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					2005 Terrapin Invitational Tournament October 22, 2005 – University of Maryland Tossups by Carnegie Mellon (Paul Litvak and a cast of thousands)
1. The author of this work contrasts himself with his friend Clarence King, who introduces him to people in the Geological Survey, after he had assumed the editorship of the North American Review and wrote an article exposing the attempts of Jay Gould to corner the gold market. The book ends without any mention of the author’s dead wife, Marian Hooper. The idea that history is accelerating is central to this work, and is described in the essay “The Virgin and the Dynamo.” For 10 points, identify this autobiographical work by the author of Esther and Democracy, known for being the grandson of John Quincy Adams. ANSWER: The Education of Henry Adams 2. Kentucky diplomat Elijah Hise had signed an earlier treaty not recognized by the U.S. that led to a dispute over Mosquitia and Tigre Island. One possibility proposed in Article 8 of this treaty was the construction of a railway by way of Tehuántepec. Signed by Taylor’s Secretary of State, it was criticized as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. The U.S. sought control over the San Juan River, and Lord Palmerston conceded, leading to a 50-year treaty guaranteeing the neutrality of the U.S. and Britain. For 10 points, name this 1850 treaty, abrogated by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, that guaranteed the future Panama Canal’s neutrality. ANSWER: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 3. Westergren and Wintrobe's methods are most commonly used to calculate their sedimentation rate. They can present nuclear fragments known as Howell-Jolly bodies and those of unequal size are referred to as anisocytes. They have a tendency to create Rouleaux formations, but not in their late immature form as reticulocytes. Other properties include an average lifespan of 120 days and a characteristic biconcave shape. For 10 points, name these cells that are destroyed in the spleen after performing their function of transporting hemoglobin through the blood. ANSWER: red blood cells or erythrocytes 4. This god supposedly overcame the curse of Ra, allowing Nut to give birth to her five children. Said to have looked after Horus when Isis was bringing him up, this god eventually succeeded Horus atop the throne of Egypt. Alternate stories claim him as the son of Ra, while others say he sprung from the head of Seth. He is best known as the scribe who records the results of the weighing of the dead in the afterlife; and as a magician and a sage who is generally represented as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon. For 10 points, identify this Egyptian god of wisdom and the moon, sometimes compared with Hermes. ANSWER: Thoth 5. Each chapter of this contains supplementary material such as press clippings from the life of Sally Jupiter or excerpts from Hollis Mason’s Under the Hood. After the passage of the Keene Act, vigilantes are outlawed, and although Jon Osterman keeps Soviet Russia at bay, his departure for Mars sets off a world crisis. The comic culminates with the Night Owl and Rorschach’s discovery of Ozymandias’ plot, which may or may not bring about world piece. For 10 points, identify this comic book that contains within it the Tales of the Black Freighter, illustrated by Dave Gibbons and written by Alan Moore. ANSWER: Watchmen 6. This man’s essay “On Alternating Sounds” dismisses the notion that certain languages were inferior to others. Arguing that cultural boundaries were overlapping, his ideas led his student Robert Lowie to describe culture as “shreds and patches.” He used the teachings of his mentors Rudolf Virchow and Adolf Bastien in his analysis of the culture on Baffin Island. Best known for his studies of the Kwakiutl, his work on that tribe can be found in Primitive Art and Race, Language and Culture. For 10 points, identify this anthropologist, the author of The Mind of Primitive Man and teacher of Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead. ANSWER: Franz Boas

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7. It was first predicted by Birkeland and then three years later by Frederick Lindemann. This phenomenon was first observed by the soviet satellite Luna I. It can be interrupted by interplanetary coronal mass ejections, which, when impacting the Earth, can deform its magnetic field. It creates a bubble in the interstellar medium that terminates at the heliopause. This phenomenon also explains the aurora borealis, as well as why comets’ tails always point away from the sun. First explained by Eugene Parker, for 10 points, name this mass of diffuse ions ejected from the sun that pushes on objects in space. ANSWER: solar wind 8. The namesake of a miser in a series of Perez Galdos novels, legend holds he was so afraid of assassination he kept a unicorn horn nearby to cure poisoning. His 28 guidelines gave people standards to use when telling on their neighbors. The most public of his actions was at the LaGuardia trial. Known for such methods as the Water Cure, he got his start as a prior at the Monastery of Santa Cruz in Segovia. After serving as Isabella’s confessor, he was charged to his task by Pope Sixtus IV, and eventually helped get the Jews banished from Spain. For 10 points, identify this man, the head of the Spanish Inquisition. ANSWER: Tomas de Torquemada [groan if anyone says, “Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition.”] 9. This play begins with Sulla typing a letter to the E.B. Hudson Company, and despite a preoccupation with moneymaking, the managers find time for other pursuits, like Dr. Hallemeir’s gardening and Dr. Gall’s experiments on the title characters. Despite the protestations of the heroine, the managers’ plan comes to fruition, which leads to the endangering of the human race. The title characters murder everyone except for the engineer Alquist, who eventually helps them reproduce and repopulate the earth. For 10 points, identify this play about Helena Glory’s attempts to stop the spread of robots, written by Karl Čapek [SHAH-pek]. ANSWER: R.U.R. 10. The aria “Ritorna vincitor” in this opera is about the divided loyalties of the title character, while the aria “L'abborrita rivale...Già i sacerdoti adunansi” is an exhortation for the male lead to confess his crimes. More famous is the aria that describes the title character’s homeland, “O Patria mia.” The plot hinges on Amonasro’s machinations to learn of the impending attack at Napata pass; once he learns of this, the protagonist is labeled a traitor, and despite the efforts of Amneris, he is buried alive. For 10 points, name this opera about the doomed love of Radames and an Ethiopian slave, written by Giuseppe Verdi. ANSWER: Aida 11. The New York Times described a happiness measure used in economic indicators in this country that recently introduced television to its people. This nation contains the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, Gangkhar Puensum. It also contains two river systems separated by the Black Mountains, the Mo Chhu, and the Drangme Chhu. It shares the Duar plains with its neighbor to the south, India. It contains 20 administrative districts, but it is best known for a mythical kingdom contained within it. For 10 points, identify this nation ruled by King Jigme Wangchuck whose capital is Thimpu. ANSWER: Bhutan 12. After developing cryoscopy, Ernst Beckmann tried to apply this law, which led to his development of ebulliometry. Despite it not being very practical, it can be used to determine the molecular weight of dissolved substances. Famously discovered in studies of French wine in 1882, it only holds true in dilute solutions, although some “perfect solutions” obey it even at different concentrations. Azeotropes deviate from this law in both positive and negative directions. For 10 points, identify this chemical law that says the partial vapor pressure of a solvent is proportional to its mole fraction. ANSWER: Raoult’s law

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13. The formation idea for this battle came from the advisor Latellieu. It followed a brief engagement at Salone where Frank Abney Hastings had destroyed some enemy ships. After the battle began with an attack on the Dartmouth, the Azov, commanded by Lazarev, was granted the Ensign of St. George for its support of the flagship Asia. Four hours later, the battle was won, forcing the losers to sign the Treaty of London. For 10 points, identify this 1827 naval battle fought between Ibrahim Pasha and Admiral Codrington that resulted in the Russo-Turkish War and Greek independence. ANSWER: Navarino 14. In this novel, Chester and Captain Robinson propose that the title character go into business with them harvesting guano, but that offer is denied. The title character is then helped by Stein, but the protagonist’s success is short lived due to the machinations of Cornelius and Gentleman Brown. The latter man raids the island and causes the death of Dain Waris, the son of Doramin. In the end, the hero accepts his death at the hands of the native tribe, which exculpates him from causing the sinking of the Patna. For 10 points, identify this title character of a story narrated by Captain Marlowe, written by Joseph Conrad. ANSWER: Lord Jim 15. Misattributed to a 16th century French diplomat, it was actually first described by Giovan Batista Belaso. In order to make frequency analysis more difficult, it uses a table of 26 Caesar ciphers and a repeating keyword so that a given letter in the plaintext can be encoded as multiple ciphertext letters at different places in the message. For 10 points, name this polyalphabetic cipher that was thought unbreakable for nearly 300 years, until methods of attack were independently devised by Charles Babbage and Friedrich Kasiski. ANSWER: the Vigenère cipher 16. The inventor of this curve founded the first Mortgage Insurance Society during his time in Dresden. Antonelli and Nataf demonstrated that if individuals face the same prices in a market, then their instances of this curve would all be parallel with one another. Gorman later generalized this result to build such a curve for an entire society. If a good is normal, then this curve will have a positive slope; if the good is inferior, it will have a negative slope. For 10 points, identify this curve that plots the quantity of a good demanded against successively higher income levels. ANSWER: Engel curve 17. Prior to this, a preparatory meeting was held at the Claridge Hotel in Atlantic City. Partially abrogated by the Smithsonian agreement of 1971, it established a quota system whereby members had to turn over an amount of gold proportional to the economic strength of the nation. It also set up the “pegged rate” currency regime. Its primary architects were Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keyes, and it was presided over by Henry Morganthau. For 10 points, identify this 1944 conference held in New Hampshire that established the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. ANSWER: Bretton Woods conference 18. The animal in the top part of this painting was based on sketches done by Durer. The painting is located in the church that contains Carracci’s Assumption of the Virgin, and the Chigi Chapel, decorated by Raphael. Unlike Michelangelo’s version of the biblical scene, this version has the title character take up the entire bottom half of the painting. Another man on the right is standing over him, while the title figure lies on top of his red cloak, blindly gazing upward at the sky. Dramatizing an occurrence in Acts, for 10 points, name this painting by Caravaggio that depicts an apostle falling off of his horse on the way to Damascus. ANSWER: The Conversion of St. Paul

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19. The work for which he gained fame in his day was probably sung on the third day of the festival at the temple of Apollo. The poem is an exhortation to Phoebus and Diana. Following this, he purchased a farm near Tivoli where he wrote some satires, coining the phrase “the golden mean” in the process. Famously translated by Queen Elizabeth and Dryden, he was a military tribune under Marcus Brutus and later was patronized by Augustus and his best friend Maecenas. For 10 points, name this author of Epistles, Odes and the Secular Hymn, best known for his Ars Poetica. ANSWER: Horace or Qintus Horatius Flaccus 20. On its superior border is a small area for the origin of the belly of the omohyoid muscle. The two rhomboideus muscles insert onto its dorsal medial border, whereas the costal medial border is the site of insertion for the serratus anterior. Two of its prominent processes are the acromion and the coracoid, the latter giving insertion to the pectoralis minor and origin to the short head of the biceps. Its glenoid cavity articulates with the humerus and its acromion with the clavicle. For 10 points, name this irregularly shaped bone commonly referred to as the shoulder blade. ANSWER: scapula 21. Later in life, he had an intellectual feud with Peter Browne, whose book The Procedure he criticized in this author’s later work, which also contains a famous attack on deism. He also contributed to early economic theory through his speculations in 1733’s The Querist. He is better known for his opposition to the doctrines of Locke; he used his opposing line of reasoning to argue about the nature of God, and was made Bishop of Cloyne in Ireland in 1734. For 10 points, identify this idealist philosopher, the author of Treatise of the Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. ANSWER: George Berkeley 22. He got his start making short, sometimes animated films like "L'Evasion" before moving on to fulllength productions later in his career. After completing, with partner Marc Caro, The City of Lost Children in 1995, he was tapped by 20th Century Fox to come to Hollywood and direct the fourth Alien movie. For 10 points, name this Frenchman who achieved international success with the release of 2001's Amélie, followed in 2004 by A Very Long Engagement. ANSWER: Jean-Pierre Jeunet 23. According to myth, its wealth was guaranteed by the snake god Bida, who demanded a yearly tribute of a virgin sacrifice. Visited early on by Ibn Haukal, it was later described in The Book of Routes and Kingdoms by the Andalusian geographer al-Bakri. Although maintaining a profitable salt mine at Teghaza, the trading monopoly could not hold, and the ruling Soninke peoples were overrun by the Almoravids in 1076. Finally, the Soso conquered it, and they in turn were replaced by the Mali. For 10 points, identify this ancient African trading empire whose capital was at Kumbi Saleh. ANSWER: Ghana or Wagadu

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2005 Terrapin Invitational Tournament October 22, 2005 – University of Maryland Bonuses by Carnegie Mellon (Paul Litvak and a cast of thousands)
1. Identify these Supreme Court cases pertaining to labor (or lack thereof) for 10 points each. [10] In this 1908 case, the majority opinion, written by Justice Brewer, affirmed the right of a state to make a law limiting women’s labor in factories to 10 hours per week. ANSWER: Muller v. Oregon [10] Day spoke for the majority in this 1918 case, striking down the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act. ANSWER: Hammer v. Dagenhart [10] In this 1905 case, the court knocked down a state law limiting the number of hours bakers could work due to a violation of the 14th amendment. ANSWER: Lochner v. New York 2. Name these Chekhov plays from description for 10 points each. [10] This play takes place in the house of Sorin and contrasts the failed literary aspiration of Treplev with the author Trigorin. ANSWER: The Seagull or Chayka [10] This drama deals with Voinitsky’s support of his brother-in-law Professor Serebryakov and his lust for Elena. ANSWER: Uncle Vanya or Dyadya Vanya [10] This, Chekhov’s first full-length play, is about the title character, a lazy but brilliant landowner, who cheats on his wife Anna at Lebedev’s party with Sasha. ANSWER: Ivanov 3. Name these homopolysaccharides, for 10 points each. [10] A polymer of sulfated galactose units, this compound is found in seaweed and is used in a purified form for bacterial cultures. ANSWER: agar [10] A polymer of D-fructose, it is not absorbed by the body, a property exploited in its use in measurement of the glomerular filtration rate and measurement of extracellular fluid volume. ANSWER: inulin [10] This polysaccharide presents beta 1,4 glycosidic linkages between repeating units of N-acteyl Dglucosamine and is the primary structural component of many invertebrates, particularly in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans. ANSWER: chitin 4. Identify these artists who depicted George Washington for 10 points each: [10] Possibly the most famous painting of George Washington is by this man, who painted him in 1796 commissioned as a gift to the Earl of Shelburne. ANSWER: Gilbert Stuart [10] This man visited the Princeton and Trenton battlefields in 1779 to make sketches for the portrait commissioned by the supreme council of Pennsylvania. ANSWER: Charles Wilson Peale [10] This 19th century German painter included James Monroe and Prince Whipple in his rendition of Washington Crossing the Delaware. ANSWER: Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze

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5. Answer some questions about urban planning for 10 points each. [10] This Greek is considered to be the father of urban planning for his design of Miletus. He also built Periaeus for Pericles. ANSWER: Hippodemus [10] This movement in city planning began in the building of Seaside, Florida in 1981. It makes the neighbor the central unit in a city, making peoples’ needs available within a short distance. ANSWER: New Urbanism [10] This woman, the author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, is known for her criticism of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s. ANSWER: Jane Jacobs 6. Answer these questions about a television show that is funny for 10 points each. [10] Starring Jason Bateman, this show about a family whose real estate tycoon patriarch is indicted for fraud has thankfully not been cancelled by Fox. ANSWER: Arrested Development [10] Known for roles in Cocaine: One Man’s Seduction, The Ropers, and, of course, The Larry Sanders Show, this man plays George Bluth, the father in Arrested Development. ANSWER: Jeffery Tambor [10] He was one of the creators of Mr. Show, and the Pootie Tang imposter in Pootie Tang. This comic actor also plays MIT professor Tobius Funke on the show. ANSWER: David Cross 7. Answer these related questions for 10 points each. [10] This PBS television series featuring interviews between Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers was filmed at George Lucas' Skywalker Ranch. ANSWER: The Power of Myth [10] Bruno Bettelheim's most important work, it deals with the Freudian side of fairy tales such as Little Red Riding Hood and The Fisherman and His Wife. ANSWER: The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales [10] Subtitled "A Trivial Comedy for Serious People," this Oscar Wilde play takes place partly in a flat on Half-Moon Street and partly in and around the Manor House, Woolton, Hertfordshire. ANSWER: The Importance of Being Earnest 8. For 10 points each, answer the following questions about a Latin American poet. [10] This Mexican’s first work is Luna Silvestre and other works include A Drift of Shadows and The Bow and the Lyre. ANSWER: Octavio Paz [10] This work is about “two Mexicos,” and traces the development of the culture through the lens of Spanish conquest. It is perhaps Octavio Paz’s best-known work. ANSWER: The Labyrinth of Solitude [10] This Paz work concerns the life of a 17 th century nun and poetess who was tested by forty scholars, confirming her genius. ANSWER: The Traps of Faith or Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz or Sor Juana 9. Name these men who explored in and around Australia for 10 points each. [10] This English explorer sailed around Australia and mapped its coastline. Along with George Bass, they were the first to recognize that Tasmania was an island. ANSWER: Matthew Flinders [10] This man first sailed to Tahiti to view the transit of Venus. He was killed in the Sandwich Islands while trying to locate the Northwest Passage. ANSWER: James Cook [10] This man, the namesake of a body of water, traveled with his aboriginal friend Wylie across the southern coast of Australia. An expedition to the center of Australia failed at Mount Hopeless. ANSWER: Edward John Eyre

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10. Answer these questions about a medical procedure for 10 points each. [10] In the 1960s, this relatively simple medical procedure replaced a much more dangerous procedure in which a doctor would saw open a patient's heart and massage it with his hand. ANSWER: Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation [10] In the United States, CPR certifications are offered by several organizations, including the Red Cross, American Safety and Health Institute and this organization, which offers its Heartsaver program to the lay public. ANSWER: American Heart Association [10] CPR was invented at Baltimore City Hospital by this man, who later founded the International Resuscitation Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. ANSWER: Peter Safar 11. Identify the composers of the following works for 10 points each. If you need the name of a betterknown work, you will get 5 points. [10] "King and Charcoal-Burner," in 1871. [5] "Slavonic Dances," in 1878 and 1886. ANSWER: Antonin Dvorak [10] "Concerto in F," in 1925. [5] "Porgy and Bess," in 1935. ANSWER: George Gershwin [10] "Welcome Songs," odes that began appearing in 1680. [5] "Dido and Aeneas," in 1689. ANSWER: Henry Purcell 12. Answer these questions about a school of philosophy for 10 points each. [10] This school of philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that emotions issued from false judgments and argued that one must live in agreement with nature, both internal and external to the person. ANSWER: Stoicism [10] Hadrian guaranteed the education of this heir of Antoninus, thus exposing this author of Meditations to stoicism. ANSWER: Marcus Aurelius [10] Another founder of Stoicism was this disciple of Cleanthes. The originator of the sorities paradox, he often lost out to debates with Carneades. ANSWER: Chrysippus 13. Identify these early American authors from description for 10 points each. [10] This minister in Malden, Massachusetts wrote “Meat out of the Eater” and a poem based on his dream about the day of judgment, “The Day of Doom.” ANSWER: Michael Wigglesworth [10] This man wrote A Key into the Languages of North America and The Blood Tenet of Persecution, and even had enough free time to found Rhode Island. ANSWER: Roger Williams [10] This poet and minister left England after refusing to take an oath to the Church of England. He wrote the Metrical History of Christianity and a series of short Preparatory Meditations. ANSWER: Edward Taylor

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14. Name these early Meso-American civilizations for 10 points each: [10] The Aztecs claimed to be descendents of this kingdom, whose first ruler, Chalchiuh Tlatonac, build their capital at Tula. ANSWER: Toltecs [10] They were located in south-central Mexico and were prominent between 1200 and 400 BC. Their name means “rubber people” in Nahuatl and they lived in La Venta. ANSWER: Olmecs [10] These people, centered around Oaxaca, called themselves “fiuu savi”. They made their capital at Tilantongo, but also built at the Zapotec city of Monte Alban. ANSWER: Mixtec 15. Name these things about the chemistry of amino acids for 10 points each. [10] Of the 20 common amino acids, five contain rings in their structure. This is the only one to possess an imidazole ring. ANSWER: histidine [10] Of the 20 common amino acids, two have a hydroxyl group in their side chains. Name either. ANSWER: serine or threonine [10] Of the 20 common amino acids, two have acidic side chains. Name either. ANSWER: aspartic acid or glutamic acid 16. Answer some things about progress for 10 points each. [10] This nephew of Cornielle wrote Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, and, arguing against the Ancients, said that there is progress as people do not have to rediscover what they know from previous ages. ANSWER: Bernard le Bovier de Fontanelle [10] This man argued against the idea of a teleology of human civilization in his work Illusions of Progress, but he is better known for his Reflections on Violence. ANSWER: Georges Sorel [10] This Italian is best known for advancing the view that history is cyclical in his work The New Science. ANSWEr: Giambattista Vico 17. Name these scandal-plagued Republican governors for 10 points each. [10] This Ohio Governor currently has the lowest approval ratings in the country at 17%. ANSWER: Robert “Bob” Taft II [10] This Kentucky governor is under investigation for questionable hiring and firing practices, and recently pardoned every person potentially involved. ANSWER: Ernie Fletcher [10] This Missouri governor has recently come under fire for campaign practices and charges of nepotism as well, as his father, Roy, is House Majority Whip. ANSWER: Matt Blunt 18. Computer scientists love confusing acronyms. Expand the following acronyms; you will get 5 points for the first word and 5 points for the second word. The third word is worth no points, so make up something funny, please. [5,5] "DFA" is short for what limited model of computation? ANSWER: Deterministic Finite Automaton [5,5] "DFS" is short for what method of graph traversal? ANSWER: Depth First Search [5,5] "DFT" is short for what common signal-processing procedure? ANSWER: Discrete Fourier Transform

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19. Answer these questions about a period in Japanese history for 10 points each. [10] Lasting from 794 until 1193, this period followed the Nara period and preceded the rise of feudalism in Japan. ANSWER: Heian period [10] During the late Heian period, this clan oversaw Japan despite the growing power of the Taira and the Minamoto clans. They ruled from 856 until 1086. ANSWER: Fujiwara [10] In 1155, the naming of Go-Shirakawa as emperor created a crisis of succession, leading to this disturbance that the Taira and the Minamoto clans quelled. ANSWER: Hogen rebellion 20. Identify these things about the author of A Treatise on the Astrolabe for 10 points each. [10] This English poet is probably better known for his rip-offs of Boccaccio and the Romance of the Rose, and poetic works like The Book of the Duchess. ANSWER: Geoffrey Chaucer [10] Chaucer used his poem “Saint Cecelia” as inspiration for this Canterbury Tale which describers her love affair with Valerian and his conversion by Saint Urban. ANSWER: Second Nun’s Tale [10] This other poetic work within the Canterbury Tales consists of 17 tragedies in 8 line stanzas about men like Ugoline, Pedro of Sain, and ancient figures like Alexander the Great. ANSWER: Monk’s Tale 21. Name these battle sites from World War I for 10 points each. [10] There were three battles in this Belgian city, the first beginning in October 1914. The last one was known as Passchendaele. ANSWER: Ypres [10] Comprising the main Allied attack in 1916, this attack conceived by Haig and Joffre was originally to be comprised from mainly French forces, but the losses at Verdun prevented that. ANSWER: Somme [10] This August 1918 counterattack by the allies was planned by Foch and delayed until after the Germans were halted at the Marne. The battle was just south of the Somme. ANSWER: Amiens 22. Answer these questions about everyone’s favorite physics, psychophysics, for 10 points each. [10] This psycho-physician discovered the just noticeable difference, and formulated a principle that stated that the difference was a constant fraction of the weight of the objects held. ANSWER: Ernst Heinrich Weber [10] This man seized upon Weber’s law and in formulating his law, was said to have said that “the mind is the log of the body.” ANSWER: Gustav Fechner [10] In actuality, this law is more accurate and general then Fechner’s law. It states that the intensity of the sensation is equal to a constant times the magnitude of the physical stimulus raised to a power. ANSWER: Stevens’ power law

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