GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIV by fjzhxb

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									GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

AERODERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES HYBRIDS FRAME GAS TURBINES

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

Gas Generator
GE, RR, PW

Power Turbine
GE, RR, DR, NP, PW Licensee

Aeroderivative Gas Turbine

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

• Aeroderivative Manufacturers
– Rolls-Royce – Dresser-Rand – GE – Pratt and Whitney – Licensees

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES Aero
Manufacturer
GE

Model
LM 1600 LM 2500PE LM 2500 PK LM 2500 PV LM 6000 PC LM 6000 PD

SHP
19,200 31,200 42,000 42,000 59,000 58,000

Heat Rate Eff
7000 BTU/HP-Hr 6800 BTU/HP-Hr 6500 BTU/HP-Hr 6200 BTU/HP-Hr 6000 BTU/HP-Hr 6000 BTU/HP-Hr

Shafts
2 2 2 2 2 2

RPM
7900 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600

Rolls-Royce

RB 211-6556 RB 211-6562 RB 211-6762 RB 211-6761 Trent

34,900 39,600 40,750 44,500 70,400

7100 BTU/HP-Hr 6705 BTU/HP-Hr 6565 BTU/HP-Hr 6290 BTU/HP-Hr 5939 BTU/HP-Hr

2 2 2 2 2

4950 4800 4800 4850 3400

Dresser-Rand

DR-60-G DR 61 DR 61-G DR 61-GP Vectra 40G DR 63G

19,100 31,000 31,235 42,000 42,000 59,355

7020 BTU/HP-Hr 6785BTU/HP-Hr 6772 BTU/HP-Hr 6442 BTU/HP-Hr 6276 BTU/HP-Hr 5941 BTU/HP-Hr

2 2 2 2 2 2

7900 5500 3600 3600 6200 3600

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

• Industrial Gas Turbine Manufacturers
– GE – Siemens – Licensees

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES Frames
Manufacturer
GE

Model
GE 5 GE 10 MS5002C MS5002E

SHP
7500 15,600 38.000 43,700

Heat Rate/Eff
8100 BTU/HP-Hr 10,500 BTU/Hp-Hr 8800 BTU/Hp-Hr 8650 BTU/Hp-Hr

Shafts
1 1 1 1

RPM
12,500 7900 4670 4670

Siemens

SGT-500

23,900

32.5% Thermal Eff.

1

3450

SGT-600

34.100

35.1% Thermal Eff.

1

7700

SGT-700

40,400

37.3% Thermal Eff.

1

6500

SGT-800

62,900

38.1% Thermal Eff.

1

NA

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

Hybrid Gas Turbine

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

• Hybrid Gas Turbine Manufacturers
– Solar – Siemens – Dresser-Rand

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES -HYBRIDS
Manufacturer
Dresser-Rand

Model
KG2-3C KG2-3E

SHP
1890 2250

Heat Rate/Eff
10.96 MJ/sec 12.76 MJ/sec

Shafts
1 1

RPM
1500/1800 1500/1800

Solar

Saturn 20MD Centaur 40MD Centaur 50MD Taurus 60MD Taurus 70MD Mars 90MD Mars 100MD Titan 130MD

1590 4700 6130 7700 10,310 13,220 15,000 20,500 6600 10,300 18,000

10,370 BTU/HP-hr 9120 BTU/HP-hr 8500 BTU/HP-hr 7960 BTU/HP-hr 7310 BTU/HP-hr 7655 BTU/HP-hr 7490 BTU/HP-hr 7025 BTU/HP-hr 32.0 % Thermal Eff. 33.5% Thermal Eff. 36.2% Thermal Eff.

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

22,300 15,500 16,500 14,300 12,000 9500 9500 8850 13,650 10,450 9500

Siemens

SGT – 100 SGT – 200 SGT – 400

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
DESIGN FLEXIBILITY

• • • •

AERODERIVATIVE CAN BE “FLAT-RATED” TO GIVE MORE POWER ON HOT DAYS WITHOUT REDUCING COMPONENT LIFE. FRAME MACHINES CANNOT RUN “OFF DESIGN” TIT WITHOUT SEVERELY AFFECTING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE. AERO’S CAN RUN AT PART LOAD WITH VERY GOOD FUEL EFFICIENCY AND NO HARMFUL EFFECTS ON THE EQUIPMENT. SHOULD THERE EVER BE A NEED TO RELOCATE THE TURBINE, THE AERODERIVATIVE IS MUCH MORE CONVENIENT AND ECONOMICAL TO MOVE.

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
FUEL CONSUMPTION

•

THE AERODERIVATIVE HAS A MUCH HIGHER EFFICIENCY AT BOTH FULL LOAD AND PART LOAD. THE PART LOAD FUEL CONSUMPTION DIFFERENCE IS EVEN GREATER SINCE THE AERODERIVATIVE IS A SPLIT SHAFT AND THE FRAME MACHINE IS A SINGLE SHAFT.

•

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

FUEL COST
• FRAME 5 @ 30,000 HP AND 8,940 BTU/HP-HR RUNNING 8600 HR/YR USING 910 BTU/CU. FT. GAS (LHV) @ $.004 / CU. FT. = $10,138,550 / YEAR FOR FUEL. LM2500 @ 30,000 HP AND 7041 BTU / HP-HR $7,984,960 / YEAR. THE SAVINGS IN FUEL COST FOR ONLY ONE YEAR IS $2,153,590. = =

• • •

SAVINGS OVER FIRST 100,000 HOURS IS $25,041,744. * NOTE: RATES ABOVE ARE US MARKET VALUES AND MAY VARY WITHOUT NOTIFICATION

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

MAINTENANCE DOWNTIME Comparison Aero vs Frame
AERO FRAME OUTAGE OUTAGE OUTAGE OUTAGE INTERVAL PER 100,000 INTERVAL PER 100,000 PER PER HOURS HOURS OCCURANCE OCCURANCE ITEM GAS GENERATOR ROUTINE SERVICE 4000 HR. 3 HR. 75 COMPRESSOR WATER WASH 2000 HR. 2 HR. 100 ANNUAL BORESCOPE 8670 HR. 8 HR. 92 8670 HR. 16 HR. 184 HOT SECTION INSPECTION 20000 HR. 24 HR. 120 17520 HR. 120 HR. 685 GAS GENERATOR REPLACEMENT 24000 HR. 8 HR. 32 GAS TURBINE MAJOR OVERHAUL 26280 HR. 480 HR. 1826 POWER TURBINE OVERHAUL 100000 HR. 120 HR. 120 539 2695 TOTAL OUTAGE OVER 100,000 HOURS 99.44% 97.31% AVAILABILITY DIFFERENCE IN DOWN TIME FOR MAINTENANCE IS 2,156 HOURS X 22,000 KW X $0.06/KW-HR = $2,845,920 EXTRA ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION REVENUE FROM THE AERODERIVATIVE

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
MAINTENANCE DOWNTIME - Frame

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
MAINTENANCE-Frame

SGT-700 Maintenance concept

• • •

•

Modular design Horizontally split compressor casing Gas generator can be rolled forwards and sideways Burners removable without dismantling

Gas turbine can be slid sideways for easy removal

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS
AERO GAS GENERATOR ELECTRIC GENERATOR POWER TURBINE - GEAR GENERATOR TOTAL GALLONS 565 190* 375* FRAME 1800

650 2450

* MEETS API 614 RETENTION TIME. AERO SYSTEM SMALLER, EASIER TO SERVICE, WITH LESS PARASITIC LOAD, LESS COOLING.

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES

STARTUP / LOADING / SHUTDOWN
AERO START MOTOR REQUIREMENTS START TIME TO 100% SPEED LOADING DECELERATION COOLING 75 HP 3 MINUTES 3 MINUTES 3 - 5 MINUTES POST LUBE - 2 HRS. NO TURNING GEAR FRAME 500 HP 20 - 30 MINUTES 5 MINUTES 30 MINUTES 10 HOURS POST LUBE NECESSARY TO PREVENT BOWING. TURNING SHAFT GEAR MUST BE USED.

RESTART

IMMEDIATELY

?

APPROXIMATELY 50% LESS AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL SUPPORT IS REQUIRED FOR THE AERODERIVATIVE.

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
Model-Type:
Feature

LM 2500
Size Feet 17 x 14

Frame
Size Feet 29 x 19

LM 2500
Weight Lbs. 50,000

Frame
Weight Lbs 253,000

Skidded Gas Turbine

Foot print ft2 Heaviest Maintenance Lift GT

670

2185 3800 150,000

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
RELIABILITY / AVAILABILITY

•

THE AERODERIVATIVE HAS A LOW ROTOR MASS WHICH GIVES A VERY RAPID RESPONSE TO LOAD CHANGES. THIS GREATLY REDUCES THE CHANCE OF OVERSPEED, FLAMEOUT OR COMPRESSOR SURGE. WITH LATEST STATE-OF-THE-ART METALLURGY, THE AERODERIVATIVE HAS A HIGH TOLERANCE TO THERMAL CYCLING AND LOW CYCLE FATIQUE FAILURES. ITS START TOLERANCE IS 3 TIMES THAT OF A FRAME MACHINE. ACCORDING TO THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, THE AERODERIVATIVE HAS A 97% RELIABILITY COMPARED TO 95% FOR A FRAME MACHINE. 30,000 HP X 8760 HR./YR. X $.045 / HP X 97% = $11,471,220/YR. REVENUE AT 95% = $11,234,700/YR. A 2% DIFFERENCE IN RELIABILITY RESULTS IN A $591,300 PER YEAR ADDITIONAL REVENUE FROM ELECTRICITY.

•

• •

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Casings Aero Light weight, some engines with split cases some are not; case joints tend to leak usually fabricated To meet the requirements of aircraft propulsion, weight is optimized using a combination of high strength alloy and machining away excessive material. The result is a good thermal match to the rotor, enabling rapid transients required in flight applications. Typically the high pressure compressor case is split for maintenance considerations. Casings are lighter weight and more flexible than typical industrial gas turbines and are an important consideration in the engine rotor dynamic behavior. Casings may not provide blade containment requiring additional shielding. Inlet heating may be required to alleviate ice FOG damage Frame Heavy duty case split for service (not in all cases) usually cast Manuf Solar

Weight is not a prime consideration in design. Casings are typically split (for maintenance) and are often cast iron or cast steel, with relatively heavy walls. Stationary casings weigh typically multiple times the weight of the rotor and provide a very stiff structure supporting the rotor.

GE

Robust casings design for blade retainment in case of heavy FOD damage etc.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Rotor construction Aero Light weight, some engines with split cases some are not; case joints tend to leak usually fabricated To meet the requirements of aircraft propulsion, weight is optimized using a combination of (a) high strength Nickel base alloy and (b) 2-3 piece spool construction. The alloy is inherently corrosion resistant and does not require special coatings. Rotor LCF life is typically >10000 cycles. Frame Heavy duty case split for service (not in all cases) usually cast Manuf Solar

Weight is not a prime consideration in design. Typical designs include a series of stacked wheels assembled with a series of or a single tie bolt. Materials are typically high alloy steel and there is increasing use of Ni base alloys in higher pressure ratio designs . Rotor LCF life is typically >5000 cycles. Inspection interval typically >100 khrs to determine next inspection.

GE

Casings may not provide blade containment requiring additional shielding. Inlet heating may be required to alleviate ice FOG damage

Robust casings design for blade retainment in case of heavy FOD damage etc.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Blades Aero High speed, light, small fine surface finish Frame Larger blades with fine surface finish – not as susceptible to blade erosion caused degradation Size of blades commensurate with flow and speed. Similar alloys used in both aero/ heavy duty Blading capable of accepting some ice entrainment, inlet heating to prevent ice damage not normally required. Blade cooling has some tolerance to fouling and blockage. Manuf Solar

Size of blades commensurate with flow and speed. Similar alloys used in both aero/ heavy duty Film cooled blading has less tolerance to fouling and blockage.

GE

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments

Gas Generator Section Rotor configuration

Aero Some aero engines use concentric shafts for two spool compressors Discs highly stressed, life limited Typically aero engines have a gas generator and a free power turbine. The gas generator may be a single shaft or a two spool with low pressure and high pressure sets.

Frame Not used Discs low stressed, 100k hour life design

Manuf Solar

Some industrials have a free power turbine and some are single shaft construction. Most large industrial are designed to operate at synchronous speeds. In some cases, depending on the machine size and aerodynamics a reduction gearbox may be required to run a generator. Single shaft compressor rotor, ease of inspection and maintenance.

GE

Complex shaft configurations.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame l Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Main shaft bearings Aero Rolling element, life limiting Rolling element bearings used throughout. Enables rotor rotation without lift systems. Rolling element bearings will typically be replaced at major overhaul. Condition monitoring is by chip detectors and oil scavenge temperatures. Frame Hydrodynamic, not life limiting Hydrodynamic bearings throughout. Hydrodynamic bearings may require lift oil system to initiate an oil film prior to rotating the rotor. Bearings will typically be inspected at major overhaul period and liners can be replaced on site. Condition monitoring is by oil drain temperatures and metal temperature sensors in bearing pads. Vibration sensors are typically mounted on bearing cap. Hydrodynamic bearings enable the use of proximeter probes for rotor orbit diagnostics. Long life hydro-dynamic bearings. Some tolerance to debris. Manuf Solar GE

Aero components use rolling element anti-friction bearings. High level of filtration and cleanliness essential.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Lube Oil System Aero Requires two lube oil systems; one for the gas generator and one for the power turbine and rest of package Typically include two lube oil systems; (1) one, typically synthetic oil, for the gas generator and (2) one, typically mineral lube oil, for the generator and other accessories . The synthetic lube oil system is typically self-contained, mechanically-driven through a gearbox . Lube system designs have scavenging systems which are designed to allow pitch and roll on shipboard applications. Synthetic lubricating oil required for aero based parts of the turbine with the associated health, safety and material issues. Potential for hazardous emissions. Separate mineral oil lubricating system required for non-aero based equipment. Frame One system Manuf Solar

One system, running on mineral oil for gas turbine generator and auxiliaries.

GE

Common mineral oil based lubricating oil system for Gas Generator, Turbine and Driven Unit.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Combustion Chamber Aero Size limits, choices of low emission units limits fuel range Derived from flight engines. Typically annular construction, though some designs have adapted customized can-annular configurations. Smaller complex combustors. Complex DLE systems Staged combustion may be required Sensitive to fuel quality. Water injection for liquid fuels may be required for emissions control. Frame Optimized size permits greater fuel range and lower emissions Typically can-annular although some annular are used. Can annular typically have more fuel to optimize emissions. systems systems systems flexibility Manuf Solar

GE

Spacious combustors designed for ease of maintenance, fuel flexibility and life. Greater scope for emissions control. Simpler dry low emission (DLE ) control. Proven low emissions. Proven experience on LCV fuels Greater flexibility for multiple fuel systems.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Power Turbine Aero Power turbines added to engine performs similar to industrial engines Frame Same performance Manuf Solar

Power turbines added to engine performs similar to industrial engines

Power turbines are used on some designs ("2-shaft" machines)

GE

Film cooled blading has less tolerance to fouling and blockage.

Film cooled blading has less tolerance to fouling and blockage.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Start System Aero In some cases hydraulic start is the only available system Frame Alternative start system available Manuf Solar

Hydraulic motor and pneumatic starters are typically used to start the gas generator high pressure section No Comment

Electric motor, diesel motor, helper steam turbine and generator back feed systems are typical. No Comment.

GE

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Fuel Choices Aero Limited! Gas fuel limited to wobbe1% number value change liquid fuels may also be limited Frame More choices gas fuel +/-10% wobbe number changes as well as fuel Manuf Solar

Gaseous fuels including natural gas, medium BTU, propane Liquid fuels including high quality diesels, jet fuels, biodiesel, naphtha

Similar fuel capability with added capability for low BTU. In low firing temperature units, greater latitude of liquid fuels are possible including resid fuel oils with appropriate treatment.

GE

Narrow tolerance to variations, particularly on liquid fuels

Some tolerance to fuel specification/requirements.

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Inlet Filter Selection Aero Finer filtration needed to protect the smaller higher speed blades Inlet filtration used for minimizing compressor fouling High forced ventilation rates due to high temperature surfaces/heat release values. Surface temperature typical exceed the AIT of Methane > 540C Frame No Comment Manuf Solar

Inlet filtration used for minimizing compressor fouling May be installed without an enclosure. Low surface temperatures / low heat rejection. Surface temperatures typically less that the AIT of Methane based fuels, reduced risk of fires/explosion due to hydrocarbon leakage.

GE

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Fuel Injectors & Systems Aero Complex – more fuel injectors require greater chance of plugged injector and hot streaks in turbine requires temp sensors Typically use mechanicallyatomized injectors for liquid fuels High pressure ratio requires high fuel gas pressure Frame Less complex, fewer injectors Manuf Solar

Air atomized or mechanicallyatomized injectors used for liquid fuels Fuel gas compression may not be required due to lower pressure ratio. Lower pressure fuel system equipment.

GE

Siemens

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments

Gas Generator Section Design Approach

Aero Heavily leverages design experience and methodology of flight engines which are required to meet FAA certification requirements. As part of FAA certification there is extensive durability testing and analysis. Smaller sized gas turbines often lend them selves to full load and string testing at the manufacturer's facility

Frame Evolutionary design using past successful industrial experience. Increasingly using technology from aero engine designs.

Manufacturer GE

Production Testing

Larger gas turbines are typically no-load tested at manufacturer's facility and full load acceptance testing is then completed on site. Smaller industrial gas turbines are sometimes full load tested at manufacturer facility

Aero vs. Frame Manufacturer’s Comments
Gas Generator Section Aero Frame Manuf

Maintenance

No Comment Based on flight approach philosophy, gas turbines are designed to be exchanged quickly whenever maintenance actions require extended outages.

No Comment Maintenance programs are designed around on-site disassembly and reassembly. Smaller, lighter industrial gas turbines also have the ability to be exchanged Generally designed for both module and component replacement and on-site maintenance. Typically no special workshops required. Long time between overhauls

Solar GE

Maintenance philosophy based on aircraft heritage. Engines are swapped for maintenance in special workshops. Shorter time between overhauls.

Siemens

GAS TURBINES FOR MECHANICAL DRIVES
AERODERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES HYBREDS FRAME GAS TURBINES


								
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