Ancient India Hinduism by cometjunkie46

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									                                                                             Ancient India
Indus River Valley or Harappan Civilization

  • 2600 - 1900 BCE
  • Located in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India
  • Over 1500 urbanized sites
        • bricks the same size
        • grid-like layout of towns
   •   Of the 4 early civilizations it covered the largest territory
   •   All knowledge is based on archeology
   •   They were literate but we haven’t deciphered their language
   •   Cities were divided
        • Lower level - residential & Commercial uses
        • Upper level - public or civic structures
   •   Had trade relations with Mesopotamia & Arabia
   •   No monumental arts or structures
        • Such as pyramids or Ziggurats
   •   Created finely crafted miniature objects such as jewelry and seals

   • 1900 - 1700 BCE
   • Harappan Civilization declined and disappeared
       • Why?
       • Historians aren’t sure why


Indo-Aryan or Vedic Period

• Around 1500 BCE the Aryans (an Indo-European people) migrated into South Asia pushing
the Dravidians further south in South Asia.
    • 4500 - 1500 BCE Indo-Europeans migrated from what is today Iran into Europe and
      South Asia.
• Indo-Aryans
    • nomadic with sheep and dogs
    • had chariots with spoked wheels
    • illiterate
    • We know about them from oral traditions that were passed down for generation and
      later were written down.
    • Around 1300 BCE the earliest of the Vedas was put into writing.
• Monism: belief that all is one
                                                              Hindu Beliefs
   • Brahman: Hindu term for the ONE
   • Atman: self or soul
   • Pantheism: belief that everything is God or God is everything

• Dharma
   • The divine order of the universe or the responsibility of an individual to do his or her best at
     whatever position in life they find themselves.
   • Caste System
      • Brahmins: priests
      • Kshatrias: rulers and warriors
      • Vaisyas: farmers and craftsmen
      • Sudras: servants
      • Untouchables, Pariahs, Outcasts

• Karma
   • The belief that a person experiences the effect of his/her thoughts and actions. Every thought
     and action has consequences.
   • What goes around comes around.
   • You reap what you sow.
   • Hindus believe that Karma follows you into the next life.

• Samsara
   • Cycle of life, death, and rebirth.
   • reincarnation
   • transmigration of the soul

• Moksha
   • Liberation from samsara and union with Brahman
   • Goal of Hinduism
   • Once one is released from samsara, one enters Nirvana, a state of changeless bliss (happiness).

• Respect for Life
   • Ahimsa
   • Nonviolence
   • Hindus believe that animals have souls
   • Most Hindus are vegetarians.

• The sacredness of the Ganges River.
   • Hindus believe that by bathing in the river they can wash away bad karma.
   • Hindus believe that having their ashes scattered in the Ganges can speed their journey toward
     moksha.

• Bhakti
   • Personal devotion to one particular Hindu god.
Hindu Gods
Brahma
  • Creator God

Vishnu
   • Sustainer God
   • Avatars (incarnations)
       • Rama
       • story found in Ramayana
       • Krishna
       • story found in the Mahabharata

Siva (Shiva)
   • Destroyer God
   • Symbols
       • trident
       • drum
       • cobra
       • lingam
   • wife: Pavarti/Kali
   • son: Ganesha




Hindu Ways of Worshipping
   • Ritual bathing
   • Puja
       • bringing offerings to the gods
       • honey, milk, money, fruit, or flowers
   • Recitation of prayers or mantras
       • Mantra: sound or phrase repeated over and over in prayer or meditation
Hindu Sacred Texts
• Vedas
   • Collection of hymns
   • Rig Veda
      • oldest and most important Veda

• Upanishads
   • “sitting beside”
   • explain the Vedas

• Bhagavad Gita
   • found in the Mahabharata
   • Krishna gives advise to a warrior




Symbols of Hinduism
   •   Aum
   •   Swastika
   •   cow
   •   lotus flower
   •   sri yantra

								
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