Teacher instructions for using Maths & Science Marketing Materials: Our materials have been designed and written by very experienced teachers and Principals, some of whom have examined at the Matric level in their respective subjects. They use all of these products on a daily basis in their own classrooms/laboratories and achieve excellent results every year in the Matric final exams. Print out these instructions. Background: Unfortunately, many teachers do not have the knowledge, interest, skills or time to prepare the required Learning Support Materials (LSM) and Teaching Support Materials (TSM) needed for the effective teaching of theory, class work, consolidation, homework, revision and tutorials that are essential at the senior level of high school, to ensure good marks in Maths & Science. It is for these very reasons that Maths & Science Marketing has written and published all these materials – to assist the teachers and learners in their efforts to integrate and consolidate the work being taught in the classroom. CD Rom disc: All our materials for a particular Grade and Subject have been saved on a CD Rom disc in such a manner that it is easy for the teacher to gain access to the materials. Save the materials on the hard drive of your computer and store the disc in a safe place – so that it is not damaged, stolen or lost. You could always refer to it again at a later stage if necessary. N.B. Copyright ©: Maths & Science Marketing holds the copyright on all the Maths & Science materials on each disc. Only those schools/teachers/learners that have purchased the disc from us, or have had the disc provided to the school through a sponsorship, are given permission to duplicate the materials from the disc. These duplicated materials may only be provided by the teacher for the learners at their own school. The materials may not be copied – in any form and provided to other teachers at other schools etc. Saving materials on the hard drive of your computer: You may copy the contents of our disc(s) onto the hard drive of your computer and store the contents in files that are easy to identify and to access as and when required. This means that, besides the disc, you have another copy on your computer. It is usually easier and quicker to access the material on your computer, than to identify and down load from the disc each time you need a new original in hard copy. Contents of the disc: The material on these discs provides all you need for the teaching of theory in class, class work, homework, revision, and tutorials that learners will require. Naturally, if you as a teacher, already have some good material that you have prepared, merely add our material to that which is already working for you and your learners. If you do not require some of our material for use in the classroom etc. (because your material already works very well), consider using our material in a data base for your tests and exams. Hardware requirements for using our products: Our materials can be used in a number of different ways, but exactly how you use them will depend upon what hardware facilities you have at your school and in your class/laboratory. The ideal situation would be to have a pc or laptop computer (2nd hand is fine!) on the teachers desk and connected to a data/multimedia projector that is securely, permanently attached to the ceiling of the room in which you teach most of your theory lessons. The projector can project onto the wall, a screen or even an Interactive white board. The materials can be loaded onto the pc or laptop. Alternatively, if you do not have these facilities in your classroom/lab, but your school does have a computer centre with a number of computers – either stand-alone – or connected to a server, our materials could be loaded onto each computer separately or onto the server in the computer centre. Failing both the above, if you even have access to 1 computer – in your office at school, the school staffroom – or even at home – all of our materials can be loaded onto this computer and most of the materials can still be used very effectively (as printed hard copy) in your teaching programme. In addition, you also need to have access to a computer printer and to a photocopier to print PowerPoint handouts, worksheets and solutions for your learners. 1. 2. 3. 4. Using our materials from the CD Rom disc – after loading onto your computer: 1. At the start of the term print out the PowerPoint slides you are going to use in the term – in the form of a handout (either 3 or 6 slides per page) and duplicate for every learner that takes the subject in the grade. Give to the learners at the start of the term. Use our PowerPoint packages, together with textbooks, to teach all the theory sections and sample questions that are found in the new OBE curriculum in each subject and each Grade. As you are teaching each theory section, learners can be adding notes to the PP handout – while you are talking and writing on the board – to further elaborate each section. Having taught the theory, ensure the learners complete the questions in the exercises from the end of each section of work. Once the textbook exercise is complete, duplicate our applicable worksheet – for learners to do – either in class or for homework. Once the learners have completed our worksheet, go through the provided solutions – projecting them through the data projector onto the screen. This is a very useful form of teaching and illustrating exactly how to do each of the 2 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. problems. This will save you much time and energy – in not having to write the solutions on the board. Learners should mark their own work (or that of a partner) & can copy down the corrected method from the screen. 7. Alternatively the solutions could be duplicated and distributed to the learners in hard copy – so that they can follow as you explain how to do the respective problems on the board. Learners may well like to get the solutions duplicated as well as seeing them on the screen. Learners should use the PowerPoint handouts from which to learn the theory sections as they prepare for tests and exams throughout the year. The above format has been used and tested by a number of top schools in the country and they have reported excellent results when using this methodology for the teaching of our new OBE curriculum in the FET phase. 8. 9. Size of classes: Using a computer and a data projector means that you can effectively teach any size group of learners. The actual numbers of learners depends upon the size of the venue and the magnification of the projector, rather than anything else. This material and methodology has been very effectively used where the class size has varied from a small class of 12 to the whole Grade – in which there were 6 classes with 150 learners and team teaching was used. In team teaching the one teacher actually delivers the lesson using our PowerPoint and worksheets, while the other teachers move about the class – assisting learners to fully understand what is being taught and assisting with the difficulties experienced by the learners while doing the worksheets. Instructions for PowerPoint teaching packages: Teachers have been using ‘chalk and talk’ as the common method of teaching in the classroom for many years. Our new PowerPoint and worksheet packages bring an exciting new dimension to the teaching of familiar theory, concepts and ideas. For maximum efficiency, place a computer (pc or laptop) on the teacher’s desk and connect up to a data or multimedia projector. The projector should preferably be secured to the ceiling and should project onto a big screen, a blank, white wall or an Interactive White Board. 3 We recommend the following in getting set up to use this exciting new methodology in the classroom/laboratory: 1. 2. Open the CD and save the files, in separate G 10, 11 & 12 folders on your hard drive. It will make life easier if shortcuts to the folders are on the desktop of your computer – this provides easy, quick, direct access to the respective folders. To view the presentation, open one of the PowerPoint files in PowerPoint on your computer. Click on ‘slide show’ and keep left-clicking your mouse to bring up the next item on each slide and to move from one slide to another. To get out of the slide show, right-click on the mouse and click on ‘end show’. If your school does not yet have a data projector, demonstrate the package to your Principal and negotiate with your Principal, bursar and/or chairman of your School committee/board in an effort to convince the powers that be at your school to purchase a data projector for your use in the classroom. Connect up your computer or laptop – even an old one will do (provided it has PowerPoint) to your data projector and you are all set to go with one of the most exciting teaching and learning tools you will have come across in many a year. Now that you have this package, you can always add your own favourite diagrams, sketches and drawings to our basic package. However, with at least 300 PowerPoint animated slides in the package, you will find that the package is very comprehensive and probably only needs ‘tweaking’ to suit your particular needs. In America and the UK, a very high proportion of classrooms and labs have a computer connected to a data projector for their daily teaching. The problem has been that there is little suitable software available and teachers have had to design their own. This takes a lot of time and needs a certain level of creativity etc. Once you have taught with this methodology for a while – you will wonder how you ever managed without it before! An internet connection for the computer will also open up new doors for you in your daily teaching programme and lends itself to even more creativity! If you do not have facilities in your lab, load the packages onto the server in the computer lab at your school and encourage learners to use the packages there. These packages are also ideal for use with interactive white/smart boards. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. We are really confident that you will soon look back and decide that the money spent on setting yourself up with this methodology, will certainly be money very well spent. It has been found that, once teachers have the necessary software to improve their teaching and the Maths & Science results at their school, Principals are often very supportive of the idea to purchase additional hardware (such as an Interactive White Board etc.) and will go out of their way to assist Maths & Science teachers in this regard. Many Principals regard these subjects, together with the teachers who teach these subjects as the most important component of the whole school curriculum and are often prepared to whatever it takes to keep these teachers at their school happy. At least one Principal is known to have the following philosophy: 4 ‘Strong Maths and Science departments at our school will always ensure that we have a very successful school, since all other departments will want to keep up with these departments’. We also believe that the converse is also true. Making handouts for use with OHP transparency or PowerPoint teaching: The handouts you can make from the PowerPoint slides are very useful for the learners to use in class and for studying for tests and exams. They will obviously contain all the information that on the PowerPoint slide (or OHP transparency). By providing all the learners with the handouts of all the PP slides you will be using during the term, you are providing them with a basic set of notes for the term. This means that you don’t waste time as the learners copy down the information from the screen – since it is contained in the handout already in their possession. Obviously the learners still need to copy down any additional information that you may write on the board to illustrate or elaborate on a particular point. This can be done in the blank spaces on the handout Use the following to make the handouts for your learners: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Open the PowerPoint package. Click on the ‘slide sorter view’ – bottom left corner. Click on ‘file’ – top left corner. Click on ‘print’. In the window that comes up, go down to: ‘print what’ and use the drop down button. Click on ‘handouts’. Next, click on ‘pure black and white’. Click on ‘frame slides’ – if you want your slides to have a frame. In the handouts section, select the number of slides you want printed per page – usually 3 or 6 per page (9 is too small). We find using 3 per page is particularly useful – since it automatically provides lines onto which the learners can write additional notes – based upon whatever elaborations you have done on the board during the lesson. Now click on ‘OK’ and the slides in the file will be printed out for you – according to your selections/instructions. Now print the number of copies you require for your learners, using the photocopier and file a spare copy for future use. Handouts may be given to the learners prior to using the OHP transparencies or the PowerPoint slides, or after you have completed the lesson. Either way has advantages and disadvantages. Learners can now use the handouts from which to study for tests and exams. Even if you do not have the facilities for using the PowerPoint package or for using the OHP, the handouts can still be used by the learners from which to study – instead of working directly from the textbook. In effect, these handouts become the study aid for the learners for the year! 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 5 Producing OHP transparencies from PowerPoint Theory, Worksheets & Solutions from our packages: Most people teach by making use of ‘Chalk and talk’ method of teaching. This is where the teacher gives most of the lesson by talking about the various ideas and concepts and then elaborates further on the board. This method may be accompanied by using the prescribed textbook as well. If you do not have access to a computer and data projector and your school is unlikely to provide you with these facilities, an alternative method to improve your teaching is to use several OHP transparencies on an OHP every theory lesson and provide the learners with the handouts of the OHP transparency material from which to study. Unfortunately, most teachers do not have enough suitable transparencies from which to teach on a daily basis and the ready-made transparencies (if you can even get them) are very expensive to buy. It is a known fact that visual learning is more effective than relying upon hearing as the main source of learning. Even black and white OHP transparencies will be more effective than not using any extra visuals at all. It is very easy to make your own OHP transparencies from our materials and you need to do is to follow the list of instructions below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Open the PowerPoint file to the section you wish to teach next – say vectors. Ensure the slides are in ‘slide view’ – bottom left hand side of screen. Click on ‘view’ button – top left corner. Move cursor down to ‘black and white’ and click on button. All the PowerPoint slides in the file will now lose their colour and all writing on the slide will change to black – with clear background. Now click on the ‘file’ button – top left hand corner and click the cursor on the ‘print’ button. All the slides from the file will print on the A4 paper from the printer. OHP transparency slides may now be photocopied from the A4 paper onto blank OHP slides that can be printed on your school photocopy machine. N.B. Ensure that you use the prescribed/required blank OHP slides for your school photocopier. Use the original A4 sheet as the backing sheet for your transparencies and file in a lever arch file – in the order in which you would use them for your teaching. Keep the file open on the desk in front of you – next to your OHP – at the place where you finished teaching yesterday. We recommend that you make OHP transparencies for the curriculum for the whole year – covering the whole syllabus for that grade in the same file. Repeat the process for the other Grades. Handouts can be made from the PowerPoint slides and given to the learners – from which they can study. These are very useful – since they contain exactly the same materials as on both the PowerPoint slides as well as the OHP transparencies. See ‘Handout instructions’ on how to produce the handouts for your learners. The above instructions can also be followed when making OHP transparencies from our worksheets and their solutions. Using OHP transparencies can save a lot of time – and paper! You can also add your own notes etc to the slides – use non-soluble pens! The OHP transparencies should be used together with the handouts for the learners in the class situation. 6 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. This is also a very effective way to teach and holds the learner’s attention for the duration of the lesson. Instructions for use of our Worksheets & Solutions: These worksheets have been drawn up by experienced teachers. There are easy questions and some more challenging ones. All questions have solutions – in the same file as the worksheet. Aim of worksheets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To provide learners with extra material for class time Provide homework exercises for the learners To ensure that work done in class is re-enforced when doing the worksheets To enable learners to become familiar with the type of exam question they can expect Provides material that can be used for revision, tutorials, workshops, exam preparation and even Saturday and holiday classes Composition of the worksheets: 1. 2. Each worksheet consists of two or more pages of questions – based upon a particular section of work. Full solutions have been provided for each of the questions. Getting full value from the worksheets & solutions: 1. Once you have completed teaching a particular section of work – using the textbook and/or our PowerPoint package, allow learners to do the exercise from their textbooks. Now provide learners with photocopies of our worksheet and allow them to work on it in class and complete for homework for the next day. The next day, go through the questions on the screen (using the data projector) so that all learners establish how to do each of the respective questions. The solutions could also be photocopied for the learners. If there are several sheets of questions on the same section, one or more can be kept back and used for revision at a later stage. At times learners can mark their own work, or their partner’s work and on occasion, it should be marked by the teacher. Some of these marks could be included in CASS marks for the year. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. In general, learners need to get into the good habit of doing some Maths & Science work – at school and at home – every day. This will help to promote continuity, confidence and familiarity with the kind of questions that are likely to be set at exam time. Having all these worksheets in electronic format, means that you can quite easily change the letters, symbols and values in each question – in order to provide the learners with extra questions and worksheets similar to those we have provided for you. If necessary you can reduce the font to an 11 or 12 – in order to use less paper. 7 Remember: The more the learners practise doing sample questions, the better they understand the work and the better they will do in tests and exams. Instructions for Science G 10, 11 & 12 MCQ worksheets: These MCQ sheets are excellent for class work, homework, revision and for CASS marks. They are easy to mark – using a template and the learners soon enjoy doing them. They can be provided after the learners have been taught a section of work and have completed the exercise from the textbook and/or one of our worksheets. Before you can really use them effectively, take the time to set yourself up for maximum efficiency. Before you can use these worksheets, prepare the answer sheet templates for every test for each Grade. Duplicate 25 copies of the answer sheet on coloured paper or thin cardboard per Grade. Label every sheet e.g. Vectors 1, Graphs and equations of motion 2, etc and, using a razor blade, cut square holes over each of the correct answers for that particular worksheet. Also cut a hole over question number 1 – so that you can line up the template when marking each learner’s answer sheet. Repeat for every worksheet and store originals in a safe place – particularly one in which they will not be damaged over time. These templates, if properly cared for, can be used to mark 1000,s of answer sheets over the next few years during which these worksheets will still be valid and will be an excellent assessment tool. At the start of the term, print sufficient question papers for each learner in each Grade for the sections of work you will be dealing with. Having thoroughly taught the section of work, provide each learner with a photocopied question paper. Learners may do these questions in class, at home, as a standardized test, for revision or for exam preparation etc. A rubric can also be used to mark the exercise – after marking with a template Once the answer sheets have been handed in, mark them and return to learners as soon as possible. Record marks for possible later use in CASS portfolios etc. Once you are properly organized, it only takes about 15 minutes to mark and record the marks of the 80 learners in a Grade! This is truly a wonderful timesaver for stressed teachers! Once the answer sheets have been returned to learners, provide the answers and go through the difficult questions on the board for the learners. 8 You will find that, as soon as learners have got used to the system, they really like it and enjoy doing the worksheets – especially if they can see the benefits and the improved results in tests and exams! Instructions for use of Physics and Chemistry SMART Notebook curriculum for SMART Boards: On the Science CD Rom teacher/school discs, we have included hundreds of slides and/or images in SMART Notebook format for use as a teaching tool in the class/Lab. However, these slides do not have to be used on a SMART Board – they can be used on certain other types of Interactive White Boards as well as with Mimios on ordinary white boards. In order to be able to open, access and use these useful images it is necessary to have SMART Notebook format on your computer in which you wish to open this material. The SMART Notebook software can be downloaded (FREE!) from the SMART website at: www.smarttech.com It is however recommended that you do not incorporate these slides into the latest version of SMART Notebook own content gallery – because it was written and designed on an earlier version and they have not yet discovered how to incorporate materials written in earlier versions into their latest versions. This does not present a problem – provided you just keep the slides and images in the files in which they are supplied on the Science CD Rom disc. SMART Boards and other Interactive White Boards are quite expensive and only few SA schools have these luxury items available in classrooms & labs. However, this does not mean you can’t use these useful slides. You can throw the images onto a wall or plain white screen/board and manipulate them by means of using the mouse or touchpad on the computer – instead of using your finger – as you would on an IWB. It is obviously not as effective – but the author used this system for at least a year before he was given a SMART Board for his lab. You and your learners can have a lot of fun and really benefit from using these slides – with or without an IWB. Instructions and use of Rubrics & assessment sheets: Rubrics indicate rating codes and descriptions of standards achieved i.e. what learner should do, how learner will be evaluated and competence achieved by the learner. Rubrics require teachers to know exactly what is going on and how the particular outcome is being assessed. The rubric gives a holistic assessment of the learner’s ability to meet one or more of the assessment standards. 9 Rubrics should always be shown to and discussed with the learners – so that they are fully informed as to what you require and expect of them. If they are clear then they will generally attempt to produce what you are looking for. The rubrics included in this package are for general use and the advantage of having them in a digital format is that they may easily be changed – to suit your particular needs for a particular assessment. If these Rubrics do not exactly fit the requirements of your particular Department/Subject advisor, change them to suit your particular requirements. In order to design a new rubric, you need to decide on the following: Which outcome is being targeted? Which assessment standards are being targeted by the task at hand? What kind of evidence should be collected? What are the different parts of the performance that will be assessed? What different assessment instruments best suit each part of the task? ( process and the product) What knowledge should the learners demonstrate? What skills should the learners apply and demonstrate? What opportunities are there for the learner to express personal opinions, values, attitudes and which should be assessed and how? Should one rubric target all the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards, or should more than one rubric be used? How many rubrics are in fact needed for the task? When assessing the learner’s performance, ensure that: The learner is only assessed once per criterion within the rubric. Complete the comment column (where applicable) and circle the performance level for later moderation. Do not remove a criterion from the rubric unless it has also been done in that for the teacher portfolio as well. 10 National Curriculum Statement: The NCS has specifically been included on the disc so that both teachers and learners can see exactly what work needs to be covered, what the outcomes are and what the Assessment standards are required for each section of work. We trust that these instructions, together with the exciting new PowerPoint, Worksheet, MC worksheet and SMART Board packages, will stimulate and encourage you to change and develop your teaching methodologies for the benefit of your learners as well as yourself. Make your teaching fun again – for both you and your learners! Using our materials, a computer, data projector and having access to photocopy facilities, you can soon become a Master Teacher!