Ñ¨_çOk. =∞\˜ì =∞\˜ì`À Hõeã≤Ok. ''JÜ«∂º! JÜ«∂º—— JÜ«∞º =∞i ѨÅHõÖË^Œ∞. ( „uѨÙ~°<Õx ™ê~ÚK«O^£ QÍi ™œ[#ºO`À)

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('QÀÑ‘KO^£ ™ê‡~°Hõ ã¨OzHõ #∞Oz) «

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mamakaram
POQÍ¡#∞"å^ŒO : l.P~ü.ÔH. =¸iÎ ##flÜ«∞ HÍÅO #∞Oz W`«~° ÉèÏ+¨Å ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’H˜ J#∞ã¨$lOѨ*ËÜ«∞_»=ÚOkQÍx, `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’x =∞øeHõ ~°K#Å W`«~° ÉèÏ+¨ÅÖ’H˜ J#∞"å^ŒO KåÖÏ `«‰Ω¯=. Jk W\©=Å „áê~°OÉè"∞Ok. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ #∞Oz W`«~° « õ í ≥ÿ ÉèÏ+¨ÅÖ’H˜ J#∞"å^ŒO [~°QÆ=Åã≤#O`« [~°QÆHõáÈ=_»O KÕ`«<Õ Hõhã¨O *ÏfÜ«∞™ê÷~ÚÖ’ ~å=Åã≤# QÆ∞iÎOѨ٠~å#O^Œ∞=Å¡ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ HÀÖ’Ê~Ú#k KåÖÏ Z‰õΩ¯=. ã¨$[<å`«‡Hõ ™êÇ≤Ï`åº#∞"å^ŒOÖ’x QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ`«, ã¨O㨯$fѨ~°"≥∞ÿ# q+¨Ü«∂Å J#∞"å^Œ ã¨=∞㨺Å∞ "å\˜x JkèQÆq∞OKÕ q^è•#O, P „Ѩ„H˜Ü«∞Ö’ =¸Å~°K«#Ö’x ™êfi~°™êºxfl U "Õ∞~°‰õΩ `«Ñ¨Êxã¨iQÍ `åºQÆO KÕÜ«∞=Åã≤ =ã¨∞ÎO^Œ<Õ q+¨Ü«∂Å∞ Pã¨H˜ÎQÆÅ"åi ѨijÅ#HÀã¨O JÅ<å\˜ Hõ^ä•xHõ J#∞ã¨$[# W=fi_»O [iyOk.
With a staff in his hand, Jogayya mama1 comes over the canal bund and stands under the black berry tree. Holding his hand against the sunrays he takes a look at his field. He remembers all those babultrees that are on the field bunds. They all came into existence along with him and are growing with him. During his tenure, he had to perforce cut two babul trees to make ploughs. Even today, the void left by them reminds him of their place on the bund. Whenever he looks at that emptiness, he feels disturbed as though his two grown-up sons ready to take the reins have deserted him. With a deep sigh, Jogayyamama, unfolds his turban and spreading it on the soil, sits under the rose apple tree. He has three sons. His eldest son, Narasayya,looks after the farming. The second one, Darayya, runs a cloth shop and is earning a few bucks on his own. The last son, Venkata Subbayya has acquired ‘esoteric’ education—‘English education.’ Besides, he has two daughters. All his children love him very much. He too loves them; but should a need arise, he can stay without seeing them, but not his fields even for a day. His wish is that all his children should tend the farm. He believes that they are born to improve the farm. That is why he is ill at ease with his second son who has established a cloth shop. He even complains, “He is a good man, but listening to his wife, he has turned bad. ”Jogayyamama now owns 100 acres. A great chunk of it has been acquired out of his own hard labor. That is precisely why for him all other relationships pale away before his property. He protects his farm as though it is his very life. To make it more productive,he is pleased to do anything. There are many occasions in which Jogayya, without caring even for his life, has removed obstructions placed by others across the canal to prevent water flowing down, and irrigated his field. If he stands on the canal bund with his long stick in hand challenging, “Come-on whoever dares to come”, the whole village gets cowed down by his stance. As his parched land is drinking water, he used to stand still watching the field like a mother sitting in ecstasy while the baby suckles her. Today, his grown-up sons are telling him,”We being here, why are you worried of all these? Why don’t you pass your time chanting god’s name—Krishna, Rama?” He wonders, his children—who are still kids for him—cannot realize how much bliss he enjoys out of this tapatrayam, concern, for the land. A month back, Jogayyamama’s wife fell ill—an illness which endangered herlife. For almost ten days she suffered from fever, moaning and groaning,yet Jogayya didn’t pay attention to her. If anyone in the family referred to it,Jogayya used to move away retorting, “If not men, do trees get fever?” Those were the days of puddling of paddy fields and he had no respite from it. However,he could not foresee that her fever would soon become grave. Though his elder son said, “Stay at home and attend to amma2, I shall irrigate the field and return”, Jogayya could not stay back at home. For, there was a mad rush for water, and who knew when someone would come in the way of his field getting irrigated.He knew his elder son was good but timid. If the other man shouted at him, he was sure to withdraw. Jogayya worried, if the field was not irrigated in time, no amount of reasoning later would matter. Realizing this, Jogayya made a local doctor give his wife a few tablets and after making her drink a little water, he started for the farm, saying, “Close your eyes and lie down, you will get sleep.” Nearing the tamarind tree outside the village, he came across the messenger sent by his son from the field. He informed Jogayya that seeing other farmers armed with sticks and spears, Narasayya had become motionless. Jogayyamama rushed to the farm taking quick strides. He removed the obstruction placed in the canal and redirected the water into his field. The other farmers who stood with sticks and spears could not but stay silent and motionless. istening to the gurgling sound of the rushing water into his field, Jogayya stood on the bund forgetting everything else. ”How is amma?” enquired Narasayya. ”She is,” said Jogayyamama. “Has the fever come down?” asked Narasayya. ”It has to,” replied Jogayya nonchalantly. ”Let’s go home,” said his son. At this, Jogayya was taken aback. “How do I leave the field without getting it fully irrigated?” he retorted. ”God forbid, nobody is around amma,” muttered Narasayya anxiously.Yet, Jogayya said: “You go home, I shall stay here.” Narasayya knew—his father would never leave work halfway. Not being able to say anything, leaving

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his father on the field bund, Narasayya started for home, helplessly. As the crows were cawing, a message came summoning Jogayya to home at once. Jogayya realized— his bond with his wife is about to get terminated.Yet, he could not leave the farm, for a far corner of the field was still to be watered. As the water flowed slowly over the cracks and reached the corner of the field, Jogayyamama taking long strides rushed home to see his wife. By the time he reached home, she was almost in her terminal stage. Even in that stage, she was talking about household chores. She taunted her husband:”I asked you to marry off the third son, but you haven’t cared.” She expressed her anguish at her second daughter-in-law not listening to her. She blamed Jogayya: “Rats are making holes to the silos (made of straw). I have asked you to get them closed with mud but you haven’t.” She accused the washerwoman, saying, “She is not applying starch to the clothes properly.” Even in that state, she tried to get out of the bed for ‘churning staff ’ to churn the milk. She complained, “Elder daughter-in-law doesn’t know how to skim butter without leaving much of it in the buttermilk.” She wondered what would be the fate of her family once she was no more. ”Why, all this, now? Stay quiet for a minute,” said Jogayyamama. Yet, she did not stop talking. She continued to speak till the last. She kept on saying something or the other to everybody. She ordered for one or the other work. Lastly, moaning with pain—”abba, abba 3 "—she held Jogayyamama’s hand tightly. It was holding his hand tightly that she left this world.It is exactly a month since his wife left this world. The field that he has irrigated without caring for her sickness and his life has at last come up well with bountiful tillers. Merrily singing, both men and women labourers are weeding the field. Leaning against the black berry tree, Jogayyamama sits on the bund. Of late, his mind is not that stable. He is unable to forget the kind of tapatrayamu,anxiety that his wife had exhibited on her deathbed. She knew that she was dying. Yet, she had spoken like a woman who is ready to wake up after sleeping a while. Why such anxiety for a dying woman? Why, even for anybody? After all, all have to leave this world. Who, then, needs it at all? The song of the labourers slowly reaches his ear from the field. Opening his eyes suddenly, Jogayyamama casts a look at the field. The other day, his grandson came to the field along with him. He asked him: “Where is our field, grandpa?” “All that is before your eyes is ours,” said he. It is a single stretch of 100 acres. Showing the ocean-like far-stretching land to his grandson, when he said, “It is all ours”, he was swayed by all the joy in the world. First, he came to this village as a cattle seller. Satisfied with his behavior and his business acumen, the farmer to whom he sold his cattle

gave his daughter to him in marriage and took him as his son-in-law and kept him in his own house. Since then, he has been working with his might. When he joined him, his father-in-law had five acres. With his hard labor, sweating day and night, within ten years he made it 10 acres. This made his father-in-law confident of him. While leaving this world, his father-in-law said, “For having taken you as my son-in-law, you have kept up my faith.” That simple comment from his father-in-law made him feel that all his labor was repaid. By the time his father-in-law died, he had made it 100 acres. But the kind of pleasure that he enjoyed while raising the holding, appears to be missing now. All that remained today is: his coming to the fields daily, taking a look at the fields, and perhaps chiding the labourers now and then—more as a mere habit; there is no anandam, bliss in it. Leaning against the black berry tree, Jogayyamama sits ‘still’ under the tree. The sun has almost come perpendicular to him. Traversing through the leaves,the sunrays are falling on his face. Warmed-over by sunrays, he opens his eyes. There are no labourers in the field. Pulling up his senses, he at once tries to get up. Moving a bit, he sees the labourers unknotting their food packets from the trees and eating their food. Some are eating while the rest are lying on their upper-cloth spread on the ground. ”Get going!” Jogayyamama shouts at them. They are amused at his concern for work even at that age. Chuckling with joy, one among them replies, “It’s hardly anytime that we are out of the field for eating.” One by one, they get down into the field again. Jogayyamama looks at the village. It has become a habit for him to eat his afternoon food under that tree. Even today, his granddaughter has to bring food to the field for him. He has seen his granddaughter coming to the field with the food packet on her head. The sky is already overcast, he wonders if it will start drizzling. It doesn’t matter if he gets wet, but not his granddaughter—she shouldn’t. If the rain gets severe, he must get into the hut under the jackfruit tree. Of what time, the hut is! It was erected when the field was bought. There it is, still—drenching in the rains and drying up under the blazing sun. Saying, “Here it is, Grandpa, food”, his granddaughter opens the food packet.There, the black gongura chutney, glowing on one side; on the other side lay mango pickle, red like blood, and in between, the white rice. Saying, “you keep eating grandpa, I shall go to the field and come back”,his granddaughter runs away. Jogayyamama pulls himself up, whisking the upper cloth and tying it around the head climbs down the bund with the support of his stick. He takes a double handful of water from the canal, and rinses his mouth. Slowly, he returns to the black berry tree again and sits under it. Putting the stick aside, he pulls the food packet before him. He takes the mango pickle with his finger and smears it on the tongue. And smacks. But there is no sound. Yet, he thinks he made the habitual sound feeling that it was good.

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The labourers are weeding the paddy field. Standing on the bund, Jogayyamama’s granddaughter gazes at the field for a while. A laborer teases her jokingly saying: “Chinnadorasani4 has come.” She, pulling up her skirt a little above her ankles, starts running along the bund to her grandfather. On the way, she sees her father. He asks her: “Why to field with silk skirt amma? Wouldn’t it get soiled?” “Grandfather wanted to see me draped in it,” says she. ”Has he seen?” enquires her father. ”No, he has forgotten. ””Has grandpa eaten the food?” “I kept there and came.” “Where is he?” There, under the black berry tree. ”Both walk towards the tree on the main bund. The sky is overcast. Narasayya wonders, it may rain. He doesn’t like his aged father coming to the field. Still worse, he doesn’t like his getting food to the fields. After all, being the president of the local panchayat board, he desires that they should Glossary:

live true to the status.Alas, his father never listens to him. Instead, questions: “Would eating food on the farm bund dishonor us?” There is thunder from the distant clouds along with lightning. It starts drizzling. The kid, walking on the bund, puts out her tongue to taste the raindrops. Narasayya speeds up his stride towards the tree. His father is under the tree leaning against its trunk. His staff and turban are lying on one side. With closed eyes, he is thinking of something—whether it is essential or not, thinking has become inevitable. Holding the fist to his nose, he smells something. What is in the fist? A flower? No.A tobacco leaf? No. Soil …… mere soil!—the black cotton soil under the tree. ”Ayya5", “Ayya”, calls his son. ”Abbai6", Jogayya feebly murmurs, and as he loses grip on the fist, his hand slides to his side. Like a stream, the soil falls. Soil joins the soil. ”Ayya”, “Ayya”.

1. Mama—uncle. In the countryside, an elder person who has come up in life by dint of hard labor is often addressed fondly by adding mama to his name, more out of intimacy and at the same time respect for his accomplishments, as 2. Amma—mother. 3. Abba, abba—usual sounds emitted by a moaning sick person. in the case of Jogayya. 4. Chinnadorasani—young lady. 5. Ayya—father. 6. Abbai—my boy (an affectionate way of calling a son by a father or mother).

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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 54

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qKå~°Hõ~°O ~ÚÖÏ¡ [~°QÆ_»O. *Ï„QÆ`«ÎQÍ PÖ’zOz XHõ x~°‚Ü«∂xH˜ ~å"åe—— J<åfl#∞. QÀ=∞u <å=OHõ Pâ◊Û~°ºOQÍ K«∂ã≤Ok. ''PÖ’zOK«_»"Õ∞=ÚO^Õ? f~ÚOKÕ™êÎ#∞ JÜÕ∞ëêKÕ`«∞Åg∞^Œ∞QÍ<Õ– H˘<åflà◊√§ q„âßOu. =∞m§ HÍÖËrH˜ "≥_»∞`«∞Ok. #∞=Ùfi ^ŒQÆæi^•#=Ù Hõ^•! F =ÚHõ¯ h`À<≥·<å K≥Ñ≤ÊKÕ^•Ì=∞#∞‰õΩ#fl——. ''ZÉÏ~°¬<å—— J<åfl#∞ <Õ#∞ h~°ã¨OQÍ. ''HÍHõ á È`Õ "≥ ∂ 㨠∞ Î O ^•–Hõ O @∞O^•, ÃÑOK« ∞ `« ∞ O^•—— J#flk "≥@HÍ~°OQÍ QÀ=∞u. <å‰õΩ Hõ+¨ì=∞xÑ≤OzOk. Hõ#fl‰õÄ`«∞ix JO`« JѨǨ㨺O KÕ™ÈÎO>Ë. ''QÀ=∞u! `«# ~Ú+¨ì"Õ∞q∞\’ Hõ#∞HÀ¯~å^Œ∞? ã¨∞=∂, K≥ѨÊ=∂‡ h =∞#ã¨∞Ö’ U=ÚO^À. KåÖÏ ÉÏ^èŒQÍ =ÙO^• ~ÚÖÏ¡ [iy#O^Œ∞‰õΩ? Hõ∆}˜Hõ"≥∞ÿ# P"Õâ◊O =Å¡ ZO`« Ѩx [iyO^Œx "åáÈ`«∞<åfl"å? K≥ѨÊ=∂‡—— J<åfl#∞ P"≥∞ KÕug∞^Œ KÕ~Ú"Õã≤. ''B#∞ ÃÑ^ŒÌ=∂‡, <å‰õÄ J~°÷O HÍ=_»O ÖË^Œ∞. J=∞‡ K≥Ñ≤Ê#>Ë¡ qO\Ï#∞—— J#flk ã¨∞=∞. ''P~ÀQƺO ÉÏQÆ∞O^•? "åO`«∞Å∂ Jn Ug∞ ÖË=Ù Hõ^•! =∞#ã¨∞û ZÖÏ =ÙOk?—— J<åfl#∞ <Õ#∞ =∞m§. ''UO ÖË ^ Œ ∞ ÃÑ^Œ Ì = ∂‡! =∂=¸Å∞QÍ<Õ =Ù<åfl#∞. W\© * ò U |Ü«∞ÖÏlHõÖò „áê|¡O—— J#flk. <Õ#∞ qã¨∞ÎáÈÜ«∂#∞. XHõ „áê}˜x =ÙOK«_»=∂, K«OѨ_»=∂ J#flk |Ü«∞ÖÏlHõÖò „áê|¡=∂? ''JÖÏ¡ÔQ·`Õ ^•xfl JÖψQ =ÙO_»x=Ùfi – ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ QÀÅ ÃÑ_»`å=Ù?—— ''ZÖÏ¡? ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok, #Å∞QÆ∞iH© UO K≥áêÊe? Z=~°∞ nxfl ÃÑo§ KÕã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞?—— J#flk QÀ=∞u. KåÖÏ kQÆ∞Å∞ P"≥∞ =∂@Ö’¡. ''JO^Œ∞Hõ<Õ, f~ÚOKÕ™êΗ— J#flk. <Õ#∞ J„Ѩܫ∞`«flOQÍ ''„Éèí∂}ǨÏ`åº?—— J<åfl#∞. <å ã¨O™ê¯~åxfl |\˜ì J^≥O`À xHõ$+¨ì"≥∞ÿ# Ѩx. ''JO>Ë Uq∞\˜ ÃÑ^ŒÌ=∂‡!—— J#flk ã¨∞=∞ Hõà◊√§ ÃÑ^ŒÌq KÕã¨∂Î. ''JO>Ë Hõ_»∞ѨÙÖ’x Ѷ‘@ãπx K«OѨ_»O—— Jx K≥áêÊ#∞. Z=i^À rq`«O ÖÏQÍ ~¸ q+¨Ü«∞O K«iÛOK«_»O <å‰õΩ Ѷ¨∞’~°OQÍ JxÑ≤OK«™êyOk. ''„Éèí∂}ǨÏ`åº, ã≤Oy<å^Œ=∂! ã¨O㨯$`«OÖ’ U^À ¿Ñ~°∞ ÃÑ_ç`Õ JO`« ÉèíÜ«∞OHõ~°OQÍ qxÑ≤ã¨∞Î#flk–WO`«H© #∞=Ùfi J#flO u<åfl"å?—— J#flk QÀ=∞u. ''u<åfl#∞. g∞iOHÍ Éè’OKÕã≤#@∞¡ ÖË~°∞QÍ—— J<åfl#∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 55

''ÖË^Õ! D Q˘_»=`À<Õ =∞`«∞Å∞áÈ~Ú H˘@∞ì‰õΩO@∞<åflO—— J#flk. ''ÉèíÖË"åàı§! ã¨∞=∞H˜ h~°ã¨O ~å^Œ∂? LO_»∞ <Õ#∞ ÃÑ_»`å#∞—— Jx =O\˜O\’¡H˜ "≥o§ =O_ç#q Uq∞\’ K«∂ã≤, >Ë|∞Öò g∞^ŒH˜ KÕ~°"Õâß#∞. ''~å J=∂‡! =ÚO^Œ∞ J#flOu#∞. P `«~åfi`« PÖ’z^•ÌO!—— P=Ù~å=Ù~°=∞O@∂ P Ñ≤Å¡ uO\’O>Ë <å‰õΩ *Ïe"Õã≤Ok. ÖË`«"≥ÚQÆæ "å_çáÈ~ÚOk. ÃÑ^ŒÌ ã¨=∞㨺 =zÛѨ_çOk. xO_® ~Ú~°"≥· Uà◊√§ ÖËx P |`«∞H˜¯ ~ÚOHÀ „áê}˜ `À_»∞. HÍh QÀ=∞u PÖ’K«<Õ <å‰õΩ U=yOѨ٠Hõey™ÈÎOk. U^À J~ÚOk. Ѷ¨e`«O J#∞ÉèíqOK«HõáÈ`Õ ZÖÏ? Z^Œ∞~˘¯<Õ ^è≥·~°ºO `«#H˜ =ÙO_®e. `«e¡QÍ P Ñ≤Å¡‰õΩ ã¨Ô~·# ã¨ÅǨ ~Ú"åfie. ''K« ∂ _» ∞ QÀ=∞f! ^•x Hõ _ » ∞ Ѩ Ù Ö’ =ÓÑ≤ i áÈ㨠∞ ‰õ Ω O@∂ H˘@∞ìq∞\Ïì_»∞`«∞#fl „áê}Ïxfl K«O¿ÑÜ«∂Å#fl JO`« ^Œ∞+¨ì"≥∞ÿ# PÖ’K«# hÔHO^Œ∞ÔH? a_»¤#∞ Hõ#h–Z=iÔH·<å ~ÚKÕÛÜ«∞h!—— J<åfl#∞ xOáêkQÍ ‰õÄ~°∞Û<åflHõ. ''Kèå–^•xH˜ JO`« ÉèÏ~°O ZO^Œ∞ˆH. P_»∞‰õΩO@∂, áê_»∞‰õΩO@∂ =ÙO_» = Åã≤ # Ñ≤ Å ¡ ~ÚO`« Hõ _ » ∞ Ѩ Ù `À, JO^Œ ∞ Ö’#∂ Z=~À k‰õΩ¯=∂e#"å_»∞ KÕã≤# Ѩx`À P áêѨÉèÏ~°O "≥∂ã¨∂Î „ѨuHõ∆}O ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ =zÛ# `«kÌ#O ~Úk Jx ‰õΩq∞eáÈ"åÖÏ? <å<≥û#∞û, <Õ#∞ =ѨÊ#∞—— J#flk. ''㨈~–S`Õ ##∞fl ã¨õÅǨH˜ ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ Ñ≤ÖÏÛ=Ù? <Õ#∞ "≥o§ =™êÎ#∞——. Jx ÖËKå#∞. QÀ=∞u XHõ¯ Hõ∆}O PÖ’zOzOk. ''‰õÄKÀ–Uq∞\Ï `˘O^Œ~°? J~Ú`Õ UO KÕ^•Ì=∞O\Ï=Ù?—— J#flk. ''ã¨∞=∞x g∞ K≥Öˇ¡e ^ŒQÆæ~°H˜ ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú Ñ¨OÑ≤OKÕ~Ú. "åà◊√§ ѨÙ=ÙfiÖ’¡ ÃÑ\˜ì K«∂ã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞. #∞"≥fio§ JO`å K≥Ñ≤Ê, kOÑ≤~å. WOHÍ S^•~°∞<≥ÅÅ∞–ZO`«Ö’ uiy=™êÎ~Ú. a_»¤#∞ Hõ<åflHõ UO KÕÜ«∂Ö’ PÖ’z^•ÌO. ^•xfl "≥`«∞‰õΩ¯O@∂ =∂`«$`«fiO =zÛOk. J^˘Hõ J#∞Éèí=O. JÖÏ g∞ #∞Oz q_ç=_ç =ÙO_»_»O`À `«#H© XHõ xO_»∞^Œ#O =ã¨∞ÎOk. rq`«=∞O>Ë Uq∞\’ `≥Å∞ã¨∞ÎOk. H˘O^Œ~°∞, H˘O^ŒiH˜ z#fl =Ü«∞ã¨∞ûÖ’<Õ J#∞Éèí"åÅ∞ Z^Œ∞~“`å~Ú. P J#∞Éèí=OÖ’ Jk HÍy, "Õy, =∞ã¨e, XHõ Ѩi}u á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞Ok. Ñ≤iH˜^•xÖÏ áêiáÈx=fi‰õΩ. ÖË`« =Ü«∞ã¨∞ûÖ’ ZÉÏ~°¬<£ KÕ~Ú¿ãÎ P =∞K«Û â◊s~°O g∞^Œ, =∞#ã¨∞û g∞^Œ =ÙO_»Hõ =∂#^Œ∞. <å=∂@ q#∞. ^è≥·~°ºOQÍ Z^Œ∞~À¯h rq`åxfl.—— ѨijÅ#QÍ ‰õÄ`«∞ifl K«∂™ÈÎOk QÀ=∞u. áêÅ∞Q͈~ |∞QÆæÅ∞, z#flQÍ =OyáÈ~Ú# Éèí∞*ÏÅ∞, Ô~ѨÊÅH˜O^Œ Hõà◊§Ö’¡ `≥eÜ«∞x JÜ≥∂=∞Ü«∞O PÖ’K«#Å∞. "Õ∞=Ú =∂\Ï¡_»∞‰õΩ<Õk `«#x QÆ∞iOKÕ J~Ú<å, Z=ix QÆ∞iOKÀ J#fl@∞¡ qO\’Ok. ''`«# ‰õ_»∞ѨÙÖ’H˜ P„â◊Ü«∞O "≥`«∞‰õΩ¯O@∂ =zÛ# Ѩã≤„áê}Ïxfl zkq∞, zè„^ŒO KÕÜ«∂Å#fl PÖ’K«# <å‰õΩ ZO`À ǨÏ$^ŒÜ«∞ q^•~°HõOQÍ
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

=ÙOk. W^Õ Ñ¨ã≤a_»¤. ^•xH˜ ~ÚOHÀ a_»¤. hÔHO`« Hõ+¨ìO =zÛOk QÀ=∞f!—— J<åfl#∞ <Õ#∞ x[OQÍ<Õ *ÏeѨ_»∞`«∂. QÀ=∞u PÖ’z™ÈÎOk. ã¨∞=∞ n#OQÍ ‰õÄ~°∞ÛOk. ‰õΩxH˜áê@∞¡ Ѩ_»∞`ÀOk. ''`˘O^Œˆ~O ÖË^Œ∞. PÖ’zOK«∞! g∞"å~°∞ ˆ~Ѩ٠=KåÛHõ PÖ’zOK«∞! J#∞Hõ∆}O ^•x âßfiã¨Ö’ âßfiã¨QÍ u~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#fl P a_»¤#∞ QÆ∞iOz Hõ ~ ° ∞ }`À PÖ’zOK« ∞ . <Õ # ∞ ˆ ~ Ѩ Ù =™êÎ # ∞. 㨠∞ =∂! F QÆ k Ö’ Ѩ_»∞‰õΩO^Œ∞=ÙQÍx ~å`«b¡!—— Jx `«#x á⁄^Œ∞=ÙH˘x fã¨∞ÔHo§ =∞OK«O g∞^Œ Ѩ_»∞HÀɡ\Ïì#∞. QÀ=∞u, <Õ#∂ P `«~åfi`« KåÖÏ¿ãѨ٠=∂\Ïì_»∞‰õΩ<åflO. <å Jaè „ áêÜ« ∂ xfl ~ÚOHÍ, ~ÚOHÍ `« # `« Å Ö’H˜ ZH˜ ¯ OK« _ ®xH˜ „Ѩܫ∞uflOKå#∞. <Õ#∞ =∂\Ï¡_ç, =∂\Ï¡_ç Jeã≤áÈÜ«∂#∞. "≥_»`å#x |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~å#∞. „_≥·=~üx ˆHˆHã≤ ##∞fl kOÑ≤ ~°=∞‡x K≥Ñ≤ÊOk QÀ=∞u. XHõ~ÀA Py á¶È<£ KÕâß#∞ QÀ=∞uH˜. ''UO x~°‚~ÚOK«∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞?—— Jx. "≥O@<Õ <Õ#∞ JuQÍ HõeÊOK«∞‰õΩO@∞<åfl<å Jx J#∞=∂#O =zÛOk. ''JO>Ë, =ÓiˆH J_çQÍ#∞ HÍh, <Õ#∞ HõÅ∞QÆKÕã¨∞HÀ=_»O `«Ñ¨ÙÊHõ^•!—— J<åfl#∞. ''ÖË^Œ∞ *Ï#H©! h ã¨ÅǨ =∂ "åiH˜ ‰õÄ_® ã¨Ô~·#^Õ JxÑ≤OzOk. ã¨∞=∞ ‰õÄ_® =ѨÙʉõΩOk. HÍh ÉèíÜ«∞Ѩ_»∞`ÀOk. =∂ K≥Öˇ¡e`À ÉÁOÉÏ~ÚÖ’ =∂\Ï¡_®#∞, `«#∞ 㨈~ JOk. <åÅ∞QÀ<≥Å ~åQÍ<Õ <Õ#∞ "≥o§ kOÑ≤ =™êÎ#∞—— J#flk. WO`« `ÕeQÍæ ~¸ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ JOwHÍ~°O ‰õΩ^Œ∞~°∞`«∞O^Œx <Õ#∞ J#∞HÀÖË^Œ∞. QÀ=∞u ZO`« K«∞~°∞‰õΩ. ѨÙ@ìÉ’ÜÕ∞ tâ◊√=Ù J^Œ$+¨ìO ÉÏQÆ∞Ok. ''ã¨∞=∞ =∞#ã¨∞û ZÖÏ =ÙO@∞O^À#x ÉèíÜ«∞Ѩ_®¤#∞. HõÅ=~°O, rq`«O U^À ^•i Ѩ\˜ìO^Œ#fl "Õ^Œ#, áêѨO–^•xH˜ ÉÏQÍ ã¨iÌ K≥ѨÊ"Õ! XHõ¯ Pˆ~_»∞<≥ÅÅ∞ FÑ≤Hõ Ѩ_ç`Õ =keáÈ`ÀOk. `«~åfi`« ã¨OQÆu PÖ’z^•ÌO—— J<åfl#∞. "åà◊√§ ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú "≥àı§ ~ÀA‰õÄ_® <Õ#∞"≥o§ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞, |@ìÅ∞ ã¨iÌÃÑ\˜ì =∞#∞+¨µºÅH˜ ã¨iÌ K≥áêÊ#∞. ''ã¨∞=∂! #∞=Ùfi KÕã¨∞Î#flk KåÖÏ Q˘Ñ¨Ê `åºQÆO. =∞x+≤QÍ #∞"≥fiO`« L#fl`«OQÍ ZkyáÈÜ«∂"À J~°÷O KÕã¨∞HÀ—— J<åfl#∞. `«Å =ÓÑ≤Ok. K«Hõ¯x K«∞Hõ¯. =∞Oz „_≥ã¨∞ûÖ’ "≥∞iã≤áÈ`ÀOk. a_»¤#∞ "≥∂ã¨∞Î#fl P "≥Å∞QÆ∞ <å‰õΩ =∂„`«"Õ∞ Hõ#|_çO^•? U"≥∂! ÉÁOÉÏ~ÚÖ’ kOÑ≤ Ѩk ~ÀAÅ∞O_ç =zÛOk QÀ=∞u. á¶È<£Ö’ ~ÀE =∂\Ï¡_»∞‰õΩ<Õ"åà◊¡O. HÍÖËr Z@∞áÈ~ÚO^À Z=iH© PÖ’K«# =Ù#fl@∞¡ ÖË^Œ∞. S^Œ∞, P~°∞, U_»∞, Zxq∞k <≥ÅÅ∞ QÆ_çzáÈÜ«∂~Ú. QÀ=∞u, "åàϧܫ∞# ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú "≥o§ =ã¨∂Î<Õ =Ù<åfl~°∞. ''ã¨∞=∞ ZO`« ÉÏQÆ∞O^À! <åk¿+ì `«yÖË@@∞¡ =ÙOk—— J#flk F™êi QÀ=∞u. <å‰õΩ >ˇ#¬<£QÍ<Õ =ÙOk. X_»∞¤# ‰õÄ~°∞Ûx ã¨ÅǨ ~ÚKåÛ#∞. J#∞ÉèíqOKÕ"åiH˜ `≥Å∞ã¨∞ÎOk J#fl q+¨Ü«∞=¸ <Õ#∞ =∞izáÈ~å^Œ∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 56

ÃÑ^ŒÌÃÑ^ŒÌ =Ù`«Î~åÅ∞ „"åâß#∞ ã¨∞=∞H˜ – `≥Å∞QÆ∞, WOw¡+¨µ ã¨QÆO HõÅQÆeÑ≤. `˘q∞‡k <≥ÅÅ∞ "≥o§áÈÜ«∂~Ú. QÀ=∞u "≥o§Ok =∞m§. 'J=∂‡~Ú Ñ¨Ù\˜ìOk— J#fl "å~°Î <å‰õΩ á¶È<£Ö’ K≥Ñ≤Ê#ѨÙÊ_»∞ <å =∞#ã¨∞û U^À `≥eÜ«∞x P"ÕâßxH˜ Ö’<≥·Ok. áêѨH˜ áêeã¨∞ÎO^•, =∞=∞HÍ~°O ÃÑiyáÈ`«∞O^•–ã¨∞=∞ ZO`« ÉÏ^èŒÑ¨_çO^À. Jx <å‰õΩ P~å@O ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú "≥_»^•=∞#∞‰õΩ<åfl#∞. HÍh, =∞s JO`« „Ѩ"Õ∞Ü«∞O ѨxH˜~å^Œx =ÙO_çáÈÜ«∂#∞. =∞~À Ô~O_»∞<≥ÅʼnõΩ ã¨∞=∞ =KÕÛã≤Ok. áêѨ#∞ =kÖËã≤. QÀ=∞u K≥Öˇ¡Å∞ K«∂ã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï#Ok@. 'tâ◊√qǨ~ü—H˜ ~ÚKÕÛÜ«∞=∞x Z=~À JO>Ë QÀ=∞uH˜ =∞#ã¨∞û =ѨÊÖË^Œ∞@. ã¨∞=∞ kQÆ∞Å∞QÍ =ÙOk. Hõà◊§Ö’ ^≥·#ºO. Z‰õΩ¯= =∂\Ï¡_»_»O ÖË^Œ∞. =Ù#fl@∞¡O_ç ÃÑ^ŒÌ^≥·áÈ~ÚOk. QÍOcè~°ºO =zÛOk. <åÅ∞ÔQ·^Œ∞ <≥ÅʼnõΩ QÍh Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ |ÅO ѨÙOAHÀÖË^Œ∞. ''J`«_çx QÆ∞iOz PÖ’zã¨∞Î#fl^•, ZѨÙÊ_Õ<å J_çyO^•—— Jx QÀ=∞ux J_çQÍ#∞. ''ÖË^Œ∞. J`«#O>Ë nxH˜ HÀѨO. ¿Ñ~°∞ ‰õÄ_® ã¨iQÍæ `≥eÜ«∞x"å_çx UO `«ÅK«∞‰õΩO@∞Ok?—— J#flk. ã¨∞=∞ á¶êº+¨<£ _ç*ˇ·<£ HÀ~°∞ûÖ’ KÕiOk. QÀ=∞u K≥Öˇ¡Å∞ áêáê~Ú á¶È\’Å∞ ‰õÄ_® ѨOѨ_»O ÖË^Œ∞. <å‰õΩ ZO^Œ∞HÀ K«∂_®Åx `«Ç¨Ï`«Ç¨ÏQÍ =ÙOk. ''K«Hõ¯QÍ =ÙOk@—— J#flk QÀ=∞u XHõ™êi. <Õ#∞ <å ã¨O™ê~°O Q˘_»=Ö’¡ Ѩ_çáÈÜ«∂#∞. ZѨÙÊ_ÀQÍh QÀ=∞ux ѨÅHõiOK«_»O ÖË^Œ∞. L#fl@∞¡O_ç XHõ~ÀA QÀ=∞u á¶È<£ KÕã≤Ok. ''#∞"˘fiHõ™êi =™êÎ"å?—— QÀ=∞u HõO~î°O. =∞m§ U"≥ÚzÛOk Jx <À\˜ z=i^•HÍ =zÛOk <å‰õΩ. ÉÏQÆ∞O_»^Œx `«=∂~ÚOK«∞H˘x ''K≥ѨÊ"Õ! Uq∞\˜ ã¨OQÆ`«∞Å∞?—— J<åfl#∞. ''ã¨OQÆ`Õ =∞i! ã¨∞=∞ ÃÑo§ KÕã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï#O\’Ok—— JOk. ''â◊√ÉèíO! Z=ix?—— J<åfl#∞. ''J^ŒO`å K≥|∞`å#∞. áÈh <Õ<Õ ~å<å?—— J#flk QÀ=∞u. ''=^Œ∞ÌÖË. <Õ<Õ =™êÎ#∞ XHõ QÆO@Ö’—— J<åfl#∞. <Õ#∞ "≥àϧ#∞. ''"åà◊ § á¶ ê º+¨ < £ _ç * ˇ · < £ HÀ~° ∞ ûÖ’ XHõ Öˇ H õ Û ~° ~ ü =KåÛ~° @ . ѨO*Ïc–XHõiH˘Hõ~°O #KåÛ=Ú JO\’Ok. U=∞O\Ï=Ù?—— J#flk QÀ=∞u. <Õ#∞ ["åa=fi_®xH˜ ã¨O^ÕÇÏOKå#∞. Z=~À J`«#∞– `«y#O`« ≤ ѨiK«Ü«∞O =ÙO^•– P HÍj‡~ü "å_çx #q∞‡#@∞¡QÍ<Õ ~Ú`«_çx ‰õÄ_® #=Ú‡`« ∞ O^•–HÍh 㨠O ^Õ Ç ¨  Å∞ |Ü« ∞ @ÃÑ_ç ` Õ QÀ=∞u UO J#∞‰õ Ω O@∞O^À. `« # ‰õ Ä `« ∞ ~° ∞ K« Ñ ¨ Å z`« ∞ Î ~ åÅ∞ J<åfl#∞ J#∞‰õΩO@∞O^•! ''#∞=Ùfi K«∂âß"å J`«_çx?—— J<åfl#∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

''P–<Õ#∂, =∂ PÜ«∞# ~Ú^ŒÌ~°O HõeâßO. ÉÏQÍ<Õ =Ù<åfl_»∞—— JOk. h ÉÏQÆ∞O_»_»O |OQÍ~°O HÍ#∂ J#∞‰õΩ<åfl =∞#ã¨∞Ö’. ^Õâ◊O HÍx ^Õâ◊O "å_»∞ ã¨∞=∞x ÉÏQÍ K«∂ã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï_®? J`«x ‰õΩ@∞O|O Uq∞\’! ''ZHõ¯_ç"å_»∞?—— J<åfl#∞ ™êÖ’K«#QÍ. ''_èçb¡. Jã¨Å∞ ã¨OQÆu Uq∞@O>Ë J`«xH˜ Ô~O_À ÃÑo§. ÉèÏ~°º áÈ~ÚOk. XHõ H˘_»∞‰õΩ<åfl_»@ <åÅ∞ˆQà◊§"å_»∞. "åà◊§ J=∞‡, <å#fl K«∂ã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞@. ǨÏ~åº<åÖ’ =ÙO\Ï~°∞@——. JÖÏQÍ J#∞‰õΩ<åfl =∞#ã¨∞ûÖ’<Õ. ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ áÈ~ÚO^À ÉèÏ~°º ZÖÏ áÈ~ÚO^À! ##∞fl ã¨ÅǨ J_çy <å g∞^Œ ZO`« ÉèÏ~°O "Õâß=Ù `«b¡ J#∞‰õΩ<åfl. ''U=∞O\Ï=Ù *Ï#H©——? J#flk. JO`« JÔ~˚O@∞QÍ J_çy`Õ UO K≥ѨÊQÆÅ#∞? h~°ã¨Ñ¨_®¤#∞. ''ÉÏQÍ `≥Å∞™ê J`«#∞ ã¨∞=∞H˜?—— ''ÉÏQÍ JO>Ë PÔ~flÅ¡ ѨiK«Ü«∞O. =∞x+≤ =∞Oz"å_»@. _èçb¡Ö’ `≥eã≤# "åà◊√§ =Ù<åfl~°∞ÖË qKåiOK«∞HÀ=K«∞Û—— J#flk. ã¨∞=∞ `«# ã¨OQÆu K≥|∞`«∞O^•? =∞QÆ"å_çH˜ XHõ Ñ≤Å¡"å_»∞ =ÙO_»_»O ÃÑ^ŒÌ q+¨Ü«∞"Õ∞g∞ HÍ^Œ∞, Ô~O_À ÃÑo§H˜ ã≤^ŒúO HÍ=_»=¸ HÍ^Œ∞. HÍh P_»Ñ≤Å¡‰õΩ XHõ Ñ≤Å¡ =ÙO^ŒO>Ë ZO`« =∞ǨѨKå~°O. ZO`« ^•~°∞}O. qѨs`«OQÍ HõÅ=~°Ñ¨_çáÈ`å~°∞. áêÑ≤QÍ Ñ¨u`«QÍ, ^•i `«Ñ≤Ê# =∞x+≤QÍ K«∂™êÎ~°∞ Hõ^•! ''QÀ=∞f! ã¨∞=∞ `«# ã¨OQÆu K≥|∞`«∞O^• J`«xH˜?—— QÀ=∞u Hõà◊√§ ÃÑ^ŒÌq KÕã≤Ok. ''WOHÍ #Ü«∞O. K≥a`Õ ~ÚOˆH"≥∞ÿ<å =ÙO^•? ã¨O|O^èŒO `≥yáÈ`«∞Ok. Jã¨Å∞ ^•xH˜ ÃÑo¡ HÍ=_»"Õ∞ Hõ+¨ìO J#∞‰õ Ω O@∞O>Ë Z=_À =Ú‰õ Ω ¯ "≥ Ú Ç¨ Ï O =Ù#fl"å_» ∞ =¿ãÎ K≥_»Q˘@∞ì‰õΩO\Ï=∂?—— J#flk. QÀ=∞u J<Õ^Õq∞\’ J~°÷"≥∞ÿ<å Hõ#fl‰õÄ`«∞ifl JO`«=∂@ J<Õ™ÈÎO^Õ JxÑ≤OzOk. ''`«# ã¨OQÆu K≥ѨÊHõáÈ`Õ ÃÑo§ ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ HÍ^Œ∞. ^•zÃÑ\˜ì "Õˆ~ ÅHõ∆}"≥∞ÿ# ã¨O|O^èŒO K«∂_»=K«∞Û. J~Ú<å, `«# K«^Œ∞=Ù ZO^Œ∞‰õΩ PÑ≤OKÕâß=Ù. P a.Z. ѨÓiÎ KÕÜ«∞h. áêuˆHà◊§^•HÍ PQÆ∞. ÉÏQÍ K«^∞=ÙHÀx. XHõ L^ÀºQÆOÖ’ ã≤~Ñ_®¤Hõ ÃÑo§=∂@ =∂\Ï¡_∞—— J<åfl#∞. Œ ÷° ¨ » QÀ=∞u PÖ’zã¨∂Î =ÙO_çáÈ~ÚOk. ''J^Õ K≥Ñ≤ÊOk Hõ^•. `«#H˜ P ^Œ$+≤ì =ÙO_»|>Ëì Hõ^• PÜ«∞#x ÃÑo§H˘_»∞‰õΩQÍ K«∂ã≤Ok. PÜ«∞<å ~Ú+¨ìѨ_®¤~°∞ Hõ^•! HÍ^ŒO>Ë ÉÏ^è Œ Ñ ¨ _ » ∞ `« ∞ Ok. HÍÖË r H˜ "≥ à ◊ § _®xH˜ ~Ú+¨ ì Ñ ¨ _ » _ » O ÖË ^ Œ ∞ . ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`«∞ÅO^Œi`À U<å_À Hõ\ÏѶπ KÕã¨∞‰õΩOk. ǨÏ~îå`«∞ÎQÍ "≥o§áÈ~Ú Ñ¨k <≥ÅÅH˜ Hõ#|_ç`Õ "åà◊√§ U=∞#∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞!—— `«# "å^Œ# qxÑ≤OzOk QÀ=∞u.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 57

ã¨∞=∞ ~ÚOHÍ ~ÚO\˜H˜ ~åÖË^Œ∞. ''J`«x`À ZHõ¯_çHÀ "≥o§ =ÙO@∞Ok. *Ï#H©! Jk „¿Ñ=∞Ö’ Ѩ_çOk. J`«#∞ ‰õÄ_® KåÖÏ JO^Œ"≥∞ÿ#"å_»∞.—— ''QÀ=∞f, ~°Ç¨Ï㨺OQÍ =ÙOK«_»O =∞Ozk HÍ^Œ∞. ZѨÙÊ_À JѨÙÊ_»∞ XHõ |ÅÇ‘Ï#Hõ∆}OÖ’ ã¨∞=∞ `å<Õ K≥ѨÊ=K«∞Û. JѨÙÊ_»∞ QÀÖˇ·áÈ`«∞Ok. =ÚO^Õ K≥ѨÊ=∞#∞. J`«x H˘_»∞‰õΩ "åà◊§ "åà◊§ ^ŒQÆæ~° =ÙO>Ë, =∞# Ñ≤Å¡ g∞ K≥e¡e ^ŒQÆæ~° =ÙOk. HÍh `«=∞H˜ XHõ ã¨O`å#O =ÙOk J#fl q+¨ Ü « ∞ O ~Ú^Œ Ì ~ ° ∂ =∞iÛáÈÖË ~ ° ∞ . H˘O`« H ÍÖÏxH˜ Ñ≤ Å ¡ Å g∞^Œ =∞#ã¨∞ûѨÙ\˜ì KÕ~°nã¨∞HÀ"åÅxÑ≤OK«=K«∞Û. ÉèÏ~åºÉèí~°ÎÅ =∞^茺 ~ÚO`« ÃÑ^ŒÌ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ ^•Ñ¨iHõO „Ѩ=∂^ŒHõ~°O.—— J<åfl#∞. QÀ=∞u PÖ’K«#Ö’ Ѩ_çOk. <Õ#∞ K≥¿ÑÎ QÍh Jk ÃÑ^ŒÌ q+¨Ü«∞=∞x `«#H˜ `ÀK«ÖË^Œ∞. <åHõO>Ë Ô~O_Õà◊√§ z#flk. K«^Œ∞=ÙH˘#flk. P =∂„`«O =ÓÇ≤ÏOK«ÖË^•? <å‰õΩ ǨÏ~îå`«∞ÎQÍ ~¸ =º=Ǩ~°OÖ’ Pã¨H˜Î áÈ~ÚOk. <Õ<≥O^Œ∞‰õΩ Jxfl\˜H© ѨÙÅ¡Å∞ ÃÑ_»∞`«∂, K≥_»¤^•xfl HÍ"åe? "åà◊√§ ZÖÏQÀ x~°‚~ÚOK«∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞. <å JOwHÍ~°O ‰õÄ_® =ÙO>Ë "åà◊§ "å^Œ#H˜ |ÅO =ã¨∞ÎOk. JO`Õ. U^À =∂@=~°ã¨H˜ J_»∞QÆ∞`ÀOk. ''J`«#∞ _èçb¡, ÉÁOÉÏ~Ú, ɡOQÆ∞à◊¥~°∞Ö’¡ ÃÑ^ŒÌ á¶êº+¨<£ _ç*ˇ·#~ü@. q∞ãπ~ÚO_çÜ«∂ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® _ç*ˇ·<£ KÕ™êÎ_»@. JO`« ¿Ñ¶=∞ãπ J~Ú`Õ =∞#H© ÉÏQÆ∞O@∞Ok. Hõ^•?—— J#flk. ''J=Ù#∞, ÉÏQÆ∞O@∞Ok.—— =∞iHÍ¿ãûѨ٠‰õÄ~°∞Ûx `åxzÛ# HÍѶ‘ `åy ~ÚO\˜H˜ |Ü«∞Å∞^Õ~å#∞. H˘<åflà◊√§ WOHõ <Õ#∂, `«#∂ =∂\Ï¡_»∞HÀÖË^Œ∞. ''*Ï#H© hHÀ "å~°Î K≥ѨÊ<å?—— Jx =∞~À ~ÀA á¶È<£. ''ã¨∞=∞ ÃÑo§, nѨ H ± – J^Õ h‰õ Ω K≥ Ñ ≤ Ê # ÃÑo§H˘_» ∞ ‰õ Ω –_è ç b ¡ Ö ’ KÕã¨∞‰õΩO^•=∞<åfl_»∞. WHõ¯_» gÅ∞x |\˜ì iÃãѨ¬<£—— QÀ=∞u K≥Ñ≤ÊOk <åÖ’ XHõ>Ë „Ѩâ◊fl. `«#∞ Hõ#fla_»¤ QÆ∞iOz K≥Ñ≤ÊO^• „Ѩf™êi P =∂@ J_» Q Æ _ » O ÉÏQÆ ∞ O_» ^ Œ x `« = ∂~ÚOK« ∞ ‰õ Ω <åfl#∞. WOHÍ z#fl=Ü«∞¿ãû, ÉÏQÍ K«^Œ∞=ÙHÀ"åÅh, „ѨÜ≥∂[‰õΩ~åÅ∞ HÍ"åÅx <Õ#∞ K≥Ñ≤Ê# ã¨ÅǨ `«b¡ ‰õÄ`«∞o§^ŒÌiH© #K«ÛÖË^Œ#fl=∂@. "åo§+¨ì"≥ÚzÛ#@∞¡ rq`åÅ∞ #_çÑ≤OK«∞HÀ=_®xH˜ =∞# ã¨ÅǨ ZO^Œ∞Hõ_»∞QÆ∞`å~°∞. =∂\˜=∂\˜H© Jx <å‰õΩ JÅHõ=zÛOk. ''PǨ! JÖÏ¡QÍ â◊√ÉèíO—— J<åfl#∞ ‰õΩ¡Ñ¨ÎOQÍ. ''ëêÑ≤OQÆ∞ÅH© ^•xH© "≥àϧe. PÜ«∞#ˆH"≥∂ ÉÁuÎQÍ f~°∞ÉÏ@∞ ÖË^Œ∞. ã¨∞=∞^ŒO`å JÜ≥∂=∞Ü«∞O. #∞"˘fiã¨∞ÎO_»"Õ =∞^茺 =∞^茺.—— J#flk QÀ=∞u. ''㨈~!—— J<åfl#∞. XHõ¯ a_»¤, QÍ~åÅѨ\˜ì. ^•x ÃÑo§H˜ ZO`« Y~°∞Û KÕ¿ãÎ `«xq fˆ~#∂? JѨÊ\˜ˆH ã¨∞=∞H˜ #QÆÅ∞<åfl~Ú. =∞m§ ~°Hõ~°HÍÅ∞ H˘#flk QÀ=∞u. |@ìÖˇ·`Õ ÖˇYöÖË^Œ∞. ÉÏQÆ∞O^Œx XHõ\˜, _ç*ˇ·<£ #zÛO^Œx XHõ\˜, P =∂„`«O ÖËHõáÈ`Õ ZÖÏ Jx XHõ>Ë pÔ~Å∞, „_≥ã¨∞ûÅ∞ _èçb¡ ^Œ~å˚H˜
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

`«QÆæ@∞¡ H˘#flk. ''q∞ye#k JHõ¯_» fã¨∞‰õΩO@∞OkÖË—— J#flk. ''h‰õÄ \˜ÔH¯@∞¡ |∞H± KÕ~ÚOKÕ™êÎ#∞.—— ''=^Œ∞Ì, =^Œ∞Ì—— J<åfl#∞ YOQÍ~°∞QÍ. "åà◊√§ q=∂<åÖ’¡ u~°∞QÆ∞`å~°∞. <åg∞^Œ JO`« Y~°∞Û ÃÑ@ì_»O ~Ú+¨ìO ÖË^Œ∞. ''WѨÙÊ_Õ HÍ^Œ∞. WO\’¡ J_çy K≥|∞`å#∞—— J<åfl#∞. `«#∂ |Å=O`«O KÕÜ«∞ÖË^Œ∞. WOHÍ Ñ¨k ~ÀAÅ∞O_»QÍ ''<å‰õΩ ‰õΩ^Œ~°^Œx—— K≥ѨÓÎ ''ã¨∞=∞ K≥Ñ≤ÊO^• `«# a_»¤ q+¨Ü«∞O—— Jx J_çˆQâß#∞. ''K≥Ñ≤ÊOk. J`«#∞ ZO`« ÉÏQÍ K≥áêÊ_À `≥Å∞™ê, <å H˘_»∞‰õΩ, h ‰õÄ`«∞~°∞ Hõeã≤ =∞# Ñ≤Å¡Å`À P_»∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞ J<åfl_»@.—— áê`« WOw¡+π *’H± QÆ∞~°∞ÎH˜ =zÛOk. "åà◊√§ _èçb¡ "≥o¡, ÃÑo§ [iÑ≤OK«∞H˘x =KÕÛ֒Ѩ٠=∂‰õΩ JÔ~˚O@∞QÍ „\Ï#ûÊù~ü J~Úº, ib"£ J~ÚáÈ=Åã≤ =zÛOk. QÀ=∞ux, =ÚYºOQÍ ã¨∞=∞x, K«∂_»‰õΩO_® "≥_»∞`«∞<åfl#x ÉÏ^èŒxÑ≤OzOk. ¿ãflǨÅ∂, |O^è•Å∞ Jhfl ^ŒQÆæ~° =ÙO>Ë<Õ. ^Œ∂~°O "≥_ç`Õ Z=iH˜ Z=~À! P_»"åà◊§H˜ JO^Œ∞Ö’#∂ ¿ãfiK«Ûù `«‰õΩ¯=. ZHõ¯_» =ÙO_®Ö’, ZѨÙÊ_»∞ ZHõ¯_»H˜ "≥àϧ֒ =∞QÆ"åàı§ xˆ~Ìt™êÎ~°∞. <å‰õÄ JÖψQ [iyOk. U_≥xq∞^Õà◊√§ JO_»=∂<£ûÖ’ =ÙO_çáÈÜ«∂#∞. ZѨÙÊ_À XHõ L`«Î~°O. XHõ á¶È<£ HÍÖò. z#fl<å_»∞ K≥@ìѨ\ÏìÖËã¨∞‰õΩx uiˆQ"åà◊§O. P_»∞‰õΩ<Õ"åà◊§O. HÍÖËrÖ’ XˆH ɡOz g∞^Œ ‰õÄ~°∞Û<Õ"åà◊§O. ÃÑà◊§~Ú<å XˆH =Óà’§ =ÙO_ç HõÅ∞ã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ "åà◊§O. P ¿ãflǨÏO JO`å =∞~°∞QÆ∞# Ѩ_çáÈ~ÚOk. Z=i |`«∞‰õΩÅ∞, Z=i ã¨=∞㨺Å∞ "åiq. QÀ=∞u`À <å‰õΩ XHõ =∞~°∞=ÖËx J#∞|O^ŒO. Jk `≥yáÈ~ÚOk. ''ÃÑ^ŒÌ=∂‡ ! J=∞‡ _≥·_£ @∂ gH±û ZQÀ – =∂ã≤"£ Ǩ~üì Z\ÏH±!—— L`«Î~°O =zÛOk ã¨∞=∞ ^ŒQÆæ~°∞flOz. <å‰õΩ =ÚO^Œ∞ q+¨Ü«∞O J~°÷O HÍÖË^Œ∞. `«~°∞"å`« `≥eã≤Ok. QÀ=∞u K«zÛáÈ~ÚOk–âßâ◊fi`«OQÍ <å‰õΩ HõxÑ≤OK«‰õΩO_® áÈ~ÚOk. QÆK«ÛHÍÜ«∞Å∞, zO`«Ñ≤Hõ¯Å∞ P_»∞‰õΩO@∂, ѨÓÅ[_»Å∞ "Õã¨∞H˘x, `≥ÖÏ¡ˆ~ =~°‰õΩ Z=ik #eyáȉõΩO_® =ÙO@∞O^• Jx áÈ\©Å∞ Ѩ_Õ"åà◊§O. "≥#flÖ’¡ J@¡`«kÌH˜ QÀiO\ωõΩ ZO`« ѨO_çO^• Jx K«∂ã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ"åà◊§O. P QÀ=∞u K«zÛáÈ~ÚOk. Éè’~°∞# U_®Û#∞. Hõ_»∞ѨÙÖ’#∞Oz `≥~°Å∞ `≥~Å∞QÍ ^Œ∞óYO =zÛOk. ''K≥Ñʨ ‰õΩO_® "≥o§áÈÜ«∂=Ù. #∞"˘fiHõ¯™êi ° =™êÎ"å? Jx „Ѩu z#fl q+¨Ü∂xH© J_çQ^•xq D™êi ##∞fl ~°=∞‡<Õ « ˆ =º=kè ÖËHáÈ~ÚO^• h‰õΩ? Jx „Ѩâfl◊ Å`À `«Å |^ŒÅ∞ H˘@∞ì‰Ωõ <åfl. õ Ì ''ã¨∞=∂? UO [iyOk?—— Jx á¶È<£ KÕâß#∞. q=~°OQÍ K≥Ñ≤ÊOk Uk U"≥∞ÿ# Ѩ~°º=™ê#O XHõ¯>Ë.

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P Éè Ï +¨ Ö ’ ~° K « # Å∞ KÕ ã ≤ =ÙO\Ï~° x =ÓÇ≤ Ï OK« _ » " Õ ∞ `« Ñ ¨ Ê , ~°Ç¨Ï=∞`«∞ÖÏ¡QÍi ~°K«#Å∞ Hõ#|_»ÖË^Œ∞. Ѩ„uHõ ÜÕ∞ =Ù^ÕÌâ◊O`À „áê~°OaèOK«|_çO^À, "åˆ~ `≥eÑ≤<å~°∞ P Ѩ„uHõ „áê~°OÉèí ã¨OzHõÖ’. ã¨Oáê^ŒH©Ü«∞O ÖÏO\˜ "åHͺÅ∞ D „H˜O^Œ #∞@ìOH˜OѨ|_ç#q. ''~ÚѨÙÊ_»∞ =Ù^Œ~ÚOz =ÙO_Õ =~°Î=∂#`«~°Oy}˜ J<Õ Ñ¨„uHõ‰õΩ ÜÕ ∞ [O@∞#∞fl, „á⁄„Ѩ ~ Ú@~° ∞ #∞fl J~Ú# "Õ ∞ =Ú q∞H˜ ¯ e ^èŒ#=O`«∞Å=ÚHÍ=Ú† PO„^èŒÉèÏ+¨Ü«∞O^Œ∞ q∞H˜¯e *Ï˝#=ÚQÍx, ~°∞zQÍx QÆÅ"å~°=Ú HÍ^Œ∞. J~Ú`Õ ~¸ ^Õâ◊ã¨∞ÎÅ~Ú# ÃÑ^ŒÌ =∞#∞+¨µºÅ∞ ~¸ q+¨Ü«∞=Ú#∞ =$kúѨ~°K«_»=Ú#‰õΩ ã¨Ç¨Ü«ÚÅ=Ù^Œ∞~°<Õ `å`« Ê ~° º =ÚKå`« # ∞#∞fl ~¸ =¸Å=ÚQÍ Ç≤ Ï O^Œ ∞ =ÙÅÜ≥ Ú Hõ ¯ ¿ãflǨÏ=Ú#‰õΩ "Õ∞=Ú áê`«$Å=∞~Ú `«^•fi~å „Ñ¨u+¨ì#∞ á⁄O^Œ=Å#<Õ `å`« Ê ~° º O Kå`« # ∞#∞fl #∂~å~° ∞ ¡ =ºÜ« ∞ Ѩ _ ç =Ú„^•Hõ ∆ ~ ° = ÚÅ∞ "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞QÍQÆŠѨx=Ú@¡#∞ ã¨OáêkOz ~¸ Ѩ„uHõ#∞ =Ù^Œ~ÚOѨ KÕÜ«∞_»=Ú#‰õΩ HÍ~°‰õΩ_»#~Úuq∞.—— (=~°Î=∂# `«~°Oy}˜. 1843"Õ∞. ѨÙ@ 18) ~°ã≤Hõ[#=∞<Àaè~å=∞O, â◊$OQÍ~°<≥·+¨^èŒO, =O\˜ ~°K«#Å „Ѩ`«∞Å#∞ ¿+H± "≥ÚǨÏ=∞‡^£ ™êÃÇÏÉò QÍi „QÆO^ä•ÅÜ«∞O #∞O_ç ¿ãHõiOz<å#x „É∫<£ QÍ~°∞ ã¨fiÜ«∞OQÍ „ѨHõ\˜Oz<å~°∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl Jaè=∂xOz, „Ѩã≤^Œú „QÆO^ä•Å „"å`«„Ѩ`«∞Å#∞ Éèí„^ŒÑ¨~°z# „QÆ O ^ä • ÅÜ« ∂ Å∞#fl ¿+H± "≥ Ú Ç¨ Ï =∞‡^£ Q Íi ~° K « # Å∞ Ü≥ ∞ <Àfl =ÙO_ç=ÙO\Ï~Ú. P „QÆO^ä•ÅÜ«∂Å∞, ~°K«#Å∞ HÍ#~åHõáÈ=_»O HÍÅ=∞Ç≤Ï"Õ∞. 㨠O „Ѩ ^ •Ü« ∞ ™êÇ≤ Ï `åºxH˜ =¸ÖÏÅ∞ *Ï#Ѩ ^ Œ O Ö’ Hõ#|_ç#@∞¡QÍ<Õ, =Úã≤O ~°K#ÅÖ’#∂ P *Ï#Ѩ^"∞ =ÚO^Œ∞O@∞Ok. ¡ « Œ Õ Ñ‘~°¡Ñ¨O_»QÆ '=∂`«O— w`åÅ#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ =Úã≤¡=ÚÅ∞ Pâ◊#fl =Óâ◊#fl "å~°#fl ^Œ=Ú‡ÖË Pâ◊<åfl =Ó â◊<åfl~ÚÖÏÅ Pâ◊#fl =Ù\˜ì#ѨÙ_Õ"Õ∞q∞ =Ù>ˇì<Õ Pâ◊<åfl =Ó â◊<åfl~ÚÖÏÅ Pâ◊#fl =Ù\˜ì#ѨÙ_»∞ Éèí∂=∞=∞‡ =Ù>ˇì<Õ Pâ◊<åfl =Óâ◊<åfl~Ú ÖÏÅ.... Jx áê_»∞‰õΩO@∞O\Ï~°∞. ǨÏã¨<£, ǨïÃã·û<£Å∞ "åi ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ Pâ◊#fl =Óâ◊#flÅ∞QÍ =∂iáÈ~Ú<å~°∞. WѨÊ\˜H© =Úã≤¡"Õ∞`«~°∞ʼnõÄ ~¸¿Ñ~°∞¡O_»_»O QÆ=∞<å~°›O† Jk ã¨O㨯$f ã¨"≥∞ÿHõº`«Å‰õΩ x^Œ~°≈#O. 1875Ö’ "≥ Å ∞=_ç # Ö’Hõ ~ ° O [x Ѩ „ uHõ Ö ’ =Úh¬g∞~ü ã¨∞*ÏÜ«∞`ü JbMÏ<£ QÍi "åºã¨O 'q^Œfi#‡<ÀǨix— =Ù<åfl, x[OQÍ, 1. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«º ã¨O㨯$`«∞Å`À =∞"Õ∞Hõ"≥∞ÿ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ~°K«#Å∞ KÕã≤# =Úã≤¡=ÚÅÖ’ L=∞~ü Jbëê (1885–1945) PkHõq Jx K≥ѨÊ=K«∞Û.
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L=∞~ü Jbëê Ñ≤~îåѨÙ~°O "åã¨Î=ÙºÅ∞. `«e¡ KåO^£c† `«O„_ç "≥ÚÇ≤ÏÜ«ÚnÌ<£ ÉÏëêQÍ~°∞, =∞`«QÆ∞~°∞=ÙÅ∞† J~°cƒ, áê~°j, ã¨O㨯$`«O, PO„^èŒO, `«O„_ç#∞O_ç <Õ~°∞ÛHÀ=_»"Õ∞QÍHõ, POQÍ¡^茺ܫ∞#O ‰õÄ_® KÕã≤<å_»∞ Jbëê. `«# 14= ÜÕ∞@<Õ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ^è•~åà◊OQÍ Hõq`«fiO K≥áêÊ~°∞. 20 ã¨O=`«û~åÅ =Ü«∞ã¨∞Ö’<Õ J=^è•<åÅ∞ KÕã≤ Pâ◊√HõqQÍ ¿Ñ~°∞á⁄O^•~°∞. W™ê¡O =∞`å=ÅO|‰õΩÖˇ·#ѨÊ\˜H© `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ^Õâ◊ K«i„`«, ѨÙ~å}ÏÅÃÑ· Pã¨H˜Î K«∂Ñ≤ ~°K«#Å∞ KÕâß~°∞. ã¨∂Ѷ‘ =∞`« q+¨Ü«∂Å#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜ ã¨q=~°OQÍ `≥eÑ≤# "≥Ú^Œ\˜"å_»∞ Jbëê. L=∞~ü Jbëê ~å*ϺOQÆ x~å‡} „Ѩux^èŒ∞Å ã¨ÉèíÖ’ ã¨Éèí∞ºÅ∞. WO@~ü<Õ+¨#Öò JHÍ_»g∞ PѶπ J"≥∞iHÍ"å~°∞ 1939Ö’ gix _®Hõì~ü PѶπ e@ˆ~K«~ü (D.Litt) a~°∞^ŒO`À Q“~°qOKå~°∞. giH˜ „|Ǩχi¬ J<Õ a~°∞^ŒO =ÙOk. =ÙOˆ~ Jbëê gi =º=Ǩ~°<å=∞O. `«# Ѩ^≥úxq∞^Œ=ÜÕ∞\˜#∞O_Õ `≥Å∞QÆ∞Ö’ ~°K«#Å∞ KÕÜ«∞_»O „áê~°OaèOz<å_»∞ Jbëê. 1914 PO„^èŒÑ¨„uHõ ã¨O=`«û~åk ã¨OzHõÖ’ "≥ÚǨÏ=∞‡nÜ«∞ =∞`åxfl QÆ∂iÛ# "åºã¨O „ѨK«∞iOK«|_çOk. |Ǩïâß Jk JbëêQÍi "≥Ú^Œ\˜ "åºã¨O HÍ=K«∞Û. qâßY#∞O_ç "≥Å∞=_ç# Hõq`å ã¨q∞u "åi¬Hõ ã¨OzHõÖ’ ÉèÏëêѨi}Ï=∞O QÆ∞iOz# "åºã¨O 1928Ö’ „ѨK«∞i`«=∞~ÚOk. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’x Jxfl „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞ÅÖ’#∂ ~°K#Å∞ KÕã<å~°∞ « « ≤ L=∞~ü JbëêQÍ~°∞. Ü«∂Éèˇ· HõO>ˇ Ü≥∞‰õΩ¯= ã¨OYºÖ’ gi ѨÙã¨ÎHÍÅ∞<åfl, ~¸ „H˜Ok "åxx =ÚYºOQÍ QÆ=∞xOK«=K«∞Û. 1) L=∞~ü YÜ«∂ºO. (J#∞"å^ŒO). 2) J#ã¨∂Ü«∂^Õq. (<å@HõO). 3) =∞ǨÉèÏ~°`« H“~°= ~°OQÆO. (Ѩ^ŒºO). 4) ^•#= =^èŒ. 5) K«O„^ŒQÆ∞ѨΠ(<å@HõO 1910). 6) Hõà◊. 7) |i›}©^Õq. 8) YO_»HÍ=º=Ú. (123 YO_çHõÅ∞). 9) ^Õâ◊ÉèíH˜Î. (YO_çHõÅ∞). 10) „|Ǩχ q^•ºqÖÏã¨O. 11) =∞ǨÏ=∞‡^£ ~°ã¨∂Öò K«i„`« (K«OѨÓ). 12) `«`«fi ã¨O^Õâ◊O. 13) ã¨∂Ѷ‘ "Õ^•O`« ^Œ~°≈#O. 14) ã¨fi~°æ=∂`«. 15) =∞}˜=∂Å. 16) qz„`« aÅ›}©Ü«∞O. 17) w`åѨfѨi}Ü«∞=Ú. 18) âßiHÍ ã¨fiÜ«∞O =~°=Ú. 19) `å~å=∞u. 20) Ѩ^•‡=u. 21) "å}©^Õq.
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z~°∞<å=∂ : QÍeÉò=∞OlÖò, <≥O. 4–123/W/56, ã¨fi~°∂Ñπ#QÆ~ü, LѨÊÖò, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ – 500 039, ÃãÖò #O. 9440355758 ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 63 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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^Œo`« Hõq`«fiO – XHõ Ü«ÚQÆK≥·`«#ºO
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"Members of SC & ST, neo-budha, the working people, the landless and poor peasants, women and all those who are being exploited politically, economically and in the name of relegion"

^Œo`« Hõq`«fi <ÕѨ^䌺O :
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™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 64

''™êOѶ ≤ ∞ Hõ O QÍ ^ÀÑ≤ _ ç H ˜ QÆ ∞ ~° = Ù`« ∂ Jã¨ Ê $â◊ √ ºÅ∞QÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}˜OK«|_»∞`«∂ hK«=$`«∞ÎÅ∞QÍ ÉèÏqOKÕ =$uÎѨx KÕã¨∞‰õΩO@∞#fl "å~°∞, âßs~°Hõ „â◊=∞ÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ¨_Õ"å~°∞ ^Œo`«∞Å∞—— Jx 1995Ö’ ^Œ~°Hõ"Õ∞ SHõº"ÕkHõ ~åR J^茺‰õ∆ΩÅ∞ (D "åºã¨ ~°K«~Ú`«) x~°fizOKå~°∞. ''^Œo`«∞ÅO>Ë ÉèÏ~°`« ~å*ϺOQÆO HõeÊOz# ~å~ÚfÅ∞ á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞#fl Zã‘ û , Zã‘ ì , cã‘ ‰õ Ω ÖÏÅ∞——QÍ#∂ ^Œ o `« | Ǩ ï [# "Õ ∞ ^è • =ÙÅ∞ x~°fizOKå~°∞. D <ÕѨ^䌺OÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ „Ѩ"ÕtOz# ^Œo`«"å^Œ Hõq`«fiO JѨÊ\˜^•HÍ ™êQÆ∞`«∞#fl L^Œº=∂efl ^•\˜ q#∂`«fl =∂~°æOÖ’ "ÕQÆ=O`«O KÕã≤Ok. 1984 #∞Oz 2004 ^•HÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ Jxfl „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞Ö’¡#∂ "Õ१#∞H˘x „ѨuÉèÏ=O`«OQÍ XHõ Ü«ÚQÆK`<åºxfl « ◊ ·≥ « xOÑ≤Ok. WѨÊ\˜^•HÍ LѨܫÚHõÎ"≥∞ÿ# ÉèÏ+¨x, Jaè=ºH˜Îx, HõàÏ`«`åÎfixfl XHõ ‰õΩ^Œ∞Ѩ٠‰õΩk¿Ñã≤ Hõq`«fiOÖ’ Ѩ@∞`åfixfl, J#∞Éèí∂uÖ’ ã‘fiÜ«∞ ã¨Ê~°≈x, P`«‡Hõ^äŒ<å`«‡Hõ`«x =ºH©ÎHõiã¨∂Î #∂`«# Ѩ^ä•xfl `˘H˜¯Ok.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

"åã¨ÎqHõ`« ^Œ$âߺefl z„uOK«_®xH˜ ã≤^ŒúOQÍÖËx =∞# ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºÖ’áêefl 㨠i kkÌ Ü« ∞ ^•~° ÷ rq`« ^Œ $ âߺŠz„`« } H˜ r=O áÈã≤ O k. WO`«‰õΩ=ÚO^Œ∞ =zÛ# ™êÇ≤Ï`Àº^Œº=∂ÅHõO>Ë aè#flOQÍ ^Œo`« |Ǩ ï [#∞Å QÆ ∞ O_≥ Ö ’¡ H ˜ K˘K« ∞ Û‰õ Ω áÈ~Ú #∂`« # Ö’HÍxfl Pq+¨¯iOzOk. ~å*ϺkèHÍ~åxH˜ ^Œ∂~°"≥∞ÿ# J`«ºkèHõ âß`«O „Ѩ[efl ~å*Ϻkè H Í~° O "≥ · Ñ ¨ ٠Ѩ ~ ° ∞ QÆ ∞ Å∞ f~ÚOz `« # ‰õ Ω #fl ÅH∆ Í ºxfl <≥~°"Õ~°∞ÛHÀ_®xH˜ =Ú=∞‡~° „Ѩܫ∞`«flO KÕã≤Ok. Ü«∂Éèˇ·ÜÕ∞O_»∞¡QÍ ^Õâ◊OÖ’ ã¨OÉèíqOz#, ã¨OÉèíqã¨∞Î#fl Kåi„`«Hõ ã¨OѶ¨∞@#ÖË ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙʼnõΩ „ѨuѶ¨∞@# HõO~îåxflKåÛ~Ú.

^Œo`«ã¨Ê$Ç¨Ï – Ѩi}Ï=∞O :
`˘e^Œâ◊Ö’ =zÛO^ŒO`å ^Œo`« ã¨Ê$ǨÏHõey# ™êÇ≤Ï`«º"Õ∞ QÍh L^Œ º =∞Hõ q `« fi OHÍ^Œ ∞ . =∞`« ã ¨ O 㨠¯ ~° } Å „Ѩ É è Ï =O`À P^è • ‡u‡Hõ ^Œ$HõÊ^äO`À Jã¨Ê$â◊º`«x x~°ãã∂Î ~åÜ«∞_»O, *ÏfÜ≥∂^Œº=∞ „ѨÉÏ=O`À Œ ≤ ¨ è Jã¨Ê$â◊º`«x =ºuˆ~H˜ã¨∂Î ~åÜ«∞_»O, ™ê=∂lHõ qѨ¡"åÅ „ѨÉèÏ=O`À =~°‚=º=ã¨÷x „Ѩ`«Ñ¶¨∞\˜ã¨∂Î ~åÜ«∞_»O =~°‰õΩ Ѩi}Ï=∞O K≥OkOk. 1909Ö’ XHõ J*Ï˝ ` « H õ q 'PO„^è Œ É è Ï ~° u — Ѩ „ uHõ Ö ’ ~åã≤ # '=∂Å"åO„_»áê@— ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙÅ∞ `«=∞ HõO~îåefl ѨÓiOKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ `À_»Ê_çOk. ''JO^Œ~°∂ ѨÙ\Ïì~°∞ Ç≤ÏO^Œ=∞‡`«e¡H˜, JO^Œ~°∂ XHõ¯>ˇÿ LO_®e ã¨Hõ¯OQÆ, =~å‚Å Ü≥∞‰õΩ¯"å ѨÙ@ìOQÆ ÖË^ŒÜ«∞º, =∞"Õ∞‡Å „H˜O^ŒH© ‰õΩ"Õ∞‡~°∞—— JO@∂ x~°ã¨# ã¨fi~°O`À =∂\Ï¡_»¤O <ÕiÊOk. JO@~åx`«#O ¿Ñi@ "åi „Ѩ u Éè í x J}QÆ ^ ˘‰õ Ω ¯`« ∞ #fl "≥ · Y iH˜ x~° ã ¨ # QÍ =∞OyѨÓ_ç"≥OHõ@â◊~°‡ ''x~°∞^ŒúÉèÏ~°`«=Ú—— HÍ"åºxfl ~åã≤ Jã¨Ê$â◊√ºÅ B#fl`åºxfl H©iÎOKå~°∞. `≥Å∞QÆ∞ YO_»HÍ"åºxH˜ J`«ºO`« P^Œ~°}x `≥zÛÃÑ\˜ì# qâ◊fiHõq *Ï+¨µ"å ^Œo`« rq`åxH˜ „ѨfHõQÍ 'QÆaƒÅO— HÍ"åºxfl ~åã≤ ^Œ o `« rq`åxfl x~° fi zOKå~° ∞ . 1930Ö’ *ÏÖÏ~°OQÆ™êfiq∞ ''JO@~åx "åÔ~=~°∞?—Ö’ n#∞Å =OHõ K«∂K«∞K«∞#flk ^Õâ◊=∂`« ã¨∞O_ç, JO@∞ ^À+¨=Ú =Å¡ J_»Öˇ_»∞ PkÉèÏ~°`«O_ç—— JO@∂ "Õ ∞ Å∞H˘Å∞Ѩ Ù áê_®~° ∞ . 1933Ö’ ‰õ Ω 㨠∞ =∞^è Œ ~ ° ‡ #fl ''=~å‚„â◊=∞ ^èŒ~°‡=Ú =ke u~°∞QÆ∞@KÕ`« =KÕÛ#∞"≥e g∞HõO\Ï~°∞—— JO@∂ Jã¨Å∞ JO@~åx`«<åxH˜ =Ú_ç"Õã≤# ã¨∂„`åxfl `≥OѨ_®xH˜ Q˘O`«∞ ã¨=iOKå~°∞. 1935Ö’ #Hͯ z#"≥OHõÜ«∞º ''JO@∞ ^À+¨=Ú =∂#ˆ ~ Å ^•x q_» ∞ =~å^Œ x g∞~° ∞ Ѩ O `åÖÏ_» Q Æ < Õ Å —— JO@∂ ^À+¨Ñ¨Ói`«"≥∞ÿ# ÉèÏ"åefl ZO_»QÆ\Ïì_»∞. ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ =∞øeHõOQÍ =~°‚=º=ã¨÷x HÍáê_»∞`«∂ =ã¨∞Î#fl "≥·Yig∞^Œ q~°∞K«∞‰õΩѨ_ç J^Õ ™ê÷#OÖ’ =~°‚=º=ã¨÷x ÉÏǨÏ@OQÍ „ѨtflOKÕ ™ê÷~Úx "å~°∞ ÃÑOKå~°∞. qѨ¡=O q[Ü«∞=O`«"≥∞ÿ`Õ ‰õΩÅã¨=∞㨺 ^•xHõ^Õ Ñ¨iëê¯~°=∞=Ù`«∞O^Œx HõÅQÆ#fl qѨ¡=Hõ=ÙÅ Hõà◊√¡ `≥iÑ≤OzOk ^Œo`« Hõq`Àfi^Œº=∞O HÍ|>Ëì ''^Œo`« "≥∞xÃѶ™Èì—— ÖÏO\˜ Hõq`å ã¨OHõÅ<åÅ∞ "≥Å=_®¤~Ú. 1980–85 =∞^茺HÍÅOÖ’ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl ‰õΩk¿Ñã≤Ok ^Œo`«Hõq`«fi"Õ∞. „ã‘Î"å^Œ
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 65

Hõq`«fiO `«# Jã≤Î`åfixfl xÅ∞ѨÙH˘O@∞#fl `«~°∞}OÖ’<Õ ^Œo`«Hõq`«fiO ѨÙ~°∞_»∞áÈã¨∞H˘Ok. JOÉË^Œ¯i[O ã≤^•úO`« „áêuѨkHõ# „áê~°OÉèí"≥∞ÿ# L^Œº=∞"Õ∞ D ''^Œo`« L^Œº=∞O—— Jx K≥áêÊe. ^Œo`« Hõq`åfixH˜ Z*ˇ O _®QÍ ‰õ Ω Å"Õ ∞ xezOk. ‰õ Ω ÅO áê„`« x ^Œ o `« " å^Œ O x~°fizOz#O`«QÍ U ™êÇ≤Ï`«º L^Œº=∞O x~°fizOK«ÖËHõáÈ~ÚOk. 1985Ö’ =∞# ~åROÖ’ [iy# HÍ~°OKÕ_»∞ ã¨OѶ¨∞@# ^Œo`«∞Ö’¡ P`«‡~°Hõ∆}x „¿Ñˆ~Ñ≤OzOk. ^Œo`«∞Å r=# ǨωõΩ¯Å QÆ∞iOz# K«~°Û#∞ =ÚO^Œ ∞ ‰õ Ω f㨠∞ ‰õ Ω =zÛOk. ‰õ Ω ÖÏxfl x~° ∂ ‡eOz 㨠= ∞㨠= ∂[ ^èպܫ∞OQÍ #∂`«# `åufiHõ =∂~åæxfl ^Œo`«Hõ=ÙÅ∞ Pq+¨¯iOK«∞HÀ_®xH˜ „¿Ñ~°}˜zÛOk. *ÏÉÏe, â◊OÉèí∂‰õΩ_»∞, Hõ~°∞‚_»∞, UHõÅ=Ùº_»∞ÖÏO\˜ "å~°∞ ^Œo`« *ÏuH˜ „Ѩux^èŒ∞Öˇ· ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKå~°∞. Kå~åfi‰õΩ_»∞ =º=ã¨÷H˜, =∂#=ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬}H˜ „ѨuaO|"≥∞ÿ<å_»∞. áœ~å}˜Hõ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ ã¨∂ÊùiÎ`À L^Œº=∞ Jaèx"Õâßxfl ÃÑOK«∞H˘x ^Œo`«Hõ=ÙÅ∞ „ѨfHÍ~° *ÏfiÖÖ’¡ [fieã¨∂Î Hõq`åfixfl áÈ>ˇH˜¯OKå~°∞. K«i„`«Ö’x qã¨Î$`«"≥∞ÿ# `«=∞ K«i„`«x ѨÙ#i‡OK«∞‰õΩO@∂ =∂#=`åfixH˜ =∂~°∞¿Ñ~°∞QÍ „Ѩ Q Æ u jÅ`« ^è • ~° e fl ‰õ Ω iÑ≤ O Kå~° ∞ . "å㨠Πq Hõ ` « x =kÖË ã ≤ # `≥Å∞QÆ∞™êÇ≤Ï`«ºOÖ’x Ö’áêefl ѨÓiOz XHõ Ü«ÚQÆ K≥`<åºxfl xOáê~°∞. · «

^Œo`« Hõq`«fiO:
^Œo`« Hõq`åfixH˜ ã¨=∞HÍb#OQÍ [iy# U^À XHõ Kåi„`«Hõ ã¨OѶ¨∞@# <ÕѨ^䌺OQÍ LO_»_»O XHõ ÅHõ∆}O. `«=∞ Jã≤Î`åfixfl Kå@∞HÀ_®xH˜ ^Œo`« rq`« =¸ÖÏefl "≥kH˜ Pq+¨¯iOK«∞HÀ=_»O ‰õ Ä _® Hõ x Ñ≤ ™ ÈÎ O k. =∂#gÜ« ∞ =∂~° } HÍO_» HÍ~° O KÕ _ » ∞ Ö’ [iy#ѨÙÊ_»∞ P ã¨OѶ¨∞@#Å <ÕѨ^䌺OQÍ |Å"≥∞ÿ# ^Œo`« Hõq`«fiO =zÛOk. 1965Ö’ HõOzHõK≥~°¡ HÀ>Ëâ◊√ ǨÏ`«º, 1987Ö’ h~°∞H˘O_», Ѩki‰õΩѨÊO =∂~°}HÍO_» P `«~åfi`« K«∞O_»∂~°∞ TK«HÀ`« ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙÅ QÆ∞O_≥Åx =∞O_çOKå~Ú. QÀ~°\˜ "≥OHõ#fl f„=OQÍ ã¨ÊOkOz ''Zxfl<åà◊§ D Ѷ¨∞’~åÅ∞ ZO`« =∞Okq∞ X~°∞QÆ∞^•=Ú, ^Œo`«#fl ^ŒO_»∞Hõ\Ïì‰õΩO>Ë xÅ∞=ÖË=Ú—— JO@∂ x#k¿ãÎ, „Ѩ*ÏQÍÜ«∞‰õΩ_»∞ QÆ^ŒÌ~ü ''^Œo`« ѨÙÅ∞Å=∂‡ HÍ~°OKÕ≥_»∞ Éèí∂™êfi=ÚÅ`Àx HõÅ|_ç xÅ|_ç áÈ~°∞ KÕã≤# ^Œo`« ѨÙÅ∞Å=∂‡—— JO@∂ ^Œo`« g~°QÍ^äŒefl T~°∂~å PÅÑ≤OKå_»∞. HõÖˉõÄi „Ѩ™ê^£ ''‰õΩq∞eáÈ~Ú<å, #eyáÈ~Ú<å K«∞O_»∂~°∞ QÆ∞O_≥Å QÍÜ«∞O ^Œo`å! ™êQÆ∞`«∞#fl Ãã·xHõ â◊Ѩ^äŒO—— JO@∂ ^Œo`«∞Å P„HÀâßxfl HõgffiiOKå_»∞ ã¨=∞HÍb# =∂~°} Ǩϟ=∂ÅH˜ ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙÅ∞ Z=i ^èÀ~°}∞Ö’¡ "åˆ~ f„=OQÍ ã¨ÊOkOKå~°∞. EÅ∂i Q“sâ◊OHõ~ü 'áê^Œ=Ú„^Œ—Ö’ ''UÜÕ∞\˜ #_çy# "åà◊§ â◊"åefl X_»∞¤‰õΩ `Àã¨∞ÎO@∞Ok. U K≥~°∞‰õΩ `À@Å∞ "≥uH˜# `«ÅÅ∞ `≥yѨ_»¤ áê^•Å∞——
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

JO@∂ ÉèíÜ«∂#Hõ ^Œ$âߺxfl L#fl^Œ∞#fl@∞ìQÍ =i‚OKå_»∞. 'Hõhfl\˜‰õΩO_»—Ö’ ~å=∂~å=Ù ''HÍ~°OKÕ≥_»∞ HõuÎ<≥`«∞Î~å~°<ÕÖË^Œ∞, h~°∞H˘O_» ^Œo`« Hõhfl\˜‰õΩO_»—— JO@∂ QÆ∞O_≥#∞ Ñ≤O_ç PiÎ`À Hõ=#O KÕâß_»∞. 'JÅÊÑ‘_»#O—Ö’ `≥ˆ~+πÉÏ|∞ ''TiH˜ JO@~åx"åˆ~ HÍh =∞O@ʼnõΩ JO@~åx "åà◊√§ HÍs^Œo`«∞Å∞. =∞O@ʼnõΩ ‰õÄ_® ^Œo`«∞ÅO>Ë =∞Ǩ~Ú+¨ìO. JO^Œ∞ˆH D ã¨r= ^ŒÇ¨Ï<åÅ∞—— JO@∂ Jã¨=∂#`«Å ã¨=∂[OÖ’x ^Ò~°˚<åºxfl `≥eÜ«∞*Ëã¨∂Î<Õ D ^Œo`«∞Å ^Œ∞ã≤÷ux.. ''HÍeH˜Ok K≥ÑÙ¨ ÊÅH˜O`« q∞_çãáê\Ï?—— JO@∂ Ç‘Ï#ã≤uÖ’ LO>Ë<Õ ≤ ÷ ã¨Ç≤Ï™êÎ=∞<Õ J„QÆ=~å‚Å ÉèÏ=#x `≥eáê_»∞. J}y =∞}y LO_Õ QÍeˆH JÅÊÑ‘_»#O U~°Ê_»∞`«∞Ok. JѨÙÊ_»∞ „Ѩà◊Ü«∞O `«Ñ¨Ê^Œ<Õ ^•xfl ã¨∂zã¨∂Î ''^Œo`« ã¨fi~åxfl ÉèÏã¨fi~°O`À ^Œ\˜ìOz ^ŒQÍ HÀ~°∞QÍà◊§ g∞kH˜ KÕuH˘kÌ qã¨~°QÆeæ#"å_Õ g~°∞_»∞—— JO@∂ áœ~°∞ëêxfl ~°yeOKå_»∞. '<≥`«∞Î\˜ „Ѩâ◊fl—Ö’ ZO_»∂¡i ã¨∞^è•Hõ~ü ''x#fl\˜ K«i„`« ÉÁ@# "Õà◊§<Õ HÀã≤Ok =~°Î=∂#O S^Œ∞ "Õà◊§x #iˆHã¨∞ÎOk g∞ Kå=ÙÅH˜ "≥ʼnõÄ_® x~°‚~ÚOK«|_»∞`«∞Ok =∂‰õΩ WѨÙÊ_»∞ HÍ=Åã≤Ok <≥`«∞Î\˜ ~˘Hõ¯OQÍ^Œ∞ =∂ˆHO HÍ"åÖ’ HÀ~°∞‰õΩ<Õ x~°ƒùÜ«∞Q˘O`«∞Hõ——. JO@∂ „â◊qOKÕ <≥`«∞Î\˜ ™êH˜∆QÍ Hõq „ѨtflOK«_»O <ÕiÊOKå_»∞. „â◊=∞#∞ J„QÆ=~å‚Å∞ ^ÀK«∞HÀ=_»O i"åA. ^•x`À áê@∞QÍ S^À `«<åxfl ‰õÄ_® ^ÀK«∞H˘O\Ï~°<Õk Hõq ã‘`å~åO Hõà◊§‰õΩ Hõ\˜ìã¨∞Î<åfl_»∞. ''`≥yO`«~åfi`« ZyÔ~yi ZHõ¯_çH© ZQÆ∞~°∞`å~°∞~å =∂ =∂Å =∂^Œ∞QÆ∞Å∞ zeH˜# ~°HõÎ=∞O`å ÃÑ^ŒÌ =Ú`≥ÎÂ^Œ∞= #∞k\˜ ÉÁ@∞ìÖÏ k^Œ∞ÌH˘Ok~å—— JO@∂ Hõq ^Œo`«∞Å ™œÉèÏQƺO KÕ~°=eû# KÀ@∞x QÆ∞iÎã¨∞Î<åfl_»∞. ^Œo`«∞Å TK«HÀ`«‰õΩ H˘O^Œ~°∞ Hõ=ÙÅ∞ f„=OQÍ ã¨ÊOkOKå~°∞. Jk "åi [#‡Ç¨Ï‰õΩ¯. 'ã¨=∂#`«fiO <å [#‡Ç¨Ï‰õΩ¯— J<Õ"åiH˜ TK«HÀ`«Å∞ J<åºÜ«∞OQÍ HõxÑ≤™êÎ~ÚQÍh, =~å‚„â◊=∞ ^è~å‡Å∞ HÍáê_»∞HÀ"åÅ#∞‰õΩ<Õ Œ "åiH˜ ^èŒ~°‡OQÍ<Õ Hõ#|_»`å~Ú. P q+¨Ü«∂xfl =ºOQƺOQÍ z„uã¨∂Î Hõq tMÏ=∞}˜ ''Hõ∆=∂Ѩ}Å∞—— K≥ѨÙÊH˘O@∞<åfl~°∞. ''Hõ∆q∞OK«∞^Œo`å....Hõ∆q∞OK«∞ h~°∞H˘O_» xѨÙÊQÆ∞iOz K«∞O_»∂~°∞ ~åK«Ñ¨ÙO_»∞ QÆ∞iOz Ѩki‰õΩѨÊO Ѩ~åÉèí"åÅ QÆ∞iOz Ñ¨Öˇ¡`«∞Î =∂@~Ú<å ѨůÖËHõáÈÜ«∂#∞——
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 66

J#_»OÖ’<Õ xã¨ûǨÜ«∞ã≤÷`«∞Ö’¡ H˘@∞ìq∞\Ïì_»∞`«∞#fl ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙÅ QÆ∞iOz `«_çq∞#@¡~ÚOk. ã¨Ç¨Ï[ Hõq JO^≥N ''ã¨OÉèí"åq∞ Ü«ÚˆQ Ü«ÚˆQ J#fl ^Õ=Ù_® =∂ ^Œo`«∞Åx K«OѨÙ`«∞O>Ë HÍ#~å^Õ h*Ï_®—— JO@∂ „Ѩtflã¨∂Î J=`å~° `«`åÎfixfl, Hõ$+¨µ‚x |O_®~åxfl `ÕÖÏÛ_»∞. K«∞O_»∂~°∞ =∂~°}HÍO_»‰õΩ ã¨ÊOkã¨∂Î #=∂q∞ L^ŒÜ«∞N ''ÉèíQÆ=næ`«Ö’# ÉèíQÆ=O`«∞_»<åfl_»∞ n#∞Å ÉÏxã¨Å <Õ<Õ ã¨$+≤ìOKå#∞ 㨇$`«∞Ö’¡ ã¨∂„`åÖ’¡ wã≤ áêˆ~Ü«∞O_ç Hõ~°‡ ã≤^•úO`åO`À <À~°∞ Hõ>ËìÜ«∞O_ç u~°QÆ|_»¤"å_çfl #iH˜ áêˆ~Ü«∞O_ç—— JO@∂ ^•_»∞ʼnõΩ HÍ~°}"≥∞ÿ# =~°‚ ã¨O㨯$u g∞^Œ q~°∞K«∞‰õΩѨ_®¤~°∞. 1990 `« ~ åfi`« HÍh¬~åO ^Œ o `« |Ǩ ï [#∞efl UHõ O KÕ ã ≤ ~å*ϺkèHÍ~°O kâ◊QÍ Hõ^ŒO `˘H˜¯OKå_»∞. P ~ÀAÖ’¡ Hõey# ^Œo`« K≥·`«#ºO L`«Î~°„Ѩ^Õâò, cǨ~üÅÖ’ „ѨÉèí∞`åfiÅ∞ U~åÊ@∞¡ [iˆQO^Œ∞‰õΩ `À_»Ê_çOk. ''F@∞¡ =∂q ã‘@∞¡ g∞"å? ''F@∞¡ =∂"Õ ã‘@∞¡ =∂"Õ, ~å*ϺkèHÍ~°O =∂^Õ—— JO@∂ 80 âß`«OQÍ L#fl ^Œo`« |Ǩï[#∞Å∞ x#kOKå~°∞. W^Õ ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ =∂ëêìs˚ `åufiHõOQÍ ''heÖÏÅ∞ [O_®H˜O^Œ #∞=Ùfi <Õ#∞ XHõ@O\Ï áÈ~°∞KÕÜ«∞ ѨÓ#∞‰õΩO>Ë Ñ‘_ç`«∞ʼnõΩ q=ÚHõÎ=∂‡ K≥Å¡=∂‡—— JO@∂ =∂ëêìs˚ aZã‘Ê Hõ=¸ºxã¨∞ì ã≤^•úO`åefl Ô~O_çO\˜x HõeÑ≤=∞s ~å*ϺkèHÍ~åxfl HõÅQÆ<åfl_»∞.

^Œo`«"å^Œ ^èÀ~°}∞Å∞:
U L^Œº=∞"≥∞<å ã¨∞n~°OQÍ™êy`Õ P L^Œº=∞OÖ’ #∂`«# ^èÀ~°}∞Å∞ ÿ … L^Œ ƒ ù q OK« H õ ` « Ñ ¨ Ê ^Œ ∞ . nxH˜ ^Œ o `« Hõ q `Àfi^Œ º =∞"Õ ∞ g∞ q∞#Ǩ~ÚOѨÙQÍ^Œ∞. 1995 <å\˜ˆH ^Œo`« Hõq`Àfi^Œº=∞OÖ’ „Ѩ^è•#OQÍ 1. ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^ŒO 2. "≥∞ÿ<åsì"å^ŒO 3. =∂kQÆK≥·`«#º"å^ŒO (^ŒO_À~å"å^ŒO) 4. aã≤ "å^ŒHõq`«fiO J<Õ <åÅ∞QÆ∞ ^èÀ~°}∞Å∞QÍ qã¨ÎiOKå~Ú. D z=i a.ã≤. "å^ŒOÖ’ ‰õÄ_® a.ã≤. "≥∞ÿ<åsì "å^ŒO ‰õÄ_® XHõ\˜ ѨÙ\˜ìOk.

„ã‘Î"å^Œ Hõq`«fiO:
1975Ö’ JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ =∞Ç≤ÏàÏk<À`«û=O „¿Ñ~°}`À „ã‘Î"å^Œ L^Œº=∞O "Õà◊¥¡#∞H˘Ok. ѨÙ~°∞ëêkèHͺxH˜, q=Hõ∆`« =¸ÅOQÍ U~°Ê_ç# ÉèË^•xH˜ MË^ŒOK≥Ok W<åflà◊√§QÍ `å=Ú HÀÖ’Ê~Ú# P`«‡Q“~°=OHÀã¨O, ã¨=∂#`«fiOHÀã¨O ¿ãfiK«ÛùHÀã¨O „ѨuѶ¨∞@# jÅ`«`À =zÛO^Õ „ã‘Î"å^ŒO. ã¨HõÅ~°OQÍÖ’¡ „ã‘ÎÅH˜ ã¨=∂#"å\Ï LO_®Å#_»O, „ã‘ÎÅ ^Œ$+≤ì#∞Oz
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

Ö’HÍxfl K«∂_®Å<Õ xˆ~Ìâ◊# „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ Hõey# K≥·`«<åº<Õfl ã¨∂z™ÈÎOk. kfifÜ«∞„âı}˜ áœ~°∞~åÅ∞QÍ „ã‘Î LO_»‰Ä_»^x, „ã‘Î Ñ≤ÅÅ#∞ Hõ<Õ Ü«∞O„`«O õ Œ ¡ HÍ~å^Œx, XHõ =∞x+≤QÍ QÆ∞iÎOK«|_®Å<Õ L^ÕâO`À =ÚO^Œ∞‰õΩ =zÛO^Õ Ì ◊ „ã‘Î"å^ŒO.
"Feminism is understood to include recognition of the unequal status of women economically, socially and plitically and a commitment to redress this condition"

ÃÑ·_ç `≥ˆ~+πÉÏ|∞ ''T~°O^ŒiH© =∂ JÜ«∞º ÉÏxÃã·`Õ, áêѨO =∂ J=∞‡ JÜ«∞º‰õį_® ÉÏxã¨... ÉÏx㨉õΩ ÉÏx㨗— JO\Ï_»∞. J=∞‡ Hõ@∞ìÉÏxã¨`åfixfl K≥ѨÊHõ<Õ K≥áêÊ_»∞. "Õ=ÚÅ ZÅ¡Ü«∞º ''HÍ#∞ÊÅ∞QÍx Hõ_»∞ѨÙÅ∞ áÈ`Õ "≥∞ÿÅQÆ∞_»¤Å#∞ =∞ÅK«∞H˘x, áÈQ˘@∞ìH˘#fl Ѩã≤QÆ∞_»∞¤#∞ "≥∞ÿÅ=¸@#∞ Z`«∞ÎH˘x H“ã¨∞HõOѨÙH˘_»∞`«∞<åfl "åQÆ∞=~°‰õΩ ™êy# =∞#ã¨∞ P"≥∞k—— JO@∂ "≥\˜ì`«e¡ „â◊=∞`«`åÎfixfl Hõà◊¡‰õΩ Hõ\˜ìOKå_»∞. „â◊=∞‰õΩ =∂~°∞¿Ñ~°∞ ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÖË. „â◊=∞‰õΩ ѨÙeÖÏ ZQÆ|_»`å~°∞. D q+¨Ü«∂xfl K«Å¡Ñ¨e¡ ã¨fi~°∂Ѩ~å}˜ "≥\˜ìKåH˜iH˜ =Ú_ç"Õã≤ K≥áÈÎOk. ''`˘eHÀ_ç Hõ}`« z=∞‡pHõ\˜x pÅ∞Û‰õΩO@∂ ѨÓiQÆ∞_çÃã#∞ "≥eyOK«QÍ<Õ P"≥∞ ã¨`«∞Î y<≥flÅ ã¨Ow`«O`À WO\˜x "Õ∞ÖÁ¯Å∞ѨÙ`«∞Ok. QÆ∞ÃÑÊ_»∞ HÍ~°O "≥∞`«∞‰õΩÅHÀã¨O Hõ_»∞ѨÙÖ’ ¿ÑQÆ∞Å∞ Hõ~åà◊ #$`«ºO KÕ™êÎ~Ú——. JO@∂ =∂`«$™êfi=∞º=∞O`å KåH˜i yiÖ’<Õ LO^Œx =i‚ã¨∞ÎOk. ''á⁄uÎà◊§ Ѩã≤^•xfl zOH˜ pH˜# LÜ«∂ºÖ’¡ p=∞H˜ Xke ^˘~°™êx a_»¤H˜ ~˘=Ú‡ÅOkOK«_®xH˜—— "≥o§# `«e¡x =i‚ã¨∂Î ã¨fi~°∂Ѩ~å}˜ "≥\˜ìx, JO@~åx`«<åxfl ÖˇH˜¯OK«x ™êfi~å÷xfl ZO_»QÆ\˜Ok. XHõ Hõ=~Ú„u Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ =¸Å"≥∞ÿ# ^Œo`« „ã‘Î J<åºÜ«∂xfl ''^ÕâßxˆHO ÃÑ·ÃÑ·H˜ ÉÏQÍ<Õ LO@∞Ok. Z\ÁzÛ ZO^Œ∞Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍh <Õ<Õ—— JO@∂ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ~Ú# ^Œo`«„ã‘ÎÅ P`«‡Ñ¶¨∞’+¨x „Ѩã¨∞Êù@ѨiÛOk. P) Jã≤`fi ã¨OѶ∞~°¬}: ÉÏxã¨|`«∞‰õΩÖË |`«∞‰õΩÅ#∞‰õΩ#fl ^Œo`«„ã‘ÎÅ∞ Î « ¨ WѨÊ\˜H<å `«=∞ Jã≤`fiO HÀã¨O áÈ~å_»O K≥`<åºxH˜ QÆ∞~°∞QÍ<Õ `≥ÖÏÊe. Ô· Î « ¤ · « Î `«=∞ ã¨=∞㨺efl QÆ∞iÎOK«_»O, J^Œ#OQÍ eOQÆ q=Hõ∆`«x Z^Œ∞~˘¯#_»O, Ѩx KÕ¿ã KÀ@ `«‰õΩ¯= ™ê÷~Ú HõeÊOK«_»O ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅ=x J~°÷O KÕã¨∞H˘<åfl~°∞. ''<Õ#∞ =Úà◊§HõOѨ֒ z‰õΩ¯H˘x JÖÏ¡_»∞`«∞#fl áêÅÑ≤@ìx Z@∞Hõke<å =Úà◊§xfl QÆ∞K«∞ÛH˘<Õk <åˆH D<å\˜ =Úà◊§HÍѨ٠`«~°`«~åÅ #∞Oz <å K«∞@∂ì ¿ÑiÛ# ÉÏx㨠ã¨OÔHà◊√§—— JO@∂ ã¨fi~°∂Ѩ~å}˜ Jã≤Î`«fiã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬} Z\Ï¡ "≥Ú^ŒÅ=Ù`«∞O^À K≥áÈÎOk.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

JO@∂ „ã‘Î "å^Œ∞Å∞ x~°fizOK«∞H˘<åfl~°∞. 1980Ö’ U~°Ê_ç# 'ÃѶ q ∞x㨠∞ ì 㨠ì _ ô 㨠i ¯Öò — „ã‘ Î " å^Œ O QÆ ∞ iOz ''㨠= ∂[OÖ’#∂, ‰õΩ@∞O|OÖ’#∂, ѨxÖ’#∂ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ QÆ∞~“`«∞#fl J}z"Õ`«, ^ÀÑ≤_çH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz# J=QÍǨÏ# Hõey LO_ç D Ѩiã≤÷ux =∂~°Û_®xH˜ „ã‘ÎÅ∞–ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ∞ KÕѨ>Ëì K≥·`«#º=O`«"≥∞ÿ# HÍ~°º„Hõ=∞O—— JO@∂ q=iOzOk. `«=∞ QÆ∞iOz `å"Õ∞ ~åã¨∞H˘x JOkOz# Hõq`å ã¨OHõÅ<åÅ∞ ''QÆ∞iK«∂ã≤ áê_Õáê@. hÅ"Õ∞Ѷ¨∂Å∞—— ã¨OK«Å<åxfl ˆ~áê~Ú. 1. ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^ŒO : D Ô~O_»∞ Hõq`å ã¨OHõÅ<åÅ∞ "≥Ú`«ÎO „ã‘Î *ÏuH˜ „áêux^茺O =Ç≤ÏOK«ÖËHõáÈÜ«∂~Ú. Ѩ@ì}OÖ’x L#fl`« =~åæÅ „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ, ã¨Oã¨÷Ö’¡ ѨxKÕ¿ã „ã‘ÎʼnõΩ Jk Ѩiq∞`«"≥∞ÿáÈ~ÚO^Œ<Õ q=∞~°≈ LOk. „âßq∞Hõ „ã‘ÎÅ, H˜Ok`«~°QÆu „ã‘ÎÅ ã¨=∞㨺Å∞ "Õ~°∞QÍ LO\ÏÜ«∞x, J#∞Éèí"åÅ∞ "Õ~°∞QÍ LO\ÏÜ«∞x K«~°ÛÖË=<≥`åÎ~°∞. g\˜H˜ `À_»∞ "≥∞ÿ<åsì Hõ = ~Ú„`« ∞ Å∞ `« = ∞ „㑠ΠŠ㨠= ∞㨠º Å∞ =∞~À~° H õ O QÍ LO\ÏÜ« ∞ <Õ q=∞~°≈‰õÄ_® LOk. eOQÆq=Hõ∆ „Ѩ^è•#OQÍ ‰õΩÅq=Hõ∆`«=Å¡ Z^Œ∞~°ÜÕ∞º Ç≤ÏOã¨x, ^Œo`« ѨÙ~°∞+¨Ç¨ÏOHÍ~åxfl, J„QƉõΩÅ „ã‘ÎÅx „Ѩtflã¨∂Î =zÛO^Õ ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^ŒO. ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^•Å∞ `«=∞ q=ÚH˜Î HÀã¨O `å"Õ∞ HõÅO Ѩ@ì_»O gà◊§Ö’ „Ѩ`ÕºHõOQÍ HõxÑ≤OKÕ JOâ◊O. ™êq„fÉÏ~Ú rq`«O giH˜ P^Œ~°≈O. P`«‡Q“~°=O`À rqOKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ J#∞"≥·# Jã≤Î`«fiO LO_®Å<Õ _ç=∂O_£x =ÚO^Œ ∞ ÃÑ\Ïì ~ ° ∞ . ^Œ o `« „ã‘ Î " å^•xH˜ Ç≤ Ï O^Œ ∂ HÀ_£ a Öò H˘O`« „¿Ñ~°}xzÛOk. `åuÎfiHõ Éè∂q∞Hõ =∂„`«O JOÉË^¯Œ ~ü PÖ’K«<å q^è•#"Õ∞ í Jx K≥áêÊe. Ñ≤`«$™êfi=∞º =º=ã¨÷‰õΩ ‰õΩÅã¨fiÉèÏ=O LO^Œx QÆ∞iÎOK«ÖËx ֒ѨO g~°∞ HõxÃÑ\Ïì~°∞. x`«ºÉÏkè`«∞Öˇ·# „ã‘ÎÅx ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^Œ∞ÖË J~°÷O KÕã¨∞HÀQÆÅ~°∞. HÍ|\˜ì nx`À „ã‘Î"å^ŒO ã¨=∞„QÆ`« á⁄OkOk. ^Œà◊`« „ã‘Î"å^ŒO ã≤^•úO`«Ñ¨~°OQÍ K«∂ã≤#ѨÙÊ_»∞ aè<åflOâßÅ∞ HõxÑ≤ã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú. J) ^Œo`« „ã‘Ζ„â◊=∞`«`«fiO. P) Jã≤Î`«fi ã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬} W) Öˇ·OyHõÇ≤ÏOã¨. D) |ã≤qx =º=ã¨÷. L) ‰õΩÖÏO`«~° q"åǨÏO, ^Œo`« ѨÙ~°∞ëêǨÏOHÍ~°OQÍ xˆ~ÌtOK«∞H˘<Õ J=HÍâ◊O LOk. J. ^Œo`« „ã‘Î – „â◊=∞`«`«fiO : ^Œo`« Hõ=ÙÅ∞ ^Œo`« „ã‘Î „â◊=∞`«`åfixfl =i‚OK«_»O XHõ ã≤^•úO`«OQÍ ÃÑ@∞ìH˘<åfl~°∞. =∞^Œ∂Ìi #ˆQ+πÉÏ|∞ ''Z=iÔH·<å J=∞‡O>Ë áêÅ∞ Ѩ_»∞`«∂<À, *’Åáê_»∞`«∂<À QÆ∞iΙêÎ~°∞. <å‰õΩ =∂ J=∞‡ HõÅ∞ѨÙfã¨∂Î<À, `«@ìÅ∞ "≥∂ã¨∂Î<À QÆ∞~°∞ÎO@∞Ok——. JO@∂ „â◊=∞`«`åÎfixfl J=∞‡Ö’¡OKÕ Pq+¨¯iOKå_»∞.
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 67

''WO\’¡ ѨÙ~°∞+¨Ç¨ÏOHÍ~°O K≥OѨ K≥à◊√¡=∞xÑ≤¿ãÎ gkèÖ’ ‰õΩÖÏkèѨ`«ºO =∞~À K≥OѨ ѨQÆÅQ˘_»∞`«∞Ok—— JO@∂ P"≥∞ ^Œo`« „ã‘Î ã¨OH∆ÀÉèÏxfl „ѨuÉèÏ=O`«OQÍ Hõà◊§‰õΩ Hõ\˜ìOzOk. Hõ=~Ú„u ã‘`å=∂ÅH˜∆‡ `«# Hõq`«Ö’ ''<å =∞x+≤`«<åxfl <Õ<Õ K≥áêÊÖÁûzÛ#O^Œ∞‰õΩ ã≤QÆ∞æ`À zuH˜ áÈ`«∞<åfl#∞. Zxfl~ÀAe\Ï¡ ѨÖË¡~°∞ѨHõ¯g∞^Œ W+¨ìOÖËx ‰õΩ#∞‰õΩf¿ãk? <ÕÅO`å #∞QÆ∞æ#∞QÆ∞æ J~Ú#@∞ìQÍ <å֒Ѩe „áê}O Z\Ï¡ `«∞#HõÅ∞ `«∞#HõÅ∞QÍ T_çáÈ~ÚO^À K«∂_»=∂‡!—— JO@∂ ¿ã=Hõ=$uÎ hK«OQÍ LO^Œx, XHõ ѨÙO_»∞ÖÏ LO^Œ<Õ ÉèÏ"åxfl =ºH©ÎHõiOzOk. `«#∞ J#∞Éèíqã¨∞Î#fl =∂#ã≤Hõ H∆ÀÉèíx `«#ÃÑ· ÃÑiy# Éè∫uHõÇ≤ÏOã¨x K«Hõ¯x Hõq`«Ö’ q=iOzOk. ^Œo`« „ã‘Î"å^Œ∞Å Hõq`«fiOÖ’ "åiH˜ Ѩ~åÉèí"åÖË Ñ¨~åºÜ«∞ Ѩ^•Å~Ú<åÜ«∞x "åiH˜ [iy# J==∂<åefl J^ŒÌOÖ’ÖÏ<Õ K«∂Ñ≤OKå~°∞. W) Öˇ · O yHõ Ç ≤ Ï O㨠: „ã‘ Î * Ïu㨠= ∞㨠ΠO Öˇ · O yHõ Ç ≤ Ï Oã¨ Ö ’Ѩ _ ç `«Å¡_çe¡áÈ`ÀOk. JO^Œ∞Ö’ ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅ =∂#„áê}ÏÅ∞ `«$}„áêÜ«∞OQÍ |Öˇ · á È`« ∞ <åfl~Ú. J*Ï˝ # O, PHõ e HÍ~° } OQÍ P"≥ ∞ „ѨuѶ¨∞\˜OK«ÖËHõáÈ`ÀOk. Éèí∂™êfi=ÚÅ, ^èŒ#=O`«∞Å HÀÔ~¯Å∞ fˆ~Û\˜ ™ê^èŒ#OQÍ ^Œo`«„ã‘ÎÅ∞ =∂iáÈÜÕ∞ ã¨OѶ¨∞@#Å∞<åfl~Ú. ''ѨÙ~°∞+¨ ^Œ=∞# HÍO_»Ö’ „ã‘Îx =∂Oã¨O, =∞^ŒºOQÍ<Õ Ñ¨Ù~°∞ëêǨÏOHÍ~°O K«∂ã¨∞Î#flk P"≥∞#∞ ^Œ∞~å‡~°æOQÍ J#∞ÉèíqOK«_®xH˜, P `«~åfi`« ǨÏ`«O KÕÜ«∞_®xH˜ J„QƉõΩÅ =∞QÆ"å~°∞ "≥#∞HÍ_»¤OÖË^Œ∞—— JO@∂ HõuΠѨ^•‡~å=Ù ^Œo`« „ã‘Î Éè’QÆ=ã¨∞Î=ÙÖÏ Ñ¨i}q∞Oz ^ŒO\Ï_»∞. ѨÙ~°∞+¨ |ÖÏ`å¯~åʼnõΩ „ã‘ÎÅ∞ JO^Œ~°∂ |e J=Ù`«∂<Õ LO\Ï~°∞. W`«~° „ã‘ÎÅ HõO>Ë ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÖË Z‰õΩ¯=. ‰õΩÅã¨OѶ¨∞~°¬}Å∞ [iy#ѨÙÊ_»∞ J`åºKå~åʼnõΩ, ǨÏ`«ºÅ‰õΩ QÆ∞~°ÜÕ∞ºk ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÖË. ''^˘~°Å #Å¡~åu QÆ∞O_≥Ö’¡ <å `˘eá⁄OQÆ∞Å∞ K≥=∞‡Å∞ K≥=∞‡Å∞QÍ Ô~ѨÊeáêÊÅO@ ##∞fl X>ˇì `«∞>ˇìQÍ |e KÕ™êÎ_»x `≥bx =Ü«∞ã¨∞û <åk WѨÙÊ_»∞ K≥_ç#^•xfl <Õ<Õ K≥~°K«|_»¤^•xfl <Õ<Õ—— JO@∂ l–q[Ü«∞ÅH˜∆‡ ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅg∞^Œ [~°∞QÆ∞`«∂ =ã¨∞Î#fl J`åºKå~åxfl JHõ∆~°|^ŒúO KÕã≤Ok. ѨxÑ≤Å¡Å∞ Öˇ·OyHõOQÍ Ç≤ÏOã¨|_ç jÅO ÖËx"åà◊§<Õ JѨ"å^Œ∞Å∞ á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞<åfl~°<Õ ^•xH˜ x^Œ~°≈#OQÍ D Hõq`«x ¿Ñ~˘¯<åe. Éè í ∂ ™êfiq∞ Ñ≤ e ¿ãÎ ‰õ Ä bH˜ "≥ o §# ^Œ o `« „ã‘ Î JHõ ¯ _» jÅO áÈ~Ú#ѨÊ\˜H© QÆ∞@∞ìQÍ LOz QÆ∞O_≥Åqã≤áÈÜÕ∞ÖÏ XO@iQÍ U_®fieû# ^Œ∞ã≤÷u QÆ∞iOz
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 68

''*Á#fl KÕÖ’ HÀ\˜Ô~_ç¤ H˘OQÆ∞ÖÏy#ѨÙ_»∞ ‰õΩq∞eáÈÖË^•! ziy# H˘OQÆ∞#∞ K«∂ã≤ h "≥ÚQÆ_»_çy`Õ H˘„Ô~ |\˜ìO^Œ#flѨÙÊ_»∞ h QÆ∞O_≥Åqã≤áÈÖË^•—— JO@∂ Hõ„i q[Ü«∞‰õΩ=∂i 'QÆkx ^•\˜~å— Hõq`«Ö’ ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅ J^Œ#Ѩ٠Hõëêìefl UHõ~°∞=ÙÃÑ\˜ìOk. ‰õΩÅOѨ~°OQÍ, eOQÆѨ~°OQÍ ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅ∞ |ÅÇ‘Ï#∞~åà◊§<Õ q+¨Ü«∞O Hõ=~Ú„`«∞Å∞ ã¨∞ã¨Ê+¨ìO KÕâß~°∞. D) |ã≤qx =º=ã¨÷ : PKå~åÅ ¿Ñ~° *ÏuˆH =∂Ü«∞x =∞K«ÛQÍ q∞ye# =º=ã¨÷ D |ã≤qx. Öˇ·OyHõÇ≤ÏO㨉õΩ Ѩ~åHÍ+¨ìQÍ n<Õfl ¿Ñ~˘¯<åe. D ã¨O㨯$uÖ’ ã¨q∞^èŒÅÜÕ∞ºk ˆH=ÅO ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÖË. 'ˆ^=Ù_ç ÃÑàϧO— Hõq`«Ö’ =∞^Œ∂Ìi #ˆQ+πÉÏ|∞ ''g∞ ѨÙ~°∞+¨µÅ∞ QÍ^≥Å∞ Q˘„_®à◊§~Ú áÈ`Õ A@∞ì q~°É’ã¨∞H˘x "ÕѨ=∞O_»Å∞ Ѩ@∞ìH˘x gkè gkè# ã≤O^Õã¨∞H˘O@∂ uiy <å |O_» |`«∞‰õΩx K«∂Ñ≤Oz =∞|∞ƒefl HõiyOz, g∞ <≥„~°ezÛ# á⁄ÖÏÅH˜ "å#Å∞ "≥∂ã¨∞H˘KåÛ<Õ P |ã≤qx ÉÏ|∞—— JO@∂ <≥ · u Hõ O QÍ Ñ¨ ` « # O KÕ ã ¨ ∞ Î # fl ^Œ o `« „ã‘ Î Å rq`åxfl x~° fi zOKå_» ∞ . JO@~åx „ã‘ Î Å ÃÑ· Öˇ · O yHÍ#∞Éè í = O HÀ㨠O ÃÑ· ‰õΩÖÏʼnõΩ„@x PÜ«∞<Õ ''t=~å„u *ÏQÍ~°OÖ’ JÜ«∞ºQÍi XO\’¡H˜ ^Õ=Ú_≥O^Œ∞‰õΩ ^Œ∂iO_À, "å_»∞ <å XO\’¡H˜ *Á~°|_çO^•HÍ J~°÷OHÍx ^•xfl—— JO@∂ |@ì|Ü«∞Å∞ KÕâß_»∞. yi[# „ã‘ÎÅ g∞^Œ WÖÏO\˜"Õ [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞<åfl~Ú. 'H˘O_»=∞e¡— HõquÖ’ ã¨fi~°∂Ѩ~å}˜ ''KåbKåÅx Ô~·HõÃÑ· "ÕÖÏ_Õ J^•ÌÖ’¡ Ü«ÚQÆ Ü«ÚQÍÅ∞QÍ g∞~°∞ <åÃÑ· Ѩxfl# ‰õΩ„@ „ѨuaOÉÏÅ∞ Ѩ~å=iÎã¨∞Î<åfl~Ú—— JO@∂ ^Œ o `« „ã‘ Î Å g∞^Œ ÉÏǨ  @OQÍ<Õ Öˇ · O yHõ Ç ≤ Ï O㨠KÀ@∞KÕã¨∞H˘O\’O^Œx "åáÈ~ÚOk. ^Œ∞sflu =º=ã¨÷x Hõà◊§‰õΩQÆ\˜ìOz, JÉèíO, â◊√ÉèíO `≥eÜ«∞x „ã‘ÎÅ rq`åefl ZÖÏ HÍÅ~åã¨∞Î<åfl~À Hõq`«fisHõiOz Hõà◊√§ `≥iÑ≤ã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. L) ‰õΩÖÏO`«~° q"åǨÏO : P^Œ~°≈ ã¨=∂[O HÀã¨O ‰õΩÖÏO`«~° q"åǨÅ∞ [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞O\Ï~Ú. Ѩ~°ã¨Ê~° „¿Ñ=∞ÖË „áêuѨkHõÅ∞QÍ Wq [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#flѨÊ\˜H© ^Œo`« „ã‘ÎÅ q+¨Ü«∞OÖ’ J<ÕHõ ~°HÍÅ "ÕkèOѨÙÅ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞<åfl~Ú. 'P^èŒ∞xHõ J~°∞O^èŒu—Ö’ l.q[Ü«∞ÅH˜∆‡ ''xO_»∞ *ÏaÖˇ· <Õ<Õ "≥ÅQÍÅ#∞‰õΩ<åfl Hõhfl\˜ Hõ_»eÖ’ HõÅáêÅx K«∂™êÎ=Ù Jyfl =∞O@Ö’¡ <å â◊s~°O HÍÅ∞`«∞#fl JO@~åx ‰õΩÅO HõOѨ٠"åã¨#x =Ú‰õΩ¯=¸ã¨∞H˘O\Ï=Ù——
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

JO@∂ ^•OѨ`«ºOÖ’ K≥ň~ˆQ Jã¨O`«$ѨÙÎefl |Ç≤Ï~°æ`«O KÕã≤Ok. ^Œo`Õ`«~°∞ÖË ^Œo`«„ã‘ÎÅx z„`«Ç≤ÏOã¨Å áêÅ∞ KÕã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. =∂@Ö’Î QÆ∞zÛ QÆ∞zÛ K«OѨÙ`å~°∞. q[Ü«∞N `«# Hõq`«Ö’ ''ÃÑ^ŒÌÜ«∂º =∂ PÜ«∞# =∂@Å∞ qO@∞<åfl~°∞QÍ =∂ JÜ«∞º J=∞‡x XH˘¯Hõ¯=∂@ JO@∞O>Ë XH˘¯Hõ¯#~°O `≥QÆ`åLOk <å‰õΩ ã≤Å¡~°~Ú<å ÖˇˆH¯Ü«∞@O ~åx Q˘„Ô~#O@ <åHõ<åfl ɡ~°Q˘_»∞¤ #Ü«∞=∞O\Ï—— ‰õΩb#∞Å ™êO㨯$uHõ PkèѨ`åºxfl ZO_»QÆ\˜ìOk. ѨÙ~°∞ëêǨÏOHÍ~°O J„QÆ=~å‚Ö’¡#∂ ^Œo`« =∞QÆ"åà◊§Ö’#∂ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO^Œx „ã‘Î"å^ŒO x~°fiz™ÈÎOk. 2. "≥∞ÿ<åsì"å^ŒO : ã¨fiO`« ^Õâ◊OÖ’ Ѩ~å~Ú`«#O J#∞ÉèíqOK«_»O, Jã≤Î`«ÎfiOHÀã¨O áÈ~å_»¤O, ã¨"≥∞ÿHõº`«HÀã¨O P~å@Ѩ_»¤O Ö’Oz "≥∞ÿ<åsì"å^Œ Hõq`«fiO Pq~°ƒùqOzOk. `«=∞ QÆ∞iÎOѨÙHÀã¨O `å"Õ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`åºxfl ã¨$+≤ìOK«∞H˘#fl ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºq∞k. D ^Õâ◊OÖ’ ѨÙ\˜ì<å ÉèÏ~°fÜ«Ú_çQÍ rqOK«ÖËx Ѩ~ånè# rq`åxfl MÏ^Œ~ü 'ѨÙ@∞ì=∞K«Û—Ö’ q=iOKå_»∞. 1998Ö’ '[Öò[ÖÏ— "≥ ∞ ÿ < åsì H õ q `å 㨠O Hõ Å #O =zÛOk. rǨ  ^£ (1997) =Úã≤ ¡ O =∞<ÀÉèÏ"åefl „Ѩã¨∞Êù@OQÍ K«∂Ñ≤# Hõq`å ã¨OHõÅ#O. ã‘fiÜ«∞#∂º#`å Éè Ï =O`À ~° y eáÈ~Ú# Hõ = ÙÅ∞ "≥ ∞ ÿ < åsì H õ q `åfixfl =ÚO^Œ ∞ ‰õ Ω fã¨∞‰õΩ=KåÛ~°∞. WO^•Hõ ™êQÆ∞`«∞#fl HÍÅÊxHõ`«x =ÚHõ¯Å∞ KÕã≤, „ѨfHõbfl ѨÙ#i¡dèOz `«=∞ „Ѩ`ÕºHõ`«x xÅ∞ѨÙH˘<åfl~°∞. Ѩ^Œ∞<≥H˜¯# áê@Ö’ *Ï"≥^£ ''.....áêuÃÑ@ì|_»¤ =∞O^Œ∞ áê`«~°Åx "≥eH˜ fã≤ ^•xHͯ~°}O <Õ<Õ#x "≥e"Õã¨∞Î<åflÔ~=~À? Ѩ_»=∞~° ã¨O^蕺 [<å*Ï g∞^Œ "≥∂ã¨∞ÔHo¡ ##∞fl áê`«ˆ~ã¨∞Î<åflÔ~=~À! „Ѩuá⁄^Œ∞Ì@ Ô~ѨÊÅ=∞^茺 =∞x+≤ L^Œ~Ú™êÎ_»x ~å„u pHõ\˜ Ô~Hõ¯Å H˜O^Œ q∞}∞‰õΩq∞}∞‰õΩ=∞<Õ Pâ◊Ö’ <Õ#∞ WHõ¯_≥O^Œ∞‰õΩ ѨÙ\Ïì<À Ѩ^ÕѨ^Õ Ñ¨âßÛ`åÎѨѨ_»∞`«∂——, ''ѨÙ@ìHõáÈ=_»OHõ<åfl ѨÙ\˜ì#KÀ@ |`«HõÖËHõáÈ=_»O ^•~°∞}O—— JO@∂ "Õ^Œ#`À =∞#™êÎѨO K≥O^•_»∞. "≥∞ÿ<åsì Hõ=ÙÅ∞ `«=∞ =¸ÖÏefl ã¨"≥∞ÿHõº`«x Kå@∞H˘<ÕO^Œ∞ˆH „Ѩܫ∞uflOKå~°∞. MÏ*ÏHõq '~°∂\òû—Ö’ ''WkQÀ <≥Å=OHõ á⁄_çKåˆH <åH˜O`« "≥Å∞QÆ∞ ^˘iH˜Ok WkQÀ D ™ê~Ú|∞ <åÉèí∞[g∞‡^Œ K≥ÜÕ∞ºâ߈H <å‰õΩ ɡ~°∞‰õΩ `˘eyOk—— JO@∂ `«# "≥∞*Ïi\©x Kå@∞H˘<åfl_»∞. ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞O¿Ñ~° "≥∞ÿ<åsì „ã‘ÎÅg∞^Œ [iˆQ J}z"Õ`«#∞ x~°ã≤ã¨∂Î =Úã≤¡O Hõ=~Ú„`«∞Å∞ HõÅOHõkáê~°∞. |∞~°HÍÅ =Úã¨∞QÆ∞Ö’ rq`«O
™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 69

=Úy¿ã "≥·<åxfl YO_çOKå~°∞. =∞Ç≤Ï[c<£, ëê[Ǩ<å, ~°lÜ«∂ÉËQÆO "≥ Ú ^Œ Å QÆ ∞ Hõ = ~Ú„`« ∞ Å∞ f„=OQÍ ã¨ Ê OkOKå~° ∞ . '#MÏÉò — Ö’ Ü«Ú=Hõ=~Ú„u ëê[Ǩ<å ''U Ѩ~°^•Å=∂@∞# ZO`« <≥·~åâ◊ºO QÆ∂_»∞Hõ@∞ìH˘x =ÙO^À Zxfl |∞~°HÍÅKå@∞# Zxfl Hõhflà◊§ã¨=Ú„^•Å∞<åflÜ≥∂—— JO@∂ |∞~°HÍx fã≤K«∂¿ãÎ `≥Å∞ã¨∞ÎOk JO@∞Ok. 3. =∂kQÆ K≥·`«#º"å^ŒO (^ŒO_À~å) : Zã‘ûÅ L=∞‡_ç i[ˆ~fi+¨#¡ J=∞Å∞Ö’ Z<Àfl Ö’áêÅ∞<åflÜ«∞x =∂kQÆ LѨ‰õΩÖÏÅ∞ P~ÀÑ≤OKå~Ú. [<åÉèÏ „áêuѨkHõ# U. a. ã≤. _ç.Å∞ „QÆ∂ѨÙÅ∞QÍ =sæHõ~°} [~°QÍÅx =∂kQÆ ^ŒO_À~å L^Œº=∞ ÅHõ∆º"≥∞ÿOk. 1994Ö’ =∂kQÆ i[ˆ~fi+¨<£ áÈ~å@ã¨q∞u ^ŒO_À~å „"≥∂yOzOk. 2006 ^•HÍ =sæHõ~°} âßã¨#O J=∞Å~ÚOk. ^ŒO_À~å L^Œ º =∞ „Ѩ É è Ï =O`À `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Ö’ =zÛ# ™êÇ≤ Ï `åºxfl ^Œ O _À~å ™êÇ≤Ï`«º=∞O@∞<åflO. ^Œo`« Hõq`«fiOÖ’ =∂kQÆ rq`« K«i„`« z„u`«"≥∞ÿOk. 'K«~°‡HÍ~°∞xk#K«~°º—Ö’ =∞^Œ∂Ìi #ˆQ+πÉÏ|∞ `≥ÖÏ¡~°QÆ@ì<Õ ÖËz XHõ Q˘_»∞¤ ‰õΩuHõHÀ™êÎ_»∞. <å#ɡ\˜ì# `ÀÅ∞‰õΩ LѨÙÊ~åã≤ =∞_»`«Éˇ\˜ì =∂QÆɡ_»`å_»∞ H˘Ü«∞ºH˘=∞‡x Ѩx~å~Úx ^•~åxfl PÔ~x ™ê#|\˜ì ZO_»∞ `ÀÅ∞x Ô~O_»∞ áê^•Å∞QÍ HõuÎi¿ãÎ P áê^Œ=Ú„^ŒÖ’Oz ѨÙ~°∞+¨ã¨∂HõÎO ÉÏ=Ù~°∞=∞O@∞Ok. JO@∂ =$uÎ QÆ`« <≥·Ñ¨Ù}ºO`Àáê@∞ ѨxÖ’x "≥∞à◊√‰õΩ=Åx `≥ÖÏÊ_»∞. t=™êQÆ~ü `«# Hõq`«Ö’ =∂kQÆ K≥·`«<åºxfl ^Œ\˜ìOz =kÖÏ_»∞. ''=∞O_Õ =∂kQÆ_»Ñ¨ÙÊÖÏ L^Œ~Úã¨∞Î#fl ã¨∂s_»∞ÃÑ· z„~å z\˜Hõ# ѨÙÖÏ¡ fã¨∞H˘x `˘ÅHõiáê@‰õΩ ^Œ~°∞"Õã¨∞Î<åfl#∞ HõfÎ PÔ~ fã¨∞H˘x Hõhflà◊§`À K≥ѨÙÊÅ∞ ‰õΩ_»∞`«∞<åfl#∞ Z^Œ∞ÌH˘=Ú‡Ö’ q∞Q∑ áêѨ#∞ =Úx"Õà◊§`À =ÚkÌ_»∞`«∞<åfl#∞—— JO@∂ =∞O_»∞`À#fl =∂kQÆ _»Ñ¨ÙÊÅ#∞ =i‚OKå_»∞. ZO_»∂¡i ã¨∞^è•Hõ~ü 'H˘`«Î QÆaƒÅO—Ö’ `«# ã¨O^Õâßxfl qxÑ≤OKå_»∞. ''<å*Ïu [#∞Å _»Ñ¨ÙÊÅ ^Œ~°∞=Ù `«Ñ¨Ê‰õΩO_® q<˘™êÎ"å! <å"åà◊§ ǨωõΩ¯Å HÀã¨O Ô~Hõ¯ÖˇuÎ x#k™êÎ"å! WѨÙÊ_»∞ u~°QÆ|_ç <å K≥ѨÙÊÅ∞ *ˇO_®Öˇ·ÖËKå~Ú—— JO@∂ `«ÖˇuÎ# P`«‡Q“~°"åxfl Ô~ѨÔ~ѨÖÏ_çOKå_»∞. ''HõÅ`«ÉÏi# Hõà◊§`À "Õ∞ÖÁ¯#fl <å ™È^Œ~°∞ʼnõΩ ™êfiQÆ`«O #_»∞ã¨∞Î#fl ^ŒO_À~å‰õΩ <å PǨfi#O—— JO@∂ H˘ÅHõÅ∂i W<åH± ã¨ÊOkã¨∂Î ''áê`«áê>Ë áê_»∞`«∞<åflO– Ѩšq =∂„`«O H˘`«Î^Õ—— J<åfl~°∞. QÆ∞O_≥ _»Ñ¨ÙÊÅ Hõ#HõÜ«∞º =∂kˆH¯HõÖ’
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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`« ~ ° O "åi Hõ ^ ä Œ Å ∂, Hõ = ∂g∞+¨ µ Å∂ "Õ ~ ° ∞ . U `« ~ ° O "åÔ ~ · < å, ™êÇ≤Ï`«º~°∂ѨOQÍ PÜ«∂ ~°K«#Åx „ѨK«∞iOz, ѨkÅѨiz#ѨÙÊ_Õ "å\˜H˜ âßâ◊fi`« ~°∂ѨO HõÅ∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok. D =∂@ H˘O^ŒiH˜ H˘O`« Juâ◊Ü≥∂H˜ÎQÍ JxÑ≤OK«=K«∞Û. HÍh `«=∞ ã¨$[<å`«‡Hõ~°K«#Å ^•fi~å, JO>Ë `å=Ú ~°zOz# Hõ^äŒÅ∂, Hõq`«Å ^•fi~å K«i„`«x ã¨$+≤ìã¨∞Î#fl@∞¡QÍh, K«i„`«x ѨkÅѨ~°∞ã¨∞Î#fl@∞¡ QÍh `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~°K«~Ú`«ÅH˜ =ÚYºOQÍ L`«Î~° J"≥∞iHÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~°K«~Ú`«ÅH˜ `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜ«∞_»O, "åi ~°K«#Åx ѨkÅѨ~°K«_»O <å ^Œ$+≤ìÖ’ KåÖÏ =ÚYº"≥∞ÿ# q+¨Ü«∞O. JO^Œ∞Ö’ Kåi„`å`«‡HõOQÍ Ju =ÚYº"≥∞ÿ#k "≥Ú^Œ\˜ `«~åÅ "åi ã¨$*<å`«‡Hõ`«. P ã¨$[<å`«‡Hõ`«H˜ âßâ◊fi`« ~°∂ѨO <å‰õΩ#fl Ѩi^èŒ∞ÅÖ’ ZÖÏ HõeyOKåÖÏ J<Õk ##∞fl KåÖÏHÍÅOQÍ "ÕkèOz# ã¨=∞㨺. P ã¨=∞㨺H˜ Ѩiëê¯~°OQÍ D 20= â◊`å|ÌOÖ’ J"≥∞iHÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ^ä•xHõ =∞iÜ«Ú J"≥∞iHÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ïf"Õ`«ÎŠѨiK«Ü«∞ „QÆO^äŒO „ѨK«∞iOKåe J<Õ PÖ’K«# 21= â◊`å|ÌO `˘e ~ÀAÅÖ’ HõeyOk. Q˘Ñ¨Ê Hõ^䌉õΩ_çQÍ ¿Ñ~°∞QÆ_çOz# N HÍmѨ@flO ~å=∂~å=Ù QÍ~°∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOKÕ ''Hõ^ä•xÅÜ«∞O—— „ѨK«∞iOz# ''`˘e `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ^䌖U_»∞ Jaè„áêÜ«∂Å∞—— (2006) J<Õ Ñ¨Ùã¨ÎHÍxH˜ Ñ‘iîHõÖ’ ''Hõ^ä•™êÇ≤Ï`«º K«i„`«HÍ~°∞Å∂, q=∞~°≈‰õΩÅ∂ "≥Ú^Œ\’¡ ''k^Œ∞ÌÉÏ@∞—— Hõ^äŒ#∞ `˘e P^èŒ∞xHõ Hõ^äŒQÍ „ѨuáêkOz P"≥∂kOz#>Ë¡ HõxÑ≤Oz<å W\©=Å P^èŒ∞xHõ Hõ^äŒ ÅHõ∆}ÏÅ`Àáê@∞, P^èŒ∞xHõ`«#∞ HÍÅ"åzQÍ ‰õÄ_® ѨiQÆ}˜Oz, =∞~À P~°∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ^äŒÅ#∞ `˘e `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ^äŒÅ∞QÍ „ѨuáêkOK«_»O [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#flk—— Jx „"åâß~°∞. ZO`À „â◊=∞Ѩ_ç P U_»∞ Hõ^äŒÅ#∂ P ã¨OHõÅ#OÖ’ ''Hõ^ä•xÅÜ«∞O—— "å~°∞ „ѨK«∞iOKå~°∞. P U_»∞ Hõ^ÅÖ’#∂ "åº=ǨiHõ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’ ~°zOK«|_ç# `˘e Hõ^‰Ωõ Œä Œä (QÆ∞~°*Ï_» "åi k^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞–2009) =O^Õà√§ xO_»É’`«∞#fl `«~∞° }Ïxfl Ì ◊ ѨÙ~°ã¯¨ iOK«∞‰õΩx ~O_»= „ѨÑOK« ™êÇ≤Ïf ã¨^ã∞¨ û (Ѷ„≤ |=i 14–15–16 Ô ¨ Œ 2009)Ö’ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ Hõ ^ ä Œ â◊ ` « " åi¬HÀ`« û "åÅ∞ "≥ Ú ^Œ \ ˜ ~ ÀA# x~°fiÇ≤Ïã¨∞<åflO. D L`«û"åÅ ã¨O^Œ~ƒ° OQÍ ''20= â◊`å|ÌOÖ’ J"≥∞iHÍ Î ù `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Hõ^•xHõ =∞iÜ«Ú J"≥∞iHÍ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ïf"Õ`ŠѨiK«Ü∞ ä Ϋ « „QÆO^äO—— „ѨK∞« iã¨∞<åflO. Kåi„`å`«‡Hõ"∞≥ # D „QÆO^ä•xfl `˘e `≥Å∞QÆ∞ Œ Î ÿ Hõ^Å∞ #Å∞QÆ∞i k=ºã¨‡$uH© JOH˜`O Wã¨∞<åflO. Œä « Î `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ï`«ºK«i„`«Ö’ q^ÕâßO„^èŒ∞Å Hõ$+≤x „ѨuaOaOKÕ D |$ǨÏ`ü „QÆO^ä•xfl „ѨѨOK«"åºÑ¨ÎOQÍ L#fl `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ™êÇ≤Ïf"Õ`«ÎÅ∞, =ÚYºOQÍ L`«Î~° J"≥∞iHÍÖ’ L#fl `≥Å∞QÆ∞"å~°∞ QÆ∞iΙêÎ~°h, D „QÆO^ä•xfl P^Œi™êÎ~°x Ptã¨∞Î<åflO.

z~°∞<å=∂ : =OQÆ∂i ᶜO_Õ+¨<£ PѶπ J"≥∞iHÍ, áÈãπìÉÏH±û #O. 1948, ™êìѶ¨~ü¤ \˜ZH±û 77497, Ü«Ú.Zãπ.Z. ÃãÖò #O. 001–832 594 9054 ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 71 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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=∞kx ™È=∞<åÜ«Ú_»∞

N =∞kx ™È=∞<åÜ«Ú_»∞ H˘xfl `«~åÅ „H˜`«O =∞ÖËã≤Ü«∂Ö’ ã≤÷~°Ñ¨_ç# PO„^èŒ∞Åã¨O`«uH˜
K≥Ok#"å~°∞. Q˘Ñ¨Ê PO„^è•aè=∂x. Z#Éèˇ· ã¨O=`«û~åÅ∞ ^•\˜# D =Ü«∞ã¨∞Ö’ ‰õÄ_® JHõ¯_ç `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi ã¨=∞㨺ŠѨiëê¯~åxH˜ ã¨O㨯$fѨ~"∞≥ # J=ã¨~åʼnõÄ Hõ$+≤Kã∞¨ <åfl~°∞. PÜ«∞# '`≥Å∞QÆ∞`«e—¡ ° ÿ Õ Î J<Õ Ñ¨„uHõ#∞ `«# KÕu~å`«`À `«Ü«∂~°∞KÕã≤ #Hõà◊√§ fã≤ JHõ¯_ç `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜, W`«~° ^ÕâßÅ"åiH˜ ‰õÄ_® Lz`«OQÍ Ñ¨OѨÙ`å~°∞. P q^èOQÍ<≥<å `≥Å∞QÆ∞`À, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ã¨O㨯$u`À JHõ¯_ç `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜ Œ · ѨiK«Ü«∞O H˘#™êyOKåÅ<Õ ÖHõ∆º"Õ∞ PÜ«∞#KÕ¿ã D „Ѩܫ∞`«flO. D Hõ$+≤H˜ QÆ∞iÎOѨÙQÍ 2007 ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ á⁄\˜ì N~å=ÚÅ∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ qâ◊fiq^•ºÅÜ«∞O ѨÙ~°™ê¯~°O JO^Œ∞H˘<åfl~°∞. ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=OuH˜ „Ѩ`ÕºHõOQÍ PÜ«∞# ~åã≤#"åºã¨O Ü«∞^ä•`«^äŒOQÍ =Ú„kã¨∞Î<åflO.

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`≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~åAÅ∞
PO„^èŒ∞Å K«i„`«Ö’ âß`«"åǨÏ#∞Å Ü«ÚQÆO XHõ ã¨fi~°‚Ü«ÚQÆO! Jâ’‰õΩx `«~åfi`« ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊OÖ’x J~°÷ÉèÏQÍxfl áêeOz `≥Å∞QÆ∞ `«e¡H˜ h~å[<åÅiÊOKås `≥Å∞QÆ∞ =Oâ◊~åAÅ∞. „H©.ѨÓ. 2= â◊`åaÌÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊OÖ’ áêÅ# ™êyOz# D `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~åAÅ∞ =∞ÖÏÜ«∂, *Ï"å, ã¨∞=∞„`å, HõOÉ’_çÜ«∂ ..... =O\˜ ^ÕâßʼnõΩ „a\©+¨µ Dã≤ìO_çÜ«∂ HõOÃÑh "åi=Öˇ =~°Î‰õΩÅ∞QÍ "≥o§ Q˘Ñ¨ÊQÍ =~°ÎHõ"åºáê~åÅ∞ KÕã¨∂Î HÀ\©â◊fi~°∞Öˇ· `≥Å∞QÆ∞ <ÕÅ#∞ ã¨ã¨ºâߺ=∞ÅO KÕã≤ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ `«e¡H©, `≥Å∞QÆ∞ *ÏuH© ¿Ñ~°∞ „Ѩu+¨ªÅ∞ ã¨OáêkOz ÃÑ\Ïì~°∞!

â◊`åaÌÖ’ PO„^èŒ^Õâ◊OÖ’x PO„^èŒ∞Å#∞ =∞ÖÏÜ«∂ ^ÕâßxH˜ ‰õÄbÅ∞QÍ fã¨∞Hõ=zÛ "åiKÕ JK«Û\˜ J_»=ÙÅ#∞ #iH˜Oz ÃÑ~∞ ѨO@Å∞ ѨO_çOz ·° ^Õâßxfl ™ê~°=O`«O KÕâß~°∞. ÉèÏ~°`«–„a\©+¨µ „ѨÉèí∞`åfiʼnõΩ =∞^茺 [iy# XѨÊO^•Å#∞ J#∞ã¨iOz „a\©+¨µ"å~°∞ =∞ÖÏÜ«∂Ö’x PO„^èŒ∞ʼnõΩ |_»∞Å∞, QÆ∞_»∞Å∞ U~°Ê~°z `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi ÉèÏ+¨#∞, ã¨O㨯$uh áÈ+≤OK«∞H˘#∞@‰õΩ `«QÆ∞ =ã¨`«∞Å#∞ HõeÊOKå~°∞. =∞ÖÏÜ«∂‰õΩ fã¨∞Hõ~å|_ç# `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiÖ’ ^•^•Ñ¨Ù JO^Œ~°∂ K« ^ Œ ∞ =Ù~åx J=∂Ü« ∞ ‰õ Ω Å∞. g~° ∞ =∞ÖÏÜ« ∂ Ö’x Ѩ Å ∞KÀ@¡ Ö ’ HÍi‡‰õΩÅ∞QÍ Ñ¨xKÕã≤ rqOKåˆ~ QÍx ''Z=iH˜ "åˆ~ Ü«∞=Ú<å fˆ~—— J#fl <å#∞_ç „Ñ¨HÍ~°O J@∞ âß`«"åǨÏ#∞Å HÍÅOÖ’#∂, W@∞ „a\©+¨µ"åi HÍÅOÖ’#∞ `≥Å∞QÆ∞*Ïu qHÍ™êxH˜ Hõ$+≤ ã¨Å∞Ê@ÔH· XHõ¯ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ã¨OѶ¨∂<≥·fl<å ™ê÷Ñ≤OK«ÖË^Œ∞. JO^Œ∞=Å# `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi Jaè=$kú H©∆}˜OzOk!

`≥Å∞QÆ∞ ~å*ϺÅ∞ =∞ÖÏÜ«∂ PO„^èŒ ã¨OѶ¨∞O ™ê÷Ѩ#O
D `≥Å∞QÆ∞ âß`«"åǨÏ#∞Å∂, gi `«~°∞"å`« Ѩš=ÙÅ∞, HõoOQÆ∞Å∞ "≥Ú^ŒÅQÆ∞"å~°∞ `å=Ú "å}˜[ºO KÕã¨∞Î#fl ~å*ϺÅÖ’ ''HõoOQÆO, =∞ÖÏÜ«∂, HÍOÉè’[, ã≤OQÆѨÓ~°∞, Nq[Ü«∞ =O\˜ „H˘`«Î ~å*ϺÅ∞ ™ê÷ÑOz "å\˜H˜ ~åAÅ∞QÍ#∞, ~å~åAÅ∞QÍ#∞ LO@∂ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ *Ïu ≤ ¿Ñ~°∞ „Ѩu+¨Å#∞ [QÆ=∞O`å „Ñ¨HÍtOѨ*âß~°∞——. HÍÅ„Hõ=∞OQÍ ã¨∂~°∞º_»∞ ì Ë L^Œ~ÚOKÕ „áêO`«=Ú "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ Jã¨Îq∞OKÕ „áêO`«=Ú =~°‰õΩ#fl ~å*ϺÅ#∞ áêeOz# „a\©+µ ™ê„=∂[º=Ú <Õ_∞» ZÖÏ =∂Ü«∞"≥∞On ¨ ÿ J>Ë¡ ÃÑ· =∞# âß`«"åǨÏ# ™ê„=∂*º=Ú ‰õÄ_® =∞@∞=∂Ü«∞"≥∞Ok! ÿ =∞ÖÏÜ« ∂ ^Õ â ◊ O Ö’ ‰õ Ä eѨ x KÕ Ü « Ú >Ô H · PO„^è Œ ^ Õ â ◊ O Ö’x qâßYѨ@ì}O ã¨g∞ѨOÖ’x L#fl H˘`«Î=Å㨠J<Õ ã¨÷ÖÏxH˜ ã¨g∞Ѩ=ÚÖ’ L#fl QÆ∞eqO^•_» J<Õ „QÍ=∞O #∞O_ç "≥o§# =∞kx ^Œ∞~åæÅ∞– K≥Å¡ ^ŒOѨ`«∞ʼnõΩ 1929Ö’ [x‡Oz# UÔH·Hõ Ѩل`«∞_»∞ =∞kx ™È=∞<åÜ«Ú_»∞ `«# 3= ÜÕ∞@ =Ü«∞ã¨∞ûÖ’ `«e¡x áÈQ˘@∞ìH˘x `«O„_ç`À =∞ÖÏÜ«∂ Láê^蕺ܫÚÅ∞QÍ Ñ¨xKÕã¨∂Î, `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åi Ç‘Ï#ã≤÷ux =∂~°∞Û@ÔH· Éè Ï ëêaè = ∂x <Õ ` Õ \ ˜ ^Œ ∞ ~° æ Ü « ∞ ºQÍi ã¨ Ç ¨  Ü« ∞ ã¨ Ç ¨ Ï HÍ~° O `À 17–7–1955Ö’<Õ\˜ =∞ÖËã≤Ü«∂ (PO„^èŒ) `≥Å∞QÆ∞ ã¨OѶ¨∂xfl ™ê÷Ñ≤Oz, ^•xH˜ 1955 #∞O_ç 1982 =~°‰õΩ Q“~°= „Ѩ^è•# HÍ~°º^Œi≈QÍ LO@∂ JK«Û\˜ `≥Å∞QÆ∞ *Ïu Jaè=$kúÔH· f„= Hõ$+≤ã¨ÖÏÊ~°∞.
AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009

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J#fl Hõq– WOÔH=~°∞? PKå~°º ã≤.<å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç.¤ Hõq`«fiO ~åÜ«∞x^Õ x„^ŒáÈx Hõq PÜ«∞#. PÜ«∞# âßfi㨠Hõq`«fiO. Zxfl Ѩ^Œ=ÙÅ∞ Jkè+≤ªOz<å HõqQÍ<Õ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKå~°∞. ã¨Éèí ~å}˜OKåÅ<åfl, Ü«Ú=Hõ=ÙÅH˜ 㨠∂ Êù i Î HÍ"åÅ<åfl ã≤ < åÔ ~ `« Ñ ¨ Ê ^Œ ∞ ! J@∞=O\˜ <å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç¤QÍi `å*Ï Hõq`å ã¨OѨÙ\˜ ''=∞x+≤QÍ „Ѩ = Ç≤ Ï OKåÅx——. Wk PÜ« ∞ # 79= [#‡k#O 㨠O ^Œ ~ ° ƒ ù O QÍ „ѨK«∞iOѨ|_çOk. 2008 E<£ <≥Å#∞Oz 2009 E<£ =~°‰õΩ ~åã≤# Hõq`«Å ã¨OѨÙ\˜ Wk. „Ѩu ã¨O=`«û~°O XHõ Hõq`å ã¨OѨÙ\˜H˜ HÍ=Åã≤# Hõq`«efl ~åÜ«∞_»O r=ÅHõ∆}O. ã¨r=#k x~°O`«~°O „Ѩ=Ç≤Ïã¨∂Î =ÙO@∞Ok. „Ѩ"åǨÏO K≥`#ºÅHõ}"Õ∞HÍ^Œ∞–r=ÅHõ}O ‰õÄ_®! · « ∆ ∆ ã≤<åÔ~ ‰õÄ_® JO`Õ. H˘O`«=∞Ok PyáÈ`å~°∞ (âı¿+O„^ŒÖÏQÍ), =∞iH˘O`«=∞Ok (™È=∞ã¨∞O^Œ~üÖÏQÍ) HÍÅO "≥O@ áÈÖË~°∞. g\˜H˜ Jf`«O ã≤. <å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç. ¤ ''=∞x+≤QÍ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKåÅx—— – Wn Hõq`å ã¨OѨÙ\˜ ji¬Hõ! #^Œ∞Å∞ „Ѩ=Ç≤Ï™êÎ~Ú. HÍÅ∞=Å∂ „Ѩ=Ç≤Ï™êÎ~Ú. „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOK«_»O K≥·`«<åºxH˜, r=â◊H˜ÎH© x^Œ~°≈#O. ~åHõ∆ã¨∞_çQÍ, ^Œ∞~å‡~°∞æ_çQÍ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKÕ ~ÀAÖ’¡ Jã¨Öˇ·# =∞x+≤QÍ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKåÅ#fl^Õ ã≤<åÔ~ „Ѩɒ^èŒO. ''„Ѩ"åǨÏO K«Å#jÖÏxH˜ „Ѩu~°∂ѨO / D ã¨$+≤ìÔH·<å U =ºH˜ÎÔH·<å xezáÈ~Ú# h\˜HõO>ˇ / á⁄i¡áêˆ~ h\˜ `«~°QÆÖ’¡<Õ P`«‡qâßfiã¨O L~°HõÖËã¨∂Î =ÙO@∞Ok——. <å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç¤QÍ~°∞ ~åÜ«∞‰õΩO_® LO_»ÖËx ã≤÷uÖ’<Õ Hõq`«fiO ~å™êÎ~°∞. Hõq`«fiO ~åÜ«∞HõáÈ`Õ =∞~°}OQÍ ÉèÏqOKÕ Hõq`«firq PÜ«∞#. U Hõq Hõq`å ã¨OѨÙ\˜<≥·<å ѨijeOKÕ =ÚO^Œ∞ ѨÓ~åfiѨ~åÅ#∞ ÉËsA "ÕÜ«∂e. J`«x Ѩi}Ï=∞„Hõ=∂xfl ÖË^• â‹·bѨi}Ï=∂xfl ÉËsA "ÕÜ«∂e. JÖÏ ÉËsA "Õã≤#ѨÙÊ_»∞ `≥e¿ã JOâßÅ∞ – H˘`«Î Jaè=ºH˜Î, H˘O„Q˘`«Î „ѨÜ≥∂QÍÅ∞, ã¨iH˘`«Î =ã¨∞Î=Ù, qÅHõ∆} Ѩ^Œ|O^è•Å∞, ã¨∂H˜Î "≥·z„u. XHõ ÉèÏ"åxfl "≥Å¡_çOK«\ÏxH˜ ѨÙ<åk U~°Ê~°K«∞H˘x P ÉèÏ"åxH˜ |ÖÏxfl KÕ‰õÄ~°Û@O XHõ Ѩ^Œúu. Wk ''[Åã¨Ê~°≈ HÀã¨O—— J<Õ Hõq`«Ö’ K«∂™êÎO. ÉèÏ"åxfl <ÕÅH©–z#∞H©¯, PHÍâßxH©–J=xH© J#fi~ÚOz K≥ѨÊ@O =Å¡ J#∞|O^è Œ O P=â◊ º Hõ ` « h , J#∞|O^è Œ O "≥ · t ëêì º hfl q=iOz#@¡~ÚOk. ã≤<åÔ~ LH˜Î Kå`«∞~°ºOQÆÅ"å~°∞. â◊|̄ѨÜ≥∂QÍÅÖ’ "≥·q^茺OѨ@¡
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– PKå~°º ^•fi.<å. âß„ã≤Î
=∞x+≤QÍ „Ѩ=Ç≤ÏOKåÅx (Hõq`å ã¨OѨÙ\˜). Hõq–PKå~°º. ã≤.<å~åÜ«∞}Ô~_ç¤ ("≥Å ~°∂. 100. „Ѩ`«∞ʼnõΩ–qâßÖÏO„^èŒ |∞H± ǨÏ∫ãπ, #"À^ŒÜ«∞ |∞H±Ç¨Ï∫ãπ).

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Náê^Œ ã¨∞„|Ǩχ}ºâß„ã≤Î J#∞Éèí"åÅ∞–*Ï˝Ñ¨HÍÅ∞#∂fl JO@∂ ‰õΩO_»|^ŒÌÅ∞ H˘\˜ì#@∞ì Jã¨Å∞¿Ñ~°∞¡ ~ÚO\˜ ¿Ñ~°¡`À ã¨Ç¨ ~åâß~°∞. PkÉèí@¡ <å~åÜ«∞}^•ã¨∞ ''<åÜ≥∞é∞Hõ—— ¿Ñ~°∞`À H˘O`«^•HÍ ã‘fiÜ«∞Hõ^äŒ ~åâß~°∞. =Ü«∞ã¨∞ =∞àÏ¡Hõ, ''Jn XHõ |`«∞ˆH<å ^•xHÀK«i„`å—— JO@∂ P¿Ñâß~°∞. u~°∞=∞Å ~å=∞K«O„^Œ ''ǨÏOÑ‘ #∞Oz ǨÏ~°áêÊ ^•HÍ—— KåÖÏ ~Ú+¨ìOQÍ KåÖÏ=∞Ok K«k"å~°∞. `åsY∞Å∞ ^Œ™êÎ"ÕAÅ∞ =ÚYºO HÍ^Œ<åfl_»∞ NN. ''J#O`«O—— ¿Ñ~°∞`À É’Öˇ_»∞ ™⁄O`« q+¨Ü«∂Å∞ ~åâß~°∞. ~°Hõ~°HÍÅ q=∞~°≈Å∞ =KåÛ~Ú. Jã¨b ã¨$+≤ìÖ’ NNÜÕ∞ ÃÑ^ŒÌ q=∞~°≈! ã¨∞„Ѩã≤^Œú ~°K«~Ú`« =Úà◊¡Ñ¨Ó_ç `åsY∞Å∞ ^Œ™êÎ"ÕAÅ∞, „Hõ=∂ÅOHÍ~åÅ∞ ÖˉõΩO_® KåÖÏ J„Hõ=∞OQÍ HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛ P_»∞‰õΩO@∞<åfl~°∞. áê~î°‰õΩÅ∞ „¿ÑHõ∆Hõáê„`« =Ç≤ÏOz P#Okã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. Ü«∂Éèˇ·"å~åÅ∞ ÃÑ·|_ç ™êfiu ã¨Ñ¨i"å~° Ѩ„uHõÖ’ HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛ ^Œ~°≈#q∞™ÈÎOk. Jã¨ÖË HÀu, ^•xH˜`À_»∞ HõÅ∞¡ `åyO^Œ#fl@∞ì – ~°=∞} ~å`«H˜ ÉÏѨÙw`« HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛH˜ [`«Ñ¨_çOk. WHõ K≥¿ÑÊ^Õ=ÚOk? 35 "å~åÅ ‰õΩÑ≤ÊÔQO`«∞efl ™êfiu #∞Oz áȈQã≤, Ǩã¨O =~°„Ѩ™ê^ŒÔ~_ç¤ |∞Hõ¯ã¨ÎO KÕâß~°∞. ÉÏѨÓ~°=∞}©Ü«∞OQÍ 1/4„H“<£ Ãã·AÖ’ 240 ¿ÑrÅ∞QÍ |∞Hõ¯~ÚOk "≥Ú^Œ\˜ÉèÏQÆO. `≥Å∞QÆ∞<å@ ÉÏѨÓ~°=∞} JO>Ë JO^Œ"≥∞ÿ# ^ŒfiO^Œfi ã¨=∂ã¨O. ~°K«#Å∞ KÕâß~°∞, *’ºu =∞Of¡ #_çáê~°∞, ã≤x=∂ÅH˜ Ѩa¡ã≤\©Å∞ KÕâß~°∞, ã≤x=∂Å∞ fâß~°∞. J~Ú<å Z=i S_≥O\˜\© "åi^Õ. Z=iHõëêìÅ∞ "åi"Õ. Z=i lÖÏ¡ "åi^Õ. J~°"≥·ÜÕ∞à◊§ ÃÑ·|_ç ‰õΩOK≥`À XHõ~°∞, HõÅOѨ\˜ì =∞~˘Hõ~°∞ HõÅã≤ J^Œ∞ƒù`«"≥∞ÿ# AQÆÖò|On`À ~°ã¨A˝Å#∞ JÅiã¨∞Î#fl [O@ ÉÏѨÓ~°=∞}. =Úà◊¡Ñ¨Ó_ç ~åã≤, ~åã¨∞Î#fl HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛÖ’ J<ÕHõ=∞Ok Q˘Ñ¨Ê"åà◊√¡, Q˘Ñ¨Êã¨Oã¨÷Å∞, ã¨OѶ¨∞@#Å∞, ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅ∞ Z^Œ∞Ô~· H˜`«H˜`«Å∞ ÃÑ_»`å~Ú. =Ú‰õΩ¯g∞^Œ "Õà◊√¡"Õ~Ú™êÎ~Ú. <å}ÏxH˜ ÉÁ=∞‡ ÉÁ~°∞ã¨∞ =∂„`«"Õ∞ H͉õΩO_® ã¨#fl\˜ JOK«∞‰õÄ_® =ÙO@∞Ok. XHÀ¯™êi \Ïãπ "Õã≤#ѨÙÊ_»∞ JOK«∞g∞^Œ QÀ_»∞QÍ xÅ|_ç xâıÛù+¨µìefl KÕã¨∞ÎOk. HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛ K«^Œ∞=Ù‰õΩ#flѨÙÊ_»∞ H˘xfl <å}ÏÅ Ô~O_À"≥·Ñ¨Ù HõxÑ≤ã¨∞ÎOk. J~°∞^Œ∞QÍ QÀ_»∞ ‰õÄ_®. K≥#flѨ@flO HõáêÖËâ◊fi~°™êfiq∞ HÀ"≥ÅH˘Å#∞H˜ k=º"≥∞ÿ# K«i„`« =ÙOk. JO`«‰õΩ =ÚO^Œ∞ =∞O^Œ∞Å =∂O„u‰õΩ_»∞ Ü«∞ÖÏ¡„ѨQÆ_» ã¨∞Éσ~å=Ù, „Ѩã≤^Œú z„`«HÍ~°∞_»∞ Kå=∞‰õÄ~° ã¨`«º<å~åÜ«∞}, u~°∞=∞Å ~å=∞K«O„^Œ P H˘Å#∞ "≥∞@¡g∞^Œ H˘Å∞=Ù fi#"åˆ~. ÉÏѨÓ~°=∞} N~å"£∞ j#∞ gik ‰õÄ_® J^Õ ÃãO@~ü. ѨHõ¯<Õ áê~°÷™ê~°kä™êfiq∞ HÀ"≥Å. g∞™êÅ Hõ$+¨µ‚_»∞ ^Œ~°≈#q∞™êÎ_»∞. Hõ_»∞Ѩ٠xO_®Hõ fiáÈ~Ú# PHõe uÜ«∞ºQÍ =ÙO@∞O^Œx ~°=∞}Q͈~ K≥áêÊ~°∞. XHõ¯ ã¨`«ºO K≥áêÊe. HÀ.H˘. K«kq# ^Œi‡ÖÏ <å‰õį_® H˘xfl HÀ@|∞ÖòHÀ\òû `«_»∞`«∞<åflÜü∞. Wq <å ™⁄O`«"≥∂, *Ï˝Ñ¨HÍÖ’ „QÆÇ≤ÏOK«ÖËHõáÈ`«∞<åfl#∞. =∞x+≤ HÀ@¡ ã¨O=`«û~åÅ∞QÍ Éèí∂g∞‡^Œ =ÙO@∞<åfl, Éèí∂q∞ u~°∞QÆ∞`«∞O^ŒxQÍx PHõ~°¬}â◊H˜Î =ÙO^Œx QÍx x#fl"≥Ú#fl\˜^•HÍ `≥Å∞ã¨∞HÀÖËHõáÈÜ«∂_»∞. ~°=∞} JáêÊ~å=Ùáê„`«x, ~°∞}Ï#O^ŒÅǨÏix ã¨$+≤ìOz `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åix ~°∞}„QÆã¨∞Îefl KÕâß~°∞. z=~°‰õΩ PÜ«∞<Õ ~°∞}=ӺǨÏOÖ’ zHõ¯_®¤~°∞. Ѩ„uHÍ ~°K«~Ú`«QÍ ~°=∞} ~åã≤O^ŒO`å |OQÍ~°O. ã¨$+≤ìOz# áê„`«Åhfl J=∞$`«O „QÀe#"Õ. ѨK«Ûx QÀiO@Ö’ J~°∞}˜=∞Å∞ ^•‰õΩ¯#fl@∞ì =Úà◊ÑÓ_ç Ǩ㨺O "≥#∞Hõ qëê^ŒKåÜ«∞ Hõ^∞Å∞ÎOk. JO^Œ∞H ¡ ¨ è Œ ˆ ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞ÿ# Hõã¨∂ÎiÖÏ, `«~åÅ∞ QÆ_çz<å PÜ«∞# ~°K«#Å∞ ~°=∞}©Ü«∞OQÍ `≥ Å ∞QÆ ∞ áê~î ° ‰ õ Ω efl JÅi㨠∞ Î < åfl~Ú. ÉÏѨ Ó ~° = ∞} Ǩ Ï $^Œ º "≥ ∞ ÿ # [O@ã¨fi~°"≥∞ÿ, H˘`«Îã¨OQÆ`«∞Å`À Ѩ~°=tOѨKÕ™ÈÎOk. HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛ =∞~À ÃÑ· ã¨OQÆu. ''P\’|Ü≥∂„QÆѶ‘ ~Ú\Ï¡ ‰õÄ_® ~åÜ«∞K«Û#fl=∂@—— Jx "Õ∞^è•=ÙÅ∞ Hõ#∞ÉÁ=∞‡Å∞ =Ú_ç"ÕÜ«∞_»O K«∂âß#∞. ''W\©*ò QÆ∞_£—— Jx F `≥Å∞QÍÜ«∞# H˜`å|∞ ~ÚKåÛ_»∞ WOw¡+¨µÖ’. WO^Œ∞Ö’ ÉÏѨÙHÍ~°∂ì#¡HõbÎ áêÅ∞`Õ<≥ÖÏQÍ JO^ŒyOzOk. J~°∞^≥·# á¶È\’Å∞ =∞iO`« xO_» ∞ ^Œ # O f㨠∞ ‰õ Ω =KåÛ~Ú. WO`å KÕ ã ≤ nx "≥ Å =¸_»∞Ü«∂Éèˇ·Å∞ =∂„`«"Õ∞. JHõ¯_»Hõ¯_» JÉèíºO`«~åÅ#∞ ѨHõ¯#ÃÑ_ç`Õ P ã¨OѨÙ\ÏÅ∞ J<ÕHÍ<ÕHõ Hõ|∞~°∞¡ K≥|∞`å~Ú. ~Ú<åflà◊¡‰õΩ, H˘`«ÎQÍ =ã¨∞Î#fl HÀuH˘=∞‡zÛ `≥Å∞QÆ∞"åiH˜ ÉÏѨÓ~°=∞}Å∞ JOkã¨∞Î#fl Q˘Ñ¨Ê|Ǩï=∞u. Wk ™êQƉõΩO_® <åÅ∞QÆ∞HÍÖÏÅ áê@∞ H˘#™êQÍÅx PHÍOHõ∆.

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z~°∞<å=∂ : #O. 27, F"£∞ #QÆ~ü, ÅOQÆ~üǨÏ∫ãπ, ÃÇ·Ï^Œ~åÉÏ^£ á¶È<£ #O. 23514358 ™êÇ≤Ïf „ã¨=Ou-™êÇ≤Ï`«º Ѩ„uHõ 78 AÖˇ·–ÃãÃÑìO|~ü, 2009


				
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