Culturally_competent-19dec07_1_ by peirongw

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									Culturally Competent Care Policy & Guidance

Artwork included in this guide was produced by children and young people of Kent, who were in foster care, attending respite units or attending facilities for unaccompanied minors. With acknowledgement and thanks to everyone involved in production of this document and in particular Naresh Katnoria, Nicky Younosi, Maura Kearney, Sabita Lawrence, Teresa McCarthy, Hilary Carter Julie Murray, June Nolan, Pritpal Sodhi, Gill O’Reilly, Lynne Miller, Jacqui Ruddock, Keith Wyncoll for their advice and comments. Contact for this publication: Mandy Lowe, Policy & Performance Officer (LAC) Fostering & Adoption, 01622 694696 vpn 7000 4696


Culturally Competent Care Policy & Guidance

Section One Section Two Section Three Policy Statement Introduction to Guidance Guidance Prompts A. Contact, Referral & Assessments B. Core Assessments C. Care Planning D. LAC Reviews E. Matching F. Recruitment of Carers G. Training & Preparation of Carers H. Carers Assessment I. Quality of Care J. Service Monitoring Section Four Section Five Section Six Section Seven Cross Cultural understanding in the care setting Community profiles and countries of origin Background Information on religions & faith groups Relationships & Sex Education Policy Valuing difference and diversity Available resources and useful websites Minority Ethnic Media—Journals, Newspapers etc Useful Organisations Relevant National Minimum Standards References

Page 4 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 26 37 50

Appendix One Appendix Two Appendix Three Appendix Four Appendix Five

53 55 65 66 67


Section One: Policy Statement
Kent County Council is committed to promoting equality, valuing diversity and combating unfair treatment. Improving outcomes for vulnerable children is a fundamental part of the equality and diversity strategy. Looked After Children come from numerous backgrounds and as such have diverse needs to be addressed by staff and carers. Kent County Council’s policy in regard to meeting the diverse needs of Looked After Children is set out in this document. The policy is supported by guidance and detailed procedures.

The term culture is used to mean a person’s life experiences drawn from their family, their community, their disability, their sexuality, their race, religion and gender and their personal history. Therefore everyone has his or her own unique culture. Cultural Competence refers to the way in which individuals and organisations aim to respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures. As a goal cultural competence may never be fully accomplished, it is best seen as a lifelong learning process for social workers and carers, encountering new situations and diverse service users. Care that is culturally competent meets the changing needs of the child or young person and enhances their selfesteem.

The policy and guidance is aimed at social work practitioners and managers who provide care and/or services for Looked After Children, Children in Need, and children who have been adopted. The development of cultural competence ensures an understanding of culture, sensitivity to cultures which are different to those of the practitioner or carer, and an ability to work with cultural difference. This assumes self-awareness and the capacity of the organisation and individual to reflect on the dynamics and potential for tension, where different cultures interact. Recognition of the differences that exist between cultures does not, however, imply an automatic acceptance of every practice in every culture. Cultural acceptance must be informed by human rights legislation; the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as local Safeguarding Children Policy & Procedures. Cultural knowledge will enable people from differing cultures to live together without causing offence through lack of knowledge. Furthermore, where carers can allow the child’s understanding of their own culture to flourish, they will provide a firm foundation for their future with a realistic and confident acceptance of their own identity. Care planning therefore needs to take a lifelong view of the cultural needs of each Looked After Child.


The Legal Context
The policy and guidance is set within the following framework: Children Act 1989 Human Rights Act 1998 Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 Care Standards Act 2000 Children’s Homes: National Minimum Standards National Minimum Fostering Standards National Minimum Adoption Standards Adoption & Children Act 2002 Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 Gender Recognition Act 2004 Disability Discrimination Act 2005 Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 Equality Act 2006 The “Every Child Matters” agenda: Being Healthy Staying Safe Enjoying and Achieving Making a Positive Contribution Achieving Economic Wellbeing

Supporting Policy & Guidance
KCC Equality & Diversity Policy Statement Corporate Parenting Policy Disabled Children – Policy, procedure and practice guidance Permanency Policy Relationships & Sex Education Policy Fostering Policy & Statement of Purpose Adoption Policy & Statement of Purpose Residential Units – Statement of Purpose Kent & Medway Local Safeguarding Children Board Policy & Procedures The legislation covering the six equality strands – sexual orientation, race, sex, disability, religion or belief, and age – makes it unlawful to discriminate by refusing or deliberately omitting to provide goods, facilities or services. Children’s social services therefore have a duty to provide and make services accessible and appropriate. The Children Act 1989 requires local authorities to take into consideration a child’s racial, cultural, religious and linguistic background when making decisions about them. Schedule 2 of the Act states that every local authority shall: “… in making any arrangements for the provision of day care within their area: or designed to encourage persons to act as local authority foster parents should have regard to the different racial groups to which children within their area who are in need belong.” The Adoption & Children Act 2002 emphasises the needs of the child“In placing the child for adoption, the adoption agency must give due consideration to the child’s religious persuasion, racial origin and cultural and linguistic background.” Fostering, Adoption services, and Children’s Homes are inspected according to the relevant National Minimum Standards issued under the Care Standards Act 2000. Specific reference is made throughout to meeting the cultural needs of children. See Appendix Four for full text of the relevant National Minimum Standards.


Policy Objectives
KCC’s Policy on Equality & Diversity sets out the following objectives for service provision: Our objectives for responsive and accessible services – • • • • • Provide services which are accessible to all people within the community Provide clear, meaningful information about council services in ways that are accessible and meet diverse needs Work with partners in consulting with all sections of the community on service needs and provision Monitor take-up and evaluate services to ensure they do not discriminate or exclude, including the complaints procedures

(Equality & Diversity Policy Statement KCC 2004) To meet the diverse needs of Looked After Children services will be provided as follows:
Assessment of needs The placement plan for each child will set out clearly the assessed needs of the child. The plan will include cultural, religious, language and racial needs, disability, and developing sexuality, and how these needs will be met. Safeguarding Child abuse is never acceptable in any community, in any culture, in any religion under any circumstances. This will be a key principle in delivering Culturally Competent Care. This includes abuse that might arise through a belief in spirit possession or other spiritual or religious beliefs Standard child safeguarding procedures will apply and must be followed in all cases where abuse or neglect is suspected including those that may be related to a belief in spirit possession (Working Together/Safeguarding Children from Abuse DCSF 2007) Placement of children Each child/young person will have access to foster care services which recognise and address their needs in terms of gender, religion, ethnic origin, language, culture, disability and sexuality. Placement decisions will consider the child’s assessed racial, ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic needs and match these as closely as possible with the ethnic origin, race, religion, culture and language of the foster family Children will be matched with adopters, if possible, who reflect their ethnic origin, cultural background, religion and language. Where the child cannot be matched with a family which reflects their ethnic origin, cultural background, religion and language, then every effort must be made to find a suitable family within a realistic timescale so that the child does not wait indefinitely. Where transracial or transcommunity placements are made, Kent County Council will provide the foster or adoptive family with additional support and information to enable the child to be provided with the best possible care and to develop a positive understanding of their heritage. Additional training will be offered to foster carers to enable them to meet the child’s needs. If a foster placement has to be made in an emergency and no suitable placement is available in terms of the above, then steps should be taken to achieve the above within six weeks. Activities, leisure interests, celebrations Children will be encouraged and given opportunities to take part in activities and leisure interests which take account of their race, culture, language, religion, interests, abilities and disabilities. Birthdays, name days, cultural and religious festivals will be celebrated where appropriate, and children will participate with staff and carers in planning these events together. The child’s spiritual development will be promoted. Support will be made available to enable disabled children to enjoy a range of activities within and outside the home.


Diet Children will be provided with food in adequate quantities, properly prepared, wholesome and nutritious, with regard to their cultural, ethnic and religious requirements and backgrounds and dietary needs and choices (including the choice of vegetarian meals for children who need it)

Clothing Cultural, racial, ethnic or religious expectations regarding the choice of clothes or personal requisites will be supported and positively promoted Communication Children and young people will not be used to interpret for their family. Whenever needed, interpreters will be prearranged. Support for any child or young person with communication difficulties will be provided to help them become active in making decisions about their lives. Listening to children is a fundamental requirement under the Children Act 1989 but is even more important when a child is disabled, or may not have English as their first language, and is not able to hear, understand or express their views easily. Both parents and children/young people must be made aware, as far as possible within the limits of their understanding, of their rights and responsibilities. Many disabled children have non-verbal means of communication and have to rely on others to interpret the gestures/ signs they are making. Often behaviours are overlooked as a means of communicating and, typically children have been misunderstood or medicated as the behaviour is seen as a symptom of their condition. It is acknowledged that ensuring that children who are disabled or who cannot communicate easily are given the opportunity and support to participate as fully as possible in making decisions and choices about their lives, can be time consuming and requires particular skill and tenacity. However, every effort must be made to ascertain the views of the child, taking their age into account, as part of the assessment process. Both efforts made and any views expressed must be recorded.

Disability Children, Families and Education Directorate, Children’s Social Services, has adopted the social model of disability and in doing so acknowledges that it is society that erects barriers and prevents full participation and restricts opportunity. This means that disabled children will be treated as children first with an emphasis on helping them achieve their potential.

A Journey on the mini-bus


Section Two Introduction to guidance
The term culture is used to mean a person’s life experiences drawn from their family, their community, their disability, their sexuality, their race, religion and gender and their personal history. Therefore everyone has his or her own unique culture

(Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity, DoH 2004)
This guide introduces considerations for provision of care to all Looked After Children and Children in Need: Each child and young person is unique and the key message of this guide is that it should not be assumed that their needs, preferences and understanding will coincide with those of their carer or social worker. There are differences across and within cultures and therefore the main message is Don’t assume – ask the child, and, whenever possible ask the family. The guidance is intended to help practitioners and managers by offering Good practice checklists on Kent County Council’s services for Looked After Children Valuable cultural information Resource information Support and direction for practitioners in culturally competent practice. Section 3 consists of a set of prompts for managers, Independent Reviewing Officers, and practitioners. Foster Carers should be referred to the Foster Carer Manual, Diversity Training and Appendices to this guide for information. The prompts are presented in subject areas as follows – Contact, Referral & Assessments Care Planning LAC Reviews Matching Recruitment of Carers Training & Preparation of Carers Carer Assessment Provision of Care Service Monitoring The prompts are not intended to be prescriptive, but to help practitioners consider some of the issues that service users may face.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Section Three Guidance - Prompts
Introduction The key message is

Taking a lifelong view of the cultural needs of the child may seem a daunting task to practitioners and carers, who may be faced with traumatised and displaced children, or a lack of information for other reasons. Every question and issue cannot be addressed here; but the aim is to be thought provoking and, by providing a series of prompts for each stage of the process of a child’s journey through care, to trigger imaginative responses. Practitioners will constantly be working cross-culturally

Children and young people were consulted about the prompts, and their thoughts and views are reflected throughout the text. Notes on available resources and background information are provided to sign post carers and practitioners to specialised services, but it is acknowledged that culture is not static, and information needs to be regularly reviewed and updated. Therefore readers are advised to refer to the electronic version of this guidance for the latest updates. Key points • • • • Ethnicity may be “hidden” e.g. Romany Gypsies, or families of Eastern European origin, may not present as being from a Minority Ethnic background. Practice in a way that is sensitive to differing family patterns and lifestyles that vary across different racial, ethnic and cultural groups. It is important to question your own perceptions of family, and remind yourself that others may not see the world as you do. Take the child’s religion, racial, cultural, disability, class, developing sexuality, political and linguistic background into account when making any decisions. Take care to ensure you distinguish between myth, misconceptions and reality. Take responsibility for your own learning about diversity. Understand it is your responsibility to engage children and young people to influence decision-making processes, which affect them. Access learning on participative engagement of children and young people. Ensure you are up to date on the six diversity strands i.e. Disability, Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Religion or Belief, and Age. Ensure you find out about the cultural needs of service users you are working with through available resources. Ensure you are clear about what communication support is available and how to access it. Always consider accessibility of venues.

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Don’t make assumptions – if you don’t know - ask!

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Practitioners A. Contact, Referral and Assessment
Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • • • listening to the individual’s own use of English and trying to use the words within their vocabulary. understanding that the experience of separation, loss, and displacement, may reinforce communication problems. offering assistance in completing forms. informing service users, including children and young people, what communication support is available and supporting them to access it. ensuring that children are not used as interpreters. monitoring that children and young people understand the interpreter and are not sidelined from the process. checking that children and young people understand the services available to them are engaged in and understand the process and what it means to them. Thinking carefully about checking their understanding asking family and/or other professionals (e.g. teachers) about the child’s level of understanding. keeping the child/young person up to date on the process. clarifying the relationship between immigration and Children’s Social Services to unaccompanied minors. clarifying the individual’s perceptions and expectations of the service and understanding how these are affected by religious, cultural, sexuality and linguistic needs. recognising that the experience of racism, bullying, homophobia or hate crime is likely to affect the responses of the child and family to assessment and enquiry processes. This can complicate efforts to protect children from other forms of significant harm. (Working Together 2006). ensuring that gender appropriate support is offered where necessary. identifying resources that are available in an age appropriate format or meeting the child’s level of understanding. understanding that cultural and religious factors should not be acceptable grounds for inaction when a child is at risk of significant harm. Explaining this to the child or young person. understanding that disabled children may communicate the experience of abuse through changes in behaviour. ensuring that disabled children are heard, listened to, believed and influence decision-making processes that affect them. allowing any child with communication difficulties additional time. recognising the possible effect that displacement and trauma may have upon the assessment process, especially when working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees. Analysing with the child/young person in the context of separation and loss. checking with children and young people about their perceptions of family structures transferring information accurately and quickly between teams, and between new workers.

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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Children & Families Practitioners B. Core Assessments
Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • • • accepting that being “in care” and the role of the social worker and social care staff has different connotations across cultures. Helping the child and family understand the concept of fostering. clarifying the individual’s perceptions and expectations of the service and acknowledging how these are influenced by religious, cultural, sexuality and linguistic needs. ensuring children and young people understand the services available to them, and regularly reviewing their understanding. ensuring service users with English as an Additional Language, or who are disabled, are not excluded during discussions and during meetings. Avoid professional jargon and acronyms. planning use of interpreters (not family members) in advance. asking the family, with sensitivity, what the ethnic, national and religious background is, and what their views are on ethnicity, nationality and religion. exploring concepts of kinship and family within the culture. the impact of assessments on carers of disabled children, and the level of assessments already carried out. considering disabling barriers faced by children, and their parents, and how to overcome these barriers, in consultation with the service users. acknowledging differences between cultures, but also within cultures. Ask for clarification rather than making assumptions researching and understanding specific health problems affecting particular communities. adapting approaches so that they are relevant to children, families and their parents from different cultures and backgrounds, without compromising protection of the

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Children & Families Practitioners and Independent Reviewing Officers C. Care Planning
We will ensure that you are able to communicate your wishes, feelings and interest— taking into account any disabilities you. Listen to your wishes and feelings before making decisions that affect you and support you if you need help to do this. Work with you and your family to make sure that plans for your care are up to date and meet your educational, health and care needs. Kent Children’s Pledge

Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • • planning which involves children and their families, with explanations why particular options are chosen. Involving the child in care planning, and offering support to enable this to happen. Are their views taken into account, listened to and influential on the decision making process? Tracking what a child or young person has said and how it has influenced decision-making. Giving feedback to the child or young person. taking into account the child or young person’s views of the birth family and explaining what can, and what cannot, happen. Similarly, discussing the child’s present care situation in the context of long term plans. ensuring the language and tone used is appropriate for the child/young person and checking understanding on an ongoing basis with them. understanding how there may be cultural differences in coping with a disability and mental health problems. disabling barriers faced by children, and their parents, and how to overcome these barriers, in consultation with members of the family. arranging Mentors or Independent Visitors to provide positive and culturally appropriate role models. identifying and incorporating the potentially vital role of informal and other community-based forms of support, which may vary across cultures. developing understanding of the similarities and differences between the developmental needs of children and families from different ethnic backgrounds and cultures (Assessment Framework). Consulting the child or young person about this. using other KCC staff as a resource, i.e. network with staff, and staff groups (see Appendix 2) who may be able to provide insight and advice on specific cultural, religious, racial, sexuality, disability needs. Ensuring that initial assessments and care plans include information about culture, heritage, identity, developing sexuality, language and faith, and the child’s opinion, and that plans meet any special needs which may arise. facilitating multi-agency meetings so the child/young person can be involved in a suitable way without forcing them to conform to adult structures. planning that takes into account safeguarding minority ethnic children from abuse, including racial abuse. planning to eliminate harassment of disabled children. avoiding the danger of double discrimination where the child may be a member of several communities e.g. due to attitudes to race and disability. handling transitions to adult services so that information is shared accurately about the child, and about ways of working with the child. whether an interpreter is required so the child could have conversations in their own language. Are there any other communication barriers to overcome? sensitivity around medical interventions which may be perceived as invasive, disturbing or completely beyond the experience of the child/young person. Explaining the procedure to the child/young person and gaining their consent to the procedure where competent. considering any religious or cultural requirements regarding the gender of any health professionals. ensuring checks are in place for young people who may wish to access faiths that may not be safe (see Working Together) Recognising and planning to meet the child’s mental health needs including those related to the trauma of loss and separation
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family

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Life Story Work
We will help you build a photo album of key people in your life and places you have been to while in care. Kent Children’s Pledge • • • • • Ensure that life story work begins as soon as possible, and follows the child through the system, so that crucial information about the child’s cultural background is not lost. Ensure that the child or young person feels ownership of the process. Explore a range of life story techniques that may work for a particular child e.g. audio or video as well as traditional methods. Select the best communicator for the child e.g. a worker from the same racial background. Help the child to understand about their country of origin using maps and other sources (unaccompanied children, and children adopted from overseas). Enable birth parents and birth families to contribute to the maintenance of their child’s heritage and their spiritual development. Obtain clear information from birth families about themselves and their life before the child is placed permanently. Ensure that the child is taken to visit local mosques/ temples/churches where relevant. Consider a “Life Appreciation Day” for children or young people where life story work has not been followed through. This will inform both the work and the future planning for the child.



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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Practitioners and Independent Reviewing Officers D. Looked After Children Reviews
When making decisions we will take into account your age, background and beliefs, including your ethnic and cultural needs, and needs that may be as a result of a disability, especially communication. We will make sure you are consulted about key decisions being made in your life. If you have a disability we will make sure you have your own ‘communication passport’ that tells others how you communicate and how they can communicate to you. Ensure that your transition to adult services , if you require them, is as smooth as possible. Kent Children’s Pledge

Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • that meetings are held in appropriate formats to engage the child/young person’s views and opinions without expecting them to work within adult structures. the views of the child/young person, and that they can influence the decision making process in a meaningful way. Recognising the impact of your own values and status in the meeting. thinking about gender relationships and how this may impact on the meeting. planning when the meeting is to be held and ensuring it does not interfere with the child’s other activities based on an awareness of the child’s activities. booking an interpreter well in advance, who is appropriate to the child’s culture and language. Using a regular interpreter when appropriate. presenting consultation forms to the child in an accessible format. Is account is taken of language, disability, and level of functioning? considering the use of symbols, not only for disabled children, but also for any child. checking the child’s level of understanding through explanations and preparation before the review. ensuring the child can participate in the meeting. Asking participants to formally signal when they wish to speak will be more empowering than a fast moving discussion, particularly when English is not the first language, or there is any hearing or speech disability. making arrangements so that families and the child/young person are notified of the outcome of reviews in an accessible format. taking the child’s opinions, religion, and racial, cultural, disability, developing sexuality, political and linguistic background into account when making any decisions. Distinguishing between myth, misconception and reality. The use of signs, symbols or appropriate demonstration may be useful and where necessary an interpreter, speech therapist or a teacher who is skilled in communicating with the particular child should be involved. Attention should be given to ensuring that the child/young person understands the context of short breaks away from home and his/her right to dignity, privacy, respect and safety. Every effort should made to ensure that the child/young person is able to make a complaint effectively if he/ she needs to. Identifying and planning independent living skills for young people

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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Children & Families, Fostering & Adoption Practitioners E. Matching & Placement
We will ensure that your, and where appropriate your parent’s, views of the type of carers that you would want are taken into account when choosing your placement and respite care. Kent Children’s Pledge

Good Practice requires:
• • • Consideration of own value base when considering possible families. reflecting, recognising and addressing needs of children in terms of ethnic origin, class, cultural background, religion, sexuality, gender, disability and language. availability of information about the ethnic, cultural and religious background of children needing care being made available to prospective carers and adopters. providing additional training, support and information where all the child’s needs may not be met by one family. supporting the carer to read or research the child’s culture, disability, religion or race when they have a specific child in mind, and particularly if they are from a different background.



• • • • • •

finding carers to support the child’s spiritual development and develop a positive understanding of her/his heritage. using black and minority ethnic or LGBT press, radio stations and websites to find foster carers and adopters (Appendix 2). considering the child or young person’s views in matching. looking at resources in the local community that a child will have access to. looking at the profile of the local community and schools that a child will attend. where there are a range of needs, offering additional training, support and information to the carer, and taking the child’s/young person’s views into account. checking the child/young person’s view of family, and ensuring the carer understands differing roles, hierarchy, obligations and taboos. Ensuring the carer knows the child’s name and how to pronounce it correctly. Providing as much information to the carer as possible about the child’s background and culture, and updating the carer whenever new information becomes available. Ensuring requirements regarding appropriate clothing, diet and toiletries are passed to the carer Informing the carer about the child’s hobbies and interests

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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Fostering and Adoption Practitioners F. Carer Recruitment
Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • • understanding the cultural values and possible misconceptions about substitute care, e.g. fostering, adoption or respite care, within the community from which you are seeking to recruit. making use of publications and programmes relevant to communities where carers are needed from, e.g. Asian radio stations, newspapers and websites for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities (See Appendix 2). mapping out communities, and faith group leaders. Ensuring you are well briefed on traditions and beliefs. Ensuring culturally sensitive venues. Avoiding clashes with sacred/holy days or festivals when organising recruitment campaigns (see standard issue work diaries for Religious Festival Dates and Special Days for the year. Also available on KnET). Avoiding sacred/holy days or major festivals when organising follow up meetings, although festivals may be good recruitment venues. offering prospective carers assistance in completing application forms. assessing needs for support where some family members may not have spoken English as a First Language. involving children and young people in the recruitment of carers. asking children and young people, and their families, what they require from a prospective carer.


gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for fostering and adoption practitioners, residential managers G. Training and Preparation of Carers
Good Practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • training of every carer to provide care, which respects and preserves each child’s ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background, and understands disability and developing sexuality. engaging carers to support children and young people in understanding and influencing decision-making processes, which affect them. ensuring the carer understand the importance of seeking and listening to the child or young person’s views. assuring the carer has specific training to meet the needs of the child e.g. training in communication, such as signing, or training in manual moving and handling, puberty and sexuality. ensuring that the carer attends training offered. taking advice on use of community or faith leaders, particularly seeking the views of parents, where available. supporting networking with carers of other children with similar backgrounds or needs. discussing the carer’s own values, attitudes and perceptions with them in supervision or preparation/support groups. helping the carer to think about the impact of the child’s needs and behaviours on their values i.e. a child with attachment difficulties may not show respect for the carer in a way that is seen as culturally acceptable. signposting to good resources and background information regarding the child’s particular culture.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for fostering and adoption practitioners H. - Assessment of Carers
Good Practice requires:
• consideration of own values, and be aware of power dynamics in assessment, considering the impact of race, gender, sexuality, class on the process. requesting support where they are not familiar with the applicant’s culture. Researching the applicant’s culture and views of fostering and adoption within their faith or ethnic community Using the Commission for Racial Equality, ethnicity template with the applicant to discuss how they define themselves. ensuring specialist advice on preparation courses for carers where necessary. assessing the applicant’s communication skills. Will they undertake training in signing etc? assessing openness to learn about a child’s culture. thoroughly questioning the applicant with a ‘no difference’ approach, and ensuring further work is done. behaviour management in the applicant’s family, and the impact on a child from a different culture. how the applicant deals with discrimination. including the child or young person’s views and opinions when assessing the carer. involving children and young people at the point of decision making. All factors which contribute to their identity e.g. personal, class, racial and ethnic, gender, sexual, cultural, language and spiritual. Values and beliefs within the family of origin

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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for fostering, adoption practitioners, & residential managers I. Assuring the quality of Care
Good practice requires:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • identifying if the child’s immediate cultural needs have been adequately researched and addressed when first making a placement. ensuring the carer accesses with the child/young person, information to help support the child and to provide appropriate care, particularly for transracial or transreligious placements. supporting use of Viewpoint by the child. Are other suitable means provided frequently for any child with communication difficulties to make their wishes and feeling known regarding their care and treatment? how does the carer help the child to deal with racism, bullying or other forms of discrimination? Are they helping the child develop awareness of self protection? recognising the needs of disabled children or those from diverse background when discussion of sex, sexuality & relationships takes place. ensuring the child is recognised and treated in ways appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. confirming that children are provided with nutritious and appropriate food with regard to their cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds and dietary needs and choices. discussing and observing the choice of clothes or personal requisites promoted with regard to cultural, racial, ethnic or religious expectations. Ensure the child is helped to lead on these decisions. expecting children to be encouraged and given opportunities to take part in activities and leisure interests which take account of their race, culture, language, religion, interests, abilities and disabilities. Ensuring the carer is committed to supporting the child’s spiritual needs. Ensuring the carer has registered the child with the G.P., dentist, optician etc. ensuring that birthdays, name days, cultural and religious festivals are celebrated where appropriate, and children can participate with carers in planning the events together. checking that the child’s name is used and pronounced correctly. ensuring that the child is taken to visit local mosques/temples/churches where relevant. Responding to the child’s wishes. monitoring the messages that the child receives about what it means to be disabled e.g. is disability minimised or is it prioritised to the exclusion of any other identity need? What positive examples of disabled people (e.g. from sport) does the child receive? Are the child’s/young person’s perceptions checked for understanding? making sure that carers are aware that a disabled child’s understanding may not match their vocabulary. Are other communication models supported to facilitate the child/young person communicating their views, voices and opinions? guiding the carer to encourage the child to reflect on and understand her/his history according to age and keep appropriate memorabilia. supporting carers to ensure children and young people are positively engaged to influence decision-making processes which affect them. identifying if the carer allows room for the child or young person to express their thoughts, opinions and voices and these are listened to, and responded to, explaining what can and cannot happen.


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gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guidance – Prompts for Managers J. Service Monitoring
Good practice requires:
• • analysing information about the needs, and backgrounds, of children requiring foster care or adoption to plan recruitment. engaging children and young people to evaluate the services on an ongoing basis. Giving feedback to the children/young people about now their views have assisted with service development. knowing the profile of carers i.e. ethnic origins, languages spoken, religion, disabilities, etc. ensuring that leaflets, posters, adverts and the website are culturally diverse and available in different languages. checking that initial information and the application form are jargon free and clear to use. Consulting different communities and service users about the content, format and distribution of appropriate information. enabling carers to make personal statements in their first language, and provision of workers with specialist knowledge of the language and culture to interpret and assess. co-opting staff with specific language skills or knowledge of particular faiths for recruitment events. using staff with specialist skills and diverse backgrounds as mentors for other staffs. involving children and young people in the recruitment of carers. ensuring material is available in a child-friendly format. Writing with children and young people to ensure the language is correct. checking that children and young people understand the services available to them, and are given information about the complaints procedure in the age appropriate format. monitoring the processes of the Fostering and Adoption Panels regarding qualities, competencies and aptitudes in relation to religion and racial, cultural or linguistic issues. ensuring information about services is reaching all communities. monitoring whether social services facilities visited by the public carry leaflets and posters in appropriate languages and formats. do children and their families from different cultures and backgrounds perceive services as available and relevant to them?

• • •

• • • • • • • • • •

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Section Four: Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Care Setting
The following are just some areas that need to be considered in caring for children. More information on community profiles, religion and belief is given in section 5 and 6. Some general factors to consider: • Migration - and how it affects life, family relationships and lifestyles. • Social isolation, Marginalization and Alienation - may mean certain communities become neglected by service providers and therefore more vulnerable. • A lack of appropriate, accessible and culturally sensitive services may result in confinement in the home. This can place additional strain on families. In crisis situations, the individual’s right to an appropriate and sensitive service offering them choice can be denied. • Changes in family structures, breakdown in relationships, smaller family units can have a significant affect on the care of children in the family home, e.g. the realities of working, having a young family and making practical care arrangements for an older family member may prove difficult, and place a strain on carers. • Mental Health can be affected by: • the Threat of Deportation when a young asylum seeker reaches the age of 18 • Guilt, or being a ‘burden’ • Abandonment • Isolation • Fear about being left alone or not being cared for as they expected or hoped • Frustration • Depression • Stigma • Loss, e.g. not being able to visit relatives or friends ‘back home’ particularly at times of bereavement, lost contact, issues of safety for refugee communities where family and relatives have been displaced in war. • Changing roles and responsibilities in the family may mean that perceptions, expectations about caring duties or responsibilities change. This may cause conflict and or break down of communication within the family. • Health issues and certain illnesses are more prevalent within Black and minority ethnic communities. These include: • Hypertension • Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalasseima • Coronary heart disease • Diabetes • Rickets and Arthritis • Personal Care What is considered to be good hygiene varies amongst individuals and cultures. It is therefore important to check out the individual’s needs and wishes. Some examples: Preference to wash in running water Bathing/washing by carer of the same gender Use of bidet, wet wipes or water bottle in toilet Be aware of the individual child and family’s beliefs and wishes, never make assumptions, and always ask

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Food and Diet Individuals may have specific dietary needs resulting from their religious beliefs. Not all people from one faith may follow the same dietary rules therefore ALWAYS ASK AND DO NOT ASSUME. General points to be aware of: • Muslims do not eat pork and all meat must be ‘Halal’. Muslims will not eat “contaminated” food i.e. food that has touched pig’s meat or been prepared in the same utensils. • Sikhs generally do not eat beef and may be vegetarian • Hindus do not eat beef and may also be vegetarian • Rastafarians may be vegetarian • Jewish people only eat meat that is ‘Kosher’ i.e. slaughtered in accordance with Jewish Law, and prepared separately.

Eating habits Individuals may have different preferences for the way they eat. Using hands may be preferred to cutlery or different utensils maybe used, e.g. the use of chopsticks or specially designed eating aids. Individuals may observe the right hand/left hand rule of hygiene in which the left hand is used for personal cleaning and therefore not used to eat with. In some cultures leaving a little food uneaten is considered good manners. There may be customs about where family members sit in relation to one another. Modesty, Privacy and Appearance It is important that people are given a choice in how they dress. Everyone has different preferences for what is comfortable and appropriate to them. It is important to consider whether a child or young person wishes to: • cover parts of the body, • cover head with veil, • wear salwar kameez or kurta pyjama, (tunic and trousers worn with scarf for young women from the south Asian background), • cover their head e.g. some Muslim girls may want to wear the head scarf or “hijab”. Gender differences may vary across cultures, e.g. girls and boys may prefer separate facilities e.g. children from Muslim and Gypsy Traveller background will be very uncomfortable with communal changing facilities. Different expectations, values, beliefs, preferences and wishes will all influence sexual behaviour and conduct. It is therefore vital to ascertain individual wishes in a culturally appropriate and sensitive manner (see Relationships and Sex Education – Section Seven) Space, Time and Proximity Comfort areas regarding touch, body space, gestures can all hold certain meaning, e.g. extending sympathy through touch, embrace or hugging may be subject to misinterpretation. It is important to check things out, where possible, to avoid discomfort or embarrassment. Children and young people in stress or trauma or in grief may not be able to say how they feel.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Collective / Individual Approach to Community Within some cultures the community is structured around the collective as opposed to the individual, e.g. it may be expected that children will remain at home and be cared for by family. This can cause tensions when changing family circumstances, roles and responsibilities mean that this is no longer possible and perceived duties are not undertaken. The concept of adoption by strangers is considered alien in some cultures. The family or individual may be conscious of community stigma, issues of confidentiality and feelings of being ‘judged’. Attitude and Behaviour It is important to remember that our own attitude affects our behaviour and that this will in turn affect the attitude and behaviour of others. As professionals, social workers have a responsibility to ensure that they do not allow personal stereotypes, assumptions and prejudices to affect their attitude and behaviour towards others. Family Family relationships and concepts of family may also vary across cultures, e.g. within traditional extended families terms like ‘uncle’, ‘aunt’, ‘cousin’ may be used to describe relationships with ‘unrelated’ people. Gender differences Family duties and responsibilities, roles within a family, processes of decision making within families, and values and beliefs about relationships and sexual conduct will all be unique to different communities and families. It is therefore advisable to seek insight into these issues, particularly if working within situations of family conflict. Verbal communication Accent, pronunciation, jargon, slang, humour, tone of voice, intonation will all differ across cultures. It is important to gain an insight into how cross-cultural communication can be affected by what is said, how it is said and the message intended and received. Non-verbal communication Use of gestures, body language, eye contact, gaze, touch, smell, appearance and dress can all be used to give messages. It is important to be aware of how our perceptions and understanding of certain things can be different across cultures. How we see things, may not be how others see them. Symbolism Uniform, religious items, wedding rings, certain colours, flags, national symbols etc, can all mean different things to different people. It is important to be aware of this without making assumptions.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Worship - Prayer Ascertain prayer needs: • times of prayer • space for praying • suitable clothing • where and how prayers need to be made, e.g. Muslims pray facing Mecca • religious objects or symbols needed, or chosen, for prayer e.g. holy book, head covering, rosary beads, incense, prayer mats. Religious objects or symbols These should be treated with respect and should not be removed without consent of the child and parent. Some examples of religious objects or symbols: • Prayer mat • Prayer book • Head covering e.g. turban, veil, skull caps, scarves • Holy beads “tasbih” for Muslims, Rosary for Catholics. • Objects worn on the body e.g. Five K’s of Sikhism • Washing facilities e.g. Muslim people may wish to wash before prayer Jewellery For some people this can be very symbolic therefore it is important to be sensitive. Jewellery like rings, necklaces, bracelets should not be removed without prior consent from the child or their family, equally introduction of a significant piece of jewellery e.g. the Kara for a Sikh child, should be done in consultation with the family Skin Care Skin can differ in texture, type and colour requiring specific creams and lotions and oils. It is therefore important to find out about individual skin care needs. Skin care can be a reflection of the care given and can have a crucial effect on an individual’s self-confidence and self-esteem. Poorly cared for skin can be prone to other problems like chapping, excessive dryness and lesions. Hair Care It is also important to be aware that there are differences in hair care needs. Children and young people should be enabled to share personal needs, choices, wishes and preferences. It is important to be aware that hair maybe worn in different ways and assistance maybe needed in this, (e.g. Sikhism) Some examples: • Guti - hair worn in a small bun at the top of the head. Often worn beneath a turban. This is often covered with a small handkerchief, which is kept in place with an elastic band. • Joora (bun) - worn in a particular way and may sometimes be covered by having a veil on top of head. • Certain hair creams and oils maybe needed to care for hair. It is important to be aware of where these can be bought. It maybe important to consult family members for advice or information. • Details of local suppliers and hairstylists should be kept. • Certain religions do not allow hair to be cut. • Jewish girls may wish to have their hair covered.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Death, Dying and Bereavement Across Cultures Some general points to consider: • • • • • Children need to be able to grieve in a culturally sensitive way, encouraged to mourn, and given space to talk about their experiences. Carers and practitioners may need support themselves when sharing the child’s loss and bereavement issues. Reactions to death, dying and bereavement will vary according to each individual, their family beliefs, religious and cultural background, and their life experiences. Carers and social workers need to understand the different reactions to grief and loss. This will help them to distinguish between normal and abnormal responses to grief within a cross cultural context. Bereavement is dealt with in different ways. Some cultures may grieve more openly and the period of mourning may vary from weeks to months. It is important to know what to expect to avoid insensitivity and awkwardness. In certain Indian traditions people sit on the floor when someone has died and the floor is covered in white sheets. Men and women may also be segregated. Pictures of the deceased maybe displayed, with a flame lit, until the funeral takes place, and a garland of flowers placed around the photo. Women from Indian cultures may express their grief through crying, screaming and embracing each other. Certain colours are worn to denote loss and the death of a loved one. Some Indian cultures wear white, whilst some Muslim cultures wear black. The death of an older person may mean that there are distinct roles and responsibilities within the family that need to be observed. Ask relatives if there are any specific requirements which need to be made following death. Some families may ask to stay with the body over the 24 hours prior to the funeral taking place.

• • • • •


Naming Systems Names are an important part of our identity, so it is important to get names right. It is also important not to change or abbreviate names which we are unfamiliar with and find difficulty in pronouncing. Many people do not use the western naming system. It is important to check which name is the family name and in which order names are used. It is also important to be aware that some young people, who are not born in the UK, may not know the actual date on which they were born. Birth certificates and marriage certificates may also not be available. Further information on naming systems is given in the relevant sections on community and religious profiles.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Section Five: Community Profiles and Information about Countries of Origin
BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNIC COMMUNITIES IN BRITAIN & KENT From the 1991 Census it was identified that within the KCC area White British residents account for 94.1% of the total resident population, Asian or Asian British Indians represent 0.9%, slightly greater than the proportion of White Irish People (0.8%). Other Black residents account for the smallest group (0.04%) closely followed by Pakistan (0.08%) and Mixed white & Black African (0.08%). However, since 1991, the migrant population, particularly from Eastern Europe has changed the population base to an extent, however accurate reporting on these demographic changes is not currently available. There were wide variations between areas of Kent, with 10% of the Gravesham population being of Asian or Asian British Indian descent, compared to other areas where the population is predominantly White British. The Kent Looked After Children Population, (for September 2007) is composed as follows: White British 86.4%; White Other 6.98%; White & Black Caribbean 1.62%; Mixed Other 1.28%; Other Ethnic Group 0.85%; White & Black African 0.43%; African 0.34%; Black Other 0.34%; White & Asian 0.25 %; Asian Other 0.09% A summary of the profile of the significant ethnic groupings within Kent follows for reference. Customs and beliefs vary within cultures and between families. This is a basic guide to some issues. It is important to understand that children and young people will not always primarily relate to the country of origin of themselves or their parents. Identity is complex and may be related to a range of factors including religion or faith, gender, ethnicity, disability, sexuality, age etc..

It is always better to ask the family for information rather than make assumptions.
Religion Afghanistan is a Muslim country and Islam is recognised by the Afghan constitution as the state religion. The main religion is Sunni Muslim which is practised by the majority, although not all. The main ethnic groups are the Pashtuns, Turkman, Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazara. Hazara is mainly Shia. Languages spoken Pashto is spoken by the largest single ethic group, the Pashtuns, though many from this group also speak Dari. Within the Pashtuns there are may tribal groups. Loyalty to tribal groups is often more important than to national loyalty. Dari is spoken by the Tajiks who constitute about a quarter of the population Uzbek is spoken by the Uzbek ethnic group Dari is spoken by the Hazara. Turkman speak the Turkman language, which has similarities to Turkish. Major Cultural Considerations Dress Most girls, especially from the rural areas, are brought up strictly, and expected to dress modestly. Expectations about dress and social life with friends are less restrictive for boys. Sexuality Sexual freedom is disapproved of, within Afghanistan and for those living outside. Boundaries are very strong between the sexes. Promiscuity is seen as tantamount to prostitution. Marriage with a non-Muslim or non Afghan is not a general practice. Divisions within the community There may be suspicion of other Afghans from different ethnic groups, and some community organisations will offer services to specific Afghan groups only. Alcohol and drugs are illegal in Afghanistan.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Resource information Information about culture, literature, politics and entertainment can be found on Afghan music, radio, poetry, information. Literature, recipes etc on “Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-seeking children and young people from Afghanistan”, BAAF, 2007

Religion Main religions: including Christianity, Islam, Holistic medicine and African spirituality. Tribal customs may have a bearing in the way the religion is practised. Major Cultural Considerations Very varied due to mixture of country, tribe, religion and culture. A person from the north of Uganda, for example, may have a completely different religion and culture, i.e. they may be a Muslim and have strict codes of diet and dress. There may however, be some national characteristics they share e.g. speak a national language, foods. Ceremonial scars may be displayed voluntarily, due to cultural identity among Africans from certain Tribes. These may have a special significance to the individual. Some communities may socialise and worship as separate communities. Resource Information African and Asian Visual Arts Archive 34 Portland Square, St Paul’s, Bristol BS2 8RG 0117 9244492 Commonwealth Institute Resource list on African countries 0207 603 4535 ask for resource centre. Africa Book Centre & Articrafts 38 King St, London WC2 8JT 0207 240 6649 African Books Collective The Jam Factory, 27 Park End St, Oxford OX1 1HU 01865 726686 African Music Agency 120 Kentish Town Rd, London NW1 9PY 0207 267 1928 “Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-seeking children and young people from Eritrea”, BAAF, 2007 Community Organisation: Ann Philips BME Concern 07903 803612

Languages spoken Predominantly English spoken. As people originate from a number of islands under European rule: French, English and Spanish may be widely spoken. Patois and Creole are also used (forms of pidgin English with the use of some African words, which were inherited from the many different African speaking people enforced into slavery). Religion Mainly Christian and Rastafarian (see page 31). Some may be descended from Asians brought over as indentured labourers and retained their own languages and culture i.e. Hindi, Urdu, Chinese etc; may also be Hindu or Muslim, and as a consequence may have a mixed racial/religious heritage. Each of the European countries who colonised the West Indian Islands took with them their own versions of Christianity. Majority are Christians i.e. Roman Catholic or various forms of Protestants such as Anglicans, Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostal, 7th Day Adventist, Jehovah’s Witnesses etc.
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Major Cultural Considerations All African and Caribbean countries have experienced a colonial past and all have suffered from the slave trade. AfroCaribbean people are therefore multi-ethnic/multi-cultural, having a great many religions, languages, foods, art forms, music and social institutions, i.e. ideas, attitudes, beliefs, values inherited from those who lived and are living in these Islands. There is an amalgamation of African, Asian, American and European influences. African Caribbeans who have original African ancestry or simply Caribbeans (of the Carib Indians), are people who migrated to Britain from the West Indies. The majority are from Jamaica, though other islanders are represented. One generation’s experience of history and of old age will be different from that of the succeeding generations. This is relevant to most people settled in Britain who have a diverse heritage. The meaning of being West Indian or African-Caribbean is dependant on the life course they have experienced and the historical period in which they are located. So while an ‘ethnic group’ such as ‘Afro-Caribbean’ may be defined as one which shares a common past or history, it is important to remember that the past has different meanings for different age groups. Personal care It is vital that attention is given to hair and skin care, since improper care can lead to dry skin and out of condition hair. This should involve the use of specific hair and skin products. It is also important to recognise that an individuals’ selfconfidence and self-esteem can be greatly affected by their appearance. Food Every Island has their own distinct dishes associated with traditions passed down through families. There is a strong influence from Africa within Caribbean cuisine e.g. Cassava, Cornmeal, Sweet Potato, Yams, Plantains, and Okra. Food is highly spiced and/or seasoned and rice may form a staple part of the diet. Focus for Community The place of worship is usually the focal point for most community activities. The potential isolation of elders from the Caribbean community has been considerably reduced thanks to the important role of Black church organisations in providing them with a social, cultural and educational focus. However these benefits may be restricted to churchgoers only. Resource Information Medway Afro-Caribbean Association PO Box 225 Gillingham Kent ME7 1NN Group organising social events, meetings, visits etc for the general public. Meetings held at different venues. ‘Food and Diet in a Multiracial Society’, Packs of resources and training materials produced to enable health service mangers and staff responsible for catering to provide better and more appropriate meals for Black and ethnic minority clients. Pack includes: Nutrition and Education in a Multiracial Society Chinese food and diet Caribbean food and diet ISBN 0 86082 978 2. National Extension College. ‘Pain in Sickle Cell Disease’, A Sickle Cell Disease Society publication. An insight into this disease which occurs in people of Afro-Caribbean origin. ISBN 0 86082 7119. Weekly newspaper: ‘Caribbean Times incorporating African Times’ from newsagents or subscription. Enquiries Hansib Publishing Ltd 0207 281 1191.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


‘The Voice’ newspaper available from most newsagents. Association for the Study of African Caribbean and Asian Culture and History in Britain, (ASACACHIB) 28 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DS.

Languages spoken The most widely spoken language is Arabic. The Koran (Holy book of Islam) is also written in Arabic. Religion The main religion is Islam. Some people may be Christian, especially from Lebanon or Iraq. Major Cultural Considerations There are 26 countries which make up the Arab League, other countries with Arab populations are Jordan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, the Yemen, Saudi Arabia, the Lebanon, Israel, Turkey and along the North and East Coast of Africa. They represent a wide range of racial national/cultural backgrounds, however followers of Islam adhere to religious practices common to all Muslims. Sensitive Interpreting When arranging interpreting/translating service it is most important to ensure that providers have assessed national/ cultural/regional and political issues before requesting a service. E.g. it would be unacceptable to provide an interpreter from Iran for somebody from Iraq this would only serve to compound tense situations due to recent hostilities. E.g. a person from the Kurdish part of Iraq may only speak Kurdish, not Arabic. The same applies for Christian Arabs. Focus for Community Most Arabs are from the Middle Eastern countries and are here as business owners, professionals or students. There have been recent groups who arrived as refugees mainly from Iraq and Iran. The Mosque is part of most people’s lives, however it is necessary to be aware of sensitivities around issues for people who have fled their country for reasons of political persecution (see above). Many may not use the local Mosque but prefer to use another where they can identify with their community.

Languages used Bengali, Sylheti(dialect)

Religion Islam, majority

Major Cultural Considerations A majority of Bangladeshis settled in UK are in the restaurant/catering business. A large number are known to have come from the region of Sylhet in Bangladesh. Religion may play a part in the way social structures are organised.

Resource Information High Commission for the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Community Welfare Section. 0207 584 0081 Also Dartford, Crayford & Swanley Bengali Association 01322 272201
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


The group’s main aim is to promote Bengali customs and language, particularly among children in the Bengali community. Concerned to promote good relationships with other ethnic groups. Holds a Bengali Cultural Programme to celebrate Bengalis events such as the Bengali New Year as well as Islamic events such as Eid celebrations. Bangladesh Welfare Association 9 The Crescent Sevenoaks Kent TN13 3QX 01732 454100 President: Mr. SR Choudhury

Languages spoken Cantonese, Mandarin, Hakka.

Religion • • Buddhism Sees life as a process of birth, ageing, illness and death, in which people achieve enlightenment by suffering and overcoming grief. Taoism Sees life as composed of a balance of fire, water, earth, metal and wood. Illness occurs when there is an imbalance in these elements, which traditional treatment seeks to restore. Confucianism An ethical system emphasising respect for authority, seeing law as essential in order to make life possible. Emphasis on law and learning places teachers in particularly high esteem.


Major Cultural Considerations May be influenced by a variety of beliefs, all of which may figure in bringing up a Chinese child. Ancestor worship may still be very strong in the belief system. These may be central to most Chinese peoples’ lives. Some who were born after the Second World War may not be so strongly influenced by ideas and beliefs. Shrines are not usually found in Chinese homes, altars may be set up for specific festivals or weddings on a temporary basis. Chinese Names The surname comes first and is followed by the personal name. In English, these appear as two separate words. Some Chinese people may have adopted the UK system of naming. Some examples of common Chinese names: Female - Ai Ling, See Lai, Soh Choo, Han Male - Tze Jung, Tong, Teck Lee, Seng Surnames - Tan, Gh, Wong, Lee Choos Diet May be influenced by Chinese cultural beliefs about health related to a balance of physical elements in the body. A person may feel that cold food should not be eaten by a sick person or that certain conditions indicate the need to alter diet in a particular way. Preference for Western or traditional medicine may vary with age and upbringing. Social Expressions of loyalty and affection may be presented in the form of practical gifts. Respect for elders is widely displayed. A person’s family of origin may be of great importance. Feng Shui (practiced by all Chinese) refers to the feeling or ambience associated with a place. Some people may go to elaborate lengths and efforts in order to achieve and establish good Feng Shui. Birth Relatives may mark the birth of a child by giving money in red envelopes. A special celebration called Mun Yui is held to mark the first month of life.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Religious Festivals • Ching Ming A family festival where family graves are visited. After these are cleaned and swept, families may picnic beside them to share the meal with their ancestors. • Chung Yuan Buddhist festival when objects for use in the spirit world are made and offered to assist spirits with no descendants or resting place to reach Nirvana. Large paper boats are made and burnt at temples. This festival may not be celebrated so widely in Britain. • Dragon Boat Festival To commemorate the suicide by drowning of poet and statesman Ch’u Yuan. Marked by dragon boat racing and picnics on or near rivers. Sweet or savoury rice balls wrapped in leaves, called Jong are eaten. • Yuan Tan (Chinese New Year) Celebrated on first day of first lunar month. Marked with fireworks, dancing and giving of gifts, sweets and flowers. Red symbolizes good luck, Gold prosperity. Lasts about three days, all debts should be settled before New Year begins. • Teng Chieh(Lantern Festival) Marks the first full moon of the year and lengthening of days. Homes are decorated with strings of lanterns. Less often celebrated now. Early Autumn Moon Festival is more celebrated with lanterns, moon cakes and fruits. Death and Dying A dying person may wish to be in the presence of relatives. Preference may be to be at home. They may also wish to return to the community of their birth to die. To die alone is considered a very sad fate for a Chinese person. The colour of mourning is white. Resource Information Chinese Association – Chatham (KUT-O) 340 High Street Chatham Kent ME4 4PJ George Parks MBE Hon Secretary 01634 404259 07803 713658 A social club for members of the Chinese Community in and around the Medway towns. Meeting place, tuition in Chinese language and culture to children on Sundays. London Chinese Health Resource Centre 7th Floor, Queen’s House, 1 Leicester Square WC2H 7BP. 0207 287 0904 / 0207 434 2000 Camden Chinese Community Centre 173 Arlington Road, London NW1 7EY. 0207 267 3019

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Languages Spoken Greek, English. Religion Greek Orthodox, other Christian. Major Cultural Considerations Many older persons of Greek origin may not speak English, and may have to rely on family networks. A way of greeting is to wave a clenched fist in the air and say ‘Oui’. To raise an outstretched hand is a symbol of a curse – if this happens, they may cover their faces to avoid the curse. Thalasaemia is a medical condition that is common in ethnic Cypriots. Beta – Thalasaemia is more prevalent among people of Mediterranean origin. Resource Information A Greek/Cypriot Carer’s Group covers the area of Islington borough, but will help with enquiries from other areas. The Greek Cypriot Centre, 7b Elthorne Road, London N19 4AJ. 0207 272 4444

Languages spoken Gujarati, Kutchi (dialect), Hindi Religion Mainly Hindu and Islam. Muslim Gujaratis usually have Indian and Muslim names. Major Cultural Considerations Mainly vegetarian. Beef and pork are not permitted. The identity of the Gujarati is marked mainly by the use of the Gujarati language or Kutchi dialect and by adherence either to Hinduism (among the majority) or Islam. Some Gujarati Hindus, especially the older generation, may have religious tattoos around the neck, on the upper part of the chest and on the forearms. These represent the name of God in Hindi script, along with flowers or dots. Resource Information Asians in Britain series ‘Caring for Hindus and their families: religious aspects of care’ by Alex Henley ISBN 0 86082 431 4, National Extension College. Asians in Britain series ‘Caring for Muslims and Their Families: Religious Aspects of Care by Alex Henley ISBN 0 86082 321 0, National Extension College. ‘Transcultural Medicine’ by Bashir Qureshi ISBN 0-85200-938-0

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Language Hindi and 16 other official languages Religion Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism Resource Information See under relevant religious information. Asian Women’s Group Erith Library Building Walnut Tree Road Erith Kent DA8 1RA 01322 340316 Jasminder Sidhu (Punjabi/Sikh) Guru Ravidass Gurdwara Brandon Street Gravesend Kent DA11 0PL Mr Jassal 07931 820076 Guru Gobind Sahib Gurdwara 8 Highfield Road Dartford Kent DA1 2JJ 01322 222951 Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara Clarence Place Gravesend Kent DA12 1LD Also for Malayalees – Dartford Malayalees Association 36 Barham Rd Dartford 07771620757 Maidstone Malayalees Association 07985195758

Religion Most of the population are Shia Muslims, and 10 per cent are Sunni Muslims. There are also a small number of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and Baha’is. Ethnic groups The main ethnic group is Persian, followed by Azeri, then Gilahi, Mazndarani, Kurd. There are some smaller minorities of Arab, Lur, Baloch and Turkmen. There may be distrust between ethnic Iranian groups in the UK due to suppression and political differences in Iran. Major Cultural Considerations Iranian families tend to keep in close contact with one another, which can lead to feelings of isolation for the young person in the UK. Women work and study, but frequently are prevented from mixing openly with men, and are expected to wear the hijab. Contraception is supported, and boyfriends and girlfriends allowed. There is an emphasis on education In Iranian culture it is seen as polite to refuse something once at least, before accepting. Drugs Drugs are widely available in Iran, and addiction is a big problem. Young people who come to the UK from Iran rarely get involved. Resource Information Information on Iran is available on A web directory with links to varied Farsi and Iranian sites is available on Iranian Community Centre 266-268 Holloway Road London N7 6NE 020 7700 0477 – Advice and information 020 7700 7174 – Education and young people

Iranian Association Palingswick House 241 Kings St Hammersmith London W6 9LP 090 8748 6682 (advice & counseling)

“Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum seeking children and young people from Iran”, BAAF, 2007
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Languages spoken English, Gaelic. Religion Christian: Catholic or Protestant. Resource Information Brent Advisory Centre, Premier House, 313 Kilburn Lane, London W9 3EG. 0208 968 6914

Languages spoken French, English, Hindi, Chinese,Tamil. The Mauritian language is a patois which is slightly different to French. Religion Hindu, Muslim, Christian. Major Cultural Considerations Mauritius was a French colony before gaining independence. Used as a stopping point for Indians travelling by ship to and from mainly East Africa and India. Many Mauritians have retained their religion which in turn may have an impact on cultural practices. Focus for Community For many Mauritians cultural activities are very popular, with a wide range of social gatherings providing opportunities for the French, Indian, African influences to flourish. A large number in Britain are known to be employed in the health professions, with a particular concentration in Dartford, Kent.

Resource Information Mauritian League of Friends c/o North West Kent Racial Equality Council, 8 Essex Road, Dartford, Kent DA1 2AU 07903213120 Ram Appadoo 01322 2711622 K Jumnoodoo A social club and self-help support group for people of Maritian origin in the Dartford and Gravesham areas. Offers advice, support and help for any Mauritian in need or distress. Mauritian High Commission, 0208 581 0294

Languages spoken Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Balachi Religion Islam Resource Information Pakistan is a Muslim majority state and for Muslim Pakistanis, resources given in Section 6, under Islam, may be helpful. Also Dartford, Crayford & Swanley Bengali Association 01322 272201 The group’s main aim is to promote Bengali customs and language, particularly among children in the Bengali community. Concerned to promote good relationships with other ethnic groups. Holds a Bengali Cultural Programme to celebrate Bengalis events such as the Bengali New Year as well as Islamic events such as Eid celebrations.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Languages spoken Polish and English. Religion Mainly Catholic Resource Information Link to BBC website - audio, video and text features about Kent's Polish community

Languages spoken Turkish and English. Religion Muslim. Resource Information Cypriot Centre, Earlham Grove, London N22 5HJ. 0208 881 2329

Major Cultural Considerations The present day Gypsy population can be divided into five main groups, each with its own cultural heritage and identity. • The Romanies or ‘Romany chals’ of England and South Wales • The Kale of North Wales • The Romas who have come to England this century • Irish Travellers • Scottish Travellers

Languages spoken Each of the five groups may use their own language in addition to English. The Rom and some of the Kale still speak the Romani language, using its traditional grammar. Resource Information International Allied Roma Council 0208 894 3566 Gypsy – Traveller Information Service University of Hertfordshire Press Coolege Lane Hatfield Hertfordshire AL10 9AD Gypsy Council for Education, Culture and Welfare and Civil Rights, 8 Hall Road, Averley, Essex RM15 4HD

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Languages spoken Vietnamese. Religion Buddhism and Reverence for Ancestors. Many in Britain are also Roman Catholic. Major Cultural Considerations For those of Chinese descent, they may retain their distinctive customs and culture. Others may combine reverence for ancestors with Buddhism. Some families may hold on to only one belief, but a mixture of the two, or parts of all three may be quite usual. In Buddhist and Catholic families, a family shrine dedicated to ancestors is usual, which may also feature photographs of recently deceased relatives. Incense sticks may be a feature of domestic shrines. There is a special emphasis on family life socially and in terms of beliefs. The beliefs and social rules may be more closely intertwined than in Western cultures. Social Customs The three generational household may be the most important social unit for most Vietnamese. These family ties are extremely strong and significant for Vietnamese people. The extreme sense of loss felt by many Vietnamese in Britain (especially those who came alone) is understandable. Diet Nearly every dish has herbs and vegetables, similar in appearance to Chinese food, with less use of oil. Lamb is not eaten, there is an emphasis on fish, shellfish, poultry and pork. Fish sauces may be regularly used. Birth Customs Mother and baby stay at home for the first month after birth, after which a special meal is prepared for family and relatives to celebrate the baby’s arrival. Religious Festivals • Tet Vietnamese New Year, celebrated by the extended family with presents, new clothes, feasts and gifts of money to the young. • Moon festival celebration of the new moon, usually in late August or early September. This festival may not be widely observed by Vietnamese in Britain in contrast to those settled in other European countries. Death When a family member dies, the body may be kept at home for one to three days (only if practicable) during which family and relatives come to pay their respects with offerings of money or food. On the day of the funeral the coffin is carried in procession to the grave and often a priest or monk is invited to pray for the soul of the dead person. After a death, the family altar is wrapped in a white cloth for one month. On each anniversary of a death an offering of food is made to show respect and honour the memory of the deceased. Dishes are ritually placed on the altar and later eaten at a special family gathering. Resource Information Vietnam Refugee National Council, Hughes Field Community Centre, New King Street, Deptford, London SE8 3HU. 0208 691 5181

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Section Six: Background Information: Religions and Faith Groups
This is a basic guide, the family should always be asked to clarify how their own faith or religion is observed. Many religions and faiths are represented in the population in Kent, and the importance of supporting a child’s existing religious affiliation is upheld in legislation. Current research has indicated that young people who identify as having a religious affiliation, are regularly involved in prayer, and believe in eternal life, seemed to fair better than other young people on a number of different measures of well-being, in terms of relationships, outlook, and other measures of wellbeing in the personal domain. (Children’s Society 2006). Information about some of the religions that may be part of the child or young person’s culture is given in this section. Further detailed information on religions is available on the BBC website The standard issue work diaries have a section covering Religious Festival Dates and Special Days for the year. “Working Together to Safeguard Children” should always be followed in assessing whether a child or family’s affiliation is to an unsafe faith group

The youngest of the world’s independent religions. It began in Iran (Persia) during the mid-nineteenth century and spread to virtually every part of the world. It embraces believers from virtually every racial, cultural, social and religious background, based on the teachings of its founder Baha’U’llah. The faith recognises the unity of God and his/her prophets. It teaches that the fundamental purpose of the religion is to promote harmony. Bahai’s believe that religion must go hand in hand with science. Its basis is composed of the sole and ultimate progress of a peaceful and ordered society. The principles of equal opportunity, rights and privileges for men women and children, compulsory education and universal peace are advocated. No specific requirements exist for believers who need to utilise any statutory provision, and they usually find routine provision acceptable. This also applies to any dietary practises. There are generally no objections to blood transfusion, organ donation/transplant or post-mortems. Baha’i are buried, never cremated. Resource Information The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the United Kingdom. Oceanair House, 6th Floor, 133-137 Whitechapel High Street, London E1. DHISM

Buddhism arose in the sixth century BC in the area of the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal in Northern India. It took its name from the title ‘Buddha’ (The Enlightened) given to its founder. Over the centuries it spread far beyond India in various forms, and followers of Buddhism are widely found in Sri Lanka, the Indo-Chinese peninsula, China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. The Buddhist faith centres on Buddha who is revered, not as a god, but as an example of a way of life. Buddhists believe in re-incarnation, and so accept responsibility for the ways in which they exercise their freedom in life, since the consequences of their actions may be seen in subsequent lives. It is therefore important that the individual behaves properly. This includes not killing. The tradition condemns abortion and active euthanasia. .As there is no ‘God’ there is no actual worship, but the act of ‘Pooja’ (to respect) is the Buddhist way of acknowledgement of an ideal. Many Buddhists in Britain may be converts but in recent years others have come as refugees from Tibet and Vietnam. Ancestor worship may also be very important. Diet Some are vegetarian. There are Chinese/Thai supermarkets or wholesalers in most cities. Death and Dying Consideration will vary among different Buddhist groups. A visiting and counselling service is usually offered by local Buddhists as well as general advice.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Festivals Buddha Day - the celebration of the birth, enlightenment and passing away of Gotama Buddha Poson - a festival celebrated by Sri Lankan Buddhists on the day of the full moon to remember the coming of Buddhism to Sri Lanka. Resource Information London’s largest temple (or Watt) is in Colonna Road, Wimbledon. Other useful contacts: Venerable Piyadassi, International Buddhist Centre, Kingsbury Road, London, NW9 9PE 0208 204 3301 Chandrika Elepathe, Buddhist Cultural Educational Association 01732 870662 CHRISTIANITY

Christianity is a 2000 year old religion, which developed originally from Jewish worship. It is a worldwide religion with over 2 billion followers and dozens of different groups, called denominations. Beliefs and practices vary widely. However all Christians believe that there is only one God, and that Jesus is the Son of God. Christians believe in the Trinity, that is God as the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Holy Book is the bible, which is in two parts, the Old Testament (Jewish/Hebrew Scriptures) and the New Testament. The Old Testament is about the relationship between God and the Jews, and the New Testament covers Jesus and the early church. There are some strong differences in opinion between denominations about how literally the bible should be interpreted . Even within denominations there can be different styles of worship, with, for example, the congregation participating to a greater or lesser extent in the service. Historically two different branches of the Christian Church developed: The Eastern Orthodox Church Russian and Greek The Western Catholic Church The second split occurred in the Western Catholic church due to the Protestant Reformation in the 16th Century. This resulted in the founding of the Anglican Church, and the Church of Scotland which adopted Presbyterianism (a form of Protestantism) Other main Protestant churches in England are the United Reformed Church (formed from Presbyterians and Congregationalists), churches of the Baptist Union, Methodist Churches, and Pentecostalism. Pentecostalism is a fast growing religion, particularly in the Black communities. Salvationists and Quakers are smaller groups nowadays, with a strong social conviction. Worship is observed in different ways according to the denomination, for example in the non-conformist traditions it is not usual to kneel to pray. Some denominations see prayer as personal and contemplative whereas others may be more public. Hymns, readings from the bible, sermons, communion, personal and group prayer are customary across Christianity. Places of Worship Cathedrals; Churches; Chapels; Homes. Principal celebrations and events The main Christian festivals are in remembrance of key moments in the life of Jesus. Lent – 40 days prior to Easter; traditionally a period of fasting, but it may be more likely to be abstinence from a particular food, or habit, if followed at all. Easter – remembrance of Christ’s death and resurrection. Easter Week culminates in Maundy Thursday (signifying Christ’s last meal with his disciple, betrayal and arrest; Good Friday (the day of crucifixion); Easter Eve (day of waiting; Easter Sunday (day of resurrection). Pentecost(Whitsun) – the day when the disciples felt the power of the Holy Spirit in them. Seven weeks after Easter, also on a Jewish festival day. Advent – period starting on the 4th Sunday before Christmas in the Western Tradition, or 40 days before in the Eastern Orthodox church. Christmas – festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ (25th December in most churches)

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Epiphany – January 6th. Marking the coming of the Wise Men to Bethlehem following the birth of Jesus Christ. In some parts of the Eastern Church this is kept as Christmas. In parts of Spain, adults exchange presents on Christmas Eve, but children received theirs on the 6th January, and there will be processions and celebrations to celebrate the “Dia de los Reyes” (day of the 3 kings). Important life events and ceremonies Infants are Baptised and Christened often in a church ceremony led by the minister. Those who were not baptised at birth may choose later Baptism. In some denominations children are not baptised until they are more aware of the meaning of the ritual. Confirmation can take place at any age, in the Eastern traditions it may be right after Baptism, whereas in the West most denominations expect the person to be of an age to understand the significance. Confirmation is a rite of passage seen as a deepening of the person’s relationship with God. In the Anglican church the ceremony is usually conducted by a bishop. Candidates attend special classes beforehand to prepare.. Marriage is important within Christianity. A marriage ceremony in church is seen as giving the couple God’s support in their future life together. Certain criteria have to be fulfilled beforehand for a church wedding to take place. Divorce is not encouraged , but the Anglican church permits remarriage, although a church ceremony may not be possible. Funerals – Christians believe that when someone dies they are judged by God, and that only those who have led righteous lives go to heaven; sinners will go to hell. Catholics believe in a state of purgatory, where those with “forgivable sins” may be sent. Funerals take place about a week after the death and can take place in church or at a crematorium UISM

The majority of people in India are followers of the Hindu religion. It has no single founder or major prophet from whom all events are dated and so there is no one person whose words and actions are taken as a source of guidance. It also has no single holy book to which all believers refer. It has been, and continues to be, shaped by many different developments of thought and practice, and by several holy scriptures. It is an amalgam of many religious traditions, both national and local. There is no universally accepted set of beliefs or practices. Hindus recognise that there are many ways in which an individual may follow his or her religion, and that all lead ultimately to the same goal. Consequently, there are no specific ways in which individuals will worship, follow customs or celebrate festivals, since they differ widely, depending on a person’s region of origin, caste, family, and on his/her own individual choice. Daily life may well be dictated by religious codes. The holy books include the four Vedas, the Upanishads and the epics from which come the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gita. There are five main principles of Hinduism known as the five P’s: • Parmeshwar (God); • Prathna (prayer); • Punarjanma (rebirth); • Purushartha (law of action); • Prani Daya (compassion for all living things). The four objectives set out in the Purushartha are known as : • Dharma (religious duties), • Artha (material prosperity), • Kama (satisfaction of desire) • Moksha (salvation). Hindus believe they have an eternal soul - Atman. There is a strong belief in Karma, a moral law of cause and effect, which relates to the form in which a person may be reborn and live a dutiful and virtuous life. Life is seen as having four stages: • Up to 25 years of age, Bramchari (student); • 26 to 50 years of age, Grihasth (householder); • 51 to 75 years of age, Vanaprastha (retirement); • 76 years of age onwards, Sanyasi (renunciation) Dress (female) Women may wear a Sari over a blouse and underskirt. A sari length is usually about 5 or 6 metres long. Punjabi women may wear shalwar khameez (long tunic with long or half sleeves and loose trousers). A chunni or dupatta (long scarf) to cover the head and top part of body. Older women may cover their head with the end of their sari or chunni as a sign of
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


respect and modesty in front of strangers, older people or men. Hindu widows traditionally wear white, the colour of withdrawal from the world. No jewellery or makeup may be worn and they may mark the forehead with a black bindi. This may no longer be practised among the younger women living in Britain. Married women wear a mangal sutra (a necklace with pendant, generally gold given by the husband, strung on a necklace of gold or black beads). It is regarded as very precious and not removed while a woman’s husband is still alive. Bangles are also worn and have a symbolic meaning (similar to the wedding ring in a Christian marriage). A Bindi or Tilak (worn on the forehead) traditionally indicated that a woman was married. These were usually red in colour, although now colours vary according to fashion to match the outfit, particularly by younger women. Other Indian women may also wear the Bindi or Tilak but this does not necessarily mean that they are Hindu. Women from certain regions of India may also have colour in their hair parting in vermillion (or sindoor) to indicate their marital status. Dress (male) Most men wear Western style shirts and trousers but some may wear traditional dress (Khammez and pyjama or dhoti or lunghi) to relax in at home. Men of Brahmin caste may wear a sacred thread (janoi - a cotton thread with three strands worn over the right shoulder and round the body). This is given to a Hindu boy to mark his admission to adulthood and responsibilities. Some men, women and children may have a yellow, red or grey mark on the forehead. This is worn by worshippers when offering prayers or religious ceremony. Personal Care Hindus prefer to wash themselves with running water. Showers are preferred to baths, and bidets to the use of toilet paper. The concept of purity/impurity is important. Fire, water, earth and air are each important purifiers on particular occasions. Some will also wish to rinse out their mouths after a meal. Most people take a shower first thing in the morning, even if they do not pray. Some people may rub oil into their hair to keep it healthy and shiny. Shoes are considered particularly polluting and should not be put with other possessions. Some homes may have space in the porch for removal of shoes before entering the home. Holy books and items may not be placed on the floor or near someone’s feet. These practises may mostly be applicable to devout and/or older Hindus. Diet Hindus do not eat beef or any by-products of it. Milk is consumed. The cow is considered a sacred animal. Many refuse to kill animals for food, are strictly vegetarian, and the use of any by-products of animals or non vegetarian food may not be acceptable. They will have no contact with plates or utensils used for preparing or eating meat, and often eggs as well. Tobacco and alcohol are forbidden. At the end of a fast, Hindus will share ‘prasad’, which are a small quantity of food, possibly sweets, which have been offered to God in thanksgiving. ObservantHindus will abstain from eating grain, but the days upon which they do this will vary, some abstaining completely, while others only on particular chosen days. Some may follow particular preferences according to those based on the science of Ayurveda, about ‘hot or cold’ foods. This may be practised by older people or by women during and after pregnancy. It is believed that too many of either hot or cold foods may unbalance the body and the emotions. Maintaining a balance of foods, and ensuring physical and emotional health and equilibrium are considered part of one’s religious duty. In Hindu tradition, older people may withdraw from the rush and concerns of daily life, and concentrate on spiritual matters. As a result of this, they may eat little, and only foods that are considered pure. Some fast on a regular basis. Generally different sects, families, and individuals make their own decisions on what they can and cannot eat. Some Hindus in Britain may adhere less strictly to religious food restrictions, whilst for some families being careful about their diet is important. Bereavement If no family is available the local Hindu temple may be approached for advice. All adult Hindus are cremated, but infants and young children may be buried. The family may remain indoors for 10-13 days of mourning, during which any outside matters are dealt with by relatives and friends. Festivals Diwali - October/November - New Year festival story of Rama/Sita Holi - Spring harvest festival Janmashtami - birth of Lord Krishna Navrati - Sept/October - associated with the Goddess Durga, celebrated with nine nights dancing Dashera - after the dancing festival Raksha Bandhan - July/August - celebration of ties between brothers and sisters when sisters tie an amulet on the right wrist of their brother to wish them good luck and protection from harmful influences.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Hindu Names All members of the family share one surname. An individual may have one or two personal names. Personal names can distinguish between genders. Kumar (male) and Kumari (female) may be added to personal names. Other suffixes may be used in personal names, e.g. sister ‘ben’ and brother ‘bhai’. Resource Information Hindu Sabha 361 Canterbury Street, Gillingham, Kent The Hindu Centre (London) 39 Grafton Terrace, Off Malden Road, London NW5 0207 485 8200 ISLAM

There are two main branches within Islam - Sunni and Shia. There are various smaller groups within the main Sunni and Shia branches. Some are more conservative than others, and each usually worships and socialises separately. All Muslim groups or sects, however, follow the same basic practical and religious codes. The dominant religion in Iran is Shia, although 10 per cent of the population are Sunni Muslims. The Kurdish minority is predominantly Sunni Muslim.

Five Pillars of Islam Shahada – sincerely reciting the Muslim statement of faith Salat – performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day Zakat – paying an alms (charity) tax to benefit the poor and needy Sawm – fasting during the month of Ramada Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset for one month each year (Ramadan), to give 2 and 1/2 per cent of their savings to the needy (Zakath), and to make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca some Muslims prefer Makkah once during their lifetime, if physically and financially able to do so. Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan, (check multicultural calendar for dates which vary significantly from year to year). Devout Muslims pray five times a day. Children are also encouraged to pray from the age of eight and prayer is obligatory from the age of twelve. Prayers are said facing Mecca (south-east) and so it would be helpful if the direction of Mecca could be indicated Privacy should be offered, if possible, for the purpose of prayer. Provide the child, if needed, with a prayer mat, a tasbil, a prayer cap and a copy of the Holy Quran. There are a number of religious festivals during the Muslim calendar. Eid is celebrated after the month of Ramadan and after the Hay pilgrimage. Some children may want to observe other holy days such as Shube-Miraj, the Birthday of the Holy Prophet Mohammad and Shab-e.Barat. Dates may vary and should be checked with the local Mosque. Prayers can be said in a quiet area of the home, such as a bedroom. Provide the children the choice if they want to say their five times daily prayers. Prayer times vary according to the length of the day. Ask the local Mosque for a prayer timing calendar. If confined to bed, and unable physically to face Mecca, the direction should be shown to them, so that the child can be aware of it during prayer. Muslims are required to wash hands, face, and feet in running water before prayer. This means that it would be desirable to have toilet facilities or another facility where feet can be washed in running water.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Personal Care There is general preference for personal care to be given by a same sex individual. Showers may be preferred rather than baths, because individuals may not feel clean unless they have washed under running water. Great importance is attached to cleanliness. After using the lavatory, Muslims wash themselves with water. Provide a water container if no tap or bidet is available. Some Muslims regard physical contact between a man and a woman who is not their married partner as forbidden, including shaking hands, a man putting an arm in a friendly or comforting manner round a person of the opposite sex may be perceived as offensive and as sexually promiscuous. Men and women may sit separately and if in the same room may not sit on the same sofa. Physical contact between the same sex, on the other hand, is perfectly acceptable. Touch is used to indicate friendship, support and understanding and can be invaluable in overcoming barriers of language and unfamiliarity. It may be wait for the person to initiate Diet No alcohol, tobacco, or drugs other than medicinal are frowned upon. Meat must be slaughtered according to the Halal ritual which drains the meat of blood. Halal lamb, beef and chicken are eaten, but pork or any pork products are strictly forbidden. Fish and eggs are allowed. Cooking of Halal food should be with separate utensils. Halal food should not be stored or cooked with non-Halal food. Provision of Halal food should be made where services are provided to Muslims. Where this is not possible a vegetarian diet may be acceptable. Dress Muslims follow a strict code of modesty. Girls after puberty should have the right to practise modesty, e.g. by covering their heads or scarf or hijab, in any public environment, such as school, college or workplace. Women and girls wearing western dress will usually wear trousers or long skirts. During prayer, Muslim men may cover their heads with a brimless cloth hat or cap, which may also be worn as a sign of respect at ceremonies such as marriages and funerals. Boys may wear traditional national/cultural dress to relax in at home or to go to the mosque, although most wear western dress. Girls may want the option to wear traditional/regional or cultural dress. As Islam is a global religion this may vary. Significant phases of life A baby’s head will be shaved after 7 days of age. Muslim boys will be circumcised within the first few years of life. Marriage is encouraged as an ideal, and marriages may be arranged. The Islamic ceremony itself counts as the wedding, however to meet the requirements of UK legislation, the marriage needs to be legally registered too. There are differing views about divorce, with strong disapproval in some communities, but acceptance in others. Sexual relationships outside marriage are not approved of. Muslim Names • A person may be known by several names. • The personal name may not be the first name used. • When Muslim women marry, some may not change their names. • Children do not necessarily have their father’s name. • Certain titles may be added to names to show respect, e.g. Bibi or Begum for women. • Men usually have a religious name and a personal name. The religious name should not be used alone, e.g. Mr Yousef Ali should not be referred to as Mr Ali but Mr Yousef Ali.

Resource Information Muslim Cultural Centre Albion Terrace, Gravesend, Kent Kent Muslim Women’s Group Gravesend Kent 01474 363052 Farida Usman Gravesend & Dartford Muslim Association 11 Albion Terrace Gravesend Kent DA12 2SH 01474 323092

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Chairperson Kent Islamic Centre 22a Chatham Hill, Chatham, Kent Ahmadiyya Muslim Association 01634 363775 Aims to cultivate and retain Islamic values and to encourage closer harmony between people of different faiths and ethnic origins. Regular monthly meetings. Prayers and sports daily at 8 p.m. The Islamic Foundation Education and Training Unit Markfield Centre, Ratby Lane, Markfield, Leicester LE67 9RN. 0530 244944/6 Islamic Cultural Centre London Cultural Mosque 146 Park Road, London NW8 0207 724 3362 Muslim Welfare Association – Kent 114 Canterbury Street Gillingham Kent ME7 5UH 01634 850878 Mosque The aim of the association is to provide religious facilities for Sunni Muslims in Kent and to provide Islamic education services to all Muslims in Kent. Organises a variety of cultural, religious and educational activities. Publishes a news/ views letter “RABTA”. JU DAISM

Judaism is based in the beliefs of one universal God; to worship one God, to carry out the Ten Commandments and practise charity and tolerance towards one’s fellow human beings. The Jewish holy book is the Torah, which is also the basis of the Christian Old Testament. Judaism preserves an element of ethnic identity where the creation of the state of Israel as a national and spiritual home is of great significance to Jews everywhere. In Britain, there is a wide spectrum of observance among Jews: from Liberal and Reform to the Ultra orthodox communities whose daily lives are guided by the code of laws contained in the five books of Moses, the Torah. The family has great importance in Jewish life. The prayer language of Judaism is Hebrew, although in some Synagogues (Jewish places of worship) a mixture of Hebrew and the language of the countries in which Jews live, or originate from, is used in services. Worship and Sabbath Some Jews may pray three times per day. Small leather boxes containing biblical texts (Phylacteries) may also be worn, except on the Sabbath or major festivals. The very religious may not take food before prayer. Morning prayer may take up to half an hour or longer on Sabbath morning. Afternoon and evening prayer can take five to ten minutes. Prayers should not be interrupted except in the case of medical necessity. Women do not wear shawls or phylacteries during prayer. A short blessing is said before a meal, and a longer one afterwards. Women of the Liberal persuasion are permitted to handle the Torah and conduct readings from it. Sabbath The Sabbath falls on each Saturday and like festival days, it commences a quarter hour before sunset on the Friday and terminates just after nightfall on the Saturday night. Judaism uses the lunar calendar, so festival days vary from year to year. The Sabbath commemorates the creation of the world by God, so observing Jews may not do ‘creative’ work on that day and may prefer not to travel, use the telephone or write, use electrical equipment or light, cooking or carrying in, into, or out of the street, unless these acts be necessary to save a life. This may also apply to festival days. Social Care The Synagogue is often the primary source of social support. There is also a network called Jewish Care (national care organisation) to which most Jewish people would refer to in order to have their needs met. There is a wide spectrum of observance amongst Jews, from ultra orthodox to reform, liberal and non-practising Jews. The degree of observances is likely to affect the way in which a person may live their life.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Modesty is very important. It may be preferable according to Jewish law to have children educated in single sex schools after the age of 11. There are religious guidelines governing organ transplant and donation, fertility treatment, abortion and contraception. Although any treatment necessary to save life, especially in an emergency, should be carried out without any question or delay. Where post mortems are required, they are only permissible in emergency or under civil law, and there may be no objection in principle to organ transplants. Dress Orthodox Jewish women will dress with modesty and have to cover their arms and head when entering the Synagogue. Some women may not wish others to look at their hair so will wear a wig or may prefer to keep their hair covered with a headscarf. Observant men may cover their heads at all times with a skull cap and wear a tasselled garment called a Tzitzith. Some may wear a beard throughout the year and have side locks. During various periods in the religious calendar some Jews may not shave at all. Those who observe strict rules tend to live in religious communities. Diet Observant Jews may only eat Kosher food unless consumption of non-Kosher food is specifically required for health reasons. In case of doubt, always consult with the family or a Rabbi if possible. Pig, rabbit and birds of prey are not kosher; kosher species must be correctly slaughtered and prepared in order to remain kosher. By-products of nonkosher foods are also unacceptable i.e. pork sausages, ham etc. Fish without fins and/or scales may not be eaten, including all shellfish, or by products of such fish. Fish that have a vertebrae is permitted. Meat and milk may not be mixed in one meal and may not be eaten together. There must be a gap of between one and six hours between consumption of food containing meat and that containing milk. Fruit and vegetables are kosher but only cheese produced under rabbinical supervision may be eaten. Manufactured food, unless prepared under rabbinical supervision is also unlikely to be kosher. Any meat also not prepared in such a way should be avoided. If a kosher meal cannot be provided, a vegetarian meal may be preferable to a meat meal. Tinned kosher food such as sardines or salmon are acceptable. Some households may have two sets of cooking equipment, china, cutlery, etc. if following strict kosher code. When providing domiciliary care, great care must be taken to ascertain, understand and follow the exact rules of that household. The Kashruth guide, produced annually, lists products suitable for a kosher diet. Fasting may be required on certain days (see festivals), except for those who health could be affected by fasting. Significant Phases of Life Expectant mothers are excused participation in traditional fasts around the time of confinement and from seven days from onset of childbirth. Circumcision of boys, called ‘Bris’, is carried out by a Mohel (trained Jewish practitioner) during daylight on the eighth day after birth. Boys undergo the ‘Barmitzvah’ ceremony at age 13 and Liberal Jews have one for girls at age 13 called ‘Batmitzvah’. Festivals Shabbat - time of prayer and communal services in the Synagogue Friday and Saturday. Special meal had within family Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year. Essentially a holy day Yom Kippur - Day of Atonement on which Jews ask for forgiveness from God. Solemn day spent in the Synagogue. Most Jews will fast from sundown to sunset. Sukkot - Occurs about five days after Yom Kippur. Commemorates both the harvest and wandering of Israelites in the desert. Passover - Celebrated in the home. Lasting eight days usually in Spring near Easter. During this period certain foods are not eaten like wheat, barley, spilt rye, oats, corn, rice, mullet and pulses. Strict food rules including the use of special utensils are observed. Shavuot - Celebrated 50 days after Passover to commemorate the receiving of the Torah. Diary food is eaten. Resource Information The annual Kasruth Guide lists products suitable for Kosher diet. Contact - United Synagogue Woburn House Upper Woburn Place, London,WC1 9HP

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Chatham Memorial Synagogue High Street, Rochester 01634 847665 Thanet & District Reform Synagogue

293A Margate Road
Ramsgate 01843 851164 Jewish Care advice line 020 8922 2222 AFARIAN

Originated in the 1920’s in Jamaica. As a Rasta you outwardly show you have cultural pride. Rastafari only took the name with the coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in 1930. It is linked to early Christianity and Judaism. Rastafarians try to follow Nazarite vow of Separation which forbids cutting of hair, proscribes certain foods and requires the shunning of the dead, emphasising life not death. The name was taken from the now dead Emperor known as Ras Tafari – The Lion of Judah. They see Ethiopia as the Promised Land and feel exiled if living in other parts of the world. This may also be a search for identity by Black people who have been uprooted from their African past and experienced further assault on their cultural traditions in the move from the Caribbean to Britain. As a result of this there may be some variation in practice and custom between that practiced in each country. Many Rastafarians in Britain belong to an organisation known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The philosophy is to educate the young to help advancement of Black people, the liberation of Africa and the promotion of African and Ethiopian culture. Symbols include the Cross and the Star of David (emphasising the Judaeo Christian foundation of Rastafarian principles) especially the crowned Lion of Judah carrying the Cross over his shoulder from which flies the flag of Ethiopia in red, green and gold. Use of Language English, Creole or Patois (mixture of English, African and other European languages). Distinctive words and phrases may be used e.g. ‘Irie’ - a form of greeting, approval or recognition or ‘I and I’ which may mean ‘I’ singular or plural, depending on the situation. The style is called Iritical, a combination of the words ‘spiritual’ and ‘critical’. Worship The Rastafarian ‘livity’ (way of life) is concerned with obeying Jah’s (God’s) pre-flood commandments to man and recognition of Ethiopia as the New Jerusalem and a spiritual homeland. Some may have joined the Ethiopian Orthodox Church established in the Caribbean by the Emperor. Most Rastafarians may not belong to this church because distinctions are not made between it and other orthodox churches. Rastafarian men uncover their dreadlocks, women keep their heads covered during worship. The women also keep their heads covered when in public or when receiving visitors. Form of worship is the Nyabinghi ( from which reggae music was developed - the heartbeat rhythm of the drums). Religious Festivals Christmas is celebrated on 7th January. The birthday of Haile Selassie is on 23rd July. Some important days are the anniversary of His Imperial Majesty’s coronation- 2nd November and Marcus Garvie’s birthday - 17th August. Dress Hair, as mentioned above, is worn in dreadlocks - uncut, washed but not brushed, and covered with a woolly hat in Ethiopian colours of red, green and gold called a Tam. Alternative term for Rasta hats is Crown. Khaki outfits with sandals may be preferred or African styles may be worn. The women wrap their hair and wear colourful dresses concealing the body as required by the faith. Diet Pork is absolutely forbidden. Many do not eat meat but fish with scales may be acceptable. Natural herbs and spices may be liberally used, and fresh produce is preferred to processed. Many follow Jewish dietary restrictions and will not eat grapes, currants or raisins. Social Cultivation of land is emphasised, self-employment in creative or craft activity is pursued and principles of collective work are important. Birthdays may not be widely celebrated. Death As Rastafarians celebrate life rather than death, attendance at funerals is not emphasised SIKHISM
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Sikhism is the English name for the Sikh religion. The Punjabi name is Sikh ‘dharam’ (faith) or Sikh ‘math’. Sikhs are followers of this religion. Sikhism originated in the Punjab in the sixteenth century. The founder was called Guru Nanak who endeavoured to combine the best aspects of Hinduism and Islam.. He and nine succeeding Gurus are revered as saints, whose collected writings form the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib. The last of the saints commanded that Sikhs use the Guru Granth Sahib as their teacher. Almost all Sikhs are Punjabi in origin and Sikhism has remained essentially a Punjabi religion. Sikhs have an individual relationship with one God, with whom they aim to achieve true understanding and unity through cycles of death and rebirth. Sikhs reject the caste system, believing that people should be treated equally. Some may be Saihajdhari (apprentices in Sikhism) or Amritdhari (baptised). Amritdhari are then bound to observe strict rules of dress, diet, prayer, worship at the Gurdwara (temple) and the wearing of the Five Ks (see later for details). Guru Nanak emphasised the religious value of living a virtuous disciplined life, active in one’s family and community. The ethics of Sikhism stress involvement in the world, the community and the family, and the importance of serving others. Ascetism, celibacy, self-imposed suffering and deprivation, and withdrawal from the world are not valued. The city of Amritsar in the Punjab state of India, is regarded by Sikhs as holy. It was founded by Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru, in the sixteenth century and rapidly became a religious centre for Sikhs, particularly during the festivals of Vaisakhi and Diwali. The Golden Temple stands in Amritsar, covered in gold leaf, built by Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Guru and was restored by Maharajah Ranjit Singh (died in 1839). The Golden Temple is a place of extreme importance for devout Sikhs. In Britain, the families of most Sikhs emigrated directly from the Punjab. Some came from East Africa, Zambia, or Malawi and a few from other ex-British colonies such as Singapore. The Sikhs have a longstanding military tradition begun with their need to defend themselves against Mughal oppression in the seventeenth century. This military tradition was maintained under British rule. During the British Empire almost thirty percent of the British Indian Army was Sikh. Sikh soldiers fought with the British in the trenches on the German and Turkish fronts during the First World War, and all over the world with the Allies in the second World War. During the British Empire and after independence, Sikhs travelled and settled in many different countries under British rule. There are now Sikh communities for example in Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, East Africa, Canada and California. Personal and Practical Care The tenth and last Guru, gave all Sikhs five signs, known as The Five Ks, by which Sikh men and women could be identified and united. They are: • Kesh - uncut hair, including bodily hair • Kangha - a comb used to secure hair under the turban • Kara - a steel wrist bangle • Kirpan - a symbolic sword • Kaccha - special undershorts or breeches. Each of these has a symbolic meaning. The turban and the five Ks are probably the most important practical aspects of Sikhism. In Britain, Sikhs differ a good deal in how far they adhere to the five Ks; e.g. many men may have abandoned the kangha and kesh; where most men and women may have retained the kara. A few may have given up all five signs, but some Sikhs in Britain are now re-adopting them to affirm the continuing importance of their religion. Some devout Sikhs may wish to wear the five Ks all the time and may never remove them completely, even when they are ill, in bed or washing. None of these may be unnecessarily removed without very good reason. The need for removal of any of these could be discussed with the individual or their family and to ask what to do. This may explain the reluctance of some to attend medical or similar establishments or the preference to have their personal care delivered by someone from their own community or by someone who understands the significance of them. Men Many Sikh men in Britain may have cut their hair, simply because of advice to do so in early days of settlement in the belief that they might become less conspicuous and more acceptable to English employers. Many are now readopting the kesh and turban as well as other signs of Sikhism. Some young British-born Sikhs are also doing so for the first time as a sign of their Sikh identity. A Sikh man with long hair wears it fixed in a bun (jura) on top of his head, usually concealed under a turban. The hair is dried and combed out before rolling on to the head. Beards are mostly worn rolled up. A hair fixer may be used, while it is setting, a man may wear a piece of muslin to set it in shape. Some may always tie their beards up neatly with a net, even in bed. Long beards must never be trimmed or shaved unless absolutely necessary. Some devout men always wear their beards loose. Women Sikh women may never cut or trim their hair and may wear it fixed in a bun or in a single plait. Older Sikh women may keep their hair covered with a scarf (dupatta or chunni) as a sign of modesty. Some Sikh women may cover their hair with a tight black, white or saffron turban.

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Children Sikh boys with uncut hair may usually wear it plaited and tied in a bun (jura) on top of the head. Over the jura boys generally wear a small white cloth, a square scarf, or a larger square of cloth often muslin or poplin. Very young boys may wear their hair in two coiled plaits pinned to the back of their heads. Young girls may wear their hair loose or tied back in a plait or a pony tail. Many Sikh parents in Britain, may decide to cut their children’s hair. However, if a child’s hair has been kept long, it has the same significance as that of an adult and must be treated with the same respect. Some devout Sikhs may become very distressed if hair on the head or any part of the body is shaved or cut except for good medical reasons or in an emergency. It is most important to explain the need to the patient or their family or carer. The prohibition on cutting or shaving hair specifically bans the use of razors and scissors. Where it is necessary, it may be acceptable to devout Sikhs to use a depilatory cream. This could be discussed with the service user. Kanga : comb A man or a woman with uncut hair, fixes it on their head in a bun kept in place by a kanga, a small wooden or plastic semi-circular comb. Devout men and women may wish to carry the kanga in a pocket, or may wear a miniature kangha on a chain around their neck. It should not be removed without permission. A service user may wish to keep the kanga nearby when they are in bed or when wearing a gown. Kara : steel bangle Almost all Sikhs, even those not so devout, wear a steel bangle, (kara), on their right wrist (this may occasionally be gold). Left handed people usually wear the kara on their left wrist. Its circular shape serves to remind Sikhs of the unity of God, and of the community of Sikhs. The kara is also a constant and visible reminder to Sikhs that all their actions must be righteous. An adult Sikh should never remove his or her kara, even non-practising Sikhs may become extremely upset if their kara is removed. Sikh children are expected to wear a kara from a very early age. Relatives may give a tiny kara, often gold or silver to a newly born baby. In cases of medical surgery or personal care, the kara should be covered with tape if at all possible. In cases of necessity, the reason should be explained or the person may be able to keep the kara on the other wrist or in a pocket or under a pillow. Kirpan : symbolic dagger Symbolises the Sikhs’ readiness to fight in self-defence and to protect the oppressed and the needy. It may vary in length from very small symbolic dagger to a three-foot sword. It is often worn under the clothes in a cloth sheath (gatra) slung over the right shoulder and under the left arm at waist level. Left-handed people usually wear the kirpan and sheath the other way round. In Britain, most Sikhs wear only a small symbolic kirpan or wear a kirpan-shaped brooch or pendant. Some Sikhs may have a kirpan engraved on one side of their kangha (comb). Some Sikh men and women in Britain may wear a small kirpan all the time. People may wear a full sized kirpan in the Gurdwara (Sikh temple) on formal religious occasions. Children of very devout Sikhs may wear a miniature kirpan from an early age. The kirpan may be worn all the time even in bed or showering. The sheath is wound round the neck to keep it dry. Some may take their kirpan off when they go to bed and keep it under the pillow. In cases where a kirpan cannot be worn, it should be kept within reach. Kaccha : shorts Undershorts are worn by orthodox Sikh men and women to remind them of the duties of modesty and sexual morality. Orthodox Sikhs may never remove their kaccha completely and wear it night and day. If necessary, many Sikhs would prefer to leave one leg or ankle in the kaccha whilst changing. Kaccha may be kept on while showering and the wet pair hanged for a dry pair afterwards. Discuss with the young person if there is a problem. Turban All devout Sikh men wear a turban (pagri) over the long hair and the comb. The turban has become almost the most important external symbol of Sikh identity and honour. It must be treated with care and respect. Some Sikh women also wear turbans. Although not one of the five signs laid down by Guru Gobind Singh, it is extremely important to Sikhs as a badge of their identity. Wearing it has the force of a religious order. Amritdhari Some adults may be devotees by undergoing a special kind of initiation or confirmation known as taking Amrit (for some this combines the significance of Christian communion and confirmation). Those who have taken Amrit and the accompanying vows of Sikh discipline must adhere to certain Sikh practices very strictly: he or she must say special prayers every day; must wear the five signs of Sikhism(and the turban for men) at all times; must not drink alcohol or smoke; must not eat halal meat; and must follow a strict ethical code. Some may be strict vegetarians. Prayer Morning prayer (‘Japji’) takes place either before or after sunrise, and evening prayer (‘Rehras’) takes place either before or after sunset. Missing a prayer is not considered a sin as there are no set times. Hymns may be repeated whenever time is found. Some homes may have a shrine in their homes where the Guru Granth Sahib is kept (may be upstairs, also the Guru Granth Sahib must be raised above the floor). It is treated with reverence as in the Sikh Gurdwara (temple). Shoes should be removed and cover head before entering such a room and get permission. This
gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


also applies in visits to Gurdwaras. Alcohol and tobacco are forbidden within the premises of a shrine and one may not even visit the temple if alcohol has recently been consumed. Many Sikhs may have their own gutka (small prayer books) containing selections from the Guru Granth Sahib. Prayer books are kept carefully and wrapped in a small clean cloth, often silk, or kept in a case for protection. Sikhs may carry these books when going about their daily lives. It must not, for example, be placed by the feet nor allowed to fall on the floor. They must only be touched by clean hands and not have anything else put on them. Prayer beads (mala) on a string or knots may also be used by devout Sikhs, and may be carried with the gutkas. Sikh Names Sikhs have a personal name, a title, ‘Singh’ (lion) for men or ‘Kaur’ (princess) for women, and a family name. To abolish awareness of the caste system, Guru Gobind Singh instructed Sikhs to stop using their family name, and instead use only Singh for men or Kaur for women as surnames. Most Sikhs are likely to use a family surname e.g. Baljit Kaur Gill (Female) as opposed to only Baljit Kaur.

Festivals Diwali New Year Festival of Lights. Takes place in October/November. The sixth Guru Hargobind Singh was released from Gwalior Prison and arrived in Amritsar on this day. Birthday of Guru Nanak celebrated in October/November, over 3 days by reading the whole of the Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Vaisakhi both a religious and cultural festival. It is New Year’s Day and has religious significance as it was on Vaisakhi that Guru Gobind Singh formed the Khalsa (Sikh brotherhood) and established the 5K’s. Sangrand celebrated on the first day of the month Sikh names Personal names can be common to both sexes, e.g. Inderjit, Gurmeet, Baljit. Religious name - the gender of an individual can be distinguished from the use of Kaur (meaning ‘princess’) which refers to females and Singh (meaning ‘lion’) which refers to males. A family name may be used in addition to or in place of Singh or Kaur. Resource Information Sikh Educational & Cultural Association UK Dr K S Singh 01474 332356 Dr R Bains 01474 569694 Dr K Singh 01474 535950 Mr R Singh 01474 533736 Aims to disseminate information about the Sikh Faith to schools, colleges and individuals who wish to know more about the Sikh community, their culture, dress, diets and their way of life. Akhand Kirtani Jatha 01474 333660 A religious group aiming to promote the Sikh religion and its principles Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara Clarence Place, Gravesend, Kent DA12 1LD Guru Gobind Sahib Gurdwara 8 Highfield Road Dartford Kent DA1 2JJ 01322 222951

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Guru Nanak Durbar Association – Erith & Belvedere Lachhman Singh Jhaj 020 8311 3794 Aims to advance the Sikh religion, offers support and help to members of the Sikh community and encourages the teaching/use of Punjabi language. Guru Nanak Day Centre 11 The Grove, Gravesend, Kent 01474 537781 Guru RaviDass Darbar Brandon Street, Gravesend, Kent DA11 OPL Mr Jassal 07931 820076 Medway Towns Gurudawara Sabha Sirjit Singh Marway Secretary 01634 409606 COMMUNITY PROFILES

gender, religion, race, sexuality, age, disability will affect each child uniquely—ask the child, ask the family


Section Seven Relationships and Sex Education Policy:
Valuing Difference and Diversity
Every individual integrates many factors in developing personal relationships and sexuality. Some of these factors include race, religion, culture, gender, and physical and intellectual traits. There will always be some differences between those involved in the care of Looked After Children and the children/ young people themselves. It is therefore absolutely necessary to be informed about and positive with regard to such differences when providing education and guidance on sexuality and relationships to Looked After Children. When using materials to inform children and young people, staff and carers should be mindful of the need to avoid stereotypes based on race, religion, culture, gender, class, or sexual orientation. Guidance should be sought from young people and parents and other professionals in specialist fields with regard to choice and development of culturally appropriate materials. Staff and carers need to be committed to working in partnership with relevant community, voluntary, and statutory organisations in order that appropriate sexual health and personal relationship information is available. These links should be developed for specific individuals and on a Team, District, and Area level. Cultural, religious and ethnic diversity - differences in terms of culture and religion may have an impact on how and at what age relationships and sexuality are explored. However, young people should not be denied the benefits of information and support around sexual health and personal relationships for cultural or religious reasons. Different cultures and religions have varying sexual norms. It is important to avoid applying stereotypes to individual children, and to remember that in all religions and cultures there are a range of views and values held by staff and carers, parents and young people. Young people and their families, as well as community/specialist organisations, should always be asked to advise on matters of their own culture, religion, and traditional views and practices. Including Young Men in RSE - perhaps the most common stereotypes with regard to sexuality and relationships are those that are applied to young men and women. Young people must be encouraged to make personal choices based on their individual needs and values. Staff and carers should take care to avoid placing implicit or explicit expectations on Looked After Children based on gender stereotypes. It should be recognised that issues such as contraception and vulnerability to harm or exploitation are equally important for boys as for girls. Disability and Sexuality - young people with a disability have the same feelings, interests and concerns associated with their personal care, relationships, sexual health, and sexuality as all other young people. This should not be ignored but needs to be discussed with the young person to explore his/her wishes and feelings. For some young people the major impact of disability on personal relationships and sexual activity is social and emotional rather than as a direct result of learning and/or physical disability. Young people with a disability may experience reduced independence in their lives, which may limit their opportunities to experiment or experience intimate personal relationships. Alternative ways of expressing intimacy may require some explicit and detailed information giving on the part of staff and carers. They will need support and additional training that includes exploring their own attitudes and assumptions about the sexuality of young people with a disability, as well as issues relating to effective communication. All young people have a right to respect, privacy and the opportunity to develop satisfying personal relationships.

Children and young people with a disability who need information, advice and support with issues of sex and disability have the right to the same level of confidentiality as others. This can be a particular issue for those with a learning disability. In the past sexual health and personal relationships education for these young people has been about protecting them from abuse and understanding appropriate behaviour. It is equally important to include knowledge, the use of skills and exploration of attitude to help young people make positive decisions in their lives. Personal care for all Looked After Children and young people should always be negotiated with the individual and take account of their wishes and feelings. Staff and carers will likely need access to specialist materials, support and advice. They may also need access to specific material geared to the variety of abilities and needs of this group of young people. Consultation with health professionals and staff within the Children with Disabilities teams may be helpful.


Staff and carers should be able to offer information, help and advice to the young person whilst recognising clear boundaries regarding physical help in relation to intimate personal care and sexual behaviour. Lesbian, gay, bi-Sexual, and trans-gender (LGBT) young people - the guidance in this policy relating to issues of relationships and sexuality such as confidentiality, child protection, and access to health services relate equally to heterosexual and LGBT Looked After Children. However, because sexual orientation is an important factor in relation to young people’s development of identity within the wider culture, there are additional issues that affect LGBT youth. LGBT Looked After young people have the right to receive an accepting, supportive and caring service. For this to be the case, carers and other workers involved in young people’s lives need to challenge their own attitudes, beliefs and assumptions. It is not solely by experiencing an openly hostile environment that LGBT young people are made to feel discriminated against. More covert discrimination can occur through: • • • • Not considering issues of sexuality Assuming that “everyone” is heterosexual Not recognising that LGBT youth have particular feelings and needs Telling them it is just a phase they are going through, or a result of earlier experiences that they will work through.

Carers and workers need to be aware of their own, and of society’s prejudices, and to feel confident in the information they can give and discussions they can have. It needs to be clear that Section 28 of the Local Government Act, which stated that a local authority shall not " promote" homosexuality has been repealed. There are no specific restrictions on discussions regarding sexuality with young people, although such discussions should not try to dissuade young people from choosing one sexual orientation over another. Indeed other legislation suggests that the issue should be specifically addressed in a positive manner. The Children Act 1989 notes that… The needs and concerns of gay young men and women must also be recognised and approached sympathetically. It is the responsibility of carers and other workers involved in young peoples lives to encourage all young people to think about their own prejudices and the impact these will have on others. Many young people may not openly identify themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual. For both these reasons, carers and workers need to include sexual orientation as part of their general discussion with all young people, and to challenge discriminatory views. Many young people who are exploring their sexuality may have sexual experiences with others of both genders. Indeed, many people do not remain exclusively heterosexual or homosexual throughout their lives. Rather, sexuality is a continuum. This means that LGBT young people must be included in any education and discussion regarding pregnancy. Issues of safe sex need to be considered for all those in this group of young people too. The omission of open acceptance and recognition of individual needs relating to sexuality, and possible feelings of needing to remain secretive about sexuality and sexual experiences, can contribute to a young person’s experience of discrimination within wider society as much as being overtly attacked or criticised. As a result, LGBT young people are at higher risk of the following difficulties: • • • • • • Mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, attempted suicide, eating disorders, and phobias Alcohol and drug misuse Homelessness and prostitution Truancy and school drop out Health and social risks associated with promiscuity HIV infection


Those involved in the care of Looked After young people who are exploring or embracing a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender sexual identity can support these young people in the following ways: • • • • • • • • Identify positive social examples that the individual can relate to Discuss the emotional and caring aspect of relationships, rather than simply focusing on the sexual side of a relationship Avoid making statements that judge or stereotype Encourage the young person to explore their expectations of relationships. Ensure the young person has access to information and support from relevant organisations (see appendix for details) Be alert to the increased level of bullying that LGBT young people experience in school and within society Be aware of the multiple challenges that LGBT Looked After young people are likely to encounter as a result of being both gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender and looked after. Note that these challenges will be even greater for those who are also part of an ethnic or religious minority, or have a disability Remember that the age of consent is 16

This is reproduced from the Relationships & Sex Education Policy for Looked After Children, KCC, 2005


Appendix One: Available Resources
Interpreting Services – Full information about KCC policies and access to the interpreting service is available on KNet in the Policies and Procedures Section – Equality and Diversity. Access to meetings – An Access Audit can be downloaded from KNet (Equality & Diversity section), and should be completed before using a venue. Information on festivals and holy days – can be accessed on KNet – staff zone – staff support and well being – equality and diversity section. KCC Equality and Diversity Guidance on KNet http://knet2/policies-and-procedures/equality-and-diversity/guidance Useful Websites Disability Details of helplines and support groups for the disabled community - listed by areas within Kent Religion & faith BBC Kent faith pages - lots of useful information on local events, places of worship and links to other useful cultural information BBC Faith profile pages BBC 'Religion and Ethics’ pages, includes a detailed Multi-faith calendar and a facility to search views on ethic issues via religious groups Food Recipes from different countries can be downloaded from Oxfam provides a range of resources in local shops, including recipe books and a “Culture” board game which is suitable for 8 years plus. The website has a publications list including books to use with children about cultural issues Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender issues: East Kent Homophobic Incident Reporting Line 24 hour freephone Freephone: 0800 328 9162 Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Youth Information about issues and details of support groups The Gender Trust Support to transgender people Tel: 07000 790347 Lesbian and Gay Switchboard Tel: 0207 837 7327 Health Family Planning and Choices Clinics 53

Provides free pregnancy testing and other sexual health services Freephone: 0800 072848 National Aids Helpline 24/7 free and confidential telephone service with advice about HIV, Aids, sexual health, local services, clinics and support Freephone: 0800 567123

Websites for and about black/minority ethnic communities Black UK Online A website covering news, jobs, heritage, health, youth issues & other information Black Britain A website covering news, business, entertainment and jobs, with links to a digital radio station Red Hot Curry A website aimed at the British Asian community covering news, lifestyle, property and shopping.

Authorised reproduction from Recruiting black and minority ethnic adopters and foster carers,
Gwen Rule, BAAF, 2006


Appendix Two Minority Ethic Media
Newspapers, Periodicals and Websites
The following details of newspapers, periodicals and websites are intended merely as a starting point for either advertising possibilities or for making contact communities. This is not a comprehensive list but hopefully it will help you to explore alternative routes when targeting certain communities. Reproduced with kind permission of BAAF , (Rule 2005)

Al Arab 159 Acre Lane London SW2 5UA Tel 020 7021 0966 Fax 020 7021 0917 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Arabic Frequency - Daily Al Hayat Kensington Centre 66 Hammersmith Road London W14 8YT Tel 020 7602 9988 Fax 020 7602 4963 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Arabic Frequency - Daily Al-Ahram International Al-Ahram House 203 - North Gower Street London NW1 2NJ Tel 020 7388 1155 Fax 020 7388 3130 Format - Newspaper Language - Arabic Frequency - Daily Al-Muntada The Iraqi Community Association Pallingswick House 241 King Street London W6 9LP Tel 020 8741 5491 Fax 020 8748 9010 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Arabic/English Frequency - Quarterly HIA Arab Press House182 - 184 High Holborn London WC1V 7AP Tel 020 7831 8181 Fax 020 7831 2310 Email www.asharqalawsatcom Format - Magazine Language - Arabic Frequency - Monthly

“Asharq Al Awsat” 182 - 184 High Holborn London WC1V 7AP Tel 020 7404 6950 Fax 020 7404 6963 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Arabic Frequency - Daily/weekly Other Publications : Almajalla, Sayidaty, Hia, Aljamila


The Middle East
IC Publications 7 Coldbath Square London EC1R 4LQ Tel 020 7713 7711 Fax 020 7713 7898 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly Persian Channel (The) PO Box 2821 London NW2 1ES Tel 020 8731 9333 Format - TV Language - Farsi Asian Image Newsquest Media Group Newspaper House 1 High Street Blackburn Lancashire BB1 1HT Tel 01254 298263 Email

Asian Leader 48 Milkstone Road Rochdale Lancashire OL11 1EB Tel 01706 355045 Fax 01706 649908 Email Format - Newspaper Language - All Asian Groups Frequency - Fortnightly

ARY Digital (TV) 65 North Acton Road Park Royal London NE10 6PJ Tel 020 8838 6300 Fax 020 8838 6122 Email Format - Satellite Language - English, Urdu, Hindi Asian News Observer Buildings Drake Street Rochdale OL15 1PH Tel 01706 357086 Fax 01706 341595 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Monthly Asian Sound Radio Globe House Southall Street Manchester M3 1LG Tel 0161 288 1000 Fax 0161 288 9000 Email Format - radio Language - English, Urdu, Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi Frequency - Daily Awaze Quam International Gate 2, Unit 5b Booth Street, Smethwick Birmingham B66 2PF Tel 0121 555 5921 Fax 0121 555 6899 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Bi-lingual English and Punjabi Frequency - Weekly

Asians in Media This website is aimed at the Asian Community and has articles related to different media. It is a good site for posting up-andcoming events

Asian Times Unit 2.01 Whitechapel Technology Centre 65 Whitechapel Road London E1 1DU Tel 020 7650 2000 Fax 020 7650 2001 Email Format Newspaper Language English Frequency Weekly national publication


Asian Trader Garavi Gijarat House 1 Silex Street London SE1 0DW Tel 020 7928 1234 Fax 020 7261 0055 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Weekly Asian Voice Karama Yoga House 12 Hoxton Market London N1 6HW Tel 020 7749 4080 Fax 020 7739 0358 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English/Gujarati Frequency - Weekly Awaaz Asian Voice PO Box 15 Batley West Yorkshire WF17 7YY Tel 01924 510512 Fax 01924 510513 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English, Urdu, Gujarati Frequency - Monthly Eastern Eye Unit 2.01 Whitechapel Technology Centre 65 Whitechapel Road London E1 1DU Tel 020 7650 2000 Fax 020 7650 2001 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly Garavi Gujarat Garavi Gujarat House 1 - 2 Silex Street London SE1 0DW Tel 020 7928 1234 Fax 020 7261 0055 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Gujarati/English Frequency - Weekly

Barfi Culture Barfi Culture is an online magazine and community website primarily populated by the British Asian community - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

Clickwalla This website bridges the gap between mainstream organisations, Asian businesses and the Asian community in the UK

Daily Jang (The) Jang Publications Ltd 1 Sanctuary Street London SE1 1ED Tel 020 7403 5833 Fax 020 7378 1653 Email Format Newspaper Language - Urdu/English Frequency - Daily India Link International 42 Farm Avenue North Harrow Middlesex HA2 7LR Tel 020 8866 8421 Fax 020 8248 8417 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Bi-monthly India Monitor FPA 11 Carlton House Terrace London SW1Y 5AJ Tel 020 8325 6358 Email Format - Web magazine Language - English Frequency - Weekly


Gujarat Samachar Karma Yoga House Unit 2 12 Hoxton Market London N1 6HG Tel 020 7749 4098 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Gujarati/English Frequency - Weekly Impact International Suite B PO Box 2493 233 Seven Sisters Road London N4 2BL Tel 020 7263 1417 Fax 020 7272 8934 Email Format - Magazine Language - Aimed at Muslim communities Frequency - Monthly Muslim Directory 65a Grosvenor Road London W7 1HR Tel 020 8799 4455 Fax 020 8799 4456 Email Format - Directory Language - English Frequency - Annual

Janomot Unit 2 20B Spelman Street London E1 5LQ Tel 020 7377 6032 Fax 020 7247 0141 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Bengali Frequency - Weekly Milap Weekly Masbro Centre 87 Masbro Road London W14 0LR Tel 020 7385 8966 Fax 020 7385 8966 Format - Newspaper Language - Urdu Frequency - Weekly

News (The) Jang Publications Ltd 1 Sanctuary Street London SE1 1ED Tel 020 7403 5833 Fax 020 7378 1653 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English/Urdu Frequency - Daily New Horizon 12 - 14 Barkat House 116 - 118 Finchley Road London NW3 5HT Tel 020 7245 0404 Fax 020 7245 9769 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly New World 234 Holloway Road London N7 8DA Tel 020 7700 2673 Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Weekly

Muslim New (The) PO Box 380 Harrow Middlesex HA2 6LL Tel 020 8863 8586 Fax 020 8863 9370 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Monthly Nation (The) Links Media 96b Ilford Lane Ilford Essex 1GI 2LD Tel 020 8478 3200 Fax 020 8478 6200 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English/Urdu Frequency - Daily


Navin Weekly Masbro Centre 87 Masbro Road London W14 0LR Tel 020 7385 8966 Fax 020 7385 8966 Format - Newspaper Language - Hindi Frequency - Weekly Punjabi Guardian (The) 129 Soho Road Handsworth Birmingham B21 9ST Tel 0121 554 3995 Fax 0121 507 1065 Format Newspaper Language - Punjabi/English Frequency - Monthly Punja Mail International 66 Dames Road Forest Gate London E7 0DR Tel 020 8522 0901 Fax 020 8522 0901 Format - Magazine Language - Punjabi/English Frequency - Monthly

Notun Din 46g Greatorex Street London E1 5NP Tel 020 747 6280 Fax 020 7247 9993 Format - Newspaper Language - Bengali Frequency - Weekly Red Hot Curry Unit 28 I/O Centre, Hearle Way Hatfield Business Park Hatfield AL10 9EW Tel 01707 269666 Fax 01707 269676 Format - Web magazine Language - English Frequency - Daily Sabras Sound Radio House, 63 Melton Road Leicester LE4 6PN Tel 0116 261 0666 Fax 0116 268 7776 Email Format - Radio Language - English, Hindi, Gujurati, Bengali, Punjabi Frequency - Daily Sikh Courier International (The) 33 Wargrave Road South Harrow Middlesex HA2 8LL Tel 020 8864 9228 Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Quarterly

Punjab Times International 24 Cotton Brook Road Sir Francis Ley Industrial Park Derby DE23 8YJ Tel 01332 372851 Fax 01332 372833 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Punjabi/English Frequency - Weekly Q News International Ltd PO Box 4295 London W1A 7YH Tel 07985 176798 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly Radio XL KMS House Bradford Street Birmingham B12 0JD Tel 0121 753 5353 Fax 0121 753 3111 Email Format - Radio Language - English, Hindi, Urdi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, Mirpuri Frequency - Daily

Sikh Messenger (The) 43 Dorset Road Merton Park London SW19 3EZ Tel 020 8540 4148 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Quarterly Sony Entertainment TV Asia 34 Fouberts Place London W1F 7PX Tel 020 7534 7575 Fax 020 7534 7585 Format - Television Language - Hindi Frequency - Daily


Sunrise Radio Ltd Sunrise House Sunrise Road, Southall Middlesex UB2 4AU Tel 020 8574 6666 Fax 020 8813 8900 Email Format - Radio Language - Asian Frequency - Daily Weekly Des Pardes 8 The Crescent Southall Middlesex UB1 1BE Tel 020 8571 1127 Fax 020 8571 2604 Format - Newspaper Language - Punjabi Frequency - Weekly Weekly Potrika 218 Jubilee Street London E1 3BS Tel 020 7423 9270 Fax 020 7423 9122 Format - Newspaper Language - Bengali Frequency - Weekly

Black African Business IC Publications, 7 Coldbath Square London EC1 4LQ Tel 020 7713 7711 Fax 020 7713 7898 Email business/ Forma - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly African Voice Afro Hollywood Unit 7 Holles House Overton Road London SW9 7JN Tel 020 7274 3933 Fax 020 7274 4873 Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly Black Britain Online Suite 5 Culvert House Culvert Road London SW11 5AP Tel 020 7498 5656 Fax 020 7498 5757 Email Format - Web pages Language - English Frequency - Daily This online portal is for community news, information, e-commerce and serves as the central point of web entry to the Colourful Network Black Film Maker Suite 13, 5 Blackhorse Lane London E17 6DS Tel 020 8531 9111 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Bi-monthly

Zee Network (TV) Belvue Business Centre Belvue Road Northolt Middlesex UB5 5QQ Tel 020 8839 4035 Fax 020 8841 3319 Format - Television Language - English and all South Asian languages Frequency - Daily Black Beauty and Hair Magazine Hawker Consumer Publications Culvert House Culvert Road London SW11 5DH Tel 020 7720 2108 Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Bi-monthly

Black Variety TV 7 Raleigh Grove Luton LU4 8RE Tel 01582 581753 Email Format - Satellite television Language - English Frequency - Daily


Black Information Link (BLINK) Suite 12, Winchester House 9 Cranmer Road London SW9 6EJ Tel 020 7582 1990 Fax 020 7793 8269 Email This internet portal is run by the 1990 Trust, a black organisation, and includes sections on everything from art and culture to the Stephen Lawrence campaign and the environment Black Net UK 45 Deptford Broadway London SE8 4PH Tel 0870 746 500/020 8692 9755 This website is for black people from around the world to come together to share experiences and ideas. Blacknet UK is also encouraging communities to rise above racism and promote cultural respect within society with a view to reduce cultural conflict and misunderstandings Black UK Online PO Box 574 Bury St Edmunds Suffolk IP31 3WZ This website provides a blend of local, national and international news, lifestyles, views, reviews, profiles and entertainment. The aim of the site it to ‘widen thought provoking editorial beyond the black experience and to reflect more fully the multicultural Britain that we live in today Kiss 100 FM Mappin House, 4 Winsley Street London W1W 8HF Tel 020 7975 8100 Format - Radio Language - English Frequency - Daily

Caribbean Times Unit 2.01 Whitechapel Technology Centre 65 Whitechapel Road London E1 1DU Tel 020 7650 2000 Fax 020 7650 2001 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly

Choice FM PO Box 969 London WC2H 7BB Tel 020 7766 6000 Fax 020 7766 6100 Email Format - Radio Language - English Frequency - Daily

Galaxy 105 Joseph’s Well Hanover Walk Leeds LS3 1AB Tel 0113 213 1053 Fax 0113 213 1054 Email Format - Radio Language - English Frequency - Daily

Vibin 95 Barndale Road Liverpool L18 7MY Tel 0781 667 8618 Email Format - Music website Language - English Frequency - Weekly Voice (The) The Voice Group Ltd 8th Floor, Blue Star House 234 - 244 Stockwell Road London SW9 8SP Tel 020 7737 7377 Fax 020 7274 8994 Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly

Mauritius News 583 Wandsworth Road London SW8 3JD Tel 020 7498 3066 Fax 020 76279 0939 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Monthly


New African IC Publications, 7 Coldbath Square London EC1R 4LQ Tel 020 7713 7711 Fax 020 7713 7898 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly Pride Magazine 55 Battersea Bridge Road London SW11 3AX Tel 020 7228 3110 Email Format - Magazine Language - English Frequency - Monthly

New Nation Unit 2 Whitechapel Technology Centre 65 Whitechapel Road London E1 1DU Tel 020 760 2000 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly

British Born Chinese This community website is run by a not-forprofit organisation staffed by volunteers. It provides a forum in which British-born Chinese people can share experiences, ideas and thoughts. Chinatown Online The website provides a guide to the Chinese in the UK and Greater China. It covers culture, travel, food and business. It is a non-political, non-religious and non-partisan site. The Chinese Channel Teddington Studios Broom Road Teddington Middlesex TW11 9NT Tel 020 8614 8300 Fax 020 8943 0982 Email Format - Satellite television Language - Cantonese, Mandarin Frequency - Daily Sing Tao Daily 46 Dean Street London W1V 5AP Tel 020 8732 7628 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Chinese Frequency - Daily Chinese in Britain Forum 1st Floor, Boardman House 64 Broadway London E15 1NG Tel 020 8432 0681 Fax 020 8432 0685 Email Chinese News & Entertainment 7th Floor, Chiswick Centre 414 Chiswick High Road London W4 5TF Tel 020 8947 4320 Format - Satellite television Language - Chinese

Filipino Observer (The) PO Box 20376 Golders Green London NW11 8FE Tel 020 8731 7195 Fax 020 8905 5620 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Monthly


Helenic TV (TV) 50 Clarendon Road London N8 0DJ Tel 020 8292 7037 Fax 020 8292 7042 Email Format - Television Language - Greek Frequency - Daily Parikiaki 144 Falkland Road London N8 0NP Tel 020 8341 0751 Format - Newspaper Language - Greek Frequency - Weekly

Irish Post Irish Post Media UK Cambridge House Cambridge Grove Hammersmith London W6 0LE Tel 020 8741 0649 Fax 020 8741 3382 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly Irish World 934 North Circular Road London NW2 7JR Tel 020 8453 7800 Fax 020 8208 1103 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English Frequency - Weekly

Board of Deputies of British Jews This website protects, supports and defends the rights and interests, and religious rights and customs of Jews and the Jewish community in the UK Jewish Recorder 69 Mossfield Road Kings Heath Birmingham B14 7JE Tel 0161 740 9321 Fax 0161 740 9325 Email Format - Magazine Language Frequency Jewish Tribune 95 - 97 Stamford Hill London N16 5DN Tel 020 8800 6688 Fax 020 8800 5000 Email Format - Newspaper Language - English/Yiddish Frequency - Weekly - English - Monthly


Spectrum Radio 4 Ingate Place Queenstown Road London SW8 3NS Tel 020 7627 4433 Fax 020 3409 Email Format - Radio Language - Various Frequency - Daily People in Harmony People in Harmony is an interracial anti racist organisation which promotes the positive experience of interracial life in Britain today, and challenges the racism, prejudice and ignorance in society. Support and information is available for carers and parents of dual heritage children. Intermix uk is a website for mixed-race families, individuals and anyone who feels they have a multi-racial identity and wants to take part The Inter Faith Network for the UK 5 - 7 Tavistock Place London WC1H 9SN Tel 020 7388 0008 Fax 020 7388 7124 This agency links over 90 faith communities interfaith and educational bodies. The ethos is to promote good relationships and give useful advice and information.

Hurriyet 1st Floor 35 D’Arblay Street London W1V 3FE Tel 020 7734 1211 Fax 020 7287 3101 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Turkish Frequency - Daily Toplum Postasi 117 Green Lanes London N16 9DN Tel 020 7354 4424 Fax 020 7354 0313 Email Format - Newspaper Language - Turkish/English Frequency - Weekly London Turkish Radio 185b High Road London N22 6BA Tel 020 8881 0606 Email Format - Radio Language - Turkish Frequency - Daily

Authorised reproduction from Recruiting black and minority ethnic adopters and foster carers, Gwen Rule, BAAF, 2006


Appendix 3 Useful Organisations
British Association for Adoption & Fostering (BAAF) Head Office Saffron House 6 - 10 Kirby Street London EC1N 8TS Tel 020 7421 2600 For resources, publications etc. Kent subscribes to the electronic version of the BAAF journal – for access please contact LAC officers, Policy & Performance Team 7000 4696 Kent Multicultural Community Association C/o Royal Air Force Careers Office 3 Dock Road Chatham Kent ME4 4SJ Chairman – 01634 570031 KMCA is a charity working for elimination of poverty and the promotion of racial equality through education and other services. Casework and interpreting is available. Meetings are held regularly at the above address. No restrictions on membership and no charges for services Minority Communities Achievement Service East Kent Area Office Sue Maharry Advisor Minority Ethnic & Bilingual Achievement/Advisor Refugee and Traveller Achievement 01227 284419 Dartford & Gravesham Advocacy network 7/9 Hythe Street Dartford Kent DA1 1BE Director 01322 285234 Aims to represent voices and concerns of people aged 16+ with mental health problems in the Dartford, Gravesham and Swanley area. Ethnic Outreach and specialist advocacy support is provided by Punjabi, Hindu, Gujerati and Urdu speakers. Free legal advice surgeries are run and health forums are held Kent Refugee Support Group Omega House 7 New Street Margate Kent CT9 1EG Project Co-Ordinator 01843 280225 Greoup of staff and volunteers drawn from the local area, engaged is assisting refugees to access services and activities according to their needs. Open Mon-Fri 10-4.00 Minority Communities Achievement Service Mid Kent Area Office Sarah Goosani Advisor Minority Ethnic & Bilingual Achievement 01233 898525 Louise Simpson Advisor Refugee and Traveller Achievement 01233 898527 Minority Communities Achievement Service West Kent Area Office Nicky Younosi Advisor Minority Ethnic & Bilingual Achievement 01732 525033 North West Kent Racial Equality Council – Dartford & Gravesham Enterprise House 8 Essex Road Dartford Kent DA1 2AU Contacts: Dev Sharma 01322 2876251 Gurvinder Sandher 01474 369329 Aims to work towards elimination of racial discrimnation and to promote good relations between people of different racial groups. Works in policy, development, public education and community development. Offers information, advice and support to individuals. Access to Ethnic Health Forum Services are free of charge – office hours Mon-Fri 9- 4.00 Group for Ethnic Women meets on Mondays 11 to 3.00 Contact – Sarabjut Walia on 01322 287251

Minority Communities Achievement Service West Kent Area Office Carol Mellors Advisor Refugee and Traveller Achievement 01732 525043 Minority Communities Achievement Service works in partnership with clusters, schools, partner agencies, minority communities, children, young people, parents and carers in order to improve access to education for, and raise achievement of, children & young people from Ethnic Minorities. Parents Consortium – including Disabled Children Register Allsworth Court 40 St Davids Road Hextable Kent BR8 7RJ Co-oridnator 01322 668501 Parent led charitable company, covering Dartford, Gravesham and Swanley Area, working in partnership with statutory and voluntary organisation to provide services for disabled children and their families. Resource 65

Appendix 4 Relevant National Minimum Standards
Children’s Homes National Minimum Standards The placement plan for each child sets out clearly the assessed needs of the child…The plan includes: Cultural, religious, language and racial needs and how they will be met.& Support for disabled children with communication difficulties is provided to help them become active in making decisions about their lives (Standard 2) Children are provided with food in adequate quantities, properly prepared, wholesome and nutritious, with regard to their cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds and dietary needs and choices (including the choice of vegetarian meals for children who need it) (Standard 10) Cultural, racial, ethnic or religious expectations regarding the choice of clothes or personal requisites are supported and positively promoted (Standard 11) Children are encouraged and given opportunities to take part in activities and leisure interests which take account of their race, culture, language, religion, interests, abilities and disabilities. Birthdays, name days, cultural and religious festivals are celebrated where appropriate, and children participate with staff in planning these events together. Support is available to enable disabled children to enjoy a range of activities within and outside the home. (Standard 15) Fostering: National Minimum Standards Each child and her/his family have access to foster care services which recognise and address her/his needs in terms of gender, religion, ethnic origin, language, culture, disability and sexuality. If a foster placement has to be made in an emergency and o suitable placement is available in terms of the above, then steps are taken to achieve the above within 6 weeks. (Standard 7) The fostering service ensures that their foster carers provide care, which respects and preserves each child’s ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background. Foster carers’ preparation and training cover this (Standard 7) Placement decision consider the child’s assessed racial, ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic needs and match these as closely as possible with the ethnic origin, race, religion, culture and language of the foster family (Standard 8) Where transracial or transcommunity placements are made, the responsible authority provides the foster family with additional training, support and information to enable the child to be provided with the best possible care and to Fostering – The Training, Support and Development Standards for Foster Care (Children’s Workforce Development Council) Foster Carers will: Understand the different types of prejudice and discrimination which can affect children and young people Understand why it is important to provide care which respects and preserves each child’s ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background Demonstrate how you support and encourage children and young people to develop skills to deal with discrimination, enhance self-worth and make a positive contribution (Standard 1) develop a positive understanding of her/his heritage. Adoption: National Minimum Standards The Agency helps adopters to understand and help the child deal with racism or other discrimination (Standard 6) Children are matched with adopters if possible who reflect their ethnic origin, cultural background, religion and language. Where the child cannot be matched with a family which reflects their ethnic origin, cultural background, religion and language, every effort must be made to find a suitable family within a realistic timescale so that the child does not wait indefinitely. (Standard 2)


Appendix 5 Useful Reading
Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children and Young People, Eileen Fursland, BAAF, 2007 Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children and Young People from Afghanistan, Eileen Fursland, BAAF, 2007 Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children and Young People from Eritrea, Eileen Fursland, BAAF, 2007 Caring for Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children and Young People from Iran, Eileen Fursland, BAAF, 2007 Children’s Views on Adoption, Morgan, CSCI 2006 Cultural Diversity Guide, Meridian Broadcasting, 2001 Cultural Competence in Family Support, A Toolkit for working with Black, Minority Ethnic and Faith Families, Husain, 2005, National Family & Parenting Institute Culturally Competent Care, a good practice guide for care management, Bijay Minhas and Navdeep Kaur, KCC, 2002 Effective Fostering Panels, Guidance on regulations, process and good practice in fostering panels in England, BAAF2007 Food, Shelter and half a chance, Kildane, BAAF 2001 Fostering Unaccompanied Asylum seeking and refugee children, Training course for foster carers, Kildance and Amerena, Baaf 2005 Finding adoptive families for black, Asian and black mixed-parentage children: agency policy & practice, NCH 2003 Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity, a framework for action, DH 2004 Life Story Work, A practical guide to helping children understand their past, Ryan and Walker, BAAF, 2007 Looking after Unaccompanied Asylum seeking and refugee children, Kildane and Amerena, BAAF 2005 Placements, Decisions & Reviews, Morgan, CSCI 2006 Promoting equality: Challenging Discrimination, Thompson, 2003 Race and Ethnicity: A consideration of issues for black, minority ethnic and white children in family placement, Goldstein and Spencer, BAAF 2000 Recruiting, assessing and supporting lesbian and gay carers and adopters, Mallon and Betts, 2005 Recruiting black and minority ethnic adopters and foster carers, Gwen Rule, BAAF, 2006 Safeguarding Children from Abuse Linked to a Belief in Spirit Possession, Every Child Matters, DCSF, 2007 http// Stopping Places, A Gypsy history of South London & Kent, Evans 2004 The Colour of Difference: the adoptee’s experience of transracial adoption, Armstrong & Beveridge, ACWA Conference paper 2002 Working with black children and adolescents in need, Ravinder Barn, BAAF 1999





This guidance is available in electronic format on the KCC Fostering and Adoption website or and CSS Policies and Procedures Directory Website.


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