1L Exam Workshop

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					1L Exam Workshop
Presented by the Academic Achievement Program, Writing Center
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Standard DF Disclaimer
• This is how I do it, but everyone works differently. • Although exam2 writing is very important, there are other skills you need to develop too, like course outlining, reading comprehension, legal analysis, and understanding of the course material. • Your professors may not test you in the way I describe. Or they may deviate from the ‘norm’ in minor or significant ways. Be flexible and pay close attention to their instructions, your DF’s and their old exams. Defer to those sources over my lecture today.
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Class Overview
• What exactly is a law school exam? What is being tested? What is the general approach? • How to read the exam • How to organize and outline • How to write the exam • Q&A

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What exactly is a law school exam?
• There are four common types of exam questions:
– – – – Multiple choice Policy questions “Issue spotters” Short answer questions

This class is about issue spotter exams. They are very common and probably the most difficult and foreign to new law students.
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What is an “Issue spotter”?
These questions are called “issue spotters” for an obvious reason: one of your principal tasks is to spot the issues.

Generally, an issue spotter exam question presents a long fact pattern where many unusual events take place. Issue spotters are frequently used in classes like Torts, Property and Contracts, and possibly Civil Procedure.
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Try it
• Let’s try to issue spot • Read the hypo now and make a list of the potential issues you identify

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Sample Issue Spotter Exam Hypo: 35 minutes suggested time Peter Palm attends West Worthminster University and is a member of BKK fraternity. Every year on November 8th, BKK plays a charity flag-football game against rival fraternity FGR for the benefit of a local orphanage. Both fraternities have many members who play on the school’s Division 3 football team, including Peter who is a first string wide receiver. Generally, FGR and BKK get along well and many of their members are friends from the school football team. However, relations have been strained because of a recent confrontation between Peter and FGR president Donny Dade. Three weeks earlier, Peter stole Donny’s girlfriend, Brenda Broward. To add insult to injury, Peter and Brenda posted a video on YouTube, where Brenda revealed many embarrassing secrets about Donny and Peter does a crude impersonation of him. They later apologized to Donny claiming they were very drunk, and took the video down after 2 days. But 100’s of students saw it and Donny has been constantly ridiculed because of it over the last few weeks. On the day of the game, Donny approaches Peter and says, “You better watch your back out there Patty. If I mess up your face you might not be able to make any more videos.” Peter, ignores this comment because the stadium is filled with orphans and he doesn’t 7 want to make a scene.

They toss a coin, and FGG kicks-off first. Peter catches the ball and starts off running. Donny makes a run straight at him, grabs Peter’s shirt and throws him to the ground. Peter gets up and says “What the hell, man?” Donny says, “sorry bro, I was going for the flag.” Peter’s shirt is ripped badly, but Peter is not hurt.

On the next play, Peter makes a catch and Donny tackles him hard around the waist. He has the wind knocked out of him and lays on the ground gasping. As the other players approach to see what happened, Donny kicks Peter hard in the face, knocking out two of is front teeth and breaking his nose. “You’re much more handsome on TV,” says David, and as he is dragged off the field, he spits on Peter’s face. The fraternity members swarm around and carry Donny off the field. Peter is taken to the hospital, where he is treated and discharged. The game is cancelled and the orphans all start crying hysterically.
You are a junior associate at Bunkfarger, Applesauce & Half-Tuna LLP. Peter has come to your office to ask about a possible lawsuit. Assume the laws of Floriblah apply to this case. Please prepare a memo discussing the merits of his potential claims.

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What does the issue spotter test?
• What is being tested:
– Your ability to read a fact pattern and identify the potential legal claims, defenses, and issues. – Your ability to apply your knowledge of the law to those facts. – Your ability to make clear and well reasoned arguments about the legal issues you have identified.

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What does the issue spotter test?
• Your Tasks:
– Spot the issue – Spot the counter argument – Make a conclusion if possible

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What does the issue spotter test
• The counter argument is critical!
– You MUST show a counter argument for almost every proposition that you raise. – The professor must know that you see the argument from both sides. This shows your total ability to analyze. – If you absolutely see no counter argument, you’re not looking close enough, or you probably haven’t spotted a real issue.
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What does the issue spotter test?
• What is NOT being tested:
– You are not being tested on your knowledge of the ‘law’. This is a critical point and difficult for most law students to understand.
– The professor assumes that by the day of the exam you are a master of the subject matter. It is taken for granted that you know the material.

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What does the issue spotter test?
• Don’t get the wrong idea. You still MUST know the subject material!
– It will be 100% impossible to write a good exam answer if you do not know the subject material thoroughly. – It is commonly said that “knowing the subject matter will get you a C.” – The A/B+ answer displays a through knowledge of the subject material, but has presented a tightly focused essay on the legal issues presented by the facts and applied the appropriate analysis to the appropriate facts.
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What does the issue spotter test?
• Don’t ‘outline dump’
– Outline dumping is when you try to cram everything you learned in the course into your exam answer, whether it is relevant to the facts presented or not. – The issue spotter exam is not the forum for you to show that you know everything about the course material. Limit your analysis to what is actually presented in the hypo.
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What does the issue spotter test?
• Don’t make up claims or look for excuses to include material that the course covered:
– It is very likely that your final exam will not cover even 75% of the material that you learned in the class. This is intentional and it is not a problem. – If you don’t see a particular subject being discussed on your test, don’t panic – it might not be there. – Pay close attention, see what claims can reasonably be brought based on the hypo. Don’t look for excuses to include subjects that you know a lot about. Your best bet is to know everything and be prepared for anything.
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What does the issue spotter test?
• Stay focused:
– Look for legitimate claims that can be brought based on the fact pattern. Most likely the facts presented may remind you of a case you read, or contain elements of a particular claim that you studied. – Don’t read too much into the hypo. Creative answers are good, but if you go too far the professor will think you’re just making things up to show off your substantive knowledge.
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What does the issue spotter test
• Don’t panic
– Although the issue spotter format may seem alien, it is very learnable. If you know the subject material well and have practiced writing exams, you should feel capable of writing a solid answer. – It is a new skill, but it can be learned!

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The test format
• You’ll see many formats, and no two tests are alike
– Commonly there will be a mix of questions from any or all of the categories listed above. – Issue spotter exams usually have 3 or 4 hypos to do, averaging about 30mins to 1 hour estimated time each. They may also have shorter policy questions, multiple choice or short answer questions added in.
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How to prepare for an issue spotter
• Know the subject material • Read black-letter outlines like Gilberts, Emanuels, Crunch-time • Do practice hypotheticals from your DF’s • Do at least 4 practice exams before each test
– Do 1 or 2 untimed and put together a perfect answer – Do at least 2 under real time conditions, closed or open book as directed by your professor – Do them with friends and compare answers. Don’t worry if their answers are better than yours – learn from them

• Make sure that you at least read and outline all of your professor’s old exams on reserve
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General advice
• Study smart: Most people spend too much time studying the material and not enough time practicing how to write a good answer. You should dedicate a significant amount of time to practice exams before the reading period and at least 1 full day in the reading period for practice exams.

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General advice
• Time is a big issue on most exams. Budget well. Flip through the whole exam right away and see how much you’re going to have to do. If the professor suggests time periods for each question, those are usually somewhat accurate – try to stick to them pretty closely.

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Section A: How to read the hypo
• Step 1: Panic a little bit
– Every law student panics when they first see the exam. It’s too long. It’s different from the exams on reserve. One of the hypos is about something you have never heard of. – Anticipate that you will panic at the beginning. Do your panic thing, then get over it and get started.

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How to read the hypo
• Step 2: Find out what the question is asking you to do
– Go straight to the end and see what role you are playing in this hypo. Usually the end of the hypo will tell you that you are a judge, or a lawyer and probably tell you which people are involved in the case. – It might be vague and just ask you to discuss whatever claims you identify. – Regardless of who you are, or who your client is, your essay answer will actually be very similar. This is hard to explain, but will be obvious to you with practice.
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Peter Palm hypo
• Here is the instruction passage:
– “You are a junior associate at Bunkfarger, Applesauce & HalfTuna LLP. Peter has come to your office to ask about a possible lawsuit. Assume the laws of Floriblah apply to this case. Please prepare a memo discussing the merits of his potential claims.”
• You are Peter’s lawyer so you know that the claims will all involve him in some way. If you see claims that don’t involve Peter at all, don’t worry about them. • Just because you are Peter’s lawyer doesn’t mean that Peter is going to win. You may be of the opinion that Peter is going to lose every claim that you identify in the hypo. That is ok. You just do the analysis and explain why he will lose. • Most hypos will say something about what law applies to the case. If you see “Florida” you probably should apply whatever principals of Florida law you learned (if any). If you see “New Florida” or “Floriblah” or something like that, we are in an imaginary jurisdiction and you should apply the law as you learned it generally in the class.
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How to read the hypo
• Step 3: Do a first read through
– Do a read through without taking any notes – I recommend this, but sometimes people feel like they don’t have time. The only way to know is to practice. If you are a slow reader, you may have to dive right in to note taking. – If I feel like I have time, I like to read each fact pattern 2 or 3 times to make sure I didn’t miss anything. – Usually you won’t have time to read that much.
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How to read the hypo
• Step 4: Read through, taking notes or highlighting
– Highlighting is good, but hard to reference back to if you move too quickly – Notes are great but make sure they are accurate to the hypo. If you don’t take good notes or skip something, you may rely too much on your notes and miss something important – You’ll probably only have time to do one or the other, so you’ll have to figure out which works for you with practice. – Invent a system that works for you – find a compromise of speed and accuracy.
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Actor-based note taking style
• Take note of every person in the hypo and describe who they are • Keep a running list of who did what action in the hypo • Be detailed, be thorough and be careful

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Peter Palm Hypo
Hypo Text
Peter Palm attends West Worthminster University and is a member of BKK fraternity. Every year on November 8th, BKK plays a charity flag-football game against rival fraternity FGR for the benefit of a local orphanage. Both fraternities have many members who play on the school’s Division 3 football team, including Peter who is a first string wide receiver. Generally, FGR and BKK get along well and many of their members are friends from the school football team. However, relations have been strained because of a recent confrontation between Peter and FGR president Donny Dade. Three weeks earlier, Peter stole Donny’s girlfriend, Brenda Broward.

Notes
P.Palm
•BKK frat

D.Dade
•FGR frat (pres)

•Football player
•Stole DD’s girl

•PP stole his GF

B.Broward
•Dating PP •Formerly dated DD

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Peter Palm Hypo
Hypo Text
To add insult to injury, Peter and Brenda posted a video on YouTube, where Brenda revealed many embarrassing secrets about Donny and Peter does a crude impersonation of him. They later apologized to Donny claiming they were very drunk, and took the video down after 2 days. But 100’s of students saw it and Donny has been constantly ridiculed because of it over the last few weeks. On the day of the game, Donny approaches Peter and says, “You better watch your back out there Patty. If I mess up your face you might not be able to make any more videos.” Peter, ignores this comment because the stadium is filled with orphans and he doesn’t want to make a scene.

Notes
P.Palm
•BKK frat •Football player •Stole DD’s GF
•Made video with BB about DD

D.Dade
•FGR frat (pres) •PP stole his GF •Ridiculed because of vid
•Threatens PP at game “I’ll mess up your face”

B.Broward
•Dating PP •Formerly dated DD
•Made video with PP about DD
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Note Taking
• Tips
– Tailor your notes to what your role is and who your client is. – Too much is better than too little. You may not realize the value of something until you start writing. – This is really when you do the first major round of issue spotting.

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Note Taking
• Step 4: Read it again
– You will almost always find 1 or 2 things you missed. – If you don’t have time, it’s ok, just move on.

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Section B: Outlining
• Surprise! That was not your outline. That was your notes.
– You still have to make an outline of your arguments. – The word “outline” has many uses in law school. This is not a study outline…this is more like an outline of a high school essay. – Get lots of scrap.

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Why outlining is important
• It seems like a lot of work, but it is really the key to success • Although you may spend even 50% of your allotted time outlining, your writing will go much faster. • You need a roadmap because otherwise you will get lost as you start writing and the clock starts ticking
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Maximum Outline
• This technique is the most detailed and structured format. It takes quite a while, but it is worth it. • Try it before you reject it. By at least trying it you will learn what works for you.

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Why Outline?
• The outline IS your essay:
– Think of your outline as a coded version of the full essay. It is the entire essay – every argument is prepared at this stage. – You are writing in shorthand. When you start to actually write, there is no more thinking – just decode the shorthand and follow the map you have created.

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How to structure your outline
• There are many ways. But however you structure your outline is how your essay will be structured so choose wisely:
– By party – By claim – Chronological
• I prefer by party, then by claim.

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Example of structure
• Peter’s claims
– – – – – Assault Battery (shirt) Battery (tackle) Battery (kick) Battery (spit)

• Donny’s claims
– IIED
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Important detour - How to IRAC
• Since the outline is your essay, we should discuss the format you will use to write. • The outline should reflect the IRAC formula so you will structure the actually essay appropriately. • The more structured your outline, the less thinking you do when you write.

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IRAcHN
• Issue • Rule • ANALYSIS
• Conclusion

• However • Nevertheless

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Sample IRAcHN Paragraph
• • • I: Michael may wish to bring a claim of false imprisonment against Brad. R: False imprisonment is defined as the unlawful restriction of another’s movement, against his will and without consent. A: Here, Brad left Michael locked in a car for 10 hours. Michael’s movement was restricted as a result, and he could not leave. These facts are consistent with the elements of common law false imprisonment. C: Therefore, Michael may have a claim that Brad is liable for false imprisonment. H: However, Brad may contend that Michael consented to being locked in the car when Brad said “I’m going in to the store, I might be a while” and Michael said “Ok, I’ll wait in the car.” Michael’s statement may indicate that he knew he would be left in the car for a long while and thus he may have consented. If this affirmative defense is successful, Michael’s claim for FI will fail. N: Nevertheless, Michael will probably be able to defeat this defense of consent, because Michael probably did not consent to being locked in for 10 hours. Based on Brad’s statement, he could reasonably assume that he might be left alone for a while, but probably wouldn’t anticipate being locked in. 10 hours locked in the car was probably beyond the scope of consent. Thus, Michael will probably succeed 40 in his claim of false imprisonment.

• •

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So, back to outlining
Claims by PP • Assault (threats) – I: Assault claim – R: Threat, harm, imminent ability, fear – A: Threat (yes), harm (yes), ability (maybe), fear (probably not) – C: Maybe assault, but not very strong – H: Fear element lacking, “words alone…” – N: Claim probably loses… • Battery (ripped shirt) – I: Battery claim 1 – R: unlawful touch… – A: Grabbed shirt, threw to ground. Only clothes but probably counts. – C: probably battery – H: Assumption of Risk to contact by playing sports. Both knew rules of game, having played before in this setting and being athletes – N: Probably beyond scope of assumption because flag football only. Claim probably wins

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Outlining
• Go through the entire hypo, or your notes and do this process.
– As you practice, you will devise a system and a shorthand for yourself. – This takes practice to do quickly but will ultimately save time and dramatically improve your essay. – If you know the subject material well, it will actually go pretty fast.

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Section C: Writing
• This is going to be pretty easy now. You are painting by numbers. • Just go down the outline and write out your arguments. • Stick to IRACHN! • Make sure you saved enough time to write it out.
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This is NOT an LRW memo!
• Usually the exam will say “Prepare a memo…”
– Don’t write an LRW memo! – Everyone falls for that and professors hate it. – Don’t put that stupid heading at the top, don’t do a ‘question presented’ or ‘brief answer’ – Just WRITE. Start going through the claims and do your IRACHN.

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Peter Palm Hypo
• Battery (ripped shirt) – I: Battery claim 1 – R: unlawful touch… – A: Grabbed shirt, threw to ground. Only clothes but probably counts. – C: probably battery – H: Assumption of Risk to contact by playing sports. Both knew rules of game, having played before in this setting and being athletes – N: Probably beyond scope of assumption because flag football only. Claim probably wins

Peter’s Claims Claim 2: Battery
Peter will probably want to bring a battery claim against Donny for the incident where Donny ripped his shirt. Battery is defined as the unlawful touching of another, against their will and without consent. Here, Donny grabbed Peter’s shirt while they were playing flag football and threw him to the ground. Although he technically only touched his clothes, contact with clothing or closely held items can still constitute battery. Therefore, Peter may be able to successfully bring a claim of Battery. However, Donny may assert the affirmative defense of “Assumption of risk.” Here, Michael may have assumed the risk of bodily contact with his clothes or some level of injury by joining a flag football game. If this affirmative defense is successful, Michael’s claim will be defeated. Nevertheless, this level of physical contact is probably outside the scope of consent. In flag football one does not anticipate a high level of contact, since it is not a really a contact sport. As such, this defense will probably fail, and Michael’s45 claim will be probably successful.

The power of probably
• These words belong in almost every argument you make: – Probably – Probably not – Might – Maybe – Most likely – Unlikely – Very likely – Very unlikely – Almost certainly
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Writing tips
• Just get your point across. It don’t gotta be pretty. • Don’t worry too much about spelling. • Stick to a format, even if it’s not IRAC. Be consistent, and very formulaic.

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Use headings!
• Use headings in your actual essay! Use bullets, use numbers, use titles.
Claims by Donny Claim 1: Intentional Infliction of emotional distress Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Claims by Peter. Claim 1: Assault XXXXXXXXXXXxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Claim 2: Battery (shirt rip) Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Claim 3: Battery (kick) Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Claim 4: Battery (spit) Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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Using real cases in your essay
• Not always necessary. Depends on the professor and the course.
– Some professors will insist. – Usually it is not necessary to know the actual case name…you can say “the case where the dog bit the turtle” – I very rarely cite actual cases. I say things like “Battery is defined as…”, “At common law, the tort of battery is…”, “A battery occurs when….”
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How to use cases as your ‘rule’: The ‘There, Here’ method
• • • • • • I: Raise your issue: “In order to prove a claim of assault, Barkley must prove that Jones demonstrated an imminent ability to do bodily harm” R(1): introduce your case: “The court evaluated a similar situation in LAY v. KRAMER (the parking lot assault case).” R(2): discuss the facts of that case: “There, an individual was making verbal threats and physical advances on the alleged victim who was by herself in a parking lot” R(3): Give the rule of law from that case: “The court in LAY held that verbal threats accompanied by physically aggressive bodily movements demonstrate an imminent threat of bodily harm” A(1): Compare the facts in the hypo to the facts in the case you are citing: “Here, Jones was yelling at Barkley and waving his arms around in an aggravated manner” A(2): Explain why these two situations are sufficiently similar to justify the same result: “A court will likely find that the flailing motions demonstrated by Jones, accompanied by his yelling were sufficiently similar to the behavior exhibited by the defendant in LAY because flailing one’s arms and yelling demonstrates a similar intent to cause physical intimidation, beyond mere words.” C: Regular conclusion: “Therefore, a court will probably find that Jones demonstrated an imminent ability to cause bodily harm”
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When you are done with a question
• You may want to proofread, but you probably won’t have time. Maybe at the end of the whole exam. • Trust your outline, trust your notes, trust your instincts. • Move on!

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Section D: General issues and mistakes
Advice about this method:
• You must practice. If you try this for the first time on exam day you will barely finish one question in the allotted time period. • If you don’t plan on practicing quite a bit, don’t use this method. But I strongly advise that you devise some sort of system beforehand. • Modify this to suit your speed. Read the hypo fewer times. Make the outline more skeletal.
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Advice about exams generally
• Practice with friends and compare your answers. Don’t worry if they spotted things you didn’t – learn from them. • Take exam writing seriously as a skill worth developing. Start doing practice exams well before the reading period. • Make jokes in your essay answers • If a professor made a big deal about a particular case or subject, learn it well and use it where appropriate.
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Spelling and writing errors in the hypo
• Very often, the hypo will contain a bad spelling error or a major mistake that makes it hard to know what the professor intended.
– If their intention is obvious, just go with it. – If their intention is not clear, just make an assumption about what you think they probably meant. Explain it out! Point out the error, explain why it is a problem and then resolve the issue based on your made up assumption.
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Spelling and writing errors in the hypo
• Example of how to deal with a major error in a hypo:
– “There is a conflict in the timetable presented in the facts. According to the facts pattern, Jones was in 2 places at once. In paragraph 1 line 10, he is at the gas station at 8:00 pm on Saturday. But in paragraph 4, line 5 at the same exact time, he is in a diner 40 miles away. Unless P is a time traveler or has an evil twin, this is probably not accurate. For the purposes of my analysis, I will assume that he was at the diner first and then the gas station later, which is most logical given the sequence of other events. Further research is needed to resolve this important discrepancy.”
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Flagging issues that need more information
• Professors love when you do this, if you do it correctly. Can be used for gaps in the law or facts
– If there is a fact which suggests an issue, but is not fully developed enough to make a conclusive argument – flag it and move on. Don’t make up facts, and don’t just totally ignore it. This is bonus points. – “It is possible also that Franklin has a claim for IIED, since he was violently berated by the sales clerk who made racial slurs. More research is needed to see if a claim will lie, since we don’t know if Franklin experienced a serious emotional or physical reaction to the incident, which would be required at common law to bring a claim of IIED.”
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Conflicts in the law
• Majority and minority views • Serious inconsistency among courts • Persuasive dissenting opinions
– If there is a significant minority or dissent view, use that as a counter argument.
• Eg. “However, if this jurisdiction follows the minority view with respect to consent, it may be necessary to show that the Jones manifestly expressed his willingness to participate in words. Since Jones merely remained silent when the procedure began, he may not have offered sufficient consent. More research is needed to determine whether this jurisdiction follows the minority approach.”

– If there is a major split in the law, it may be worth a full IRAC discussion of the alternative approach
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Common Mistakes
• 1. Stream of consciousness writing
– If you are not clear, your paper will not be read at all. If you’re going to write this way, you need much more practice than if you will apply some structure technique. – Be organized, use IRAC, use headings, have some consistent scheme.

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Common Mistakes
• 2. Outline dumping
– If it is not in the fact pattern, don’t talk about it. Don’t make up claims and don’t make up facts. – The issue spotter is not about showing off how you read every case, or know every tort. The professor has deliberately limited the issues being tested.

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Common Mistakes
• 3. Stay in the realm of reality
– When issue spotting, only point out claims that pass the ‘laugh test’. Would someone really pay a lawyer to bring this claim? – If not, either don’t write about it, or just flag it. – Remember to limit your analysis to claims which involve the party you represent, if you are a lawyer in the hypo.

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Common Mistakes
• 4. Red Herrings
– A red herring is a fact which looks like a claim but actually isn’t. They appear in many ways, are reasonably rare and may be intentional or unintentional. – Look out for:
• Issues that don’t involve the party you represent • Issues that are outside the instructions in the question • Issues that are outside the scope of this course • Issues that are just totally absurd
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Common Mistakes
• 5. Running out of time
– Probably the most common, most deadly and most avoidable mistake.
Budget well. Stick to the times suggested in the hypo Don’t leave questions blank Don’t leave out major issues Skip minor issues if need be If you are about to run out of time, or have spent too long on one question, just copy in your outline without expanding it! It will show all of your analysis and your professor will probably give you partial credit for it. • The more you practice, the less of a factor time will be.
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• • • • • •

When in doubt…
• Just write!
– If you are stumped or don’t know the answer to a particular issue – this is the time for stream of consciousness. Write out what you are thinking. Do some kind of analysis to show the professor that at least you spotted the issue and you tried. – You’ll be very surprised how much credit this will get you! In fact, sometimes this is the real best answer, because the issue is intentionally unclear.
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Cheer up
• Good answers come in many forms.
– A/B+ answers may not spot every issue and may have many errors. The important thing is to present solid analysis. – Shoot for a B or B+. A’s are extremely rare and hard to get. There is a lot of luck involved in getting an A. – Do your best and try to do most of the really hard work BEFORE the exam.
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If you are not using a laptop
• I advise using a laptop. Major errors are very rare and the examsoft program is very good. But I have seen people have tech problems and it is a scary thing. • If you write in a bluebook, follow the same rules but leave much more time for the writing phase. • Use headings, use bullets, use stars. • Only write on every-other-line so you have room to make corrections. If you left something big out, use arrows, use signals, use footnotes…most bluebooks are really messy by the time they are finished. It’s ok.

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Q&A
Hit me.

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